Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Transport System y+Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Amino Acid Transport System y+LMembrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that were originally characterized as sodium dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporters. Vesicular glutamate transport proteins sequester the excitatory neurotransmitter GLUTAMATE from the CYTOPLASM into SECRETORY VESICLES in exchange for lumenal PROTONS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.MaleatesLeucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Dicarboxylic AcidsRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Amino Acids, DiaminoGlycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cystinuria: An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Hartnup Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.MethylglucosidesIleum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Pseudomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Amino Acid Transport Disorders, Inborn: Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)PhloretinSerine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.TritiumKidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).MethylglycosidesDNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

Evidence for a novel glutamate-mediated signaling pathway in keratinocytes. (1/509)

Phenotypic alterations in keratinocyte behavior are essential for maintaining epidermal integrity during growth and wound repair and rely on co-ordinated cell signaling events. Numerous growth factors and cytokines have been shown to be instrumental in guiding such changes in keratinocyte activity; here we provide evidence which proposes a novel epidermal signaling pathway mediated by the excitatory amino acid glutamate. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter at synaptic junctions within the central nervous system; however, we have identified expression in vivo of several regulatory molecules associated with glutamate signaling in keratinocytes. In resting rat skin epidermis, different classes of glutamate receptors, transporters, and a recently described clustering protein were shown to display distinct distribution patterns, supportive of a multifunctional cellular communication pathway. Immunoreactive N-methyl-D-aspartate-type, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate-type, and metabotropic-type glutamate receptors were colocalized with the specific glutamate transporter EAAC1 in basal layer keratinocytes, and GLT-1, a related transporter, was expressed suprabasally. In full-thickness rat skin wounds, marked modifications in the distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and EAAC1 were observed during re-epithelialization, and alterations in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression accompanied embryonic epidermal development, implicating glutamate signaling in these important biologic events. Furthermore, we provide evidence that these receptors are functional in vitro. These data provide strong evidence to support a role for glutamate in the control of epidermal renewal, and therefore suggest potentially novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of skin disease and enhancement of wound healing.  (+info)

Optical detection of synaptically induced glutamate transport in hippocampal slices. (2/509)

Although it has long been believed that glial cells play a major role in transmitter uptake at synapses in the CNS, the relative contribution of glial and neuronal cells to reuptake of synaptically released glutamate has been unclear. Recent identification of the diverse glutamate transporter subtypes provides an opportunity to examine this issue. To monitor glutamate transporter activity, we optically detected synaptically induced changes of membrane potential from hippocampal CA1 field in slice preparations using a voltage-sensitive dye, RH155. In the presence of ionotropic glutamate-receptor blockers, synaptic inputs gave rise to a slow depolarizing response (SDR) in the dendritic field. The amplitude of SDR correlated well with presynaptic activities, suggesting that it was related to transmitter release. The SDR was found to be caused by the activities of glutamate transporters because it was not affected by blockers for GABAA, nACh, 5-HT3, P2X, or metabotropic glutamate receptors but was greatly reduced by dihydrokainate (DHK), a specific blocker for GLT-1 transporter, and by D, L-threo-beta-hydroxyaspartate (THA), a blocker for EAAC, GLAST, and GLT-1 transporters. When SDR was detected with RH482 dye, which stains both glial and neuronal cells, 1 mM DHK and 1 mM THA were equally effective in suppressing SDR. The SDR was very small in GLT-1 knockout mice but was maintained in gerbil hippocampi in which postsynaptic neurons were absent because of ischemia. Because GLT-1 transporters are exclusively expressed in astrocytes, our results provide direct evidence that astrocytes play the dominant role in sequestering synaptically released glutamate.  (+info)

Identification of truncated human glutamate transporter. (3/509)

Excitatory amino-acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is a high affinity Na+-dependent L-glutamate/D, L-Aspartate transporter protein. A truncated form of EAAC1 (tEAAC1) was identified by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction in the human cell line, ACHN, in which EAAC1 mRNA was highly expressed. The deduced amino acid sequence of tEAAC1 lacks 31-77 amino acids including the first extracellular domain. The mRNA encoding tEAAC1 was detected in various cells of human origin but not in cells of rat or mouse origin. The expression of tEAAC1 mRNA was proportional to that of full-length EAAC1 (fEAAC1) mRNA, suggesting common transcriptional regulation between tEAAC1 and fEAAC1. In addition, the expression of EAAC1 mRNA was relatively low or non-existent in non-adherent cells.  (+info)

Expression of the GLT-1 subtype of Na+-dependent glutamate transporter: pharmacological characterization and lack of regulation by protein kinase C. (4/509)

Several subtypes of Na+-dependent glutamate transporters have been pharmacologically differentiated in brain tissues. Five distinct cDNA clones that express Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity have been isolated. One goal of the current study was to compare the pharmacological properties of the rat GLT-1 subtype of transporter to those identified previously using rat brain tissues. To accomplish this goal, GLT-1 was stably transfected into two different cell lines that express low levels of endogenous transport activity (MCB and L-M (TK-)). Several clones stably transfected with GLT-1 were isolated. In each cell line, Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity was saturable with similar Km values (19 and 37 microM). The pharmacological properties of GLT-1-mediated transport in these cell lines paralleled those observed for the predominant pharmacology observed in cortical crude synaptosomes. These data are consistent with other lines of evidence that suggest that GLT-1 may be sufficient to explain most of the Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity in cortical synaptosomes. Although recent studies using HeLa cells have suggested that GLT-1 can be rapidly up-regulated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC), modulation of PKC or phosphatase activity had no effect on GLT-1-mediated activity in these transfected cell lines. To determine if GLT-1 regulation by PKC is cell-specific, HeLa cells, which endogenously express the EAAC1 subtype of transporter, were stably transfected with GLT-1. Although EAAC1-mediated activity was increased by activation of PKC, we found no evidence for regulation of GLT-1. Despite the present findings, GLT-1 activity may be regulated by PKC under certain conditions.  (+info)

Nontransportable inhibitors attenuate reversal of glutamate uptake in synaptosomes following a metabolic insult. (5/509)

Na+-dependent, high-affinity glutamate transporters in the central nervous system are generally credited with regulating extracellular levels of L-glutamate and maintaining concentrations below those that would induce excitotoxic injury. Under pathological conditions, however, it has been suggested that these same transporters may contribute to excitotoxic injury by serving as sites of efflux for cellular L-glutamate. In this study, we examine the efflux of [3H]D-aspartate from synaptosomes in response to both alternative substrates (i.e., heteroexchange), such as L-glutamate, and a metabolic insult (5 mM potassium cyanide and 1 mM iodoacetate). Exposure of synaptosomes containing [3H]D-aspartate to either L-glutamate or metabolic inhibitors increased the efflux of the radiolabeled substrate to over 200% of control values. Two previously identified competitive transport inhibitors (L-trans-2, 3-pyrrolidine dicarboxylate and dihydrokainate) failed to stimulate [3H]D-aspartate efflux but did inhibit glutamate-mediated heteroexchange, consistent with the action of nontransportable inhibitors. These compounds also attenuated the efflux of [3H]D-aspartate from synaptosomes exposed to the metabolic inhibitors. These results add further strength to the model of central nervous system injury-induced efflux of L-glutamate through its high-affinity transporters and identify a novel strategy to attenuate this process.  (+info)

Structural features of the glutamate transporter family. (6/509)

Neuronal and glial glutamate transporters remove the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft and thus prevent neurotoxicity. The proteins belong to a large and widespread family of secondary transporters, including bacterial glutamate, serine, and C4-dicarboxylate transporters; mammalian neutral-amino-acid transporters; and an increasing number of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic proteins that have not yet been functionally characterized. Sixty members of the glutamate transporter family were found in the databases on the basis of sequence homology. The amino acid sequences of the carriers have diverged enormously. Homology between the members of the family is most apparent in a stretch of approximately 150 residues in the C-terminal part of the proteins. This region contains four reasonably well-conserved sequence motifs, all of which have been suggested to be part of the translocation pore or substrate binding site. Phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal stretch revealed the presence of five subfamilies with characterized members: (i) the eukaryotic glutamate transporters, (ii) the bacterial glutamate transporters, (iii) the eukaryotic neutral-amino-acid transporters, (iv) the bacterial C4-dicarboxylate transporters, and (v) the bacterial serine transporters. A number of other subfamilies that do not contain characterized members have been defined. In contrast to their amino acid sequences, the hydropathy profiles of the members of the family are extremely well conserved. Analysis of the hydropathy profiles has suggested that the glutamate transporters have a global structure that is unique among secondary transporters. Experimentally, the unique structure of the transporters was recently confirmed by membrane topology studies. Although there is still controversy about part of the topology, the most likely model predicts the presence of eight membrane-spanning alpha-helices and a loop-pore structure which is unique among secondary transporters but may resemble loop-pores found in ion channels. A second distinctive structural feature is the presence of a highly amphipathic membrane-spanning helix that provides a hydrophilic path through the membrane. Recent data from analysis of site-directed mutants and studies on the mechanism and pharmacology of the transporters are discussed in relation to the structural model.  (+info)

Differential expressions of glycine transporter 1 and three glutamate transporter mRNA in the hippocampus of gerbils with transient forebrain ischemia. (7/509)

The extracellular concentrations of glutamate and its co-agonist for the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, glycine, may be under the control of amino acid transporters in the ischemic brain. However, there is little information on changes in glycine and glutamate transporters in the hippocampal CA1 field of gerbils with transient forebrain ischemia. This study investigated the spatial and temporal expressions of glycine transporter 1 (GLYT1) and three glutamate transporter (excitatory amino acid carrier 1, EAAC1; glutamate/aspartate transporter, GLAST; glutamate transporter 1, GLT1) mRNA in the gerbil hippocampus after 3 minutes of ischemia. The GLYT1 mRNA was transiently upregulated by the second day after ischemia in astrocytelike cells in close vicinity to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, possibly to reduce glycine concentration in the local extracellular spaces. The EAAC1 mRNA was abundantly expressed in almost all pyramidal neurons and dentate granule cells in the control gerbil hippocampus, whereas the expression level in CA1 pyramidal neurons started to decrease by the fourth day after ischemia in synchrony with degeneration of the CA1 neurons. The GLAST and GLT1 mRNA were rather intensely expressed in the dentate gyrus and CA3 field of the control hippocampus, respectively, but they were weakly expressed in the CA1 field before and after ischemia. As GLAST and GLT1 play a major role in the control of extracellular glutamate concentration, the paucity of these transporters in the CA1 field may account for the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to ischemia, provided that the functional GLAST and GLT1 proteins are also less in the CA1 field than in the CA3 field. This study suggests that the amino acid transporters play pivotal roles in the process of delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 field.  (+info)

Effects of inhibiting glutamine synthetase and blocking glutamate uptake on b-wave generation in the isolated rat retina. (8/509)

The purpose of the present experiments was to evaluate the contribution of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in retinal glial (Muller) cells to photoreceptor cell synaptic transmission. Dark-adapted isolated rat retinas were superfused with oxygenated bicarbonate-buffered media. Recordings were made of the b-wave of the electroretinogram as a measure of light-induced photoreceptor to ON-bipolar neuron transmission. L-methionine sulfoximine (1-10 mM) was added to superfusion media to inhibit glutamine synthetase, a Muller cell specific enzyme, by more than 99% within 5-10 min, thereby disrupting the conversion of glutamate to glutamine in the Muller cells. Threo-hydroxyaspartic acid and D-aspartate were used to block glutamate transporters. The amplitude of the b-wave was well maintained for 1-2 h provided 0.25 mM glutamate or 0.25 mM glutamine was included in the media. Without exogenous glutamate or glutamine the amplitude of the b-wave declined by about 70% within 1 h. Inhibition of glutamate transporters led to a rapid (2-5 min) reversible loss of the b-wave in the presence and absence of the amino acids. In contrast, inhibition of glutamine synthetase did not alter significantly either the amplitude of the b-wave in the presence of glutamate or glutamine or the rate of decline of the b-wave found in the absence of these amino acids. Excellent recovery of the b-wave was found when 0.25 mM glutamate was resupplied to L-methionine sulfoximine-treated retinas. The results suggest that in the isolated rat retina uptake of released glutamate into photoreceptors plays a more important role in transmitter recycling than does uptake of glutamate into Muller cells and its subsequent conversion to glutamine.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Glutamate transporter function of rat hippocampal astrocytes is impaired following the global ischemia. AU - Yeh, Tu Hsueh. AU - Hwang, Hwa Min. AU - Chen, Jin Jung. AU - Wu, Tony. AU - Li, Allen Hon Lun. AU - Wang, Hung Li. PY - 2005/4. Y1 - 2005/4. N2 - Astroglial glutamate transporters, GLT-1 and GLAST, play an essential role in removing released glutamate from the extracellular space and are essential for maintaining a low concentration of extracellular glutamate in the brain. It was hypothesized that impaired function of glial glutamate transporters induced by transient global ischemia may lead to an elevated level of extracellular glutamate and subsequent excitotoxic neuronal death. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recording of hippocampal CA1 astrocytes in control or postischemic slices, and measured glutamate transporter activity by recording glutamate-evoked transporter currents. Six to 24 h after global ischemia, maximal ...
Top performende anti-Human Solute Carrier Family 1 (Glial High Affinity Glutamate Transporter), Member 3 Antikörper für Flow Cytometry (FACS) vergleichen & kaufen.
The present study provides the first report of EAAC1 expression in prostate cells. More importantly, this report coupled to earlier studies [5-7] provides (to the best of our knowledge) the first definitive identification of EAAC1 as a preferential functional L-aspartate transporter. The operation of EAAC1 as a high-affinity L-aspartate transporter in prostate cells differs from its dominant focus as a glutamate transporter in excitatory cells. As such, the kinetic properties of EAAC1 as a high-affinity L-aspartate transporter have not been established for other mammalian cells. King et al [11] reported that L-aspartate uptake in heart myocytes is mediated by a high affinity sodium-dependent transporter (Km ~7 uM aspartate), and suggested that the transport might be associated with the expression in heart of EAAC1. Similarly, mammary cells reportedly express an XAG- transporter that exhibits a significantly higher affinity for aspartate (Km = 32 uM) than for glutamate (Km = 112 uM); thereby ...
The D-isomer of aspartate is efficiently transported by high-affinity Na(+)/K(+)-dependent glutamate transporters and is an effective ligand of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To facilitate analysis of the regulation of these proteins in their native membranes, we synthesized a photolabile analogue of D-aspartate, 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-D-aspartate (MNI-D-aspartate). This compound was photolyzed with a quantum efficiency of 0.09 at pH 7.4. Photorelease of d-aspartate in acute hippocampal slices through brief (1 ms) UV laser illumination of MNI-d-aspartate triggered rapidly activating currents in astrocytes that were inhibited by the glutamate transporter antagonist DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA), indicating that they resulted from electrogenic uptake of D-aspartate. These transporter currents exhibited a distinct tail component that was approximately 2% of the peak current, which may result from the release of K(+) into the extracellular space during counter transport. ...
The D-isomer of aspartate is efficiently transported by high-affinity Na(+)/K(+)-dependent glutamate transporters and is an effective ligand of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To facilitate analysis of the regulation of these proteins in their native membranes, we synthesized a photolabile analogue of D-aspartate, 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-D-aspartate (MNI-D-aspartate). This compound was photolyzed with a quantum efficiency of 0.09 at pH 7.4. Photorelease of d-aspartate in acute hippocampal slices through brief (1 ms) UV laser illumination of MNI-d-aspartate triggered rapidly activating currents in astrocytes that were inhibited by the glutamate transporter antagonist DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA), indicating that they resulted from electrogenic uptake of D-aspartate. These transporter currents exhibited a distinct tail component that was approximately 2% of the peak current, which may result from the release of K(+) into the extracellular space during counter transport. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of glutamate transporters in glutamate homeostasis in the brain. AU - Takahashi, Michiko. AU - Billups, Brian. AU - Rossi, David. AU - Sarantis, Monique. AU - Hamann, Martine. AU - Attwell, David. PY - 1997/1. Y1 - 1997/1. N2 - Glutamate transporters in neurones and glia, four of which have been cloned from mammals, play a crucial rule in controlling the extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain. In normal conditions, they remove glutamate from the extracellular space and thereby help to terminate glutamatergic synaptic transmission and to prevent the extracellular glutamate concentration from rising to neurotoxic values. Glutamate transport on these carriers is thought to be driven by the cotransport of Na+, the countertransport of K+, and either the cotransport of H+ or the counter-transport of OH-. Activating the transporters also activates an anion conductance in their structure, the anion flux through which is not coupled to glutamate movement and varies ...
Our study indicates that glutamate transporter activity regulates AMPAR synaptic accumulation and stability. After glutamate transport inhibition, glutamate presumably diffuses to the edges of synaptic cleft, in which it binds to parasynaptically localized NMDARs. Stimulation of NR2B-NMDARs leads to AMPAR ubiquitination, internalization, and proteasome-mediated degradation. Furthermore, we show that the effect of EAAT suppression on AMPAR reduction is mediated mainly by the neuronal transporter EAAT3. Inhibition of glial transporters has no effect on AMPARs, and the reduction in AMPARs after EAAT inhibition remains in the absence of glia in the culture, suggesting a minimal role of glial glutamate transporters. Moreover, the knockdown of EAAT3 by siRNA caused similar effects on AMPAR expression to that of EAAT inhibition. In addition, we show that the population of EAAT3 at the postsynaptic, rather than the presynaptic, site is responsible for AMPAR regulation. These findings indicate that the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glial restricted precursors protect against chronic glutamate neurotoxicity of motor neurons in vitro. AU - Maragakis, Nicholas J. AU - Rao, Mahendra S.. AU - Llado, Jeronia. AU - Wong, Victor. AU - Xue, Haipeng. AU - Pardo, Andrea. AU - Herring, Joseph. AU - Kerr, Douglas. AU - Coccia, Carol. AU - Rothstein, Jeffrey D. PY - 2005/4/15. Y1 - 2005/4/15. N2 - We have examined the expression of glutamate transporters in primary and immortalized glial precursors (GRIPs). We subsequently transduced these cells with the GLT1 glutamate transporter and examined the ability of these cells to protect motor neurons in an organotypic spinal cord culture. We show that glial restricted precursors and GRIP-derived astrocytes predominantly express glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT1. Oligodendrocyte differentiation of GRIPs results in downregulation of all glutamate transporter subtypes. Having identified these precursor cells as potential vectors for delivering glutamate transporters to ...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death globally and new biomarkers and treatments are severely needed. Here, we employed HCT116 and LoVo human CRC cells made resistant to either SN38 or oxaliplatin, to investigate whether altered expression of the high affinity glutamate transporters Solute Carrier (SLC)-1A1 and -1A3 (EAAT3, EAAT1) is associated with the resistant phenotypes. Analyses included real-time quantitative PCR, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses, radioactive tracer flux measurements, and biochemical analyses of cell viability and glutathione content. Results were evaluated using one- and two-way ANOVA and Students two-tailed t-test, as relevant. In SN38-resistant HCT116 and LoVo cells, SLC1A1 expression was down-regulated ~60 % and up-regulated ~4-fold, respectively, at both mRNA and protein level, whereas SLC1A3 protein was undetectable. The changes in SLC1A1 expression were accompanied by parallel changes in DL-Threo-β-Benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA)-sensitive,
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS that is cleared from the extracellular space by a family of high-affinity glutamate transporters. The astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2 is thought to carry out the uptake of the vast quantity of glutamate, and dysregulation of EAAT2 expression is involved in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders with marked excitotoxic components. Here, we present a novel epigenetic mechanism by which the human EAAT2 gene is kept in a silent state. Sequence inspection identified a classical CpG island at the EAAT2 promoter ...
The mammalian genome contains four genes encoding GABA transporters (GAT1, slc6a1; GAT2, slc6a13; GAT3, slc6a11; BGT1, slc6a12) and five glutamate transporter genes (EAAT1, slc1a3; EAAT2, slc1a2; EAAT3, slc1a1; EAAT4, slc1a6; EAAT5, slc1a7). These transporters keep the extracellular levels of GABA and excitatory amino acids low and provide amino acids for metabolic purposes. The various transporters have different properties both with respect to their transport functions and with respect to their ability to act as ion channels. Further, they are differentially regulated. To understand the physiological roles of the individual transporter subtypes, it is necessary to obtain information on their distributions and expression levels. Quantitative data are important as the functional capacity is limited by the number of transporter molecules. The most important and most abundant transporters for removal of transmitter glutamate in the brain are EAAT2 (GLT-1) and EAAT1 (GLAST), while GAT1 and GAT3 are the
Contributions of glial glutamate transport and transmission to drug abuse One of the most insidious clinical features of addiction is the vulnerability to relap...
... interstitial glutamate concentrations. by disrupting the association between Hsp90 and GLT-1. Utilizing a style of TLE, we showed that long-term systemic administration of 17AAG significantly suppressed spontaneous repeated seizures and ameliorated astrogliosis. General, these results claim that up-regulation of GLT-1 by inhibiting Hsp90 in reactive astrocytes could be a potential healing focus on for the treating epilepsy and excitotoxicity. Launch Epilepsy is among the most common chronic neurological illnesses, yet around one-third of affected sufferers do not react to anticonvulsive medications PFI-3 supplier that focus on neurons (Kwan et al., 2011). Latest studies claim that astrocytes certainly are a potential focus on for the healing treatment of intractable epilepsy (Hja, 2014; Robel et al., 2015). GLT-1 (EAAT2; slc1a2) is normally predominantly portrayed in astrocytes and in charge of maintaining low extracellular ...
SLC1A1, also known as excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A1 gene. Excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 is a member of the high-affinity glutamate transporters which plays an essential role in transporting glutamate across plasma membranes in neurons. In the brain, excitatory amino acid transporters are crucial in terminating the postsynaptic action of the neurotransmitter glutamate, and in maintaining extracellular glutamate concentrations below neurotoxic levels. EAAT3 also transports aspartate, and mutations in this gene are thought to cause dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, also known as glutamate-aspartate transport defect. EAAT3 is also the major route of neuronal cysteine uptake. Cysteine is a component of the major antioxidant glutathione, and mice lacking EAAT3 exhibit reduced levels of glutathione in neurons, increased oxidative stress, and age-dependent loss of neurons, especially neurons of the substantia nigra. SLC1A1 has been ...
In the brain, termination of glutamatergic neurotransmission is achieved predominantly by rapid uptake of synaptically released glutamate into astrocytes through the sodium-dependent glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST and its subsequent conversion to glutamine by the enzyme GS (Rothstein et al., 1996; Sonnewald et al., 1997). To date, several factors, including glutamate itself, have been identified that rapidly alter the activity of the glutamate uptake process by post-translational modification of glutamate transporters (for review, see Gegelashvili and Schousboe, 1998). However, the factor or factors regulating the expression of glial glutamate transporter as well as of GS are still unknown. Pronounced increases in glial expression levels of GLT-1, GLAST, and GS have been observed in coculture systems with neurons (Hayashi et al., 1988; Swanson et al., 1997; Schlag et al., 1998). Although originally it had been suggested that these effects involve glutamate signaling, recent work by ...
Shop Glutamate/aspartate import solute-binding protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Glutamate/aspartate import solute-binding protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
In mammalian cells, the uptake of amino acids is mediated by specialized, energy-dependent and passive transporters with overlapping substrate specificities. Most energy-dependent transporters are coupled either to the cotransport of Na+ or Cl- or to the countertransport of K+. Passive transporters are either facilitated transporters or channels. As a prelude to the molecular characterization of the different classes of transporters, we have isolated transporter cDNAs by expression-cloning with Xenopus laevis oocytes and we have characterized the cloned transporters functionally by uptake studies into oocytes using radiolabelled substrates and by electrophysiology to determine substrate-evoked currents. Mammalian transporters investigated include the dibasic and neutral amino acid transport protein D2/NBAT (system b0+) and the Na(+)- and K(+)-dependent neuronal and epithelial high-affinity glutamate transporter EAAC1 (system XAG-). A detailed characterization of these proteins has provided new ...
Najimi, Mustapha ; Stéphenne, Xavier ; Sempoux, Christine ; Sokal, Etienne ; Khuu, Ngoc Dung. Modulation of EAAT-2 glutamate transporter expression in human liver cholestasis.21st Biennial Meeting of the International-Society-for-Neurochemistry/38th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Neurochemistry (Cancun (Mexico), Aug 19-24, 2007). In: Journal of Neurochemistry, Vol. 102, p. 46-47 (2007 ...
There are 30,000 cases of ALS at any given time in the United States. Presently there is no cure for ALS and few treatment options. 90 percent of cases have unk...
We cloned and expressed a human metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 alpha (HmGluR1 alpha) in a novel cell line. The human mGluR1 alpha cDNA was found to be 86% identical to rat mGluR1 alpha, and the predicted protein sequence was found to be 93% identical to rat mGluR1 alpha. We expressed HmGluR1 alpha in AV12-664, an adenovirus-transformed Syrian hamster cell line. To prevent tonic activation of HmGluR1 alpha by glutamate that may be released by these cells into the extracellular medium, HmGluR1 alpha was co-expressed in AV12-664 cells with a rat glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). This allowed investigation of the effect that clearance of glutamate from the extracellular space would have on HmGluR1 alpha function. A comparison of mRNA levels revealed that HmGluR1 alpha was similarly expressed in cells with or without co-expression of GLAST. However, HmGluR1 alpha-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis was efficiently elicited only in cells co-expressing rat GLAST. Blockade of glutamate ...
Selected Publications:. Akyuz, N., Georgieva, E. R., Zhou, Z., Stolzenberg, S., Cuendet, M. A.,. Khelashvili, G., Altman,. R. B., Terry, D. S., Freed, J. H., Weinstein, H., Boudker, O.,. Blanchard, S. C.: Transport domain. motions in a glutamate transporter homologue determine turnover rate.. Nature (2015).. ###. Stolzenberg, S., Khelashvili, G., Weinstein, H.: Structural. Intermediates in a Model of the. Substrate Translocation Path of the Bacterial Glutamate Transporter. Homologue GltPh.. J Phys Chem B, 116, 5372-5383 (2012).. ###. Zhao, C.*, Stolzenberg, S.*, Gracia, L., Weinstein, H., Noskov, S., Shi,. L.: Ion-Controlled. Conformational Dynamics in the Outward-Open Transition from an Occluded. State of LeuT.. Biophys J., 103, 878-888 (2012).. * denotes equal contribution ...
Gap detection or gap pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) has been successfully used in rat and guinea pig models of tinnitus, yet this system has proven to have low efficacy in CBA mice, with low basal GPIAS and subtle tinnitus like effects. Here, we tested five mouse strains (CBA, BalbC, CD-1, C57BL/6 and sv129) for pre-pulse inhibition and gap detection with varying interstimulus intervals (ISI) and found the that mice from a CBA genetic background had the poorest capacities of suppressing the startle response in presence of a pre-pulse or a gap. CD-1 mice displayed variable responses throughout all ISI. Interestingly, C57BL/6, sv129 and BalbC showed efficient suppression with either pre-pulses or gaps with shorter ISI. The glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) is expressed in support cells from the cochlea and buffers the excess of glutamate. We hypothesized that loss of GLAST function could sensitize the ear to tinnitus-inducing agents, such as salicylate. Using shorter ISI to
Data from our laboratory have demonstrated that antiexcitotoxic actions are involved in the neuroprotective actions of citicoline.7 Indeed, we found that citicoline is able to reduce infarct volume in parallel to a decrease in ischemia-induced elevation in brain glutamate levels measured by microdialysis. High extracellular glutamate concentrations in the brain may result from increased release and/or from decreased uptake. Ischemia-induced glutamate release has been shown to be largely due to reversed operation of neuronal glutamate transporters, a fact that results from a severe depletion in adenosine 5′-triphosphate levels caused by ischemia.8 Of note, our results also showed that ischemia-induced adenosine 5′-triphosphate loss was decreased both in vivo and in vitro by previous administration of citicoline. These results support the hypothesis that citicoline-induced effect on neuronal adenosine 5′-triphosphate levels accounts, at least in part, for the decrease in extracellular ...
Find Tocris Small Molecules for Stroke Research - Glutamate Transporter (EAAT) research area related information and Tocris Small Molecules for Stroke Research - Glutamate Transporter (EAAT) research products from R&D Systems. Learn more.
AJNR 181171 Lloyd GA (1982) Primary orbital meningioma a review of 41 patients investigated radiologically. Protein Kinases and Phosphatases Protein apo naproxen vs naproxen are potent endogenous regulators of glutamate transporter activity, with protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase A (PKA), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) naprxoen implicated in the intracellular control of EAAT activity, expression and cell- surface trafficking.
Table of Contents -- CHAPTER 1: Introduction and Background -- 1.1. Glutamate and the CNS............................................................................................................................................................................................................2-6 -- 1.1.A. Glutamatergic Neurotransmission.............................................................................................................................................................................2 -- 1.1.B. CNS Sources of Glutamate..............................................................................................................................................................................3 -- 1.1.C. Regulation of Extracellular Glutamate Concentrations.................................................................................................................................................3-6 -- 1.2. ...
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Machtens, J. P.; Kortzak, D.; Lansche, C.; Leinenweber, A.; Kilian, P.; Begemann, B.; Zachariae, U.; Ewers, D.; de Groot, B. L.; Briones, R. et al.; Fahlke, C.: Mechanisms of anion conduction by coupled glutamate transporters. Cell 160 (3), pp. 542 - 553 (2015 ...
Genetic polymorphisms in Solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 2 (SLC1A2) have been linked with essential tremor. SLC1A2 encodes excitatory amino acid transporter type 2 (EAAT2), which clears glutamate from the synaptic cleft. One postulated mechanism for essential tremor is the over-excitation of glutamatergic olivo-cerebellar climbing fibers, leading to excitotoxic death of Purkinje cells. Other glutamatergic excitatory signals are transmitted to Purkinje cells via parallel fibers of cerebellar granule neurons. Therefore, the expression level of glutamate transporters could be important in essential tremor pathogenesis. Using Western blotting, we compared the expression levels of the two main glutamate transporters in the cerebellar cortex, EAAT1 and EAAT2, in postmortem tissue from 16 essential tremor cases and 13 age-matched controls. We also studied the localization of EAAT1 and EAAT2 using immunohistochemistry in 10 essential tremor cases and 12 controls.
Glutamate excitotoxicity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Systemic injection of kainic acid (KA) in the rat produces an animal model of human temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the temporal expression of the sodium-dependent n
Glutamate plays an important role in skin barrier signaling. In our previous study, Yokukansan (YKS) affected glutamate receptors in NC/Nga mice and was ameliorated in atopic dermatitis lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of YKS on skin and cultured human keratinocytes. Glutamate concentrations in skin of YKS-treated and nontreated NC/Nga mice were measured. Then, glutamate release from cultured keratinocytes was measured, and extracellular glutamate concentrations in YKS-stimulated cultured human keratinocytes were determined. The mRNA expression levels of NMDA receptor 2D (NMDAR2D) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) were also determined in YKS-stimulated cultured keratinocytes. The glutamate concentrations and dermatitis scores increased in conventional mice, whereas they decreased in YKS-treated mice. Glutamate concentrations in cell supernatants of cultured keratinocytes increased proportionally to the cell density. However, they decreased dose-dependently with YKS. YKS
Restoration of Glutamate Transporter Protein (EAAT2) for the treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), AD, and PD.. Collaborator: Professor Glenn Lin at Ohio State University. The concentration of glutamate in the synaptic cleft is tightly regulated by the interplay between glutamate release and glutamate clearance. Abnormal glutamate release and/or dysfunction of glutamate clearance can cause over-stimulation of glutamate receptors and result in neuronal injury or death known as excitotoxicity. Excitotoxicity contributes to a number of acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Blocking glutamate receptors and/or reducing glutamate release have been therapeutic strategies for the prevention of excitotoxicity; however, the benefits of these approaches are limited. We have targeted the glial glutamate transporter EAAT2, which is primarily localized in peri-synaptic processes of astrocytes closely associated with excitatory synaptic contacts, and which is responsible for maintaining low ...
Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and extracellular glutamate levels are controlled by a family of transporters known as excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). The EAATs transport glutamate and aspartate with similar micromolar affinities and this transport is coupled to the movement of Na(+), K(+), and H(+). The crystal structure of a prokaryotic homologue of the EAATs, aspartate transporter from Pyrococcus horokoshii (Glt(Ph)), has yielded important insights into the architecture of this transporter family. Glt(Ph) is a Na(+)-dependent transporter that has significantly higher affinity for aspartate over glutamate and is not coupled to H(+) or K(+). The highly conserved carboxy-terminal domains of the EAATs and Glt(Ph) contain the substrate and ion binding sites, however, there are a couple of striking differences in this region that we have investigated to better understand the transport mechanism. An arginine residue is in ...
Expression of this gene is affected by vitamin A. The encoded protein of this gene may be associated with the cytoskeleton. A similar protein in rats may play a role in the regulation of cell differentiation. The rat protein binds and inhibits the cell membrane glutamate transporter EAAC1. The expression of the rat gene is upregulated by retinoic acid, which results in a specific reduction in EAAC1-mediated glutamate transport. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
We have recently reported a neuroprotective effect of aspirin concomitant with inhibition of glutamate release in an in vitro model of brain ischemia using rat forebrain slices exposed to OGD.10 We have now used another model of cerebral ischemia consisting of cultured rat cortical neurons exposed to OGD to elucidate further this neuroprotective effect. Our results show that, in cortical neurons, aspirin causes specific protection that is due to inhibition of OGD-induced release of glutamate, by the inhibition of the fall in ATP responsible for the reversal of glutamate uptake systems in cerebral ischemia.. OGD causes cell damage to cortical neurons, as deduced by the release of LDH, the inhibition of MTT reduction, and the staining with propidium iodide. In addition, aspirin inhibits neuronal death induced by OGD, as demonstrated with all 3 of these viability parameters.. The next question we approached concerned the mechanism involved. Although aspirin possesses a wide spectrum of ...
The immune privileged nature of the CNS can make it vulnerable to chronic and latent infections. Little is known about the effects of lifelong brain infections, and thus inflammation, on the neurological health of the host. Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that can infect any mammalian nucleated cell with average worldwide seroprevalence rates of 30%. Infection by Toxoplasma is characterized by the lifelong presence of parasitic cysts within neurons in the brain, requiring a competent immune system to prevent parasite reactivation and encephalitis. In the immunocompetent individual, Toxoplasma infection is largely asymptomatic, however many recent studies suggest a strong correlation with certain neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Here, we demonstrate a significant reduction in the primary astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT-1, following infection with Toxoplasma. Using microdialysis of the murine frontal cortex over the course of infection, a significant increase in extracellular ...
Bacigaluppi, M., Russo, G. L., Peruzzotti-Jametti, L., Rossi, S., Sandrone, S., Butti, E., . . . Martino, G. (2016). Neural Stem Cell Transplantation Induces Stroke Recovery by Upregulating Glutamate Transporter GLT-1 in Astrocytes. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(41), 10529.. Beck, M. H., Haumesser, J. K., Kühn, J., Altschüler, J., Kühn, A. A., & van Riesen, C. (2016). Short- and long-term dopamine depletion causes enhanced beta oscillations in the cortico-basal ganglia loop of parkinsonian rats. Experimental Neurology, 286, 124-136. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2016.10.005.. Huang, C.-W., Chen, Y.-W., Lin, Y.-R., Chen, P.-H., Chou, M.-H., Lee, L.-J., . . . Chen, S.-L. (2016). Conditional Knockout of Breast Carcinoma Amplified Sequence 2 (BCAS2) in Mouse Forebrain Causes Dendritic Malformation via β-catenin. Scientific Reports, 6, 34927. doi: 10.1038/srep34927. Sack, M., Lenz, J. N., Jakovcevski, M., Biedermann, S. V., Falfán-Melgoza, C., Deussing, J., . . . Auer, M. K. ...
TY - ABST. T1 - A functioning glycolysis is important for maintenance of glutamate transport in cultured astrocytes. AU - Schousboe, Arne. AU - Sickmann, Helle Mark. AU - Bak, Lasse Kristoffer. AU - Schousboe, Inger. AU - Bouman, S.D.. AU - Waagepetersen, Helle S.. N1 - Conference code: 3. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. KW - Former Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences. U2 - 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.05927.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.05927.x. M3 - Conference abstract in journal. SP - 288. EP - 289. JO - Journal of Neurochemistry. JF - Journal of Neurochemistry. SN - 0022-3042. IS - s1. Y2 - 27 June 2008 through 1 July 2008. ER - ...
Principal Investigator:KONDOH Takeshi, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:展開研究, Research Field:Cerebral neurosurgery
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Serine/threonine-protein kinase which is involved in the regulation of a wide variety of ion channels, membrane transporters, cell growth, survival and proliferation. Up-regulates Na(+) channels: SCNN1A/ENAC, K(+) channels: KCNA3/Kv1.3, KCNE1 and KCNQ1, amino acid transporter: SLC6A19, glutamate transporter: SLC1A6/EAAT4, glutamate receptors: GRIA1/GLUR1 and GRIK2/GLUR6, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger: SLC9A3/NHE3, and the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase ...
GLT25D2兔多克隆抗体(ab122192)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Glaucoma, a progressive optic neuropathy due to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration, is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness. Although glaucoma is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP elevation is not detected in a significant subset of glaucomas, such as normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Moreover, in some glaucoma patients, significant IOP reduction does not prevent progression of the disease. Thus, understanding IOP-independent mechanisms of RGC loss is important. Here, we show that mice deficient in the glutamate transporters GLAST or EAAC1 demonstrate spontaneous RGC and optic nerve degeneration without elevated IOP. In GLAST-deficient mice, the glutathione level in Müller glia was decreased; administration of glutamate receptor blocker prevented RGC loss. In EAAC1-deficient mice, RGCs were more vulnerable to oxidative stress. These findings suggest that glutamate transporters are necessary both to prevent excitotoxic retinal damage and to ...
Cortical dysplasia is associated with intractable epilepsy and developmental delay in young children. Recent work with the rat freeze-induced focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) model has demonstrated that hyperexcitability in the dysplastic cortex is due in part to higher levels of extracellular glutamate. Astrocyte glutamate transporters play a pivotal role in cortical maintaining extracellular glutamate concentrations. Here we examined the function of astrocytic glutamate transporters in a FCD model in rats. Neocortical freeze lesions were made in postnatal day (PN) 1 rat pups and whole cell electrophysiological recordings and biochemical studies were performed at PN 21-28. Synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents in astrocytes showed a near 10-fold reduction in amplitude compared to sham operated controls. Astrocyte glutamate transporter currents from lesioned animals were also significantly reduced when challenged exogenously applied glutamate. Reduced astrocytic glutamate transport ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of acute intraocular pressure elevation on rat retinal glutamate transport. AU - Holcombe, David J.. AU - Lengefeld, Nadia. AU - Gole, Glen A.. AU - Barnett, Nigel L.. PY - 2008/6/1. Y1 - 2008/6/1. N2 - Purpose: To investigate the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal glutamate transport and retinal hypoxia during acute IOP elevations of varying magnitude. Methods: Female Dark Agouti rats were anaesthetized by ketamine/xylazine/ acepromazine (10/5/0.5 mg/kg i.p.). The anterior chamber was cannulated with a 30-gauge needle attached to a saline reservoir. The target IOP (20-120 mmHg, in 10 mmHg increments) was obtained by adjusting the reservoir height. After 10 mins of IOP stabilization, 2 μl of the non-endogenous glutamate transporter substrate, D-aspartate, was injected into the vitreous (final concentration 50 μm), and the elevated IOP maintained for a further 60 mins (total duration of IOP elevation was 70 mins). Glutamate transporter function ...
Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. The precise control of extracellular glutamate is crucial for the maintenance of normal synaptic transmission and the prevention of excitotoxicity. High-affinity glutamate transporters ensure termination of glutamatergic neurotransmission and keep the synaptic glutamate concentration below excitotoxic levels. In layer III, a region that is especially prone to cell damage in Alzheimers disease, schizophrenia and epilepsy, and layer V of the medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) effects of blocking glutamate uptake on excitatory synaptic transmission were studied. Extracellular recordings in rat brain slices revealed that application of glutamate uptake inhibitors significantly reduced stimulus-induced negative field potentials in both, layer III and V of the mEC. This effect showed no significant differences in both layers suggesting a similar glutamate regulation in layer III and V. Therefore, only layer III ...
Title: Co-Existence of GABA and Glu Transporters in the Central Nervous System. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 10. Author(s):Giambattista Bonanno, Luca Raiteri, Silvio Paluzzi, Simona Zappettini, Cesare Usai and Maurizio Raiteri. Affiliation:Department of ExperimentalMedicine; Viale Cembrano 4, 16148 Genoa, Italy.. Keywords:Concept of heterotransporters, reciprocal modulation of GABA and Glu release, GAT-1 heterotransporter, anion channel opening, reversal of EAAT-2, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Abstract: Co-localization of transporters able to recapture the released or endogenously synthesized transmitter (homotransporters) and of transporters that can selectively take up transmitters/modulators originating from neighbouring structures (heterotransporters) has been demonstrated to occur within the same axon terminal of several neuronal phenotypes. Activation of terminal heterotransporters invariably leads to the release of the transmitter specific to the terminal. Heterotransporters are also increasingly ...
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Buy Gabrion Online! Gabrion is a new chemical compound designed as a structural analog of GABA that is effective in the treatment of partial seizures. Most probably the mechanism of action is related to events modulated through its interaction with a receptor thought to be associated with the L-system amino acid carrier protein.
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... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 -- amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 -- amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 -- amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 -- amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
This transport process is dependent on several cytoplasmic phosphoryl transfer proteins - Enzyme I (I), HPr, Enzyme IIA (IIA), ... The PTS Mannose-Fructose-Sorbose (Man) Family (TC# 4.A.6) is a group of multicomponent PTS systems that are involved in sugar ... ISBN 978-0-632-05357-5. Plumbridge, Jacqueline (Jan 1999). "Convergent pathways for utilization of the amino sugars N- ... and Enzyme IIB (IIB) as well as the integral membrane sugar permease complex (IICD). It is not part of the PTS-AG or PTS-GFL ...
This region called V (variable) domain is composed of amino acid sequences that define each type of antibody and their binding ... The immune complex is then transported to cellular systems where it can be destroyed or deactivated. The first correct ... Ag] is the antigen concentration, either in free ([Ab],[Ag]) or bound ([AbAg]) state. The equilibrium association constant can ... The variable region in turn has hyper-variable regions which are unique amino acid sequences in each antibody. Antigens are ...
Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... Ag(I),...). Strictly metal-selective MTs with metal-specific physiological functions were discovered by Dallinger et al. (1997 ... In this way the thionein-metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ...
This gene encodes a member of a family of small membrane proteins that share a 35-amino acid signature sequence domain, ... Zouzoulas A, Therien AG, Scanzano R, et al. (2003). "Modulation of Na,K-ATPase by the gamma subunit: studies with transfected ... Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase gamma chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FXYD2 gene. ... have been shown to induce channel activity in experimental expression systems. Transmembrane topology has been established for ...
2002). "The seven amino acids of human RAMP2 (86) and RAMP3 (59) are critical for agonist binding to human adrenomedullin ... Xu P, Dai AG, Zhou HD, et al. (2004). "[Study of the expression and role of adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin receptor in ... 2002). "Role of adrenomedullin and its receptor system in renal pathophysiology". Peptides. 22 (11): 1925-1931. doi:10.1016/ ... "RAMPs regulate the transport and ligand specificity of the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor". Nature. 393 (6683): 333-339. doi ...
Basic amino acids important for LDL receptor binding are clustered into a surface patch on one long helix. They are enzyme ... They transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems. The lipid components of lipoproteins are insoluble in ... Fullerton SM, Buchanan AV, Sonpar VA, Taylor SL, Smith JD, Carlson CS, Salomaa V, Stengård JH, Boerwinkle E, Clark AG, ... Further, apoE is a blood plasma protein that mediates the transport and uptake of cholesterol and lipid by way of its high ...
Amino acid sequence analysis has placed 14 of these serpins in serpin clade Q and three in serpin clade K with the remaining ... The clade classification system is difficult to use for Drosophila serpins and instead a nomenclature system has been adopted ... Stein PE, Leslie AG, Finch JT, Turnell WG, McLaughlin PJ, Carrell RW (September 1990). "Crystal structure of ovalbumin as a ... Bartalena L, Robbins J (1992). "Variations in thyroid hormone transport proteins and their clinical implications". Thyroid. 2 ( ...
Amino Acid and Sulfur Metabolism (Rainer Hoefgen) Applied Metabolome Analysis (Joachim Kopka) Central Metabolism (Alisdair ... Fernie) Experimental Systems Biology (Patrick Giavilisco) Systems Biology and Mathematical Modelling (Zoran Nikoloski) Systems ... Member of the Bayer AG board Robert Seckler - University of Potsdam In order to further and reinforce the institute's pursuance ... Intercellular Macromolecular Transport (Fritz Kragler) Regulatory Networks (Marek Mutwil) Plant Proteomics (Alexander Graf) The ...
CLV3 shares some homology with the ESR proteins of maize, with a short 14 amino acid region being conserved between the ... WUS activates AG by binding to a consensus sequence in the AG's second intron and LFY binds to adjacent recognition sites. Once ... Similarly, in Rice, the FON1-FON2 system seems to bear a close relationship with the CLV signaling system in Arabidopsis ... It is produced in the apical meristem and transported towards the roots in the cambium. If apical dominance is complete, it ...
All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed the RGS domain which conveys GAP activity. Regulator of G ... Berman DM, Wilkie TM, Gilman AG (1996). "GAIP and RGS4 are GTPase-activating proteins for the Gi subfamily of G protein alpha ... 2000). "RGS4 and RGS2 bind coatomer and inhibit COPI association with Golgi membranes and intracellular transport". Mol. Biol. ... "Identification of novel ErbB3-interacting factors using the split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid system". Genome Res. 13 ( ...
... also has an amidated carboxyl-terminal amino acid which is valine. The sequence of amino acids in secretin is H-His- ... This function of the peptide is mediated by the central melanocortin system. Secretin is used in a diagnostic tests for ... They determined that a substance secreted by the intestinal lining stimulates the pancreas after being transported via the ... ISBN 0-7216-2888-5. Polak JM, Coulling I, Bloom S, Pearse AG (1971). "Immunofluorescent localization of secretin and ...
... amino acid sequence identity with its serum homologue ceruloplasmin, the hephaestin protein includes an additional 86 amino ... copper-dependent ferroxidase responsible for transporting dietary iron from intestinal enterocytes into the circulatory system ... Griffiths TA, Mauk AG, MacGillivray RT (November 2005). "Recombinant expression and functional characterization of human ... Hephaestin is a protein of 1135 aminoacids formed from a precursor of 1158 aminoacids and is 130.4 kDa. It is predicted to bind ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... Bukrinskaya AG, Ghorpade A, Heinzinger NK, et al. (1996). "Phosphorylation-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, ...
Sequenced genomes of various plant and algae species shows that the amino acid sequence is more than 25% conserved, which is a ... This finding suggests that an efficient antioxidant system is required for the oxidase to function as a safety valve for stress ... Alternative oxidase Metalloprotein McDonald AE, Ivanov AG, Bode R, Maxwell DP, Rodermel SR, Hüner NP (August 2011). " ... serving the same function as cytochrome c oxidase from mitochondrial electron transport. In Chlamydomonas, there are two copies ...
... amino acids and protein sources to animal feed manufacturers; food additives and ingredients for the treatment and flavoring of ... turf and irrigation management systems, and power generation equipment, as well as equipment for transport, chemical, and ... In the early 1970s the company acquired agencies for luxury watch brands, and also formed an agreement with Demag AG and set up ... rail systems, car park systems, electrification systems and building maintenance units. Jebsen & Jessen Offshore engineers and ...
... and its acid metabolites (2-methyl-4-amino-5-pyrimidine carboxylic acid, 4-methyl-thiazole-5-acetic acid, and thiamine ... while the reaction catalyzed by OGDH is a rate-limiting step in the citric acid cycle. In the nervous system, PDH is also ... Active transport is greatest in the jejunum and ileum, but it can be inhibited by alcohol consumption or by folate deficiency. ... AG (2007). "Elucidating biosynthetic pathways for vitamins and cofactors". Nat Prod Rep. 24 (5): 988-1008. doi:10.1039/b703105j ...
Some studies show a huge sequence conservation among different organisms and also conserved amino acids which hold the ... FadL outer membrane protein transport family, including Fatty acid transporter FadL (n=14,S=14) [44] General bacterial porin ... Murzin AG, Lesk AM, Chothia C (March 1994). "Principles determining the structure of beta-sheet barrels in proteins. I. A ... cellular systems. Stability of β-barrel transmembrane proteins is similar to stability of water-soluble proteins, based on ...
MHC Class I molecules present small peptides, typically 7-10 amino acids in length, to the immune system. A glycoprotein called ... From the golgi bodies, the complex is transported, again via vesicle transport, to the cell membrane. This is the point at ... Grandea AG, Van Kaer L (April 2001). "Tapasin: an ER chaperone that controls MHC class I assembly with peptide". Trends in ... The HLA-A signal peptide is a series of hydrophobic amino acids present at the N-terminus of the protein that directs it to the ...
... amino acids, sugars, short chain fatty acids and other molecules into or out of the cell. Paracellular permeability. It depends ... O'Hara, JR; Buret, AG (2008). "Mechanisms of intestinal tight junctional disruption during infection". Frontiers in Bioscience ... This consists of specific transport of solutes across the epithelial cells. It is predominantly regulated by the activities of ... This can result in activation of the immune system and secretion of inflammatory mediators. Increased intestinal permeability ...
VSGs are made up of N terminal domain of around 300-350 amino acids with low sequence homology (13-30% identity), and a more ... Trypanosoma have a simple, polarized membrane transport system consisting of a single ER, lysosome, and Golgi apparatus. VSG is ... Barbour AG, Restrepo BI (2000). "Antigenic variation in vector-borne pathogens". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 6 (5): 449-57. ... 100 amino acids . N-terminal domains are grouped into classes A-C depending on their cysteine patterns. C-term domains are ...
"Role of Charged Residues in the Catalytic Sites of Escherichia coli ATP Synthase". Journal of Amino Acids. 2011: 785741. doi: ... Abrahams JP, Leslie AG, Lutter R, Walker JE (August 1994). "Structure at 2.8 A resolution of F1-ATPase from bovine heart ... However, in chloroplasts, the proton motive force is generated not by respiratory electron transport chain but by primary ... transfer chain Flavoprotein Mitochondrion Oxidative phosphorylation P-ATPase Proton pump Rotating locomotion in living systems ...
... inhibition of retinoic acid-induced apoptosis, and involvement in budding and fusion of the endomembrane system. Acyl-CoAs also ... because these enzymes are responsible for amino acid catabolism, this acylation renders the whole process inactive. This ... Duncan, JA; Gilman, AG (19 June 1998). "A cytoplasmic acyl-protein thioesterase that removes palmitate from G protein alpha ... Glick, BS; Rothman, JE (1987). "Possible role for fatty acyl-coenzyme A in intracellular protein transport". Nature. 326 (6110 ...
... occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the ... In some aircraft fuel systems to reduce fire hazard (see inerting system). To inflate race car and aircraft tires, reducing the ... Ag crucible Na 3 NO 4 {\displaystyle {\ce {{NaNO3}+Na2O->[{\ce {Ag~crucible}}][{\ce {300^{\circ }C~for~7days}}]Na3NO4}}} These ... When insulated in proper containers such as Dewar flasks, it can be transported without much evaporative loss. Like dry ice, ...
2002). „The seven amino acids of human RAMP2 (86) and RAMP3 (59) are critical for agonist binding to human adrenomedullin ... Xu P; Dai AG; Zhou HD; et al. (2004). „[Study of the expression and role of adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin receptor in ... McLatchie LM, Fraser NJ, Main MJ, Wise A, Brown J, Thompson N, Solari R, Lee MG, Foord SM (1998). „RAMPs regulate the transport ... 2002). „Role of adrenomedullin and its receptor system in renal pathophysiology.". Peptides. 22 (11): 1925-31. PMID 11754983. ...
... rich in hydroxylated amino acids such as serine, threonine, and proline, and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Soll J, Schleiff E (March 2004 ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... the new chloroplast host had to develop a unique protein targeting system to avoid having chloroplast proteins being sent to ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists * Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists ... Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists / pharmacology * Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology * GABA Antagonists / ...
Systemic injection of kainic acid (KA) in the rat produces an animal model of human temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the ... 0/Amino Acid Transport System X-AG; 0/Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists; 0/Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3; 0/Glutamate Plasma ... Amino Acid Transport System X-AG / metabolism*. Animals. Cell Line. Disease Models, Animal. Epilepsy / chemically induced, ... Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists / toxicity*. Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3. Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins. ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Motor Neurons * Neuroglia * Glutamic Acid * In Vitro Techniques ... After G3 seeding, cells integrated into the culture slice and resulted in levels of glutamate transport sufficient to enhance ... After G3 seeding, cells integrated into the culture slice and resulted in levels of glutamate transport sufficient to enhance ... After G3 seeding, cells integrated into the culture slice and resulted in levels of glutamate transport sufficient to enhance ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Medicine & Life Sciences Oligodendroglia Medicine & Life Sciences ...
Nevertheless, it is known from previous studies (44) that intricate interactions between the xc− and XAG− transport systems ... Kort JJ. Impairment of excitatory amino acid transport in astroglial cells infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type ... 1) In normal conditions, XAG− and Xc− transport systems cooperate to regulate glutathione (GSH) synthesis. The xc− antiporter ... The observed perturbations of the EAAT (XAG−) expression and function may thus arise from normal transport systems interaction ...
... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 -- amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 -- amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 -- amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 -- amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Solitary Nucleus Synaptic Transmission Neuroglia Glutamic Acid ... Acid-sensing ion channels contribute to chemosensitivity of breathing-related neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract. ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Presynaptic Terminals Northwestern University Interdepartmental Neuroscience ...
Valproic Acid Chemical Compounds * Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Chemical Compounds ... Johnson, J., Pajarillo, E., Karki, P., Kim, J., Son, D. S., Aschner, M., & Lee, E. (2018). Valproic acid attenuates manganese- ... T1 - Valproic acid attenuates manganese-induced reduction in expression of GLT-1 and GLAST with concomitant changes in murine ... Valproic acid attenuates manganese-induced reduction in expression of GLT-1 and GLAST with concomitant changes in murine ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Nucleus Accumbens Amphetamine Mesencephalon Prefrontal Cortex ... For example, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit ... For example, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit ... For example, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Electroencephalography Animal Models 14 引用 (Scopus) ... Impaired cytoplasmic-nuclear transport of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nagara, Y., Tateishi, T ... Launch of new review/editing system for Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology. Yamamura, T., Kira, J-I., Suzumura, A., ... Anti-KIR4.1 antibodies in Japanese patients with idiopathic central nervous system demyelinating diseases. Watanabe, M., ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * homeostasis * hypoxia * glutamates * anion * brain * transporters ... Glutamate transport on these carriers is thought to be driven by the cotransport of Na+, the countertransport of K+, and either ... Glutamate transport on these carriers is thought to be driven by the cotransport of Na+, the countertransport of K+, and either ... Glutamate transport on these carriers is thought to be driven by the cotransport of Na+, the countertransport of K+, and either ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Injections Keywords. *Brain mRNA. *Glutamate uptake ...
... this is mediated by members of the XAG amino acid transport family. 15 16 The XAG transporters are a multigene family of Na+- ... We have reported that the rat lens expresses Xc-, an amino acid transport system capable of mediating cystine uptake in a ... dependent amino acid transporters, which include the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT1 to -5) and the alanine serine ... Cloning and functional characterization of a system ASC-like Na+ dependent neutral amino acid transporter. J Biol Chem. 1996; ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Animals Apoptosis Calcium Calpain Carbon Carbon Monoxide ...
Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2 * Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Inbred ICR Mouse ... The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc−, Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a ... N2 - The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc−, Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a ... AB - The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc−, Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a ...
Amino Acid Sequence. *Amino Acid Transport System X-AG. *Amino Acids/metabolism* ... Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) function as both substrate transporters and ligand-gated anion channels. ... A model for the topology of excitatory amino acid transporters determined by the extracellular accessibility of substituted ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems * Amino Acid Transport System X-AG 1 Citation (Scopus) ... Glutamate transport modulation: A possible role in retinal neuroprotection. Barnett, N. L., Takamoto, K. & Bull, N. D., 2006, ... Employee know-how, non-compete clauses and job mobility across civil and common law systems. Van Caenegem, W., 1 Jun 2013, In ... Case study: Australias computer games audience and restrictive ratings system. Brand, J. E., Borchard, J. & Holmes, K., 1 Jan ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG グルタミン酸トランスポーター Peptide Elongation Factors ペプチド延長因子 ... Amino Acid Transport System ASC アミノ酸輸送系ASC Amino Acid Transport Systems アミノ酸トランスポーター ... solute carrier family 1 (glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter), member 4. Disease : Chemicals : Biological Phenomena : ... Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Nerve Endings * Neuroglia * Synaptosomes * Glutamic Acid ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Carrier Proteins * Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins ... dependent glutamate transport with dihydrokainate or l-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (1 mm each) protected against ... We conclude that release of glutamate by reversal of Na(+)-dependent glutamate transport with subsequent activation of AMPA ... The broad-spectrum glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid (1 mm) and the selective AMPA antagonist GYKI52466 (30 microm) were ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * High Fat Diet * Lactic Acid * Neuroglia ... Nucleic acids research. 43, 3, p. 1593-1608 16 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... Nucleic Acids. 9, p. 274-283 10 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Glutamate Receptors Gene Frequency Alleles Population ... Association study of polymorphisms in the excitatory amino acid transporter 2 gene (SLC1A2) with schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry ... Association study of polymorphisms in the excitatory amino acid transporter 2 gene (SLC1A2) with schizophrenia. In: BMC ... In this study we report an association study of the excitatory amino acid transporter 2 gene, SLC1A2 with schizophrenia. ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Astrocytes * Synapses * Memantine * Grooming 58 引用 (Scopus) ... Three Distinct Two-Component Systems Are Involved in Resistance to the Class I Bacteriocins, Nukacin ISK-1 and Nisin A, in ...
D-Aspartic Acid * Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Antisense Oligonucleotides * Synaptic Transmission ...
  • Nucleic acids research. (elsevier.com)
  • The appearance of protein synthesis controlled by nucleic acids was one of the crucial events in prebiotic evolution. (springer.com)
  • The evolution of nucleic acids coding for the primitive enzymes was extremely slow in prebiotic times before development of membranes. (springer.com)
  • If a variant of nucleic acid (RNA) arose that made a superior type of enzyme, the new enzyme could not selectively contribute to the replication of the new RNA in its competition with the neighboring old RNA copies. (springer.com)
  • Pipkorn R, Wiessler M, Waldeck W, Hennrich U, Nokihara K, Beining M, Braun K. Improved Synthesis Strategy for Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA) appropriate for Cell-specific Fluorescence Imaging. (medsci.org)
  • A search for the very first documentations of peptide nucleic acids (PNA) led to Miller's and Urey's experiments in the year 1953. (medsci.org)
  • Further, PNAs have applications in analysis of biosensor chips for identification of nucleic acids [ 22 ]. (medsci.org)
  • We showed that quantitative molecular techniques amplifying nucleic acids from vital bacteria could be an alternative for monitoring early treatment response and for preliminary evaluation of personalized regimens. (europa.eu)
  • When we compared their amino acid sequences with those of mammalian EAATs and VGLUTs, we found that the functional domains of both types are well conserved. (elsevier.com)
  • However, CPG, sulfasalazine or xCT knockout did not significantly affect the impaired glutathione system [i.e., decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG)] induced by MA. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Increased system x c − activity in Müller cells subjected to conditions associated with diabetic retinopathy may be beneficial, as this exchanger is important for the synthesis of the antioxidant glutathione. (elsevier.com)
  • In order to increase glutathione levels, taking 100 milligrams of lipoic acid daily is recommended. (osumex.co.uk)
  • For example, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit expression are altered in a region- and withdrawal-specific manner. (elsevier.com)
  • The broad-spectrum glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid (1 mm) and the selective AMPA antagonist GYKI52466 (30 microm) were protective against anoxia (compound action potential amplitude recovered to 56 vs 27% without drug). (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that a large component of injury occurred in the myelin sheath and was prevented by AMPA receptor blockade or glutamate transport inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • It reduces warm-up time, increases cardiovascular capacity, prevents lactic acid build up, improves mental acuity, and increases energy levels. (hammernutrition.com)
  • Perhaps most important to athletes, taurine supplementation is correlated with increases in VO2 max and time to exhaustion due to its ability to buffer lactic acid and maintain healthy pH levels. (hammernutrition.com)
  • abstract = "Glutamate is a major excitatory transmitter in the central nervous system that may produce cellular injury when its concentration is abnormally increased in the synaptic cleft. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been proposed that Geobacter sulfurreducens requires conductive pili for long-range electron transport to Fe(III) oxides and for high-density current production in microbial fuel cells. (asm.org)
  • These results demonstrate that the pili of G. sulfurreducens must be conductive in order for the cells to be effective in extracellular long-range electron transport. (asm.org)
  • MHC class II molecules are found on the basolateral plasma membrane domain of polarized epithelial cells, where they can present Ag to intraepithelial lymphocytes in the vascular space. (jimmunol.org)
  • Epithelial cells from various organs are involved in MHC class II-restricted Ag presentation (for reviews see Ref. 1 and 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The basolateral membrane faces the vascular space, where the class II molecules may present Ag to emigrating T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Class II molecules have also been detected in intracellular vesicles in tissue epithelial cells of human and rodents in vivo ( 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 ), but little is known about the actual endocytic compartment to which class II molecules traffic and the signals involved in this transport in epithelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Polarized cells may have a more complex sorting system than nonpolarized cells, as they have separate apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains, in addition to separate apical and basolateral early endosomal populations ( 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • There, the interaction of gliadin with macrophages elicits a MyD88-dependent proinflammatory cytokine milieu that facilitates the interaction of T cells with APCs, leading ultimately to the Ag-specific adaptive immune response seen in patients with CD. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the cells of both roots and leaves, NaCl stimulated endo- and exocytosis, supposedly involved in the vesicular compound transport. (deepdyve.com)
  • Biotin transport and accumulation by cells of Lactobacillus plantarum. (atcc.org)
  • Both insulin resistance and deficiency leads to hyperglycemia due to altered glucose transport into the cells. (medsci.org)
  • In healthy individuals, small but immunologically significant amounts of Ag cross the defensive epithelial barrier via one of two functional pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • To measure E Cl , we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (I Cl(Ca) ) and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. (elsevier.com)
  • It is specifically need in large amounts at the tips of growing roots and shoots and in developing fruits, because relatively little calcium is transported in phloem. (agriculture-xprt.com)
  • Ifbacteria or yeasts were saturated with an amino acid or vitamin labeled with phosphorusP 32 or sulfur S 35 and inoculated into a medium where plantswere being grown, the radioactive substances were soon detected in the tissues ofplants. (soilandhealth.org)
  • An alanine was substituted for each of the five aromatic amino acids in the carboxyl terminus of PilA, the region in which G. sulfurreducens PilA differs most significantly from the PilAs of microorganisms incapable of long-range extracellular electron transport. (asm.org)
  • The finding that a strain of G. sulfurreducens that produces pili with low conductivity is limited in these extracellular electron transport functions provides further insight into these environmentally significant processes. (asm.org)
  • The mechanisms for long-range extracellular electron transport in Geobacter species are of interest because of the important role that Geobacter species play in the biogeochemistry of a diversity of anaerobic soils and sediments and in several bioenergy strategies. (asm.org)
  • Biospectra AG (Switzerland) is a manufacturer of analytical instrumentation for biochemical process control - analyzer systems automatic measurements of fermentation compounds, such as: nutrients, sugars, glucose, carbonic acids, amino acids, vitamins, antibiotics. (zhdanov.ru)
  • Biospectra AG also offers a parallel fermentation system with 6 bioreactors at 0.5-2.5l scale for analysis factors affecting quality, stability and productivity of bioprocesses in large-scale bioreactors. (zhdanov.ru)
  • Systemic injection of kainic acid (KA) in the rat produces an animal model of human temporal lobe epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Beta-Alanine - This amino acid simultaneously neutralizes acidity levels and enhances blood flow to working muscles-both of which enhance sports performance. (hammernutrition.com)
  • Together with various enzymes L-tryptophan is converted into serotonin, which is a tissue hormone and neurotransmitter and can affect the regulation of blood pressure in the cardiovascular system. (peak.ag)
  • Oxidative stress (70:14 or 100:20 μM xanthine:mU/ml xanthine oxidase) decreased GLAST activity by ~10% but increased system x c − activity by 43% and 89%, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • GC analyzer systems for naphtha and gasoline range analysis: PIONA, reformulated gasoline analyzer system for the multi-dimensional analysis of hydrocarbon types in gasoline, detailed hydrocarbon analyzers (DHA), olefins analyzer, oxygenate analyzers and aromatics analyzers, simulated distillation analyzers (SimDis). (zhdanov.ru)
  • GC analyser systems for mid distillates and heavy distillates analysis: detailed hydrocarbon front end analyzer, simulated distillation analyzers, mid distillates analyzers (HPLC or SFC systems), heavy distillates and crude oil analyzers (HPLC systems). (zhdanov.ru)