Amino Acid Transport System y+LAmino Acid Transport System y+Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acids, DiaminoLeucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Dicarboxylic AcidsRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Renal Aminoacidurias: A group of inherited kidney disorders characterized by the abnormally elevated levels of AMINO ACIDS in URINE. Genetic mutations of transport proteins result in the defective reabsorption of free amino acids at the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. Renal aminoaciduria are classified by the specific amino acid or acids involved.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.p-Chloromercuribenzoic Acid: An organic mercurial used as a sulfhydryl reagent.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cystinuria: An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.

*AAAP family

"Coupled and uncoupled proton movement by amino acid transport system N". EMBO Journal. 20 (24): 7041-51. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... Since Systems A are electrogenic which Systems N are not, the amino acid:cation stoichiometries may differ. Fischer, WN; Loo, ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids". Plant Journal. 29 ( ... Six AAAPs in A. thaliana are well characterized and transport neutral and charged amino acids with varying specificities and ...

*SLC7A11

... is a member of a heterodimeric Na+-independent anionic amino acid transport system highly specific for cystine and ... the amino acid transport activity system xc-". Pflugers Archiv. 442 (2): 286-96. doi:10.1007/s004240100537. PMID 11417227. ... the light chain of amino acid transport system xc-". Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2 (4): 665-71. doi:10.1089/ars.2000.2.4- ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A11 solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11". Lutgen V, Resch J, ...

*SLC6A19

"Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder". J. ... SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in ... Solute carrier family 6 member 19 also known as the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 or system B(0) ... Bröer S (January 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-286. ...

*SLC38A2

Jones HN, Ashworth CJ, Page KR, McArdle HJ (2006). "Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a ... "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is ... 2006). "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic ... 2006). "Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 ( ...

*SLC1A5

Kudo Y, Boyd CA (August 2002). "Changes in expression and function of syncytin and its receptor, amino acid transport system B( ... Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A5 gene. Glutamate transporter Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5". Tailor CS, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y ... Uchiyama T, Matsuda Y, Wada M, Takahashi S, Fujita T (April 2005). "Functional regulation of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid ...

*Gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid

... and l-γ-Amino-β-Hydroxybutyric Acids in GABA Receptor and Transport Test Systems" (pdf). Journal of Neuroscience. 1 (2): 132- ... γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand ... Effect of gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABHB) on experimentally-induced epileptic activity]" [Effect of γ-amino-β- ... García-Flores E, Farías R (1997). "γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid as add-on therapy in adult patients with severe focal epilepsy ...

*Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... 150 mg/day), it acts on serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, whereas at high doses (>300 mg/day), it also affects ... Although the perception and transmission of pain stimuli in the central nervous system have not been fully elucidated, ...

*GcvB RNA

... encodes a small non-coding RNA involved in the regulation of a number of amino acid transport systems as well as amino acid ... GcvB RNA also is involved in regulating a variety of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis such as ilvC, gdhA, thrL and ... "The gcvB gene encodes a small untranslated RNA involved in expression of the dipeptide and oligopeptide transport systems in ... "The gcvB gene encodes a small untranslated RNA involved in expression of the dipeptide and oligopeptide transport systems in ...

*SLC3A2

Amino Acid Transport System L at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates ... "Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of the glycoprotein-associated amino acid ... "Entrez Gene: SLC3A2 solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 2". Kucharzik T, ... Verrey F, Closs EI, Wagner CA, Palacin M, Endou H, Kanai Y (2004). "CATs and HATs: the SLC7 family of amino acid transporters ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)

... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 -- amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 -- amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 -- amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 -- amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...

*Photorhabdus luminescens

... encodes a small non-coding RNA involved in the regulation of a number of amino acid transport systems as well as amino acid ...

*CD98

Amino Acid Transport System L at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Verrey F, Closs EI, Wagner CA, Palacin M, Endou H, Kanai Y (2004). "CATs and HATs: the SLC7 family of amino acid transporters ... CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ... Boado RJ, Li JY, Nagaya M, Zhang C, Pardridge WM (1999). "Selective expression of the large neutral amino acid transporter at ...

*Expanded genetic code

... but often the various transport systems can handle unnatural amino acids with apolar side-chains. In the second case, a ... while the added amino acids are called non-standard amino acids (NSAAs), or unnatural amino acids (uAAs; term not used in ... or non-canonical amino acids. The first element of the system is the amino acid that is added to the genetic code of a certain ... An amino acid auxotrophic expression host is supplemented with an amino acid analog during target protein expression. This ...

*Blood-brain barrier

... as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. ... "Lipoic acid affects cellular migration into the central nervous system and stabilizes blood-brain barrier integrity". J. ... No difference in brain uptake of glucose, amino acids, organic acids, purines, nucleosides, or choline was observed between ... Other methods used to get through the BBB may entail the use of endogenous transport systems, including carrier-mediated ...

*Membrane transport protein

This transport system normally removes cysteine from the fluid destined to become urine and returns this essential amino acid ... such as glucose or amino acids. When the lipid bilayer is impermeable to the molecule needing transport, active transport is ... Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) EAAT1 EAAT2 EAAT3 EAAT4 EAAT5 Glucose transporter Monoamine transporters, including ... Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes passively, carrier proteins can transport ions and ...

*Phytotoxin

The plants are slowly starved of these amino acids and eventually DNA synthesis stops. ESPS Inhibitors affect grasses and ... They are medically important by interfering with components of the nervous system affecting membrane transport, protein ... ALS Inhibitors affect grasses and dicots by inhibiting the first step in some amino acid synthesis, acetolactate synthesis. ... Alkaloids are derived from amino acids, and contain nitrogen. ...

*Serotonin

... because the transport system which brings tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier is also selective for the other amino acids ... High plasma levels of other large neutral amino acids compete for transport and prevent the elevated plasma tryptophan from ... In animals including humans, serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan by a short metabolic pathway consisting ... aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (DDC) and the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate. The TPH-mediated reaction is the rate-limiting ...

*Enterocyte

Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth ... Microvilli on the apical surface increase surface area for the digestion and transport of molecules from the intestinal lumen. ...

*Angomonas deanei

The bacteria synthesise amino acids, vitamins, and haem for the protozoan. In return the protozoan offers its enzymes for the ... The bacteria are known to provide essential nutrients to the host, and provide electron transport system for the production of ... the genomic cooperation between bacterium and host in the synthesis of essential amino acids is heavily influenced by multiple ... complete metabolic pathways for the biosysnthesis of amino acids, lipids and nucleotides, that are absent in the bacterium. ...

*Iminoglycinuria

... part of the system of Na-K-Cl cotransporters) couple with the amino or imino acids on the molecular level and transport them ... instead of the amino group found in amino acids. Proline is considered and usually referred to as an amino acid, but unlike ... The neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19 (affecting glycine, proline, and other neutral amino acids like cysteine and ... "Neutral amino acid transport mediated by ortholog of imino acid transporter SIT1/SLC6A20 in opossum kidney cells" (Free full ...

*Metallothionein

Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... In this way the thionein-metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ... of its constituent amino acid residues. MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding ...

*KPNA3

... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, ... The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ...

*SLC7A9

... a disease that leads to cystine stones in the urinary system due to impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids. ... This protein plays a role in the high-affinity and sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids ... Solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 9 also known as SLC7A9 is a protein which in ... Heterodimeric amino acid transporter Solute carrier family "SLC7A9". Feliubadaló L, Font M, Purroy J, Rousaud F, Estivill X, ...

*SLC7A3

... is a member of the system y+ family of transporters characterized by sodium-independent transport of cationic amino acids.[ ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A3 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3". Hosokawa H, Sawamura T, ... Cationic amino acid transporter 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A3 gene. SLC7A3 ... Ito K, Groudine M (1997). "A new member of the cationic amino acid transporter family is preferentially expressed in adult ...

*SLC38A1

"Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport". J. Biol ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A1 gene. Amino acid ... 2007). "Activation of a system A amino acid transporter, ATA1/SLC38A1, in human hepatocellular carcinoma and preneoplastic ... a subtype of amino acid transporter A, from human placenta". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 273 (3): 1175-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...

*Susan K. Gilmour

She has begun evaluating new approaches to disrupting the transport system through which polyamines can be imported into cancer ... Amino Acids. 2014 Mar;46(3):543-52. Epub 2013 Jul 25. http://www.limr.org/doc/Page.asp?PageID=DOC004139 http://www. ... with an inhibitor of the polyamine transport system not only blocks tumor growth but also promotes anticancer immune responses ...
The aim of this thesis is to better understand the regulation of the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc-) and its role in regulating neuronal survival and death. Expressed primarily on astrocytes, system xc- takes up cystine and releases glutamate in a 1:1 ratio. Cystine uptake is the rate-limiting step in glutathione synthesis, the brains main antioxidant. Glutamate released into the extrasynaptic space can regulate neuronal function; however excessive glutamate release can cause excitotoxicity. The dual actions of system xc- make it of interest in many neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress and excitotoxicity are involved. We investigated the regulation of system xc- in SOD1-G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS. We observed an increase in cystine uptake and glutamate release through system xc- in spinal cord slices of SOD1-G93A transgenic mice. We did not observe a change in the function of the main ...
System xc− represents an intriguing target in attempts to understand the pathological states of the central nervous system. Also called a cystine-glutamate antiporter, system xc− typically functions by exchanging one molecule of extracellular cystine for one molecule of intracellular glutamate. Nonvesicular glutamate released during cystine-glutamate exchange activates extrasynaptic glutamate receptors in a manner that shapes synaptic activity and plasticity. These findings contribute to the intriguing possibility that extracellular glutamate is regulated by a complex network of release and reuptake mechanisms, many of which are unique to glutamate and rarely depicted in models of excitatory signaling. Because system xc− is often expressed on non-neuronal cells, the study of cystine-glutamate exchange may advance the emerging viewpoint that glia are active contributors to information processing in the brain. It is noteworthy that ...
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System xc- is a heterodimeric plasma membrane transporter involved in the exchange of intracellular glutamate for extracellular cystine. As such, this transporter plays a critical role in the production of the antioxidant glutathione. Previous studies in our lab have demonstrated that there is an increase in cell surface expression within ten minutes of exposure to H2O2 in confluent U138MG human glioma cells. The study described herein sought to begin to characterize the mechanism by which H2O2 regulates the trafficking of xCT. We hypothesized that Akt signaling is necessary for H2O2-mediated trafficking of of xCT. A significant increase in Akt phosphorylation was observed in U138MG cells following ten-minute exposure to 3 mM H2O2 compared to vehicle-treated cells using western blot analysis. Treatment with the Akt inhibitor 10- DEBC (2.5µM) for 30 minutes prior to and during H2O2 exposure resulted in a decrease in H2O2-induced phosphorylation of Akt at ...
The primer sequences are listed in Supplemental Table 7.. Plasmid construction. The plasmid C2-EGFP-L10a was provided by Nathaniel Heintz (The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA). The GFP-L10a coding sequence was amplified by PCR using the primers L10a-R-BsiWI and MfeI-EGFP-F and subcloned into the vector pKT2/Fah-mCa//SB (15) at the EcoRI and BsiWI restriction sites. The vector utilizes the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system to enable integration of transgene sequences into the genome. The Slc7a11 cDNA was purchased (MG225346, OriGene) and amplified by PCR with the primers Slc7a11_clone_F1 and Slc7a11_psmd_bcd-R or Slc7a11-HA_bcd-R to include the HA tag. For the CRISPR/Cas9 studies, the vector pKT2/Fah-SpCas9//SB (34) was used to replace the SpCas9 with the SaCas9 sgRNA scaffold and introduce the subcloning site for further sgRNA subcloning using the oligonucleotides SaCas9Ins-F and -R and the restriction enzymes SapI and EcoRI to generate the vector pKT2/Fah-SaCas9//SB. Next, 10 ...
It has been suggested that system xc− may be a promising cancer target, as it may sensitize tumors to conventional chemo/radiation-based therapies by lowering glutathione levels (25). One of the causes of postoperative radiation and chemotherapy treatment failure in patients with glioblastoma multiforme is an increase in glutathione levels that may decrease chemotherapy-associated oxidative stress and play a role in glutathione-mediated cellular detoxification pathways. In this work, we have expanded on the role system xc− plays in temozolomide resistance in human glioma and have identified a novel mechanism that may contribute to glioma progression, via metabolic alteration. Inhibitors of system xc−, such as sulfasalazine, have been put forward as possible effective therapeutic options. Sulfasalazine has been shown to deplete glutathione levels by inhibiting the uptake of cystine, which lowers levels of intracellular cysteine, the rate-limiting precursor ...
Owen, A. , Sahakian, B. , and Rabbitt, P. (1994). Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery (CANTAB): A factor analytic study of a large sample of normal elderly volunteers. Dementia, 5(5), 266-281. , and Stough, C. (2008). An examination of the effects of the antioxidant Pycnogenol on cognitive performance, serum lipid profile, endocrinological and oxidative stress biomarkers in an elderly population. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(5), 553-562. Salthouse, T. A. (1996). The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Journal of Neuroscience, 2005. 25(27): 6389-6393. 27. A. , The origin and neuronal function of in vivo nonsynaptic glutamate. Journal of Neuroscience, 2002. 22(20): 9134-9141. 28. , Visualising the activity of the cystine-glutamate antiporter in glial cells using antibodies to aminoadipic acid, a selectively transported substrate. GLIA, 2001. 34(1): 27-38. 29. J. , Case study: Caudate glutamatergic changes with ...
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The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier catalyzes an important step in both the urea cycle and the aspartate/malate NADH shuttle. Citrin and aralar1 are homologous proteins belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family with EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motifs in their N-terminal domains. Both proteins and their C-terminal domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, reconstituted into liposomes and shown to catalyze the electrogenic exchange of aspartate for glutamate and a H(+). Overexpression of the carriers in transfected human cells increased the activity of the malate/aspartate NADH shuttle. These results demonstrate that citrin and aralar1 are isoforms of the hitherto unidentified aspartate/glutamate carrier and explain why mutations in citrin cause type II citrullinemia in humans. The activity of citrin and aralar1 as aspartate/glutamate exchangers was stimulated by Ca(2+) on the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the Ca(2+)-binding domains of these proteins are ...
Several studies have shown that the cRNA of human, rabbit, or rat rBAT induces in Xenopus oocytes sodium-independent, high affinity uptake of L-cystine via a system b0,(+)-like amino acid exchanger. We have shown that mutations in rBAT cause type I cystinuria (Calonge, M. J., Gasparini, P., Chillarón, J., Chillón, M., Gallucci, M., Rousaud, F., Zelante, L., Testar, X., Dallapiccola, B., Di Silverio, F., Barceló, P., Estivill, X., Zorzano, A., Nunes, V., and Palacín, M. (1994) Nat. Genet. 6, 420-425; Calonge, M. J., Volipini, V., Bisceglia, L., Rousaud, F., De Sanctis, L., Beccia, E., Zelante, L., Testar, X., Zorzano, A., Estivill, X., Gasparini, P., Nunes, V., and Palacín, M. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92, 9667-9671). Apart from oocytes, no other expression system has been used for transfection of functional rBAT activity. Furthermore, the b0,(+)-like transport activity has not been clearly described in the ...
Acts as a sodium-independent DIDS-sensitive anion exchanger mediating bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate and oxalate transport. May play a role in the maintenance of the electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis in the kidney, by acting as a distal excretory segment-specific anion exchanger, specifically chloride. Plays a major role in gastric acid secretion.
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It should be noted that the functionally defined L-type amino acid transport activities as described in this and many other studies may result from a mixture of functionally similar amino acid transporters that share common features such as Na+ dependence, BCH sensitivity, and neutral amino acid substrate preference. To date, at least four members of this family, LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, and LAT4, have been cloned (Bodoy et al., 2005). LAT1 and LAT2 are heterodimeric transporters that require coexpression of both LAT and 4F2hc for function and exhibit trans-stimulation (Verrey, 2003). In contrast, LAT3 and LAT4 are structurally distinct from LAT1 and LAT2 and are functional independent of 4F2hc (Babu et al., 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). It has been shown that different LAT subtypes exhibit distinct expression profiles across tissues and species (Verrey, 2003; Bodoy ...
The transport of cystine has been investigated in mouse peritoneal macrophages cultured in vitro. The transport activity for cystine was very low in freshly isolated macrophages but was potently induced during culture in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at concentrations as low as 0.1 ng/ml. The transport activity for cystine was enhanced when the cells were incubated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), but not with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or interleukin-1. IFN-gamma was rather repressive in the induction of the activity by LPS or TNF-alpha. The transport activity for cystine induced by LPS has been characterized. Cystine was transported mainly by Na(+)-independent system and the uptake of cystine was inhibited by extracellular glutamate and homocysteate, but not by aspartate, indicating that the transport of cystine in macrophages treated with LPS is ...
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE. NOVEMBER 30, 2019. [TRIANGLE, VA.] The United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) yesterday filed a complaint in the United States District Court for Southern District of West Virginia, charging that the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) unlawfully released Pocahontas Coal Company, LLCs Affinity Mine from MSHAs Pattern of Violations (POV) status in August.. The Complaint charges that, "Defendants are in violation of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) for unlawfully ignoring the statutory and regulatory requirements for terminating a POV Notice and replacing it with another process that was not created by Congress or otherwise properly promulgated.". MSHA placed the Affinity mine on POV status on October 24, 2013, because of a long record of significant safety violations. POV is an enforcement tool that enables MSHA to increase regulatory scrutiny at a mine with a long history of serious safety and health violations. For a mine to be released from POV ...
XCT Oil can act as a substitute in place of some of your usual edible oils. It should not be used to replace all of the fat in your diet, and should be used as part of low carbohydrate diet. Begin using 1 teaspoon per day and slowly increase over several days. Too much XCT, especially if consumed on an empty stomach, may result in diarrhea or stomachache. 1-3 tablespoons per day is recommended for Bulletproof practitioners. The best way to maximize energy is to use XCT Oil with Upgraded Coffee to make Bulletproof Coffee. Mix XCT oil with grass-fed butter and combine it with Bulletproof Coffee to gain hours of energy and support ketone production! It may also be used in smoothies, salad dressings, and many recipes. XCT oil is suitable to cook at temperatures under 320° F.. ...
Lenovo also announces an entirely new Special Bids system, and the delay of the replacement of the IBM services contract tool with a new one from Lenovo.
In this work, a first-of-its-kind fully integrated tri-modality system that combines fluorescence, diffuse optical and x-ray tomography (FT/DOT/XCT) into the same setting is presented. The purpose of this system is to perform quantitative fluorescence tomography using multi-modality imaging approach. XCT anatomical information is used as structural priori while optical background heterogeneity information obtained by DOT measurements is used as functional priori. The performance of the hybrid system is evaluated using multi-modality phantoms. In particular, we show that a 2.4 mm diameter fluorescence inclusion located in a heterogeneous medium can be localized accurately with the functional a priori information, although the fluorophore concentration is recovered with 70% error. On the other hand, the fluorophore concentration can be accurately recovered within 8% error only when both DOT optical background functional and XCT structural a priori information ...
Page contains details about platinum-loaded Vulcan XC-72R carbon . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Fusion protein amino acids 568-746 (C-terminus) of rat Clcn5 (also known as H(+)/Cl(-) exchange transporter 5, Chloride channel protein 5, Chloride transporter ClC-5, Clc5 and CLCK2, accession number P51796)Mouse: 99% identity (178/179 amino acids identical)Human: 98% identity (177/179 amino acids identical)70% identit
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular and electrolyte regulation in health and disease. Juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney regulate endocrine RAAS by physiologically controlling conversion of prorenin and secretion of renin. The classical baroceptor, neurogenic, and macula densa mechanisms regulate renin expression at the cellular level by Ca2+, adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), and chemiosmotic forces (K+, Cl-, and water flux coupled to H+ movement). The baroceptor mechanism (through Ca2+) activates K+ and Cl- channels in the surface membrane and deactivates a KCl-H+ exchange chemiosmotic transporter in the secretory granular membrane. The neurogenic mechanism (through cAMP) promotes prorenin processing to renin. The macula densa mechanism (through K+ and Cl-) involves the processing of prorenin to renin. Ca2+, by inhibiting the KCl-H+ exchange transporter, prevents secretory granules from ...
To evaluate the expression of alanine-serine-cysteine-transporter 2 (ASCT2) and L-type amino acid transporter1 (LAT1) in prostate cancer (PCa) and their impact on uptake of 18F-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18F-fluciclovine) which is approved for the detection of recurrent PCa. Twenty-five hormone-naïve patients with histologically confirmed PCa underwent PET/CT before prostatectomy. Dynamic imaging was performed immediately after injection of 368 ± 10 MBq of 18F-fluciclovine and the uptake in PCa was expressed as SUVmax at six sequential 4-min time frames and as tracer distribution volume (VT) using Logan plots over 0-24 min. The expression of ASCT2 and LAT1 was studied with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing three cores per carcinoma lesion. The TMA slides were scored independently by two trained readers based on visual intensity of ASCT2/LAT1 expression on ...
And speaking of POV shots, this might be minor but I find it interesting... You may have heard of the technique Lynch and the cameramen came up with that they call Floaty cam or something like that. It refers to, for example, the scene with Dan and Herb inside Wikies, if you notice the camera, its in a constant state of slow movement, sort of like a POV shot. It constantly moves slowly in small circular motions (some say a figure 8 motion, like the infinity symbol we see on the ground in front of Club Silencio) instead of staying still. Its used many times in the film. Is this intended to make us feel like theyre POV shots instead of objective camera shots? Furthermore, when Dan and Herb go outside, sometimes the walk is shown as if through Dans eyes (POV shots), but as the POV passes the payphone, the camera turns toward the phone as it walks by. It cuts while still on the payphone, but Dan is looking straight ahead, with the payphone right next to him. In other words, the POV shot does ...
I cant believe that Ive let eight months go by without the long-promised third installment in my series on demystifying POV, but its here! I just posted my article, "Fight Club: Multiple POV Fights Back" both here on the website and on my blog as well.. I appreciate your patience; over the past several months everything from knee surgery to the holidays to a never-ending onslaught of editing work combined to keep me from continuing this series on viewpoint. Its a subject that fascinates me, and seems to confuse my writing students and clients, which is why I was inspired to undertake it.. Im excited about this article because I finally found a way to let multiple POV stand up for itself. As you all know, Im a staunch single POV kind of girl, so it was hard for me to let go of that prejudice and find a rationale for ever using multiple viewpoint. I did, however-in the form of four middle grade novels which use multiple POV to good effect. Although I dont think Ill ever like multiple POV ...
I cant believe that Ive let eight months go by without the long-promised third installment in my series on demystifying POV, but its here! I just posted my article, "Fight Club: Multiple POV Fights Back" both here on the website and on my blog as well.. I appreciate your patience; over the past several months everything from knee surgery to the holidays to a never-ending onslaught of editing work combined to keep me from continuing this series on viewpoint. Its a subject that fascinates me, and seems to confuse my writing students and clients, which is why I was inspired to undertake it.. Im excited about this article because I finally found a way to let multiple POV stand up for itself. As you all know, Im a staunch single POV kind of girl, so it was hard for me to let go of that prejudice and find a rationale for ever using multiple viewpoint. I did, however-in the form of four middle grade novels which use multiple POV to good effect. Although I dont think Ill ever like multiple POV ...
The data reported in this manuscript are the first human data on [18F]FSPG in patients with NSCLC or breast cancer. [18F]FSPG showed a favorable biodistribution and clearance pattern allowing its use as a potential PET tracer in patients with cancer. [18F]FSPG showed a relatively high tumor detection rate and high tumor to background ratios that were comparable with that of [18F]FDG in NSCLC but not in breast cancer. Particularly, additional lesions not seen on [18F]FDG were detected by [18F]FSPG in patients with NSCLC. We found that [18F]FSPG was well tolerated, safe, and without adverse events in all 15 study patients. Correlation of [18F]FSPG uptake with the staining intensity of 2 immunohistochemical markers (xCT and CD44) suggests the potential ability of [18F]FSPG PET to assess the system xC− activity in patients with cancer.. The biodistribution data showed increasing uptake up to 60 minutes after injection in pancreas and scalp, whereas predominant renal excretion resulted in high ...
ID A0A0J0XCT3_9TREE Unreviewed; 154 AA. AC A0A0J0XCT3; DT 14-OCT-2015, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 14-OCT-2015, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 17. DE SubName: Full=SUI1-domain-containing protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KLT38883.1}; DE Flags: Fragment; GN ORFNames=CC85DRAFT_289069 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KLT38883.1}; OS Cutaneotrichosporon oleaginosum. OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; OC Tremellomycetes; Trichosporonales; Trichosporonaceae; OC Cutaneotrichosporon. OX NCBI_TaxID=879819 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KLT38883.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000053611}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KLT38883.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000053611} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=IBC0246 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KLT38883.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000053611}; RG DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Kourist R., Kracht O., Bracharz F., Lipzen A., Nolan M., Ohm R., RA Grigoriev I., Sun S., Heitman J., Bruck T., Nowrousian M.; RT "Genomics and transcriptomics of the ...
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xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a
Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic form of regulated cell death. It is distinct from other regulated cell death phenotypes, such as apoptosis and necroptosis. Ferroptosis is characterized by extensive lipid peroxidation, which can be suppressed by iron chelators or lipophilic antioxidants. Mechanistically, Ferroptosis inducers are divided into two classes: (1) inhibitors of cystine import via system xc− (e.g., Erastin), which subsequently causes depletion of glutathione (GSH), and (2) covalent inhibitors (e.g., (1S, 3R)-RSL3) of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). Since GPX4 reduces lipid hydroperoxides using GSH as a co-substrate, both compound classes ultimately result in loss of GPX4 activity, followed by elevated levels of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequent cell death. Ferroptosis is an iron- and ROS-dependent form of regulated cell death (RCD). Misregulated Ferroptosis has been implicated in multiple physiological and pathological processes, including cancer cell death, ...
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The Vitiello lab studies phenotypes that occur when ERS1, which encodes the cystine transporter, is absent in ers1-∆ cells. The human ortholog of Ers1p is Cystinosin, which is mutated in patients with a pediatric lysosomal storage disorder called Cystinosis. In the yeast model, cystine is transported out of the vacuole by Ers1p where the cystine is reduced to cysteine in the cytoplasm, which in turn is used in various processes such as glutathione synthesis. Using qPCR, students have measured differential gene expression in ers1-Δ versus the parental strain to find pathways are perturbed in the mutant. Students will also use various molecular genetic techniques to understand these genetic interactions. Alternatively, students may use molecular genetic techniques to characterize the thioredoxins in yeast. Dr. Vitiellos collaborators on these projects include Drs. David Pearce, Sergio Padilla-Lopez, Marianna Madeo, and Peter Vitiello at Sanford Research. Dr. Vitiello also ...
The electronic properties of Te doped-ZnSb systems are investigated by first-principles calculations. We focus on the Zn64Sb64−xTex systems (x = 0, 2, 3, 4), which respond to the 0, 1.56at%, 2.34at% and 3.12at% of Te doping concentration. We confirm that the amount of Te doping will change the conductivity type of ZnSb. In the cases of x = 2 and 3, we find that the Te element in ZnSb introduces some bands originating from Te s and p orbits and a donor energy level in the bottom of the conduction band, which induce the n-type conductivity of ZnSb. From these findings for the electronic structure and the conductivity mechanism, we predict that Te doping amounts such as 1.56at% and 2.34at% can be considered as suitable candidates for use as donor dopant.
The electronic properties of Te doped-ZnSb systems are investigated by first-principles calculations. We focus on the Zn64Sb64−xTex systems (x = 0, 2, 3, 4), which respond to the 0, 1.56at%, 2.34at% and 3.12at% of Te doping concentration. We confirm that the amount of Te doping will change the conductivity type of ZnSb. In the cases of x = 2 and 3, we find that the Te element in ZnSb introduces some bands originating from Te s and p orbits and a donor energy level in the bottom of the conduction band, which induce the n-type conductivity of ZnSb. From these findings for the electronic structure and the conductivity mechanism, we predict that Te doping amounts such as 1.56at% and 2.34at% can be considered as suitable candidates for use as donor dopant.
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Scientists studying the rare and deadly genetic disease cystinosis, have shown that transplantation of adult bone marrow stem cells appears to virtually halt the disease in a mouse model. Cystine is a byproduct of the lysosomal breakdown of cellular components the body no longer needs. Normally, cystine is shunted out of cells, but in cystinosis a gene defect of the lysosomal cystine transporter causes cystine to build up, forming crystals that are especially damaging to the kidneys and eyes. The only available drug to treat cystinosis, cysteamine, while slowing the progression of kidney degradation, does not prevent it, and end-stage kidney failure is inevitable. "Cysteamine must be given every six hours, so children have to be woken up each night to take this drug, which has unpleasant side effects, and many others to treat various symptoms," said Dr. Stephanie Cherqui, the senior author of the study. "So although there is treatment, it is difficult treatment that does not cure the ...
The POV - Point of View hand piece for permanent make-up is the industrys very first machine to use a dual needle cartridge system. It is the ultimate in simplicity, safety, and mobility.
New Muslim Cool: A PBS POV Film Screening New Muslim Cool is a film by Jennifer Maytorena Taylor. Take an inside look at the fusion of Islam and hip-hop. A former drug dealer struggles to transform himself and his community through his faith and his music. (90 min)
Stock video footage Woman shopping cereal breakfast isle store POV HD. Thanksgiving and Christmas shopping in Walmart grocery and department store. Full shelves of merchandise and products. Point of ...
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POV features three films about adoption - Wo Ai Ni (I Love You) Mommy by Stephanie Wang-Breal; Off and Running by Nicole Opper; and In the Matter of Cha Jung Hee by Deann Borshay Liem - and has launched a national public awareness campaign to examine issues facing adoptees and families who choose to adopt.
Systems for peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT/xCT) to analyse muscle and bone. Background. Research, development, manufacturing and sales: Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH.
Systems for peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT/xCT) to analyse muscle and bone. Background. Research, development, manufacturing and sales: Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH.
Shop L-cystine transporter ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and L-cystine transporter Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has been shown to be an effective imaging technique for a variety of materials. Due to the relatively low differential attenuation of X-rays in biological tissue, a high density contrast agent is often required to obtain optimal contrast. The contrast agent, iodine potassium iodide ([Formula: see text]), has been used in several biological studies to augment the use of XCT scanning. Recently I2KI was used in XCT scans of animal hearts to study cardiac structure and to generate 3D anatomical computer models. However, to date there has been no thorough study into the optimal use of I2KI as a contrast agent in cardiac muscle with respect to the staining times required, which has been shown to impact significantly upon the quality of results. In this study we address this issue by systematically scanning samples at various stages of the staining process. To achieve this, mouse hearts were stained for up to 58 hours and scanned at regular intervals of 6-7 hours ...
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I cant decide if Wasserman is hypocritical or just stupid. If he "teaches to the test" (edubabble), he is participating in the process he decries. If he doesnt "teach to the test", it makes no difference who administers it. The children wont be prepared to take it.. If the board doesnt understand that the issue isnt who administers the test, its whether or not Wasserman "taught to" the test, they are stupid - but they arent hypocritical. They unequivocably believe in the disastrous "No Child Left Behind" law. ...
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Title: Being Nikki, Take Two. Rating: T. Summary:. ****CONTAINS MAJOR SPOILERS FOR BEING NIKKI****. Part Two: This follows almost exactly the same as the book but in Christophers POV. However, once you reach the end, I have an alternate ending compared to Megs version. So most of it is the same as Megs version, until the ending. I hope that makes sense!. Disclaimer: I own nothing. Meg Cabot is the author of Airhead and Being Nikki as well as all of the well-written and amazing characters!. Christophers POV. First, I want to say that I never in a million years thought I would be making out with Em on Nikki Howards bed…..or, well I guess, it was kinda her bed now. But, thats not the point.. Also, I definitely didnt think itd be this amazing. I mean, yeah, once Em died (or at least when I thought she was dead), I definitely imagined a million different scenarios of how I would kiss her or what I would do if she somehow was alive again. I replayed them over and over in my head. Sometimes, ...
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Ever thought about barefoot running? University Foot and Ankle Institutes Dr. Mae Chandler discusses her thoughts and recommendations on this running trend.
While there have been a couple of other single player Half-Life mods that incorporate playing as a Xen alien (Xen Warrior) or fighting on the side of the Xen aliens (Mission of Mercy), it has taken until now for a mod to really do it right. Point of View casts you as Xonxt the super worker, which is a step above a normal alien slave. The designers went all the way on this mod; you have new alien weapons (including the classic slave green-lightning attack), you make alien sounds, and you even bleed yellow alien blood. The little professional touches like these, combined with the fairly solid gameplay, design, and a detailed story, make Point of View a mod worth the download.. POV comes to us from the same core team that developed Azure Sheep, Andrea "Toadman" Butti and Davide "DAV" Cintrao. In fact, if youve played Azure Sheep youll notice quite a bit of crossover between these two mods, both in characters/enemies and in locations/sequences. POV ties in nicely with scenes from the original ...
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Luis G., have you learned nothing from reading this blog? Asking Walt to be your race partner is like buying a used Caddy from that guy who you see hanging around late at night outside the 7-11. ...
Deep POV is all the rage these days, but there are times when we shouldnt use it. Dont get me wrong, Im not suggesting that emotionally difficult scenes should be reported rather than experienced from within the characters shoes. Im suggesting that you can pull readers in using deep POV to feel the intimate sensations and horror of the moment for a while and then zoom out to give them a break. A bit of filtering language (she thought, she smelled, he reached, he felt, it seemed, etc.) can achieve this as it adds distance. Or you could occasionally choose to name an emotion rather than show it in depth (NOTE: be careful with these techniques-always have a reason for using them or it will come across as lazy writing). ...
Deep POV is all the rage these days, but there are times when we shouldnt use it. Dont get me wrong, Im not suggesting that emotionally difficult scenes should be reported rather than experienced from within the characters shoes. Im suggesting that you can pull readers in using deep POV to feel the intimate sensations and horror of the moment for a while and then zoom out to give them a break. A bit of filtering language (she thought, she smelled, he reached, he felt, it seemed, etc.) can achieve this as it adds distance. Or you could occasionally choose to name an emotion rather than show it in depth (NOTE: be careful with these techniques-always have a reason for using them or it will come across as lazy writing). ...
Learn more about Zackie Achmats public campaign for affordable treatment for all. This article by Pulitzer Prize-winning author Samantha Power examines his struggle against the South African government and the drug companies.
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Hurd TW, Otto EA, Mishima E, Gee HY, Inoue H, Inazu M, Yamada H, Halbritter J, Seki G, Konishi M, Zhou W, Yamane T, Murakami S, Caridi G, Ghiggeri G, Abe T, Hil
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LONDÝN - Jelikož řada ekonomik s& vysokými příjmy nadále vrávorá, za nejlepší naději pro krátkodobé globální oživení mnozí pokládají Brazílii, Čínu, Indii, Rusko a menší země rozvíjejících se trhů. Obezřetný optimismus se zdá oprávněný, jestliže rozvíjející se trhy dokážou překonat dopady ubývající poptávky na své vývozy a zachovat si nynější pověst co do prozíravého makroekonomického řízení. Pokud se ale zavčasu nevypořádají s& mezemi dlouhodobějšího růstu, vzestup rozvíjejících se trhů k& prosperitě a globálnímu vlivu bude mít krátkého trvání.. K& hlavním omezením patří degradace životního prostředí, ekonomické strádání, sociální nerovnost, neefektivní správa veřejného sektoru a slabé řízení v& podnikovém sektoru. Žádnou z& těchto potíží nelze překonat bez výrazného zvýšení počtu schopných a motivovaných lídrů a profesionálů. To však vyžaduje reformu a rozšíření ...
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Stock video footage Angry attractive businessman crying on You tearing and shaking invoice documents. He hating. POV footage. Office indoor wide shot. High emotion expression. 00:00:17 4k. From $199. ...
after she was released from the psychiatric ward, it might be a good idea for someone to live with her for a little while. This could be a good spot to transition to playing the scene out-with an actual line of dialogue of the doctor saying exactly that. Or you could transition right before this by getting into your protagonists head as they sit next to their dad in the silent room. How do they feel? What thoughts are running through their head? Is the awkward silence something normal for them and their dad? How long has it been since theyve seen their mom? This is all stuff you could give us in your protagonists POV that could help us connect to your MC. ...
Horny daddy gets his dick sucked by his sexy billiards partner then bends him over for a hot, spontaneous fuck. Watch this scene now at Men Pov FOR MORE GAY PORN VISIT THESE PAGES!. ...
Disturbed by the addition of a link in here. I am not a member of the OCA and I am therefore unaware of any present controversy or crisis, and theres no mention of it that I can find in the main article. And yet the article now links to a website that mysteriously seeks financial gain to undermine authority at the upper levels, and the owners of that website refuse to identify themselves. Im not comfortable with that. If someone with more awareness thinks it appropriate to discuss the controversy in the main article, the presence of the link might be justifiable. But I lean towards thinking that an ongoing and unresolved internal controversy is irrelevant to the discussion *until* it is resolved (in order to maintain neutral-POV), and that the link itself confuses ME and--because of its unverifiability and divisiveness--by its mere presence implies a non-neutral POV on the part of the individual who added it. I will not remove the link myself since I am not an expert on the situation, but I am ...
The group at 5 Mad Movie Makers have created something truly stunning here. They captured POV footage of a Hot Wheels car racing through a magical world of...
While Eric and Sookie are at his house, Sophie Ann has an interesting conversation… Sophie Ann pov I wake from my daytime slumber feeling every bit of my 500 plus years. I look around my room in this big mansion and think; I am tired of all of the political shit I hope…
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Love this! I agree with the reviewer before me in saying that this is a really great set-up. I also really like how we get Calebs POV. Cant wait to read whats happens next ...
I posted about this an age ago and people asked for pictures. Now that construction is moving forward I finally have some. Heres my issue. I have a section between two dormers that is essentially marooned from a guttering pov. Look at the pic and it will
Jeroen Frijters a écrit : ,Olivier Jolly wrote: , , ,, while wandering around with Classloaders, I found that the teslet ,,gnu.testlet.java.lang.Classloader.initialize wasnt running ,,with Cacao. ,,It seems that in the beginning of the test method, it creates an ,,anonymous Classloader and then call System.gc() and ,,System.runFinalization() and expects the finalizer to be ran to set a ,,singleton like variable holder. ,, While this is ok in jamvm and sun jre 1.5.0, cacao doesnt run the ,,finalizer since runFinalization only gives a hint and not a mandatory ,,order, so it is compliant. ,, My question is whether Im missing something and this way of doing ,,brings something in this test or it could be rewritten in a ,,simpler way, more compliant with the various jvm. ,, ,, , ,Im obviously not aware of an easier (or more robust) way to do this, or ,I would have used it. However, this is a very important test (from a ,security pov), so it has to be in. If Cacao cant or wont ...
For this post, Im going to assume that I was able to wait until the first draft is complete before starting to revise. So, my approach is to obviously go back to the first chapter and start reading the manuscript. At this stage, Im cleaning up and correcting the biggest mistakes in my prose as I go along, but it is not yet my main focus. The story itself is still most important, so Im trying to examine each scene, asking myself various questions. Is the story being told from the right POV character? Are the characters consistent and acting naturally? Do I adequately describe the setting? Is the plot moving forward? Is the pacing ok? And so on. Ultimately, I just want to make sure the scene doesnt suck ...
Kniha navazuje na pov dkovou sb rku Posledn pomoc a d v ten i nahl dnout do dal ivotn etapy jednoho smola e. Mu e, kter nep ijal v udyp tomn autority a z kony za sv a rad ji s m sebe, pro dobro v t iny, vy lenil ze spole nosti p ijet m zcela inovativn ivotn filozofie. Jak mlad ho anarchistu p evychovala arm da, i nau ila zodpov dnosti slu ba u z chrann ch sbor ? Kolik gener l a vrchn ch sester volilo rad ji odchod do p ed asn ho d chodu/kulku? i jak slo it je v dne n dob koupit oby ejnou postel, nest t se objet s atkov podvodnice, a nebo se jen ve zdrav vr tit s p l kilem kokainu z dovolen v Mexiku? Na tyto a mnoh dal neoby ejn p b hy z oby ejn ho ivota se m ete t it v bohat ilustrovan m rom nu autora Martina Posp ila ...
Im currently steeped in Vince Flynn--my brother in law told me I had to read him if I wanted to understand the thriller audience, & Im really digging him. The writing is only adequate (if that--sorry in advance to any VF fans out there) but his pacing sizzles, his plots are huge & he has this gift for orienting the reader into a scene immediately--no small task when you have a cast of characters in the dozens, youre writing in the omniscient POV, & all your guys have an alphabet soup of CIA/FBI/NSA/SS job titles ...
The films first hour is a slow burn as all the disparate characters make their way to the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum for the big game (never called the Superbowl, for obvious reasons, but clearly intended as such). In similar fashion to Dirty Harry, the film opens from the snipers point-of-view, as he takes out a random cyclist as a sort of dry run. Unlike the Eastwood film, we never get a good look at the sniper until the very end. Instead, we get a lot more POV shots of him checking out of his hotel, driving his car to the stadium, and sneaking his way up into a vantage point above the scoreboard. ...
A Dungeons / PvE movie by Loran. Placeholder vs. Yogg-Saron - one light in the darkness 26.05.2009 pov: Hotchocolate - Shadow Priest Shinanaide -
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Also, Matt Randall, our Brighton High School student bLifeNY member, recently wrote a nice article in the BHS newspaper. Thanks Matt!. Finally, listen up for Rob Kochik (Executive Director of Finger Lakes Donor Recovery Network) and I on WXXIs radio show Healthy Friday on April 20 at noon. We will talk about, can you guess?, organ donation awareness.. ...

The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation.The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation.

... accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process ... Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, ... Amino Acid Transport System A / physiology*. Amino Acids, Neutral / metabolism*. Biological Transport. Cell Membrane / ... 0/Amino Acid Transport System A; 0/Amino Acids, Neutral; 0/Hypertonic Solutions; 0/RNA, Small Interfering; 0/SLC38A2 protein, ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/role-neutral-amino-acid-transporter/16734764.html

Direct linkDirect link

Amino acid transport systems, Amino acids diamino, Mutation, Sulphydryl compounds, urine, Cystine, Carrier proteins, Cystinuria ... The genetic basis of the disorder is best characterized in humans and is caused by mutations in one of the amino acid ... which results in hyperexcretion of cystine and the dibasic amino acids in the urine and subsequent precipitation of cystine due ... in French and English Bulldogs that affect nonconserved amino acid residues, arguing against functional impact on the proteins ...
more infohttp://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A17216

Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...

Among the amino acid transport systems, the A system is sodium-dependent and inhibited by NMAIB, the L system is sodium ... 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 System L is a major amino acid transporter that transports large neutral amino acids in a Na+- ... Su, TZ, Lunney, E, Campbell, G, et al (1995) Transport of gabapentin, a gamma-amino acid drug, by system L alpha-amino acid ... 61 System L is a major Na+-independent system for the transport of large neutral amino acids, including several essential amino ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2181705

Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism | PNASAmino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism | PNAS

Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ... Transport mediated by SA1 is also electrogenic. Amino acid transport Systems A and N thus appear closely related in function as ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/97/14/7715

Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutralAmino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral

What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean in finance? ... Definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ... redirected from Amino acid transport systems, neutral). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia. ...
more infohttps://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Amino+acid+transport+systems%2C+neutral

The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a renal proximal tubular...The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular"...

The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular ... like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(18): ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ...
more infohttp://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/1364/

AID 456218 - Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by...AID 456218 - Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by...

Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by liquid ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/456218

Possible Site-Specific Reagent for the General Amino Acid Transport System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae<...Possible Site-Specific Reagent for the General Amino Acid Transport System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae<...

The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... "The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ...
more infohttps://experts.umn.edu/en/publications/possible-site-specific-reagent-for-the-general-amino-acid-transpo

Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems |...Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems |...

Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems. U ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/220/1/15

Amino acid transport systems, neutral | definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionaryAmino acid transport systems, neutral | definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary

Amino acid transport systems, neutral explanation free. What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid ... transport systems, neutral medical term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean? ... Looking for online definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the Medical Dictionary? ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral , definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary https:// ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Amino+acid+transport+systems%2C+neutral

18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine PET/CT in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: relation to genotype and amino acid transport...18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine PET/CT in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: relation to genotype and amino acid transport...

... relation to genotype and amino acid transport system L.. Feral CC1, Tissot FS1, Tosello L1, Fakhry N2, Sebag F3, Pacak K4, ... A reduced activity of LAT1 remains the primary hypothesis possibly due to a modification of intracellular amino acid content ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=144717

Involvement of transporter recruitment as well as gene expression in the substrate-induced adaptive regulation of amino acid...Involvement of transporter recruitment as well as gene expression in the substrate-induced adaptive regulation of amino acid...

We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a process in ... N2 - We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ... AB - We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ... abstract = "We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ...
more infohttps://augusta.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/involvement-of-transporter-recruitment-as-well-as-gene-expression

xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System | Antibody News: Novus BiologicalsxCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System | Antibody News: Novus Biologicals

... is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a ... xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System. Fri, 09/06/2013 - 13:53 ... Home » xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System ... an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The cysteine is subsequently transported ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/antibody-news/antibodies/xct-amino-acid-transport-and-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system

Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes<...Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes<...

Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. In: Journal of Biochemistry. 1991 ; Vol. 110, No. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Journal of Biochemistry. 1991 Jul;110(1):9-11. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Hiroyuki Fukui, Hiroyuki ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. / Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, ...
more infohttps://keio.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/adenosine-induces-system-a-amino-acid-transport-in-cultured-rat-h

Recombinant Human xCT protein (ab112403) | AbcamRecombinant Human xCT protein (ab112403) | Abcam

Amino acid transport system xc xCT antibody. *Amino acid transport system xc- ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. ... Solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter light chain, xc- system), member 11 ... Solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11 ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/Recombinant-Human-xCT-protein-ab112403.html

Metab, Misc + CDB Flashcards by Carla Marie Lee | BrainscapeMetab, Misc + CDB Flashcards by Carla Marie Lee | Brainscape

Sodium-dependent amino acid transport system in renal tubules and intestines 41 ... Branched-chain amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, valine (LIV) [Think MAPLE tree, tree of LIVe, has BRANCHes] ... Which among the branched chain amino acids has a higher plasma level than the rest of the accumulating substances ... D/O of amino acid metabolism that looks like tetanus (muscular rigidity + opisthotonus) ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/metab-misc-cdb-4026518/packs/5949532

Inhibition of L-type amino acid transporter modulates the expression of cell cycle regulatory factors in KB oral cancer cells.Inhibition of L-type amino acid transporter modulates the expression of cell cycle regulatory factors in KB oral cancer cells.

... heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), an inhibitor of L-type amino acid transporters, on the cell growth suppression in KB human ... 0/Amino Acid Transport Systems; 0/Cell Cycle Proteins From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... Amino Acid Transport Systems / antagonists & inhibitors*. Blotting, Western. Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology*. Cell Line, ... 20606299 - Inhibition of l-type amino acid transporter modulates the expression of cell cycle regu.... 8136159 - Cell cycle- ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Inhibition-L-Type-Amino-Acid/20606299.html

Sequence Similarity 









- 4FB4: The Structure of an ABC-Transporter Family Protein from Rhodopseudomonas palustris in...Sequence Similarity - 4FB4: The Structure of an ABC-Transporter Family Protein from Rhodopseudomonas palustris in...

branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein Aromatic compound transport protein 1076 ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 4 3UKJ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 7 4EYQ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein UNP residues 27-385 1076 ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/sequenceCluster.do?structureId=4FB4&entity=1&seqid=40

Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells<...Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells<...

Jones, C. R., Srinivas, S. R., Devoe, L. D., Ganapathy, V., & Prasad, P. D. (2002). Inhibition of system A amino acid transport ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. American journal of obstetrics ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. / Jones, Chandra R.; Srinivas, ... Jones, CR, Srinivas, SR, Devoe, LD, Ganapathy, V & Prasad, PD 2002, Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ...
more infohttps://augusta.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/inhibition-of-system-a-amino-acid-transport-activity-by-ethanol-i

Frontiers | Aliskiren Administration during Early Postnatal Life Sex-Specifically Alleviates Hypertension Programmed by...Frontiers | Aliskiren Administration during Early Postnatal Life Sex-Specifically Alleviates Hypertension Programmed by...

... technology and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented ... technology and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented ... Pinto, V., Pinho, M.J., and Soares-da-Silva, P. (2013). Renal amino acid transport systems and essential hypertension. FASEB J. ... Slc6a19 gene encodes an amino acid transporter B0AT1. Slc4a4 gene encodes a sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) involved in ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2016.00299/full

rbsC - Ribose ABC transporter permease - Paenibacillus polymyxa (strain E681) - rbsC gene & proteinrbsC - Ribose ABC transporter permease - Paenibacillus polymyxa (strain E681) - rbsC gene & protein

Branched-chain amino acid transport system / permease component family protein. Brevibacillus laterosporus GI-9 ... TransportSAAS annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without manual ... Belongs to the binding-protein-dependent transport system permease family.SAAS annotation. Automatic assertion according to ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/E0R9T9

Veis 1087 - Inner-membrane translocator - Verminephrobacter eiseniae (strain EF01-2) - Veis 1087 gene & proteinVeis 1087 - Inner-membrane translocator - Verminephrobacter eiseniae (strain EF01-2) - Veis 1087 gene & protein

Branched-chain amino acid transport system / permease component family protein. BURCE. 345. ... TransportSAAS annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without manual ... Belongs to the binding-protein-dependent transport system permease family.SAAS annotation. Automatic assertion according to ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A1WGV6

Mediation of Highly Concentrative Uptake of Pregabalin by L-Type Amino Acid Transport in Chinese Hamster Ovary and Caco-2 Cells...Mediation of Highly Concentrative Uptake of Pregabalin by L-Type Amino Acid Transport in Chinese Hamster Ovary and Caco-2 Cells...

L-type amino acid transport system is an ubiquitous Na+-independent transport system for large, neutral amino acids across ... and system b0,+ is one of the Na+-independent amino acid transport systems in intestine (Costa et al., 2000). System b0,+ is ... Su TZ, Lunney E, Campbell G, and Oxender DL (1995) Transport of gabapentin, a gamma-amino acid drug, by system l alpha-amino ... 4; Table 1). This result strongly suggests that PGB and leucine share the same L-type amino acid transport system transport ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/313/3/1406.long

Series Parallel Diagram Single Cell Analysis Of Kynurenine And System L Amino Acid Transport In T Cells Nature Communications ~...Series Parallel Diagram Single Cell Analysis Of Kynurenine And System L Amino Acid Transport In T Cells Nature Communications ~...

series parallel diagram single cell analysis of kynurenine and system l amino acid transport in t cells nature communications. ... Piezo Controllers Drivers For Nanopositioning Systems Series Parallel Diagram Position Control Electronics Optimizes System ...
more infohttps://tracologie.info/series-parallel-diagram

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Amino Acid Transport Systems); 0 (Amino Acids, Aromatic); 0 (AroP protein, E coli); 0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Escherichia coli ... methylotrophus AS1 mutants auxotrophic for aromatic amino acids. Thus, introduction of foreign amino acid transporter genes ... 919 amino acids [aa]), which puts MmeI also in subtype IIC of the restriction-modification systems. Based on a molecular model ... To improve the amino acid production by metabolic engineering, eliminating the pathway bottleneck is known to be very effective ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=standard.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=B03.440.400.425.525.520.500
  • The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). (uzh.ch)
  • Poly(A)+ RNA from OK cells induced by system b0,(+)-like transport activity in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
  • We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger activity induced by rBAT cRNA in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
  • To demonstrate that the rBAT protein is functionally related to this transport activity, we have transfected OK cells with human rBAT antisense and sense sequences. (uzh.ch)
  • The other two known system A subtypes, ATA1 and ATA3, are not expressed in these cells. (elsevier.com)
  • These results demonstrate the pivotal role played by SNAT2 induction in the short-term hypertonic RVI and suggest that neutral amino acids behave as compatible osmolytes in hypertonically stressed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RESULTS: Treatment of BeWo cells with ethanol reduced the activity of system A. The effect was dose and treatment time dependent. (elsevier.com)
  • Ethanol did not alter the messenger RNA levels for system A. CONCLUSION: Exposure of BeWo cells to ethanol significantly reduces the function of system A. This finding has potential implications that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of the fetal alcohol syndrome. (elsevier.com)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because System A also catalyzes Na + -dependent amino acid transport sensitive to low pH, we considered that the protein(s) responsible might belong to the same family as VGAT and, in particular, SN1. (pnas.org)
  • In the presence of glucose as an energy source, NCAO inhibited tryptophan transport competitively (Ki=80 μM) during short time intervals (1-2 min), but adding 100 μM NCAO to a yeast cell suspension resulted in a time-dependent activation of tryptophan transport during the first 15 min of treatment. (umn.edu)
  • The transport properties for phenylalanine and glucose in luminal-membrane vesicles from outer cortex (pars convoluta) and outer medulla (pars recta) of rabbit kidney were studied by a spectrophotometric method. (biochemj.org)
  • Attempts to calculate the stoichiometry of the different Na+/D-glucose transport systems by using Hill-type plots revealed that the ratio of the Na+/hexose co-transport probably is 1:1 in the case of pars convoluta and 2:1 in membrane vesicles from pars recta. (biochemj.org)
  • Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecule: amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids (often called fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis has been proposed as a model for the coupling of energy metabolism with amino acid transport in S. cerevisiae. (kzoo.edu)
  • Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. (curehunter.com)
  • Dr Julian Dow Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow: Genetic analysis of epithelial transport in Drosophila. (bio.net)
  • The dual-component system, which consists of an integrative plasmid with a mini-Mu and an easily eliminated helper plasmid encoding inducible transposition factors, is described in detail as a tool for the integration/amplification of recombinant DNAs. (bireme.br)
  • The decrease in system A activity was 38% ± 3% at 0.75% ethanol with a 16-hour treatment time. (elsevier.com)
  • Process simulation and life cycle assessment of converting autoclaved municipal solid waste into butanol and ethanol as transport fuels. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple hormones increase System A function acutely through changes in the driving force for transport as well as through longer-term changes in gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell proliferation depends exclusively on the nutritionally essential amino acid, L-threonine, in the medium. (frontiersin.org)
  • The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which poisonous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation of a mutant yeast strain with altered plasma membrane ATPase activity and the preparation of spheroplasts may serve as possible experimental systems for the study of this model in yeast. (kzoo.edu)
  • These functionally defined systems were originally characterized by kinetic and competition studies ( Christensen, 1990 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Larimore, FS & Roon, RJ 1978, ' Possible Site-Specific Reagent for the General Amino Acid Transport System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ', Biochemistry , vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 431-436. (umn.edu)
  • Among animal AAAP family members are numerous growth regulating System A and System N isoforms, each exhibiting distinctive tissue and subcellular localizations. (wikipedia.org)