Amino Acid Transport System y+LAmino Acid Transport System y+Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acids, DiaminoLeucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 18.104.22.168.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Dicarboxylic AcidsRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Renal Aminoacidurias: A group of inherited kidney disorders characterized by the abnormally elevated levels of AMINO ACIDS in URINE. Genetic mutations of transport proteins result in the defective reabsorption of free amino acids at the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. Renal aminoaciduria are classified by the specific amino acid or acids involved.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.p-Chloromercuribenzoic Acid: An organic mercurial used as a sulfhydryl reagent.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cystinuria: An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth ... Microvilli on the apical surface increase surface area for the digestion and transport of molecules from the intestinal lumen. ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... 150 mg/day), it acts on serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, whereas at high doses (>300 mg/day), it also affects ... Although the perception and transmission of pain stimuli in the central nervous system have not been fully elucidated, ...
Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... In this way the thionein-metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ... of its constituent amino acid residues. MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding ...
The plants are slowly starved of these amino acids and eventually DNA synthesis stops. ESPS Inhibitors affect grasses and ... They are medically important by interfering with components of the nervous system affecting membrane transport, protein ... ALS Inhibitors affect grasses and dicots by inhibiting the first step in some amino acid synthesis, acetolactate synthesis. ... Alkaloids are derived from amino acids, and contain nitrogen. ...
"Coupled and uncoupled proton movement by amino acid transport system N". EMBO Journal. 20 (24): 7041-51. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... Since Systems A are electrogenic which Systems N are not, the amino acid:cation stoichiometries may differ. Fischer, WN; Loo, ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids". Plant Journal. 29 ( ... Six AAAPs in A. thaliana are well characterized and transport neutral and charged amino acids with varying specificities and ...
Resistance-nodulation-cell division superfamily
P. aeruginosa contain 13 RND transport systems, including one HME-RND and the remaining HAE-RNDs. Among the best identified are ... RND proteins are large and can include more than 1000 amino acid residues. They are generally composed of two homologous ... Most of the RND superfamily transport systems are made of large polypeptide chains. RND proteins exist primarily in gram- ... The RND protein dictates the substrate for the completed transport systems including: metal ions, xenobiotics or drugs. ...
In this system, the anionic form of cystine is transported in exchange for glutamate. Cystine is quickly reduced to cysteine.[ ... Cystine is the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid cysteine and has the formula (SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H)2. It is a white solid that ... This transport system, which is highly specific for cystine and glutamate, increases the concentration of cystine inside the ... The presence of cystine in urine is often indicative of amino acid reabsorption defects. Cystinuria has been reported to occur ...
... is a member of a heterodimeric Na+-independent anionic amino acid transport system highly specific for cystine and ... the amino acid transport activity system xc-". Pflugers Archiv. 442 (2): 286-96. doi:10.1007/s004240100537. PMID 11417227. ... the light chain of amino acid transport system xc-". Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2 (4): 665-71. doi:10.1089/ars.2000.2.4- ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A11 solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11". Lutgen V, Resch J, ...
Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... Histology image: 11706loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Digestive System: Alimentary Canal - jejunum, ... This typically occurs through active transport.. *Water uptake. This follows the osmotic gradient established by Na+/K+ ATPase ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, ... The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ...
Jones HN, Ashworth CJ, Page KR, McArdle HJ (2006). "Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a ... "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is ... 2006). "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic ... 2006). "Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 ( ...
... is a member of the system y+ family of transporters characterized by sodium-independent transport of cationic amino acids.[ ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A3 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3". Hosokawa H, Sawamura T, ... Cationic amino acid transporter 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A3 gene. SLC7A3 ... Ito K, Groudine M (1997). "A new member of the cationic amino acid transporter family is preferentially expressed in adult ...
"Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport". J. Biol ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A1 gene. Amino acid ... 2007). "Activation of a system A amino acid transporter, ATA1/SLC38A1, in human hepatocellular carcinoma and preneoplastic ... a subtype of amino acid transporter A, from human placenta". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 273 (3): 1175-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...
"Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder". J. ... SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in ... Solute carrier family 6 member 19 also known as the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 or system B(0) ... Bröer S (January 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-286. ...
... via the bile acid transport system, where most is stored; though some remains in the blood stream and may contaminate tissue. ... Microcystins contain several uncommon non-proteinogenic amino acids such as dehydroalanine derivatives and the uncommon β-amino ... The impact of exposure to microcystin by patients with a compromised immune system is not yet fully known, but is starting to ... Some evidence shows the toxin can be transported by irrigation into the food chain, Microcystins are chemically stable over a ...
The bacteria synthesise amino acids, vitamins, and haem for the protozoan. In return the protozoan offers its enzymes for the ... The bacteria are known to provide essential nutrients to the host, and provide electron transport system for the production of ... the genomic cooperation between bacterium and host in the synthesis of essential amino acids is heavily influenced by multiple ... complete metabolic pathways for the biosysnthesis of amino acids, lipids and nucleotides, that are absent in the bacterium. ...
Glutamate (the conjugate base of glutamic acid) is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and ... However, there is a possibility that two human-specific "fixed" amino acid substitutions, D71G in GRIN3A and R727H in GRIN3B, ... Weaver CD, Gundersen V, Verdoorn TA (January 1998). "A high affinity glutamate/aspartate transport system in pancreatic islets ... Meldrum B (1993). "Amino acids as dietary excitotoxins: a contribution to understanding neurodegenerative disorders". Brain Res ...
Amino acid synthesis. Chloroplasts alone make almost all of a plant cell's amino acids in their stroma except the sulfur- ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system. ... Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. ...
Expanded genetic code
... but often the various transport systems can handle unnatural amino acids with apolar side-chains. In the second case, a ... while the added amino acids are called non-standard amino acids (NSAAs), or unnatural amino acids (uAAs; term not used in ... or non-canonical amino acids. The first element of the system is the amino acid that is added to the genetic code of a certain ... An amino acid auxotrophic expression host is supplemented with an amino acid analog during target protein expression. This ...
Kudo Y, Boyd CA (August 2002). "Changes in expression and function of syncytin and its receptor, amino acid transport system B( ... Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A5 gene. Glutamate transporter Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5". Tailor CS, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y ... Uchiyama T, Matsuda Y, Wada M, Takahashi S, Fujita T (April 2005). "Functional regulation of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid ...
Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... are water-soluble and are thus readily transported through the circulatory system. Other hormones, including steroid and ... Peptides composed of scores or hundreds of amino acids are referred to as proteins. Examples of protein hormones include ... Vertebrate hormones fall into three main chemical classes: Amino acid derived - Examples include melatonin and thyroxine. ...
Development and discovery of SSRI drugs
... from the drugs binding site by the site chains of the two aromatic amino acids of the extracellular gate of the transport ... Therefore, the crystal structure of LeuT and its transport mechanism have been proven to be a good model system for the study ... The halogens on the SSRIs chemical structure all bind to the same HBP within LeuT and interact with similar amino acids, but ... Although detailed transport mechanism of the NSS proteins is not fully understood, it is clear that in order for transport to ...
... s carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system. In the ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. One of ... Chloroplasts alone make almost all of a plant cell's amino acids in their stroma except the sulfur-containing ones like ...
They are proteins of around one hundred amino acids with four conserved cysteine residues to which the 2Fe-2S cluster is ... Other bioinorganic electron transport systems include rubredoxins, cytochromes, blue copper proteins, and the structurally ... has been recognized as distinct protein family on the basis of its amino acid sequence, spectroscopic properties of its iron- ... "A new electron transport mechanism in mitochondrial steroid hydroxylase systems based on structural changes upon the reduction ...
... as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. ... "Lipoic acid affects cellular migration into the central nervous system and stabilizes blood-brain barrier integrity". J. ... No difference in brain uptake of glucose, amino acids, organic acids, purines, nucleosides, or choline was observed between ... Other methods used to get through the BBB may entail the use of endogenous transport systems, including carrier-mediated ...
Amino Acid Transport System L at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Verrey F, Closs EI, Wagner CA, Palacin M, Endou H, Kanai Y (2004). "CATs and HATs: the SLC7 family of amino acid transporters ... CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ... Boado RJ, Li JY, Nagaya M, Zhang C, Pardridge WM (1999). "Selective expression of the large neutral amino acid transporter at ...
However, glucose, amino acids, inorganic phosphate, and some other solutes are reabsorbed via secondary active transport ... Renin-angiotensin system: 1. The kidneys sense low blood pressure. 2. Release renin into the blood. 3. Renin causes production ... Reabsorption allows many useful solutes (primarily glucose and amino acids), salts and water that have passed through Bowman's ... This happens as a result of sodium transport from the lumen into the blood by the Na+/K+ATPase in the basolateral membrane of ...
... amino acids, certain hormones, and even messenger RNAs are transported in the phloem through sieve tube elements. Because ... The Plant Vascular System: Evolution, Development and Functions. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 55, 294-388 (2013) PMID ... These sugars are transported to non-photosynthetic parts of the plant, such as the roots, or into storage structures, such as ... This transport process is called translocation. In trees, the phloem is the innermost layer of the bark, hence the name, ...
Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... A hormone is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by ... Female endocrine system. Male endocrine system Endocrine disease Endocrinology Exocrine gland Neuroendocrinology Nervous system ... The human endocrine system consists of several systems that operate via feedback loops. Several important feedback systems are ...
The introduction of a charged amino-acid residue or a proline residue within the hydrophobic core of the signal peptide is ... It is a complex regulatory and transport system involving many proteins and protein complexes. MBP has an approximate molecular ... The malE gene codes for a precursor polypeptide (396 amino acid residues) which yields the mature MBP (370 residues) upon ... Boos, W; Shuman, H (1998). "Maltose/maltodextrin system of Escherichia coli: transport, metabolism, and regulation". Microbiol ...
... rich in hydroxylated amino acids such as serine, threonine, and proline, and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... the new chloroplast host had to develop a unique protein targeting system to avoid having chloroplast proteins being sent to ... Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence. They can be from 20-150 amino acids ...
Circulatory system. Octopuses have a closed circulatory system, where the blood remains inside blood vessels. Octopuses have ... Japanese erotic art, shunga, includes ukiyo-e woodblock prints such as Katsushika Hokusai's 1814 print Tako to ama (The Dream ... Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic acid sequence ... Octopus blood contains the copper-rich protein haemocyanin to transport oxygen. This makes the blood very viscous and it ...
I used be a researcher use the fruit fly as a model system to study mechanisms of intracellular transport (I then moved onto ... Truth be told, it's the size (in amino acids) of a protein I once studied. Yes, a bit geeky. ... other systems to study problems in cell biology, but now work in a hospital). I am a guy. And the 649 is a number to ...
"Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-1-4496-6139-7. .. ... Megafauna play a significant role in the lateral transport of mineral nutrients in an ecosystem, tending to translocate them ... Amato, Katherine R.; Meyer, Andreas L. S.; Wich, Serge; Sussman, Robert W.; Pan, Ruliang; Kone, Inza; Li, Baoguo (January 18, ... which possess calcium carbonate shells or exoskeletons experience physiological pressure as the carbonate reacts with acid. For ...
GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
Baulieu EE (1997). "Neurosteroids: of the nervous system, by the nervous system, for the nervous system". Recent Progress in ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... pyrimidinone and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole derivatives". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 23 (3): 480-7. doi:10.1016/j.bmc. ...
Wikipedia:Makala za msingi za kamusi elezo/Zote 1000, kamusi elezo huru
Coordinate system * sw:Coordinate system. COPD * sw:COPD. Copper * sw:Copper. Cotton * sw:Cotton. Cricket * sw:Cricket. ... Acid * sw:Asidi. Adam Smith * sw:Adam Smith. Addiction * sw:Uraibu. Adolf Hitler * sw:Adolf Hitler. Afghanistan * sw: ... Transport * sw:Usafiri. Treaty of Versailles * sw:Mkataba wa Versailles. Tree * sw:Mti. Trigonometry * sw:Trigonometry. ... Kama viungo vya Kiswahili bado ni vyekundu, ni alama ya kwamba ama jina halikusahihishwa bado, au hakuna makala bado. Mpangilio ...
Inclusion of the amino acid L-tryptophan, a precursor of 5HT, in the feed of rainbow trout made the trout less aggressive and ... CRH is transported to the anterior pituitary through the portal blood vessel system of the hypophyseal stalk and vasopressin is ... including the metabolic system, cardiovascular system, immune system, reproductive system and central nervous system. The HPA ... Immune system. There is bi-directional communication and feedback between the HPA axis and immune system. A number of ...
... essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, ... Needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, builds bone, supports synthesis and function of blood cells Dairy ... then transporting the acquired nutrients to local ecosystems. ... amino acids, organic acids, etc.) improves the bioavailability of the supplemented mineral. ...
... primer-dependent RNA synthesis utilizes a small 22-25 amino acid long viral protein linked to the genome (VPg) to initiate ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ... Picornaviruses are classed under Baltimore's viral classification system as group IV viruses as they contain a single stranded ... Binding causes a conformational change in the viral capsid proteins, and myristic acid are released. These acids form a pore in ...
... such as the polyphenols and amino acids, but is a suspension when all of the insoluble components are considered, such as the ... 1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.. ... Compressed tea (such as Pu-erh) is produced for convenience in transport, storage, and ageing. It can usually be stored longer ... Williamson, G; Dionisi, F; Renouf, M (2011). "Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... The resulting densified fuel is easier to transport and feed into thermal generation systems, such as boilers. ... EU to phase out palm oil from transport fuel by 2030 *^ a b The Royal Society (January 2008). Sustainable biofuels: prospects ... "Technology Roadmap, Biofuels for Transport" (PDF). 2011.. *^ Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno; Martin, Michael ( ...
P450-containing systems. *Cytochrome b6f complex. *Electron transport chain. *Fatty acid synthetase complex ... HADHB encodes a 51.2 kDa protein that is composed of 474 amino acids; 124 peptides have been observed through mass spectrometry ... fatty acid metabolic process. • metabolism. • cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling. • fatty acid beta-oxidation. ... transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups. • enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. • long-chain-3- ...
... is a small 69 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 4263-4331) that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a ... particularly the muscles and nervous system. In most cases, the signs and symptoms of this disorder appear during childhood or ... May 2003). "A homoplasmic mitochondrial transfer ribonucleic acid mutation as a cause of maternally inherited hypertrophic ...
فهرست یهودیان برنده جایزه نوبل - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells" ... "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active ... "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA" ... "for their discoveries concerning نیتریک اکسید as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system" ...
This drug article relating to the genito-urinary system is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ... 2-[(1R)-3-(Di(propan-2-yl)amino)-1-phenylpropyl]-4-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl] 2-methylpropanoate ... Urea analogues: Acetohydroxamic acid. *Salicylhydroxamic acid. *Other: Collagen. *Dimethyl sulfoxide. *Magnesium hydroxide ...
The microbes are also responsible for metabolising the carbohydrates and amino acids present in the tea leaves. ... Spent tea: Whole leaves and leaf bud systems should be easily seen and picked out of the wet spent tea, with a limited amount ... tuocha cakes may have had holes punched through the center so they could be tied together on a rope for easy transport. ... Wet pile fermented pu'er has higher levels of caffeine and much higher levels of gallic acid compared with traditionally aged ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
... results in an amino acid switch: valine to methionine exchange at codon 66, Val66Met, which is in the prodomain of BDNF.[38 ... BDNF acts on certain neurons of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, helping to support survival of ... Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M (June 2007). "BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to dendrites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA ... as the amino acid change occurs on the portion of the prodomain where sortilin binds; and sortilin is essential for normal ...
Goodman AB (July 2005). "Microarray results suggest altered transport and lowered synthesis of retinoic acid in schizophrenia ... 6-(N-ethyl-N-(5-isobutoxy-4-isopropyl-2-(E)-styrylphenyl)amino)nicotinic acid ... Reproductive system and breast disorders *Sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and decreased libido ... Isotretinoin, also known as 13-cis-retinoic acid and sold under the brand name Accutane among others, is a medication primarily ...
... as all ingested SOD is broken down into amino acids before being absorbed. However, ingestion of SOD bound to wheat proteins ... In biological systems, this means that its main reactions are with itself (dismutation) or with another biological radical such ... when it absorbs an excited electron released from compounds of the electron transport chain. Superoxide is known to denature ... and their active sites contain the same type and arrangement of amino acid side-chains. They are usually dimers, but ...
... and encodes a 666 amino acid protein that is expressed in the liver. It has been suggested that PCSK9 causes FH mainly by ... Class II: LDLR is not properly transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus for expression on the cell ... This process results in the removal of LDL from the circulatory system. Synthesis of cholesterol by the liver is suppressed in ... and the protein gene product contains 839 amino acids in mature form. A single abnormal copy (heterozygote) of FH causes ...
... uptake transporters for amino acids, bile acids, carboxylic acids, etc. Research Applications. When looking at Caco-2 ... Following stints at SmithKline Beecham and Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Hidalgo went on to co-found a company, Absorption Systems, in ... Artursson P (1990). "Epithelial transport of drug in cell culture. I: A model for studying the passive diffusion of drugs over ... 2005). "Construction of a functional transporter analysis system using MDR1 knockdown Caco-2 cells". Pharm Res. 22 (8): 1287-93 ...
In addition to these amino acids, some B vitamins including biotin, folic acid, nicotinamide, riboflavin, thiamine, ... The only domesticated species of honey bee are A. mellifera and A. cerana, and they are often maintained, fed, and transported ... is the listed common name in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System, the Entomological Society of America Common Names of ... Of these amino acids, honey bees require highest concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, and valine, however elevated ...
پرتو کیهانی - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Cosmic rays are a form of high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies. ... 2011). Australian Transport Safety Bureau. *^ https://cars.usnews.com/cars-trucks/daily-news/100317-cosmic-rays-may-be-causing- ... In 2008, data corruption in a flight control system caused an Airbus A330 airliner to twice plunge hundreds of feet, resulting ... Primary cosmic rays primarily originate from outside the Solar System and sometimes even the Milky Way. When they interact with ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
In ALS, there are decreased levels of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), which is the main transporter that removes ... Sontheimer, Harald (2015). Diseases of the Nervous System. Academic Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-12-800403-6. . Archived from the ... Three genes implicated in ALS that are important for maintaining the cytoskeleton and for axonal transport include ... "G93A" means that the 93rd amino acid residue in the SOD1 protein has been changed from glycine to alanine. ...
Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ... Water in food systems. Main article: Water. A major component of food is water, which can encompass anywhere from 50% in ... Food chemistry concepts are often drawn from rheology, theories of transport phenomena, physical and chemical thermodynamics, ... fatty acids (including essential fatty acids), fatty-acid derived phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and terpenoids, ...
Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... Transport. SVCTs appear to be the predominant system for vitamin C transport in the body, the notable exception ... Mineral Nutrients and Amino Acids May or Must be Added. Voluntary and mandatory fortification was described for various ... Ascorbic acid is absorbed in the body by both active transport and simple diffusion. Sodium-Dependent Active Transport-Sodium- ...
... amino acid chains) and polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens ... Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after cells in the immune system come into ... These algorithms consider factors such as the likelihood of proteasomal processing, transport into the endoplasmic reticulum, ... Lipids and nucleic acids are antigenic only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides. Non-microbial non ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
TNF is primarily produced as a 233-amino acid-long type II transmembrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers. From ... The theory of an anti-tumoral response of the immune system in vivo was recognized by the physician William B. Coley. In 1968, ... positive regulation of protein transport. • negative regulation of glucose import. • receptor biosynthetic process. • ... cellular response to amino acid stimulus. • negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand. ...
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein
... by means of hydrodynamic pressure and by also supplying proline which is a critical amino acid for lung development. Alveoli ... Therefore, the means by which the fetus produces urine and transports it to the bladder for excretion into the amniotic sac has ... After the creation of the nomenclature system for this sequence, BRA was recognized as possibly being an extreme variation of ... However, this classification system has not caught on in the clinical and research fields. ...
Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism | PNAS
Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ... Transport mediated by SA1 is also electrogenic. Amino acid transport Systems A and N thus appear closely related in function as ...
xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System | Antibody News: Novus Biologicals
... is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a ... xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System. Fri, 09/06/2013 - 13:53 ... Home » xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System ... an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The cysteine is subsequently transported ...
Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport,...
In this study, we investigated whether the uptake of glucose, system A amino acid transport, and cellular protein synthesis are ... Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, ... Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, ... Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, ...
Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral
What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean in finance? ... Definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ... redirected from Amino acid transport systems, neutral). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. neutral. ...
AID 456218 - Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by...
The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular"...
The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular ... like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(18): ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ...
Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems |...
Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems. U ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ...
Possible Site-Specific Reagent for the General Amino Acid Transport System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae<...
The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... "The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ...
Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes<...
Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. In: Journal of Biochemistry. 1991 ; Vol. 110, No. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Journal of Biochemistry. 1991 Jul;110(1):9-11. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Hiroyuki Fukui, Hiroyuki ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. / Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, ...
mlaA - Intermembrane phospholipid transport system lipoprotein MlaA precursor - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - mlaA gene &...
Involved in a phospholipid transport pathway that maintains lipid asymmetry in the outer membrane by retrograde trafficking of ... Intermembrane phospholipid transport system lipoprotein MlaAAdd BLAST. 234. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s) ... "An ABC transport system that maintains lipid asymmetry in the gram-negative outer membrane.". Malinverni J.C., Silhavy T.J.. ... "An ABC transport system that maintains lipid asymmetry in the gram-negative outer membrane.". Malinverni J.C., Silhavy T.J.. ...
Two Experimental Systems for the Study of Amino Acid Transport in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
... ... chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis has been proposed as a model for the coupling of energy metabolism with amino acid transport ... Although this model has been extensively studied in procaryotic systems, it has not been well characterized in eucaryotic ... systems. Isolation of a mutant yeast strain with altered plasma membrane ATPase activity and the preparation of spheroplasts ...
Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells<...
Jones, C. R., Srinivas, S. R., Devoe, L. D., Ganapathy, V., & Prasad, P. D. (2002). Inhibition of system A amino acid transport ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. American journal of obstetrics ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. / Jones, Chandra R.; Srinivas, ... Jones, CR, Srinivas, SR, Devoe, LD, Ganapathy, V & Prasad, PD 2002, Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ...
Amino acid transport systems, neutral | definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary
Amino acid transport systems, neutral explanation free. What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid ... transport systems, neutral medical term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean? ... Looking for online definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the Medical Dictionary? ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral , definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary https:// ...
MMP1224 MMP1224 ABC-type amino acid transport/signal transduction systems periplasmic component-related (NCBI) | Syntrophy...
MMP1224 MMP1224 ABC-type amino acid transport/signal transduction systems periplasmic component-related (NCBI). Methanococcus ... ABC-type amino acid transport/signal transduction systems periplasmic component-related (NCBI) Methanococcus maripaludis strain ... ET) COG834 , ABC-type amino acid transport/signal transduction systems, periplasmic component/domain ...
Cystinuria Medication: Urinary alkalinization agents, Chelating agents, Reducing agents, ACE inhibitors
Cystinuria is an autosomal-recessive defect in reabsorptive transport of cystine and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, ... Amino acid transport system. Localization in proximal converted tubule. S3. S1, S2 ... Cloning and chromosomal localization of a human kidney cDNA involved in cystine, dibasic, and neutral amino acid transport. J ... Amino acid metabolism in cystinuria. Q J Med New Series. 1974. 214:507-12. ...
Series Parallel Diagram Single Cell Analysis Of Kynurenine And System L Amino Acid Transport In T Cells Nature Communications ~...
Involvement of transporter recruitment as well as gene expression in the substrate-induced adaptive regulation of amino acid...
We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a process in ... N2 - We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ... AB - We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ... abstract = "We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ...
Methylmercury uptake in rat primary astrocyte cultures: the role of the neutral amino acid transport system<...
... the role of the neutral amino acid transport system. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Neutral Amino Acid Transport ... The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid ... The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid ... The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid ...
Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N - Fingerprint - Oregon...
The cystine/glutamate antiporter system x(c)(-) in health and disease: from molecular mechanisms to novel therapeutic...
... imports the amino acid cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, into cells with a 1:1 counter-transport of glutamate. It is ... belongs to the family of heterodimeric amino acid transporte … ... Amino Acid Transport Systems / metabolism * Amino Acid ... we show that system x(c)(-) is a rather evolutionarily new amino acid transport system. In addition, we summarize the current ... The antiporter system x(c)(-) imports the amino acid cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, into cells with a 1:1 counter- ...
Substrate specificity and gene expression of the amino-acid permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
... and the ability to take up one or more of the 20 common L-alpha-amino acids was studied in order to obtain a complete picture … ... All known amino-acid permeases (AAPs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae belong to a single family of homologous proteins. Genes of 15 ... Amino Acid Transport Systems * Amino Acids / metabolism* * Amino Acids / pharmacokinetics * DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics ... Radiolabelled amino-acid uptake measurements showed that Agp1p is a general permease for most uncharged amino acids (Ala, Gly, ...
AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for...
AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS : THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ...
Selection and characterization of chlorella mutants deficient in amino Acid transport : further evidence for three independent...
Double mutants deficient in transport of both these amino acids still possess the general amino acid transport system, a third ... system which was described previously. Evidence for additional amino acid transport systems in Chlorella is discussed. ... Six amino acids are transported at high rates across the plasmalemma of Chlorella vulgaris only after the induction of two ... List of Publication » Selection and characterization of chlorella mutants deficient in amino Acid transport : further evidence ...
Sequence Similarity - 4FB4: The Structure of an ABC-Transporter Family Protein from Rhodopseudomonas palustris in...
branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein Aromatic compound transport protein 1076 ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 4 3UKJ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 7 4EYQ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein UNP residues 27-385 1076 ...
Recombinant Human xCT protein (ab112403) | Abcam
Amino acid transport system xc xCT antibody. *Amino acid transport system xc- ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. ... Solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter light chain, xc- system), member 11 ... Solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11 ...
Identification of a small molecule inhibitor of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase to target serine biosynthesis in cancers | PNAS
1990) The identification of neutral amino acid transport systems. Exp Physiol 75(1):3-26. ... The 2-amino-4-methyl-3-cyanato-5-thiophenecarboxylate ethyl ester was obtained from Life Chemicals. Cyanoacetic acid was ... The genetic evidence pointing to the importance of the amino acid serine in tumorigenesis is striking. The gene encoding the ... At the cellular level, serine can be imported from the extracellular space via amino acid transporters (6, 7). Alternatively, ...
MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
0 (Amino Acid Transport System ASC); 0 (Amino Acid Transport System L); 0 (Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain); 0 (Large ... 0 (Amino Acid Transport System L); 0 (Amino Acids); 0 (Amino Acids, Cyclic); 0 (Multiprotein Complexes); 20448-79-7 (2- ... 0 (Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing); 0 (Amino Acid Transport System A); 0 (Amino Acid Transport System L); 0 ( ... The amino acid transport systems A and L, which preferably transfer essential amino acids, are well-described models to study ...
The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation.
... accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process ... Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, ... Amino Acid Transport System A / physiology*. Amino Acids, Neutral / metabolism*. Biological Transport. Cell Membrane / ... 0/Amino Acid Transport System A; 0/Amino Acids, Neutral; 0/Hypertonic Solutions; 0/RNA, Small Interfering; 0/SLC38A2 protein, ...
Enterocyte - Wikipedia
Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... Histology image: 11706loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Digestive System: Alimentary Canal - jejunum, ... This typically occurs through active transport.. *Water uptake. This follows the osmotic gradient established by Na+/K+ ATPase ...
Amino Acid Biosynthesis ~ Pathways, Regulation and Metabolic Engineering | SpringerLink
Topics discussed are the amino acid biosynthetic pathways, their genetic and bioc ... Amino Acids Biosynthesis presents the current knowledge of fundamental as well as applied microbiology of amino acids. ... Amino Acid Transport Systems in Biotechnologically Relevant Bacteria Kay Marin, Reinhard Krämer ... Topics discussed are the amino acid biosynthetic pathways, their genetic and biochemical regulation, transport of amino acids ...
TransporterAromatic aminoProteinPeptidesGlucoseTryptophanFingerprintSynthesisGlutamic AcidSubstratesSpecificityFatty acidsCysteineCationic amino acidsCharacterizationCystineGlycineMetabolicRatsConcentrationsGlutamineHigh affinityMechanismsAnaloguesCell membranesPlacentaPathwaysExtracellular aminoAffinityHeteromericTransporters playMammalian aminoEssential aminoNeuronsProlineGlutamatePlacentalCarrierMolecularNitrogenRenalInsulinNutrientCellularMoleculesNucleic AcidsSubtypeMethylaminoBiosynthesis
- We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that shows close similarity to the recently identified System N transporter (SN1). (pnas.org)
- The System A transporter (SA1) and SN1 share many functional characteristics, including a marked sensitivity to low pH, but, unlike SN1, SA1 does not mediate proton exchange. (pnas.org)
- We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that belongs to a family of mammalian proteins originally defined by a neurotransmitter transporter. (pnas.org)
- Consistent with this sensitivity, we found that the System N transporter (SN1) mediates proton exchange as well as Na + cotransport ( 26 ). (pnas.org)
- xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. (novusbio.com)
- Competition studies showed that the high-affinity system did not correspond to any known transporter activity and displayed a marked selectivity for tryptophan over other amino acids and tryptophan analogs. (elsevier.com)
- OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of ethanol on system A amino acid transporter in BeWo cells. (elsevier.com)
- L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. (abcam.com)
- Efficacy of system l amino acid transporter 1 inhibition as a therapeutic target in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (bireme.br)
- System l amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is highly expressed in various types of human cancer, and contributes to cancer growth and survival. (bireme.br)
- The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
- Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
- Translocation of glutamate transporter subtype excitatory amino acid carrier 1 protein in kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
- We examined the temporal expression of the sodium-dependent neuronal glutamate transporter, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), in KA-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
- Anti-tumor effects of an antagonistic mAb against the ASCT2 amino acid transporter on KRAS-mutated human colorectal cancer cells. (nih.gov)
- Anti-tumor effects of mAb against L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) bound to human and monkey LAT1 with dual avidity modes. (nih.gov)
- Several factors influence transport across the placenta: uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows, area available for exchange, placental metabolism, and activity/expression of specific transporter proteins in the placental barrier. (hindawi.com)
- Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
- The blooming H. akashiwo cells expressed more proteins related to external nutrient acquisition, such as bicarbonate transporter SLC4, ammonium transporter, nitrite transporter, and alkaline phosphatase, while the blooming P. donghaiense cells highly expressed proteins related to extra- and intracellular organic nutrient utilization, such as amino acid transporter, 5′-nucleotidase, acid phosphatase, and tripeptidyl-peptidase. (asm.org)
- Here, we document that the purified Hfq protein of the plant pathogen and natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens binds to the previously described sRNA AbcR1 and its target mRNA atu2422 , which codes for the substrate binding protein of an ABC transporter taking up proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). (asm.org)
- The human serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) are membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. (wikipedia.org)
- The selectivity of the nontransported inhibitors 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid for, respectively, PAT1 and the H + -coupled di/tripeptide transporter PepT1 (SLC15A1) were examined. (aspetjournals.org)
- Sloan JL, Mager S. Cloning and functional expression of a human Na(+) and Cl(-)-dependent neutraland cationic amino acid transporter B(0+).J Biol Chem. (tcdb.org)
- The open reading frame encodes a 642-amino acid protein named amino acid transporter B(0+). (tcdb.org)
- Thus, hATB(0+) is the first cloned B(0+) amino acid transporter. (tcdb.org)
- Many of the participating proteins have eukaryotic relatives and are successfully used as model systems for exploration of transporter structure and function. (deepdyve.com)
- Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and expression of porcine y+L amino acid Transporter-1. (semanticscholar.org)
- Lysine deficiency and feed restriction independently alter cationic amino acid transporter expression in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). (semanticscholar.org)
- So far, transporter IVIVE of hepatocyte data generally does not account for any potential differences in the transporter expression between the tissue and the actual cellular system used, which may contribute to this underprediction trend observed. (aspetjournals.org)
- "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is mediated by an intronic element. (tcdb.org)
- "Immunohistochemical localization of the amino acid transporter SNAT2 in the rat brain. (tcdb.org)
- "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation and cap-independent translation. (tcdb.org)
- "Localization of the Na(+)-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 in the cerebral cortex. (tcdb.org)
- System L recognizes branched chain and aromatic amino acids ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
- Both neurotransmitters are synthesized from aromatic amino-acids, i.e. serotonin from tryptophan, and noradrenalin from tyrosine or its precursor phenylalanine. (nature.com)
- In Aromatic Amino Acids in the Brain . (springer.com)
- Because System A also catalyzes Na + -dependent amino acid transport sensitive to low pH, we considered that the protein(s) responsible might belong to the same family as VGAT and, in particular, SN1. (pnas.org)
- Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, protein synthesis, and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in L6 muscle cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- To demonstrate that the rBAT protein is functionally related to this transport activity, we have transfected OK cells with human rBAT antisense and sense sequences. (uzh.ch)
- RT-qPCR analysis and the in vitro overexpression experiments indicated that USA300HOU_RS00550 (an Na/Pi cotransporter family protein) and USA300HOU_RS01625 (a branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein) contributed to Erava heteroresistance in S. aureus . (biomedcentral.com)
- Mechanistically, genetic studies in Drosophila, along with cellular and biophysical studies in mammalian systems, demonstrate the dominant negative effect exerted by the mutant on the wild-type (WT) protein, which explains dominant inheritance. (bireme.br)
- The nuclear transport activity of various mutants was estimated by analyzing the proportion of protein localized in the nucleus. (bireme.br)
- RESULTS In the absence of insulin, gAd stimulated AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation, SNAT2 protein expression, and system A activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid β- N -methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. (mdpi.com)
- For instance, BMAA is a small non-protein amino acid that appears to be synthesized by the entire cyanobacterial phylum [ 5 , 6 ], suggesting that BMAA is a fundamental cellular metabolite in cyanobacteria. (mdpi.com)
- Note: Tryptophan and Phenylalanine are amino acids commonly found in protein-rich foods such a meat, nuts, and legumes. (amazonaws.com)
- The heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of a type II glycoprotein and a non‐glycosylated polytopic membrane protein. (embopress.org)
- Identification and functional analysis of fructosyl amino acid-binding protein from Gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter sp. (semanticscholar.org)
- Characterization of the binding protein-dependent cellobiose and cellotriose transport system of the cellulose degrader Streptomyces reticuli. (semanticscholar.org)
- A protein chain can consist of anything from ten to tens of thousands of amino acids. (nobelprize.org)
- Some antibiotics inhibit the monitoring mechanism of the molecular ruler (see illustration above), others hinder the formation of the connection between amino acids or block the tunnel through which the emerging protein chain leaves the ribosome. (nobelprize.org)
- Induction of AGP1 by amino acids also requires Grr1p, the F-box protein of the SCF Grr1 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex also required for transduction of the glucose signal generated by the Snf3p and Rgt2p glucose sensors. (asm.org)
- The essential role of Grr1p in this amino acid signaling pathway lends further support to the hypothesis that this protein participates in integrating nutrient availability with the cell cycle. (asm.org)
- Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism 16. (whsmith.co.uk)
- "Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions. (tcdb.org)
- Phylogenetic characterization of novel transport protein families revealed by genome analyses. (antievolution.org)
- Tracing pathways of transport protein evolution. (antievolution.org)
- Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular processes, including the insulin-induced regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and glucose transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The stimulation in glucose transport was facilitated, in part, by the increased translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane and also through an increase in the cellular synthesis of GLUT3. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The transport properties for phenylalanine and glucose in luminal-membrane vesicles from outer cortex (pars convoluta) and outer medulla (pars recta) of rabbit kidney were studied by a spectrophotometric method. (biochemj.org)
- Attempts to calculate the stoichiometry of the different Na+/D-glucose transport systems by using Hill-type plots revealed that the ratio of the Na+/hexose co-transport probably is 1:1 in the case of pars convoluta and 2:1 in membrane vesicles from pars recta. (biochemj.org)
- In the presence of glucose as an energy source, NCAO inhibited tryptophan transport competitively (Ki=80 μM) during short time intervals (1-2 min), but adding 100 μM NCAO to a yeast cell suspension resulted in a time-dependent activation of tryptophan transport during the first 15 min of treatment. (umn.edu)
- In this paper we will focus on recent studies of regulatory mechanisms that modulate placental transport of amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. (hindawi.com)
- He discussed this in the context of diabetes in pregnancy leading to excess fuel exposure to the fetal-placental unit, not only from glucose but also from excess lipids and amino acids (AAs). (diabetesjournals.org)
- ATP-binding cassette transport system involved in regulation of morphological differentiation in response to glucose in Streptomyces griseus. (semanticscholar.org)
- Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
- l-Tryptophan, which is transported exclusively by the general transport system, was used as a substrate. (umn.edu)
- Following the activation a time-dependent decay of tryptophan transport activity occurred. (umn.edu)
- When a yeast cell suspension was treated with NCAO in the absence of an energy source, an 80% inactivation of tryptophan transport occurred in 90 min. (umn.edu)
- Addition of a fivefold excess of L-lysine during NCAO treatment or prevented inactivation of tryptophan transport. (umn.edu)
- For tryptophan to be catabolized by IDO, it must first enter the APC via transmembrane transport. (elsevier.com)
- Here, we provide biochemical characterization of a novel transport system with nanomolar affinity and high selectivity for tryptophan. (elsevier.com)
- The amino-acids tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine seem to play an important role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. (nature.com)
- Taken together, different classes of NVU-AATs constitute an integrated dynamic system controlling the homeostasis of AAs such as large neutral amino acids (LNAAs: L-tyrosine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-phenylalanine, L-histidine, L-valine, L-tryptophan, and L-methionine) in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF). (frontiersin.org)
- Moreover, through a complex array of exchange fluxes, involving other amino acid transporters, and of metabolic reactions, such as the synthesis of glutamate from glutamine, SNAT2 activity influences the cell content of most amino acids, thus determining the overall size and the composition of the intracellular amino acid pool. (biomedsearch.com)
- Folates are involved in the synthesis of amino and nucleic acids and deliver one-carbon groups to S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) through the methionine homocysteine pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis , much amino acid synthesis, and the immune response in plants. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, aphids and other phloem feeders typically rely on microbial symbionts for the synthesis of essential amino acids. (biologists.org)
- GC-MS assays also showed that, even with an excess of dietary labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine or aspartic acid, the overall content of these amino acids in aphid bodies was mostly the product of catabolism of dietary amino acids and subsequent re-synthesis within the aphids. (biologists.org)
- Thus, these predominant dietary amino acids are not passed directly to Buchnera endosymbionts for synthesis of essential amino acids, but are rather are produced de novo , most likely by endogenous aphid enzymes. (biologists.org)
- No potent inhibitors of l‐glutamic acid accumulation were found among several structural analogues or derivatives. (elsevier.com)
- Developmental studies revealed GABA and l‐glutamic acid to have absolute sodium requirements for cortical synaptosomal accumulation from the 16th gestational day through adulthood, with glycine accumulation showing a decreasing sodium requirement as maturation proceeded over this period. (elsevier.com)
- Plant roots incorporate inorganic nitrogen into the amino acids glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and aspartic acid, which together serve as the primary metabolites of nitrogen transport to other tissues. (biologists.org)
- Aspartic acid aminotransferase and asparagine synthase use glutamic acid and glutamine, respectively, as nitrogen donors to produce aspartic acid and asparagine. (biologists.org)
- For less permeable substrates the placenta possesses both passive and active transport mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
- Changes in energy availability or ion gradients can profoundly influence net transfer of substrates transported by active mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
- It also mediates an anion leak conductance that is differentially inhibited by transported substrates ( Zhang and Grewer, 2007 ). (tcdb.org)
- It was trans-stimulated by amino acids with the same specificity as rBAT-induced transport activity in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
- The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier in the rat. (elsevier.com)
- Genes of 15 AAPs were overexpressed in different strains, and the ability to take up one or more of the 20 common L-alpha-amino acids was studied in order to obtain a complete picture of the substrate specificity for these permeases. (nih.gov)
- Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate. (abcam.com)
- Amino acids are taken up by different transport systems with overlapping substrate specificity. (aspetjournals.org)
- The inhibitory effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid were additive, demonstrating that both PAT1 and PepT1 contribute to intestinal transport of ALA. This is the first demonstration of overlap in substrate specificity between these distinct transporters for amino acids and dipeptides. (aspetjournals.org)
- We show here that SSY1 is required for transcriptional induction, in response to multiple amino acids, of the AGP1 gene encoding a low-affinity, broad-specificity amino acid permease. (asm.org)
- The cysteine is subsequently transported in to neurons, where it supports glutathione production. (novusbio.com)
- Moreover, the roles of system x(c)(-) in regulating GSH levels, the redox state of the extracellular cystine/cysteine redox couple, and extracellular glutamate levels are discussed. (nih.gov)
- MTs have the capacity to bind both physiological (such as zinc, copper, selenium) and xenobiotic (such as cadmium, mercury, silver, arsenic) heavy metals through the thiol group of its cysteine residues, which represent nearly 30% of its constituent amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
- Their production is dependent on availability of the dietary minerals such as zinc, copper, and selenium, as well as the amino acids histidine and cysteine. (wikipedia.org)
- The three amino acids comprising glutathione are glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. (asnjournals.org)
Cationic amino acids2
- In contrast, non-malignant astrocytes and cortical neurons remain viable in the presence of Xc inhibitors and continue to take up cystine via alternate amino acid transporters. (freepatentsonline.com)
- rBAT-b(0,+)AT heterodimer is the main apical reabsorption system for cystine in the kidney. (semanticscholar.org)
- Cyclic hexapeptide in its bioactive form with the integrin-binding tripeptide sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid: Green spheres represent carbon atoms, red oxygen atoms, blue nitrogen atoms and white hydrogen atoms. (eurekalert.org)
- A sequence of the three amino acids arginine, glycine and aspartic acid is the key to the docking at these receptors. (eurekalert.org)
- Taurine is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory semi-essential amino acid extensively involved in neurological activities, acting as neurotrophic factor, binding to GABA A/glycine receptors and blocking the excitotoxicity glutamate-induced pathway leading to be a neuroprotective effect and neuromodulation. (mdpi.com)
- The accumulation by synaptosomal fractions from rat central nervous system tissue of transmitter candidate amino acids and non‐candidate amino acids was studied with respect to ionic requirements, metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and ontogeny. (elsevier.com)
- The volume further deals with the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biotechnological production of amino acids for use as pharmaceuticals and, particularly, as food and feed additives. (springer.com)
- Maternal diet and obesity impact fuels, hormones, and inflammation with powerful effects on fetal metabolic systems. (diabetesjournals.org)
- or γ- 15 N). The metabolic fate of the dietary 15 N and 13 C was traced using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrogen was the major contributor to the observed amino acid isotopomers with one additional unit mass (M+1). (biologists.org)
- The acquired form of 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) metabolic acidosis was first described in 1989 and its relationship to chronic acetaminophen ingestion was proposed the next year. (asnjournals.org)
- Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. (hindawi.com)
- The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which poisonous. (wikipedia.org)
- By contrast, in the outer-medullary preparation, L-phenylalanine transport occurred via two transport systems, namely a high-affinity system with K1A congruent to 0.33 mM and a low-affinity system with K2A congruent to 7 mM respectively. (biochemj.org)
- Both the high-affinity and the low-affinity Na+-dependent L-phenylalanine transport system of pars recta membrane vesicles seem to operate with a 1:1 stoichiometry. (biochemj.org)
- The physiological importance of the arrangement of low-affinity and high-affinity transport systems along the kidney proximal tubule is discussed. (biochemj.org)
- This heterogeneity disappeared in the presence of cycloleucine, since the high-affinity systems were no longer detectable. (portlandpress.com)
- Their function as exchangers presumably relies on the active accumulation of amino acids through other mechanisms. (pnas.org)
- As a first step in understanding the relationship between the astrocyte and the mechanisms of MeHg's neurotoxicity, studies were directed at how MeHg is transported into cultured astrocytes. (elsevier.com)
- Hence, endocytotic or pinocytotic mechanisms, and shuttling of MeHg via sequential sulfhydryl membrane ligand exchange do not appear to operate in the transport of MeHg into the astrocyte. (elsevier.com)
- Numerous solutes move across the NVU cell membranes with various transport mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
- Animals that feed on nutritionally unbalanced resources such as phloem sap, which typically has sub-optimal amounts of essential amino acids, have evolved mechanisms for acquiring or synthesizing these amino acids. (biologists.org)
- Many of these prn mutations can be directly classified according to the gene product(s) affected on the basis of growth phenotype with respect to L-arginine and L-ornithine utilization, proline-dependent resistance to certain toxic amino acid analogues and effect on supplementation of proline auxotrophies. (cambridge.org)
- These heterodimers facilitate the transport of amino acids across cell membranes. (novusbio.com)
- frequently occurs by way of active transport within cell membranes, an excess of one nutrient (A) may inhibit absorption of a second nutrient (B), if they share the same absorption pathway. (britannica.com)
- Fetal growth is dependent on nutrient availability, which in turn is related to the capacity of the placenta to transport these nutrients. (hindawi.com)
- Furthermore, the placenta with its nutrient transport functions is increasingly seen as being the mediator of maternal nutrition effects on the lifelong health consequences for the child [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- A wide range of nutrients (e.g., amino acids, phosphorus, and lactate) are transported across the placenta mediated by secondary active transport, utilizing energy provided by ion gradients such as sodium, chloride, and protons [ 14 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Amino acid exporters were identified in MAGs identified as important for host fitness, and pathways for key vitamin biosynthesis and export were identified across MAGs. (nature.com)
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides an attractive model system for studying adhesion in yeast because of its well-characterized genetics and gene expression systems and the conservation of signal transduction pathways among the yeasts. (asm.org)
- The differential affinity of PGB and GBP at L-type system leads to more concentrative accumulation of PGB than GBP, which may facilitate PGB transmembrane absorption in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
- SVCT2 may exhibit a higher affinity for ascorbic acid than SVCT1, but with a lower maximum velocity. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The neuronal system A2 has been reported to transport Asn and Gln with higher affinity than for other neutral amino acids. (tcdb.org)
- System-L amino acid transporters play a key role in pancreatic β-cell signalling and function. (nih.gov)
- This work has furthermore advanced our understanding of the roles these transporters play in amino acid homeostasis and in various pathologies. (biologists.org)
- Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 transporters play an important role in hepatic drug disposition. (aspetjournals.org)
- Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). (nih.gov)
- For example, in the central nervous system, glutamate transporters are critically important in maintaining the extracellular glutamate concentration below neurotoxic levels, and defects of the human D2 gene have been shown to account for the formation of kidney stones in patients with cystinuria. (biologists.org)
- Placental nutrient transport and membrane kinetics (how do nutrients such as amino acids get from the mother to the fetus and how does transport work as an integrated system). (southampton.ac.uk)
- We hypothesized that adiponectin regulates placental amino acid transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
- As a result, fAd inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport, which may have important implications for placental nutrient transport and fetal growth in pregnancy complications associated with altered maternal adiponectin levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
- however, the primary determinant of fetal growth is nutrient supply, which is dependent on placental nutrient transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Obesity in pregnancy ( 9 , 10 ) and gestational diabetes mellitus ( 11 ) are associated with low maternal circulating levels of adiponectin, but the impact of adiponectin on placental nutrient transport functions is unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The activity of a range of nutrient transporters has been reported to be decreased in placentas of growth restricted fetuses, whereas at least some studies indicate that placental nutrient transport is upregulated in fetal overgrowth. (hindawi.com)
- These findings suggest that changes in placental nutrient transport may directly contribute to the development of abnormal fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
- Fetal growth is largely determined by nutrient supply, which is dependent upon placental nutrient transport. (hindawi.com)
- This suggests that changes in placental nutrient transport directly contribute to altered fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
- One route involves a reduced folate carrier system (RFC). (sigmaaldrich.com)
- They can function by either a channel-type or a carrier-type mechanism, and in the latter case, they are frequently energized by coupling solute transport to the flux of an ion down its electrochemical gradient. (antievolution.org)
- Molecular characteristics of mammalian and insect amino acid transporters: implications for amino acid homeostasis. (biologists.org)
- Using similar approaches, we are investigating the molecular characteristics of K(+)-coupled amino acid transporters in the larval lepidopteran insect midgut. (biologists.org)
- Dr Julian Dow Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow: Genetic analysis of epithelial transport in Drosophila. (bio.net)
- however, the molecular basis for this transport system is still unknown. (tcdb.org)
- However, there was differential incorporation, with the amine nitrogen of asparagine being incorporated into other amino acids more efficiently than the amide nitrogen. (biologists.org)
- Hilger, D. 2007-04-06 00:00:00 Amino acid transport is a ubiquitous phenomenon and serves a variety of functions in prokaryotes, including supply of carbon and nitrogen for catabolic and anabolic processes, pH homeostasis, osmoprotection, virulence, detoxification, signal transduction and generation of electrochemical ion gradients. (deepdyve.com)
- When combined with insulin, gAd did not affect system A activity or SNAT expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In contrast, fAd abolished insulin-stimulated AKT Thr308 and IRS-1 Tyr612 phosphorylation, system A activity, and SNAT2 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Ive been told by some people to add BCAA's and some insulin spiking amino acids to this shake. (exrx.net)
- Active transport systems move chemicals essential to cellular functions through the membrane into the cell. (britannica.com)
- (4) The cellular origins of reactive oxygen species, their targets, and antioxidant systems. (grin.com)
- However, systematic analysis and understanding of the actual differences in OATP expression between liver tissue and commonly used cellular systems is lacking. (aspetjournals.org)
- Abundance levels of the OATP transporters investigated were not significantly different between liver and cellular systems, with the exception of OATP2B1 expression in SCHH relative to liver tissue. (aspetjournals.org)
- Microvilli on the apical surface increase surface area for the digestion and transport of molecules from the intestinal lumen . (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, roles of various receptors, ATP powered pumps, channels, and transporters in transport of vital molecules in maintenance of homeostasis and normal body functions have been described in detail. (hindawi.com)
- Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural components (cellulose in plants, chitin in animals). (wikipedia.org)