Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that were originally characterized as sodium dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporters. Vesicular glutamate transport proteins sequester the excitatory neurotransmitter GLUTAMATE from the CYTOPLASM into SECRETORY VESICLES in exchange for lumenal PROTONS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

Evidence for a novel glutamate-mediated signaling pathway in keratinocytes. (1/509)

Phenotypic alterations in keratinocyte behavior are essential for maintaining epidermal integrity during growth and wound repair and rely on co-ordinated cell signaling events. Numerous growth factors and cytokines have been shown to be instrumental in guiding such changes in keratinocyte activity; here we provide evidence which proposes a novel epidermal signaling pathway mediated by the excitatory amino acid glutamate. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter at synaptic junctions within the central nervous system; however, we have identified expression in vivo of several regulatory molecules associated with glutamate signaling in keratinocytes. In resting rat skin epidermis, different classes of glutamate receptors, transporters, and a recently described clustering protein were shown to display distinct distribution patterns, supportive of a multifunctional cellular communication pathway. Immunoreactive N-methyl-D-aspartate-type, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate-type, and metabotropic-type glutamate receptors were colocalized with the specific glutamate transporter EAAC1 in basal layer keratinocytes, and GLT-1, a related transporter, was expressed suprabasally. In full-thickness rat skin wounds, marked modifications in the distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and EAAC1 were observed during re-epithelialization, and alterations in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression accompanied embryonic epidermal development, implicating glutamate signaling in these important biologic events. Furthermore, we provide evidence that these receptors are functional in vitro. These data provide strong evidence to support a role for glutamate in the control of epidermal renewal, and therefore suggest potentially novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of skin disease and enhancement of wound healing.  (+info)

Optical detection of synaptically induced glutamate transport in hippocampal slices. (2/509)

Although it has long been believed that glial cells play a major role in transmitter uptake at synapses in the CNS, the relative contribution of glial and neuronal cells to reuptake of synaptically released glutamate has been unclear. Recent identification of the diverse glutamate transporter subtypes provides an opportunity to examine this issue. To monitor glutamate transporter activity, we optically detected synaptically induced changes of membrane potential from hippocampal CA1 field in slice preparations using a voltage-sensitive dye, RH155. In the presence of ionotropic glutamate-receptor blockers, synaptic inputs gave rise to a slow depolarizing response (SDR) in the dendritic field. The amplitude of SDR correlated well with presynaptic activities, suggesting that it was related to transmitter release. The SDR was found to be caused by the activities of glutamate transporters because it was not affected by blockers for GABAA, nACh, 5-HT3, P2X, or metabotropic glutamate receptors but was greatly reduced by dihydrokainate (DHK), a specific blocker for GLT-1 transporter, and by D, L-threo-beta-hydroxyaspartate (THA), a blocker for EAAC, GLAST, and GLT-1 transporters. When SDR was detected with RH482 dye, which stains both glial and neuronal cells, 1 mM DHK and 1 mM THA were equally effective in suppressing SDR. The SDR was very small in GLT-1 knockout mice but was maintained in gerbil hippocampi in which postsynaptic neurons were absent because of ischemia. Because GLT-1 transporters are exclusively expressed in astrocytes, our results provide direct evidence that astrocytes play the dominant role in sequestering synaptically released glutamate.  (+info)

Identification of truncated human glutamate transporter. (3/509)

Excitatory amino-acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is a high affinity Na+-dependent L-glutamate/D, L-Aspartate transporter protein. A truncated form of EAAC1 (tEAAC1) was identified by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction in the human cell line, ACHN, in which EAAC1 mRNA was highly expressed. The deduced amino acid sequence of tEAAC1 lacks 31-77 amino acids including the first extracellular domain. The mRNA encoding tEAAC1 was detected in various cells of human origin but not in cells of rat or mouse origin. The expression of tEAAC1 mRNA was proportional to that of full-length EAAC1 (fEAAC1) mRNA, suggesting common transcriptional regulation between tEAAC1 and fEAAC1. In addition, the expression of EAAC1 mRNA was relatively low or non-existent in non-adherent cells.  (+info)

Expression of the GLT-1 subtype of Na+-dependent glutamate transporter: pharmacological characterization and lack of regulation by protein kinase C. (4/509)

Several subtypes of Na+-dependent glutamate transporters have been pharmacologically differentiated in brain tissues. Five distinct cDNA clones that express Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity have been isolated. One goal of the current study was to compare the pharmacological properties of the rat GLT-1 subtype of transporter to those identified previously using rat brain tissues. To accomplish this goal, GLT-1 was stably transfected into two different cell lines that express low levels of endogenous transport activity (MCB and L-M (TK-)). Several clones stably transfected with GLT-1 were isolated. In each cell line, Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity was saturable with similar Km values (19 and 37 microM). The pharmacological properties of GLT-1-mediated transport in these cell lines paralleled those observed for the predominant pharmacology observed in cortical crude synaptosomes. These data are consistent with other lines of evidence that suggest that GLT-1 may be sufficient to explain most of the Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity in cortical synaptosomes. Although recent studies using HeLa cells have suggested that GLT-1 can be rapidly up-regulated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC), modulation of PKC or phosphatase activity had no effect on GLT-1-mediated activity in these transfected cell lines. To determine if GLT-1 regulation by PKC is cell-specific, HeLa cells, which endogenously express the EAAC1 subtype of transporter, were stably transfected with GLT-1. Although EAAC1-mediated activity was increased by activation of PKC, we found no evidence for regulation of GLT-1. Despite the present findings, GLT-1 activity may be regulated by PKC under certain conditions.  (+info)

Nontransportable inhibitors attenuate reversal of glutamate uptake in synaptosomes following a metabolic insult. (5/509)

Na+-dependent, high-affinity glutamate transporters in the central nervous system are generally credited with regulating extracellular levels of L-glutamate and maintaining concentrations below those that would induce excitotoxic injury. Under pathological conditions, however, it has been suggested that these same transporters may contribute to excitotoxic injury by serving as sites of efflux for cellular L-glutamate. In this study, we examine the efflux of [3H]D-aspartate from synaptosomes in response to both alternative substrates (i.e., heteroexchange), such as L-glutamate, and a metabolic insult (5 mM potassium cyanide and 1 mM iodoacetate). Exposure of synaptosomes containing [3H]D-aspartate to either L-glutamate or metabolic inhibitors increased the efflux of the radiolabeled substrate to over 200% of control values. Two previously identified competitive transport inhibitors (L-trans-2, 3-pyrrolidine dicarboxylate and dihydrokainate) failed to stimulate [3H]D-aspartate efflux but did inhibit glutamate-mediated heteroexchange, consistent with the action of nontransportable inhibitors. These compounds also attenuated the efflux of [3H]D-aspartate from synaptosomes exposed to the metabolic inhibitors. These results add further strength to the model of central nervous system injury-induced efflux of L-glutamate through its high-affinity transporters and identify a novel strategy to attenuate this process.  (+info)

Structural features of the glutamate transporter family. (6/509)

Neuronal and glial glutamate transporters remove the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft and thus prevent neurotoxicity. The proteins belong to a large and widespread family of secondary transporters, including bacterial glutamate, serine, and C4-dicarboxylate transporters; mammalian neutral-amino-acid transporters; and an increasing number of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic proteins that have not yet been functionally characterized. Sixty members of the glutamate transporter family were found in the databases on the basis of sequence homology. The amino acid sequences of the carriers have diverged enormously. Homology between the members of the family is most apparent in a stretch of approximately 150 residues in the C-terminal part of the proteins. This region contains four reasonably well-conserved sequence motifs, all of which have been suggested to be part of the translocation pore or substrate binding site. Phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal stretch revealed the presence of five subfamilies with characterized members: (i) the eukaryotic glutamate transporters, (ii) the bacterial glutamate transporters, (iii) the eukaryotic neutral-amino-acid transporters, (iv) the bacterial C4-dicarboxylate transporters, and (v) the bacterial serine transporters. A number of other subfamilies that do not contain characterized members have been defined. In contrast to their amino acid sequences, the hydropathy profiles of the members of the family are extremely well conserved. Analysis of the hydropathy profiles has suggested that the glutamate transporters have a global structure that is unique among secondary transporters. Experimentally, the unique structure of the transporters was recently confirmed by membrane topology studies. Although there is still controversy about part of the topology, the most likely model predicts the presence of eight membrane-spanning alpha-helices and a loop-pore structure which is unique among secondary transporters but may resemble loop-pores found in ion channels. A second distinctive structural feature is the presence of a highly amphipathic membrane-spanning helix that provides a hydrophilic path through the membrane. Recent data from analysis of site-directed mutants and studies on the mechanism and pharmacology of the transporters are discussed in relation to the structural model.  (+info)

Differential expressions of glycine transporter 1 and three glutamate transporter mRNA in the hippocampus of gerbils with transient forebrain ischemia. (7/509)

The extracellular concentrations of glutamate and its co-agonist for the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, glycine, may be under the control of amino acid transporters in the ischemic brain. However, there is little information on changes in glycine and glutamate transporters in the hippocampal CA1 field of gerbils with transient forebrain ischemia. This study investigated the spatial and temporal expressions of glycine transporter 1 (GLYT1) and three glutamate transporter (excitatory amino acid carrier 1, EAAC1; glutamate/aspartate transporter, GLAST; glutamate transporter 1, GLT1) mRNA in the gerbil hippocampus after 3 minutes of ischemia. The GLYT1 mRNA was transiently upregulated by the second day after ischemia in astrocytelike cells in close vicinity to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, possibly to reduce glycine concentration in the local extracellular spaces. The EAAC1 mRNA was abundantly expressed in almost all pyramidal neurons and dentate granule cells in the control gerbil hippocampus, whereas the expression level in CA1 pyramidal neurons started to decrease by the fourth day after ischemia in synchrony with degeneration of the CA1 neurons. The GLAST and GLT1 mRNA were rather intensely expressed in the dentate gyrus and CA3 field of the control hippocampus, respectively, but they were weakly expressed in the CA1 field before and after ischemia. As GLAST and GLT1 play a major role in the control of extracellular glutamate concentration, the paucity of these transporters in the CA1 field may account for the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to ischemia, provided that the functional GLAST and GLT1 proteins are also less in the CA1 field than in the CA3 field. This study suggests that the amino acid transporters play pivotal roles in the process of delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 field.  (+info)

Effects of inhibiting glutamine synthetase and blocking glutamate uptake on b-wave generation in the isolated rat retina. (8/509)

The purpose of the present experiments was to evaluate the contribution of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in retinal glial (Muller) cells to photoreceptor cell synaptic transmission. Dark-adapted isolated rat retinas were superfused with oxygenated bicarbonate-buffered media. Recordings were made of the b-wave of the electroretinogram as a measure of light-induced photoreceptor to ON-bipolar neuron transmission. L-methionine sulfoximine (1-10 mM) was added to superfusion media to inhibit glutamine synthetase, a Muller cell specific enzyme, by more than 99% within 5-10 min, thereby disrupting the conversion of glutamate to glutamine in the Muller cells. Threo-hydroxyaspartic acid and D-aspartate were used to block glutamate transporters. The amplitude of the b-wave was well maintained for 1-2 h provided 0.25 mM glutamate or 0.25 mM glutamine was included in the media. Without exogenous glutamate or glutamine the amplitude of the b-wave declined by about 70% within 1 h. Inhibition of glutamate transporters led to a rapid (2-5 min) reversible loss of the b-wave in the presence and absence of the amino acids. In contrast, inhibition of glutamine synthetase did not alter significantly either the amplitude of the b-wave in the presence of glutamate or glutamine or the rate of decline of the b-wave found in the absence of these amino acids. Excellent recovery of the b-wave was found when 0.25 mM glutamate was resupplied to L-methionine sulfoximine-treated retinas. The results suggest that in the isolated rat retina uptake of released glutamate into photoreceptors plays a more important role in transmitter recycling than does uptake of glutamate into Muller cells and its subsequent conversion to glutamine.  (+info)

Cystinuria is caused by mutations in the SLC7A9 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cystine across the brush border membrane of renal tubular cells. The disorder is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that affected individuals must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop symptoms.

There is no cure for cystinuria, but various treatments can help manage its symptoms. These may include medications to reduce the acidity of the urine and prevent infection, as well as surgical procedures to remove stones or repair damaged kidneys. In some cases, a kidney transplant may be necessary.

It's important for individuals with cystinuria to drink plenty of water and maintain good hydration to help flush out the urinary tract and prevent stone formation. They should also avoid certain foods that may increase the risk of stone formation, such as oxalate-rich foods like spinach and rhubarb.

Overall, while there is no cure for cystinuria, with proper management and care, individuals with this disorder can lead relatively normal lives and minimize the complications associated with it.

Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to absorb vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and other nutrients. It is caused by a mutation in the HCN1 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cobalamin into the cells.

Symptoms of Hartnup Disease:

The symptoms of Hartnup disease can vary in severity and may include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness
* Headaches
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Seizures
* Poor appetite
* Diarrhea

Complications of Hartnup Disease:

If left untreated, Hartnup disease can lead to complications such as:

* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
* Nerve damage
* Skin problems
* Eye problems
* Hearing loss
* Increased risk of infections

Treatment of Hartnup Disease:

The treatment of Hartnup disease typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements. Patients with the condition may need to follow a strict diet that includes foods high in vitamin B12, such as meat, fish, and dairy products. They may also need to take supplements to ensure they are getting enough of this important nutrient. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms.

Prognosis of Hartnup Disease:

The prognosis for Hartnup disease is generally good if the condition is diagnosed and treated early. With proper management, most patients with Hartnup disease can lead active and healthy lives. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications that can be difficult to reverse.

Inheritance Pattern of Hartnup Disease:

Hartnup disease is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that a person must inherit two copies of the mutated HCN1 gene (one from each parent) in order to develop the condition. If a person inherits only one copy of the mutated gene, they will be a carrier of the condition but are unlikely to develop symptoms themselves. Carriers of Hartnup disease can pass the mutated gene on to their children, who have a 25% chance of inheriting two copies of the gene and developing the condition.

Prevention of Hartnup Disease:

There is no known prevention for Hartnup disease. However, if a person knows they are a carrier of the condition, they can work with their healthcare provider to ensure they are getting enough vitamin B12 and monitoring their diet to prevent any complications.

In conclusion, Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. It can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements, and early diagnosis and management can lead to a good prognosis. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing symptoms of Hartnup disease, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Also known as: aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase deficiency, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA synthetase deficiency, and amino acid transporter defects.

The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area

CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.

Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:

* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer

Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.

There are several types of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, including:

1. Phenylketonuria (PKU): This is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. This enzyme is needed to break down the amino acid phenylalanine, which is found in many protein-containing foods. If phenylalanine is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and brain and cause serious health problems.
2. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
3. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
4. Arginase deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid arginine. Arginine is important for the body's production of nitric oxide, a compound that helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.
5. Citrullinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid citrulline. Citrulline is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
6. Tyrosinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
7. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
8. PKU (phenylketonuria): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
9. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
10. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid homocysteine. Homocysteine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.

It is important to note that these disorders are rare and affect a small percentage of the population. However, they can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.

The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.

... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 - amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500.200 - amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.543.585. ...
... heptane transport by O-diazoacetyl-L-serine. An initial step in identifying the L-system amino acid transporter". The Journal ... Rajapakse AG, Ming XF, Carvas JM, Yang Z (March 2009). "The hexosamine biosynthesis inhibitor azaserine prevents endothelial ... and research indicates that it may have potential in identifying the L-leucine-favoring system transporter in human T- ...
Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... Ag(I),...). Strictly metal-selective MTs with metal-specific physiological functions were discovered by Dallinger et al. (1997 ... In this way thionein and metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ...
This transport process is dependent on several cytoplasmic phosphoryl transfer proteins - Enzyme I (I), HPr, Enzyme IIA (IIA), ... The PTS Mannose-Fructose-Sorbose (Man) Family (TC# 4.A.6) is a group of multicomponent PTS systems that are involved in sugar ... ISBN 978-0-632-05357-5. Plumbridge, Jacqueline (Jan 1999). "Convergent pathways for utilization of the amino sugars N- ... and Enzyme IIB (IIB) as well as the integral membrane sugar permease complex (IICD). It is not part of the PTS-AG or PTS-GFL ...
This region, called the variable (V) domain, is composed of amino acid sequences that define each type of antibody and their ... The immune complex is then transported to cellular systems where it can be destroyed or deactivated. The first correct ... Ag] <=> [AbAg]}}} where [Ab] is the antibody concentration and [Ag] is the antigen concentration, either in free ([Ab],[Ag]) or ... The variable region in turn has hyper-variable regions which are unique amino acid sequences in each antibody. Antigens are ...
2002). "The seven amino acids of human RAMP2 (86) and RAMP3 (59) are critical for agonist binding to human adrenomedullin ... Xu P, Dai AG, Zhou HD, et al. (2004). "[Study of the expression and role of adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin receptor in ... 2002). "Role of adrenomedullin and its receptor system in renal pathophysiology". Peptides. 22 (11): 1925-1931. doi:10.1016/ ... "RAMPs regulate the transport and ligand specificity of the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor". Nature. 393 (6683): 333-339. ...
This gene encodes a member of a family of small membrane proteins that share a 35-amino acid signature sequence domain, ... Zouzoulas A, Therien AG, Scanzano R, et al. (2003). "Modulation of Na,K-ATPase by the gamma subunit: studies with transfected ... Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase gamma chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FXYD2 gene. ... have been shown to induce channel activity in experimental expression systems. Transmembrane topology has been established for ...
Amino Acid and Sulfur Metabolism (Rainer Hoefgen) Applied Metabolome Analysis (Joachim Kopka) Central Metabolism (Alisdair ... Fernie) Experimental Systems Biology (Patrick Giavilisco) Systems Biology and Mathematical Modelling (Zoran Nikoloski) Systems ... Member of the Bayer AG board Robert Seckler - University of Potsdam In order to further and reinforce the institute's pursuance ... Intercellular Macromolecular Transport (Fritz Kragler) Regulatory Networks (Marek Mutwil) Plant Proteomics (Alexander Graf) The ...
A key feature of Ti plasmids is their ability to drive the production of opines, which are derivatives of various amino acids ... Hooykaas PJ, Beijersbergen AG (1994). "The virulence system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Annual Review of Phytopathology. 32 ... For the T-DNA, a nick will be created at the T-DNA's border sequence, and the nicked T-strand will be transported to the cell ... A bioinformatics study of the amino acid sequences of the VirH protein showed similarities between them and a superfamily of ...
The gene produces a 38.2 kDa protein composed of 333 amino acids. The protein contains a predicted phytoene synthase domain. ... McKenzie M, Tucker EJ, Compton AG, Lazarou M, George C, Thorburn DR, Ryan MT (December 2011). "Mutations in the gene encoding ... The protein is involved in the assembly of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Mutations in the NDUFAF6 ... which is characterized by lesions in the central nervous system and rapid deterioration of cognitive and motor functions. In ...
... of 969-975 bp encoding a 323-325 amino acid protein. In the rat, the ORF is 981 bp in length and encodes for a 327-amino acid ... The clinical phenotype involves the bone, the central nervous system, and the immune system. The pathogenesis probably includes ... Cassady AI, King AG, Cross NC, Hume DA (August 1993). "Isolation and characterization of the genes encoding mouse and human ... Roberts RM, Raub TJ, Bazer FW (September 1986). "Role of uteroferrin in transplacental iron transport in the pig". Federation ...
Rhomboid-relatives may be membrane transport proteins in the ERAD and SELMA systems.: 105 iRhoms are rhomboid-like proteins, ... Bioinformatic analysis highlights that some members of the rhomboid family lack the amino acid residues essential for ... Bang AG, Kintner C (January 2000). "Rhomboid and Star facilitate presentation and processing of the Drosophila TGF-alpha ... Most natural Rhomboid substrates known so far are type 1 single transmembrane domain proteins, with their amino termini in the ...
All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed the RGS domain which conveys GAP activity. Regulator of G ... Berman DM, Wilkie TM, Gilman AG (1996). "GAIP and RGS4 are GTPase-activating proteins for the Gi subfamily of G protein alpha ... 2000). "RGS4 and RGS2 bind coatomer and inhibit COPI association with Golgi membranes and intracellular transport". Mol. Biol. ... "Identification of novel ErbB3-interacting factors using the split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid system". Genome Res. 13 ( ...
Sequenced genomes of various plant and algae species shows that the amino acid sequence is more than 25% conserved, which is a ... This finding suggests that an efficient antioxidant system is required for the oxidase to function as a safety valve for stress ... Biology portal Alternative oxidase Metalloprotein McDonald AE, Ivanov AG, Bode R, Maxwell DP, Rodermel SR, Hüner NP (August ... serving the same function as cytochrome c oxidase from mitochondrial electron transport. In Chlamydomonas, there are two copies ...
Amino acid sequence analysis has placed 14 of these serpins in serpin clade Q and three in serpin clade K with the remaining ... The clade classification system is difficult to use for Drosophila serpins and instead a nomenclature system has been adopted ... Stein PE, Leslie AG, Finch JT, Turnell WG, McLaughlin PJ, Carrell RW (September 1990). "Crystal structure of ovalbumin as a ... Carrell RW, Read RJ (February 2017). "How serpins transport hormones and regulate their release". Seminars in Cell & ...
... also has an amidated carboxyl-terminal amino acid which is valine. The sequence of amino acids in secretin is H-His- ... This function of the peptide is mediated by the central melanocortin system. Secretin is used in a diagnostic tests for ... They determined that a substance secreted by the intestinal lining stimulates the pancreas after being transported via the ... ISBN 978-0-7216-2888-2. Polak JM, Coulling I, Bloom S, Pearse AG (1971). "Immunofluorescent localization of secretin and ...
Ag nanoparticles at room temperature when treated with silver ions and additionally deliver essential vitamins and amino acids ... Through studying the transport of biogenic substances in the Tatar Strait in the Sea of Japan, a Russian team noted that ... Different system types can be used to yield different biogenic products. In the field of paleochemotaxonomy the presence of ... Odunfa VS (1979). "Free amino acids in the seed and root exudates in relation to the nitrogen requirements of rhizosphere soil ...
Amino Acids and the Asymmetry of Life Archived 2 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Springer, 2008. ISBN 978-3-540-76885-2 ... Some hydrocarbons also are widespread and abundant in the solar system. Lakes of liquid methane and ethane have been found on ... MDPI AG. 6 (1): 19. doi:10.3390/agronomy6010019. ISSN 2073-4395. "Additives Affecting the Microbial Degradation of Petroleum ... or transport of fossil fuels. Anthropogenic hydrocarbon contamination of soil is a serious global issue due to contaminant ...
... amino acid sequence identity with its serum homologue ceruloplasmin, the hephaestin protein includes an additional 86 amino ... copper-dependent ferroxidase responsible for transporting dietary iron from intestinal enterocytes into the circulatory system ... Griffiths TA, Mauk AG, MacGillivray RT (November 2005). "Recombinant expression and functional characterization of human ... Hephaestin is a protein of 1135 aminoacids formed from a precursor of 1158 aminoacids and is 130.4 kDa. It is predicted to bind ...
The useful materials (e.g. amino acids) from the digested particles are moved into the cytosol, and waste is removed by ... This intracellular transport depends on the size of the phagosomes. Larger organelles (with a diameter of about 3 μm) are ... Dupuy AG, Caron E (June 2008). "Integrin-dependent phagocytosis: spreading from microadhesion to new concepts". Journal of Cell ... It is part of the adaptive immune system, but it links to the innate response by recruiting macrophages to phagocytose ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... Bukrinskaya AG, Ghorpade A, Heinzinger NK, et al. (1996). "Phosphorylation-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, ...
In all retroviral systems, commonly found a conserved amino acid sequences pol and a gag-pol (Pr180) precursor. The viral ... Philipp-Staheli J, Marquardt T, Thouless ME, Bruce AG, Grant RF, Tsai CC, Rose TM (March 2006). "Genetic variability of the ... The virus undergoes maturation as the A-type particles assemble in the cytosol and being transported to plasma membrane. The ... The reverse transcriptase made up of 1771 amino acid protein, gp70 surface 586 aa protein, Pr95 911 aa protein, and Pr78 657 aa ...
... inhibition of retinoic acid-induced apoptosis, and involvement in budding and fusion of the endomembrane system. Acyl-CoAs also ... because these enzymes are responsible for amino acid catabolism, this acylation renders the whole process inactive. This ... Duncan, JA; Gilman, AG (19 June 1998). "A cytoplasmic acyl-protein thioesterase that removes palmitate from G protein alpha ... Glick, BS; Rothman, JE (1987). "Possible role for fatty acyl-coenzyme A in intracellular protein transport". Nature. 326 (6110 ...
CystLT1 is a receptor for a specific class of leukotrienes that contain the amino acid cysteine. These cysteinyl leukotrienes ... de Vries HE, Kuiper J, de Boer AG, Van Berkel TJ, Breimer DD (June 1997). "The blood-brain barrier in neuroinflammatory ... Albumin is the most abundant protein found in human plasma and is capable of carrying and transporting drugs (like zafirlukast ... Zafirlukast, like other LTRAs, works by inhibiting the immune system. Through its action on inflammatory cells in the lungs, ...
CRH is a 41-amino-acid peptide hormone that is secreted by the parvocellular neurosecretory cells, which are found within the ... Once released by the hypothalamus, CRH travels through the hypophyseal portal system to the anterior pituitary, where it binds ... Salata RA, Jarrett DB, Verbalis JG, Robinson AG (March 1988). "Vasopressin stimulation of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) in ... the transport of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membrane, cholesterol binding to P450SCC and, an increase in pregnenolone ...
Agalsidase α and β are both recombinant forms of the human α-galactosidase A enzyme and both have the same amino acid sequence ... Patil AG, K PK, Mulimani VH, Veeranagouda Y, Lee K (November 2010). "α-Galactosidase from Bacillus megaterium VHM1 and its ... Fan JQ, Ishii S, Asano N, Suzuki Y (January 1999). "Accelerated transport and maturation of lysosomal α-galactosidase A in ... Watkins WM (1980). "Biochemistry and Genetics of the ABO, Lewis, and P blood group systems". Advances in Human Genetics. ...
Orlowski, M.; Meister, A. (1970-11-01). "The Gamma-Glutamyl Cycle: A Possible Transport System for Amino Acids". Proceedings of ... assigned to Wacker Chemie AG EP 1489173, Nishiuchi, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Yasushi & Kuroda, Motonaka, "Candida utilis containing ... It has a relatively unusual γ-bond between the constituent amino acids, L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine and is a key ... Control experiments with combinations of the constituent amino acids that make up GGC, including L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine ...
MHC Class I molecules present small peptides, typically 7-10 amino acids in length, to the immune system. A glycoprotein called ... From the golgi bodies, the complex is transported, again via vesicle transport, to the cell membrane. This is the point at ... Grandea AG, Van Kaer L (April 2001). "Tapasin: an ER chaperone that controls MHC class I assembly with peptide". Trends in ... The HLA-A signal peptide is a series of hydrophobic amino acids present at the N-terminus of the protein that directs it to the ...
Gliotransmitters include glutamate, ATP, and, more recently, the amino acid D-serine. Once thought to be glycine itself, D- ... Studies of this nature were used to find the critical period for formation of the visual system in cats. This shifting ratio is ... The specific ligand is thought to be 2-arachidonyl glycerol, or 2-AG. This has mainly been found in GABAergic synapses and thus ... When new receptor proteins are being expressed and synthesized they must also be transported to the synaptic membrane, and some ...
... amino acids and protein sources to animal feed manufacturers; food additives and ingredients for the treatment and flavoring of ... turf and irrigation management systems, a dry bulk handling solution as well as equipment for transport, chemical, and ... In the early 1970s the company acquired agencies for luxury watch brands, and also formed an agreement with Demag AG and set up ... rail systems, car park systems, electrification systems, and building maintenance units. In January 2020, Konecranes fully ...
Trp is an amino acid named tryptophan. The Trp ring obtains its name from the high levels of tryptophan found in the C-terminal ... since it transports proteins autonomously, in other words, by itself. The Sec-dependent system is divided into three pathways. ... Andreeva A, Murzin AG (2010). "Structural classification of proteins and structural genomics: new insights into protein folding ... Since it can transport things across the outer membrane without the need to generate a new form of energy, it earned the name ...
Almlöf T, Wallberg AE, Gustafsson JA, Wright AP (June 1998). "Role of important hydrophobic amino acids in the interaction ... In central nervous system structures, the glucocorticoid receptor is gaining interest as a novel representative of ... A direct mechanism of action involves homodimerization of the receptor, translocation via active transport into the nucleus, ... Dayer AG, Rusconi Serpa S (epub May 29, 2015). Methylation of NR3C1 is related to maternal PTSD, parenting stress and maternal ...
"Herbicidal inhibitors of amino acid biosynthesis and herbicide-tolerant crops". Amino Acids. 30 (2): 195-204. doi:10.1007/ ... Sowa-Rogozińska N, Sominka H, Nowakowska-Gołacka J, Sandvig K, Słomińska-Wojewódzka M (June 2019). "Intracellular Transport and ... ISBN 978-3-527-80647-8. Marangoni AG (2003). "Reversible Enzyme Inhibition". Enzyme Kinetics: A Modern Approach. Hoboken, N.J ... Behavior and Analysis of Rapid Equilibrium and Steady-State Enzyme Systems (New ed.). Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 978-0-471-30309- ...
Hong H, Zhang Y, Sun J, Cai W (June 2010). "Positron emission tomography imaging of prostate cancer". Amino Acids. 39 (1): 11- ... Transport protein ZIP1 is responsible for the transport of zinc into prostate cells. One of zinc's important roles is to change ... The most common system is the four-stage TNM system (abbreviated from tumor/nodes/metastases). Its components include the size ... Bourdoumis A, Papatsoris AG, Chrisofos M, Efstathiou E, Skolarikos A, Deliveliotis C (2010). "The novel prostate cancer antigen ...
Amino acid aminoacylases I and II from hog kidney. Methods Enzymol. Methods in Enzymology. Vol. 2. pp. 115-119. doi:10.1016/ ... Wijayasinghe YS, Pavlovsky AG, Viola RE (August 2014). "Aspartoacylase catalytic deficiency as the cause of Canavan disease: a ... This way, N-acetyl-L-aspartate can be used to transport these precursor molecules and aspartoacylase is used to release them. ... supporting a role for N-acetyl-L-aspartate as a molecular water pump in myelinated neurons in the central nervous system. An ...
Bergeron, M; Layrargues, GP; Butterworth, RF (September 1989). "Aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in autopsied brain ... Convection mediated transport is also supported by cryogels, enabling even distribution of nutrients and metabolite elimination ... Covic, A; Goldsmith, DJ; Gusbeth-Tatomir, P; Volovat, C; Dimitriu, AG; Cristogel, F; Bizo, A (2003). "Successful use of ... To date, the most currently used system is the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), which is based on the selective ...
... resulting in a single amino-acid mutation G66D, suggests the existence of a new ASFV strain, which is different from all ... Since the week of September 10, 2018, China has blocked transports of live pigs and pig products in a large part of the country ... MDPI AG. 14 (7): 1384. doi:10.3390/v14071384. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 9315964. PMID 35891365. "African Swine Fever". "Vietnam ... "FAO ASF situation update - African Swine Fever (ASF) - FAO Emergency Prevention System for Animal Health (EMPRES-AH)". www.fao. ...
In proteins, zinc ions are often coordinated to the amino acid side chains of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, cysteine and ... Djoko KY, Ong CL, Walker MJ, McEwan AG (July 2015). "The Role of Copper and Zinc Toxicity in Innate Immune Defense against ... Scholze P, Nørregaard L, Singer EA, Freissmuth M, Gether U, Sitte HH (2002). "The role of zinc ions in reverse transport ... Zinc homeostasis also plays a critical role in the functional regulation of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of zinc ...
GAT1 is a 599 amino acid protein that consists of 12 transmembrane domains with an intracellular N-terminus and C-terminus. ... Dupont AG, Légat L (October 2020). "GABA is a mediator of brain AT1 and AT2 receptor-mediated blood pressure responses". ... In this conformation, 2 extracellular Na+ ions are co-transported into the neuron along with 1 GABA and 1 Cl− that bind to the ... acid's translocation from the extracellular to intracellular spaces within brain tissue and the central nervous system as a ...
... and ultimately codes for a sequence of 1,480 amino acids. Normally, the three DNA base pairs A-T-C (paired with T-A-G on the ... In sweat glands, defective CFTR results in reduced transport of sodium chloride and sodium thiocyanate in the resorptive duct ... January 2007). "A novel host defense system of airways is defective in cystic fibrosis". American Journal of Respiratory and ... Most of these mutations either substitute one amino acid (a building block of proteins) for another amino acid in the CFTR ...
"Hypercholeresis induced by ursodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid in the rat: possible role of bicarbonate transport ... Ding L, Yang L, Wang Z, Huang W (March 2015). "Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases". Acta ... Oda T, Elkahloun AG, Pike BL, Okajima K, Krantz ID, Genin A, et al. (July 1997). "Mutations in the human Jagged1 gene are ... Clinically, diagnosis generally requires a 1:40 or greater titer of anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) against PDC-E2 and ...
"Permeability of membranes to amino acids and modified amino acids: mechanisms involved in translocation". Amino Acids. 6 (3): ... and thus inhibits their destruction by the immune system. The HIV virus evades the immune system in part by grafting these ... Paula S, Volkov AG, Van Hoek AN, Haines TH, Deamer DW (January 1996). "Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar ... Exocytosis, fertilization of an egg by sperm activation, and transport of waste products to the lysozome are a few of the many ...
HMGA proteins are polypeptides of ~100 amino acid residues characterized by a modular sequence organization. These proteins ... 2015). "A Uniform System for the Annotation of Vertebrate microRNA Genes and the Evolution of the Human microRNAome". Annual ... Exportin-5-mediated transport to the cytoplasm is energy-dependent, using guanosine triphosphate (GTP) bound to the Ran protein ... Kawahara Y, Megraw M, Kreider E, Iizasa H, Valente L, Hatzigeorgiou AG, Nishikura K (September 2008). "Frequency and fate of ...
The protein contains one domain of unknown function, DUF 4709, spanning from the 7th amino acid to the 280th amino acid. Motifs ... Comuzzie AG, Cole SA, Laston SL, Voruganti VS, Haack K, Gibbs RA, Butte NF (2012). "Novel genetic loci identified for the ... and a RVxPx motif which allows protein transport from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane of the cilia. There is ... Molecular Systems Biology. 11 (1): 775. doi:10.15252/msb.20145504. PMC 4332150. PMID 25609649. "JUN - Transcription factor AP-1 ...
... amino acid chains), polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars), lipids, or nucleic acids. Antigens are ... 2009). The Immune System, 3rd Edition, p. G:2, Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Gavin, AL; Hoebe, K; Duong, B; ... In immunology, an antigen (Ag) is a molecule or molecular structure or any foreign particulate matter or a pollen grain that ... These algorithms consider factors such as the likelihood of proteasomal processing, transport into the endoplasmic reticulum, ...
The effects of histone methylation are residue dependent (e.g. which amino acid on which histone tail is methylated) therefore ... Peripheral nervous system diseases may be further categorized by the type of nerve cell (motor, sensory, or both) affected by ... Bruijn LI, Houseweart MK, Kato S, Anderson KL, Anderson SD, Ohama E, Reaume AG, Scott RW, Cleveland DW (September 1998). " ... mRNA axon transport, neurite outgrowth during development, and neuromuscular junction formation. The causal function loss in ...
Wuhan was a transport hub and major rail interchange. On 10 January, the virus's genome was shared through GISAID. A ... Earth systems scientist Marshall Burke estimated that two months of pollution reduction likely saved the lives of 53,000 to ... The standard methods of testing for presence of SARS-CoV-2 are nucleic acid tests, which detects the presence of viral RNA ... Silva MF, Silva DS, Bacurau AG, Francisco PM, Assumpção D, Neri AL, Borim FS (2021). "Ageism against older adults in the ...
Other formulas, based on free amino acids, are the least antigenic and provide complete nutritional support in severe forms of ... School systems have protocols about what foods can be brought into the school. Despite all these precautions, people with ... The person should then be transported to the emergency room, where additional treatment can be given. Other treatments include ... Taylor SL, Baumert JL, Kruizinga AG, Remington BC, Crevel RW, Brooke-Taylor S, et al. (2014). "Establishment of Reference Doses ...
Through hydrolysis the complex organic molecules are broken down into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids. Acetate and ... Low solids (wet) digesters can transport material through the system using standard pumps that require significantly lower ... Morning Ag Clips. Retrieved 18 October 2019. Anaerobic Digestion Initiative Advisory Committee (ADIAC). "Feedstock". Archived ... Acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. In ...
CLV3 shares some homology with the ESR proteins of maize, with a short 14 amino acid region being conserved between the ... WUS activates AG by binding to a consensus sequence in the AG's second intron and LFY binds to adjacent recognition sites. Once ... Similarly, in rice, the FON1-FON2 system seems to bear a close relationship with the CLV signaling system in Arabidopsis ... These are produced in the apical meristem and transported towards the roots in the cambium. If apical dominance is complete, ...
... and carboxylic acids, depending on the second step of the workup. Ozone can also cleave alkynes to form an acid anhydride or ... ozone use in recirculation systems has been linked to reducing the level of bioavailable iodine in salt water systems, ... For example: Cu + O 3 → CuO + O 2 Ag + O 3 → AgO + O 2 Ozone also oxidizes nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide: NO + O 3 → NO 2 + ... Draou, Abdelkader; Nemmich, Said; Nassour, Kamel; Benmimoun, Youcef; Tilmatine, Amar (2019). "Experimental analysis of a novel ...
In the second stage of phytotransformation, known as Phase II metabolism, plant biomolecules such as glucose and amino acids ... with plant-based systems of remediation, it is not possible to completely prevent the leaching of contaminants into the ... Vassil AD, Kapulnik Y, Raskin I, Salt DE (June 1998), "The Role of EDTA in Lead Transport and Accumulation by Indian Mustard", ... MDPI AG. 6 (1): 19. doi:10.3390/agronomy6010019. ISSN 2073-4395. Rascio, Nicoletta; Navari-Izzo, Flavia (2011). "Heavy metal ...
... amino acids, organic acids, and aromatic compounds like toluene or benzoate. Purple bacteria lack external electron carriers to ... McEwan AG (March 1994). "Photosynthetic electron transport and anaerobic metabolism in purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacteria ... At the same time, biomass densities of 900 mg bacteriochlorophyll/dm−3 can be attained in these latter systems. Purple sulfur ... Klamt S, Grammel H, Straube R, Ghosh R, Gilles ED (2008-01-15). "Modeling the electron transport chain of purple non-sulfur ...
Dever TE, Wei CL, Benkowski LA, Browning K, Merrick WC, Hershey JW (Feb 1994). "Determination of the amino acid sequence of ... Martin M, Maßhöfer L, Temming P, Rahmann S, Metz C, Bornfeld N, van de Nes J, Klein-Hitpass L, Hinnebusch AG, Horsthemke B, ... "Exp5 exports eEF1A via tRNA from nuclei and synergizes with other transport pathways to confine translation to the cytoplasm". ... "Efficiency of the elongation factor-1alpha promoter in mammalian embryonic stem cells using lentiviral gene delivery systems". ...
... are cysteine proteases related by amino acid sequence to trypsin-like serine proteases. Picornain 3C is encoded by ... Amineva SP, Aminev AG, Palmenberg AC, Gern JE (October 2004). "Rhinovirus 3C protease precursors 3CD and 3CD' localize to the ... Both of proteolytic effects on the host cell inhibit the transport of cellular proteins to the plasma membrane. This ... A small amount of poliovirus infections cause paralysis when the virus infects the nervous system. Poliovirus infects host ...
... in which two PNA molecules are held together by a flexible linker such as 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acid (O). The bis-PNA ... This results in the degeneration of the nervous system and spinal cord, impairing the movement of the limbs. To combat this ... suggest the 13-mer AG motif oligonucleotide triplex complex (TFO complex) downregulates the transcription of mRNA through ... cells and in vivo in a CF mouse model which resulted in the appearance of CFTR-dependent chloride transport. Triple-stranded ...
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Transport System X-AG*; Animals; Animals, Newborn; Astrocytes/cytology; Astrocytes/metabolism*; Carrier ... dependent neutral amino acid transport system for alanine, serine, and cysteine). In the Na(+)-independent transport systems ( ... multifunctional ectoenzyme/amino acid transporter gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), and the neutral amino acid L-system ... independent uptake represented a minor component of total transport (10-20% of total). Among the Na(+)-dependent systems, X(AG ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic [D12.776.157.530.200.249] * Amino Acid Transport System X-AG [D12.776.157.530.200.249.500] ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic [D12.776.543.585.200.249] * Amino Acid Transport System X-AG [D12.776.543.585.200.249.500] ... for GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTER use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEM X-AG 1989-2001; for GLUTAMATE TRANSPORT GLYCOPROTEIN use AMINO ACID ... TRANSPORT SYSTEM X-AG 1990-2001; for GLUTAMATE-ASPARTATE TRANSPORTER use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEM X-AG (NM) 1997-2001. Date ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG D12.776.157.530.937.250 D12.776.543.585.937.250 Amino Acid Transport System y+ D12.776.157.530 ... Amino Acid Transport System y+L D12.776.157.530.937.313 D12.776.543.585.937.313 Aminoacridines D3.494.46.250 D3.633.300.46.250 ... Amino Acid Motifs G2.111.570.60.40 G2.111.570.820.709.275.500 G2.111.570.820.709.600.40 G2.111.570.820.709.600.500 Amino Acid ... Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1 D12.776.157.530.937.375.200 D12.776.543.585.937.375.200 Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2 ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Hyaluronic Acid Medicine & Life Sciences 79% ... However, the molecular targets of hyaluronan to regulate synaptic transmission in the central nervous system have not been ... However, the molecular targets of hyaluronan to regulate synaptic transmission in the central nervous system have not been ... However, the molecular targets of hyaluronan to regulate synaptic transmission in the central nervous system have not been ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Excitatory Amino Acids Medicine & Life Sciences 95% ... keywords = "Amitriptyline, Excitatory amino acid, Glutamate transporter, Hyperalgesia, Pertussis toxin",. author = "Jui-An Lin ... preserves the antinociceptive effect of morphine in pertussis toxin-treated rats by lowering CSF excitatory amino acid ... implanted with an additional microdialysis probe used for CSF dialysate collection and measurement of excitatory amino acids ( ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic [D12.776.157.530.200.249] * Amino Acid Transport System X-AG [D12.776.157.530.200.249.500] ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic [D12.776.543.585.200.249] * Amino Acid Transport System X-AG [D12.776.543.585.200.249.500] ... for GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTER use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEM X-AG 1989-2001; for GLUTAMATE TRANSPORT GLYCOPROTEIN use AMINO ACID ... TRANSPORT SYSTEM X-AG 1990-2001; for GLUTAMATE-ASPARTATE TRANSPORTER use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEM X-AG (NM) 1997-2001. Date ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG. 6. + 33. Carmustine. 6. + 34. Xanthines. 6. + ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG (1984-2005). Symporters (1984-2005). Public MeSH Note:. 2006; SODIUM-GLUTAMATE COTRANSPORTER ... Excitatory Amino Acid Transport Proteins. Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Proteins. Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transporter ... Amino Acid Transport System X-AG [D12.776.157.530.200.249.500] Amino Acid Transport System X-AG ... Amino Acid Transport System X-AG [D12.776.543.585.200.249.500] Amino Acid Transport System X-AG ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG 100% * Aspartic Acid 78% * Mutagenesis 74% ... Glycine as a D-amino acid surrogate in the K+-selectivity filter. Valiyaveetil, F. I., Sekedat, M., MacKinnon, R. & Muir, T. W. ... Incorporation of Non-Canonical Amino Acids. Leisle, L., Valiyaveetil, F., Mehl, R. A. & Ahern, C. A., 2015, In: Advances in ... Investigation of the allosteric coupling mechanism in a glutamate transporter homolog via unnatural amino acid mutagenesis. ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Medicine & Life Sciences 47% * Brain Medicine & Life Sciences 44% ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Medicine & Life Sciences 25% * Animals Medicine & Life Sciences 19% ... therefore low synaptic levels of this neurotransmitter must be maintained via a rapid and robust transport system. A recent ... therefore low synaptic levels of this neurotransmitter must be maintained via a rapid and robust transport system. A recent ... therefore low synaptic levels of this neurotransmitter must be maintained via a rapid and robust transport system. A recent ...
... use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (NM) 1999-2001 MH - Amino Acid Transport System X-AG UI - D027322 MN - D12.776.157.530.200.249 ... Acidic Amino Acid Transport Systems BX - Amino Acid Transport Systems, Anionic BX - Anionic Amino Acid Transport Systems MH - ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Cationic BX - Basic Amino Acid Transport Systems BX - Cationic Amino Acid Transport Systems MH - ... for AMINO ACID PERMEASE use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (NM) 1981-2001; for AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG D12.776.157.530.937.250 D12.776.543.585.937.250 Amino Acid Transport System y+ D12.776.157.530 ... Amino Acid Transport System y+L D12.776.157.530.937.313 D12.776.543.585.937.313 Aminoacridines D3.494.46.250 D3.633.300.46.250 ... Amino Acid Motifs G2.111.570.60.40 G2.111.570.820.709.275.500 G2.111.570.820.709.600.40 G2.111.570.820.709.600.500 Amino Acid ... Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1 D12.776.157.530.937.375.200 D12.776.543.585.937.375.200 Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2 ...
... and encodes for a 472-amino-acid protein (Matsuda et al., 1990). This receptor has seven trans-membrane-spanning domains and ... 2-AG) and palmitoylethanolamide), their respective synthetic and degradative enzymes and a transport process. This chapter ... The endocannabinoid system contains the cannabinoid CB1, CB1A and CB2 receptors; the endogenous cannabinoids (most importantly ... Although the endocannabinoid system has been variously examined, the majority of studies have focused on its stable components ...
... latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids ... sequences have been reported to show cell-penetrating properties and many of them have been used to successfully transport a ... In this review, we will summarise the latest developments in peptide-based cellular delivery of nucleic acid cargos. We will ... CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, ...
Biochrom AG, Berlin, Germany), 0.1 μM non-essential amino acids (Lonza, Basel, Switzerland), 1 mM sodium pyruvate (Lonza), 50 ... There, peptides are loaded on MHC class I before transport of the peptide/MHC complex to the cell surface (10). The mechanism, ... Corthay A. Does the immune system naturally protect against cancer? Front Immunol (2014) 5:197. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00197 ... amino acid 173-231; pool 3, amino acid 221-279; pool 4, amino acid 269-327; and pool 5, amino acid 317-363. In addition, the ...
... pathway in the L-leucine-induced up-regulation of system A amino acid transport.. Peyrollier K; Hajduch E; Blair AS; Hyde R; ... Recchia AG; Musti AM; Lanzino M; Panno ML; Turano E; Zumpano R; Belfiore A; Andò S; Maggiolini M. Int J Biochem Cell Biol; 2009 ...
Amino Acid Transport System ASC N0000169802 Amino Acid Transport System L N0000169810 Amino Acid Transport System X-AG ... N0000169806 Amino Acid Transport System y+ N0000169805 Amino Acid Transport System y+L N0000169799 Amino Acid Transport Systems ... N0000169809 Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic N0000169804 Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic N0000169800 Amino Acid ... Neutral N0000006806 Amino Acids N0000011372 Amino Acids, Acidic N0000011248 Amino Acids, Aromatic N0000011332 Amino Acids, ...
The potential of Klebsiella and Escherichia-Shigella and amino acids metabolism to monitor patients with postmenopausal ... Lin B, White JT, Lu W, Xie T, Utleg AG, et al. Evidence for the presence of disease-perturbed networks in prostate cancer cells ... Androgen receptor phosphorylation, turnover, nuclear transport, and transcriptional activation. Specificity for steroids and ... by genomic and proteomic analyses: a systems approach to disease. Cancer Res. 2005;65:3081-3091. - PubMed ...
Each mutation changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in the prickle homolog 1 protein. One of the known mutations ... Bassuk AG, Wallace RH, Buhr A, Buller AR, Afawi Z, Shimojo M, Miyata S, Chen S, Gonzalez-Alegre P, Griesbach HL, Wu S, ... As a result, REST may inappropriately suppress certain genes in the developing nervous system. It is unclear how mutations in ... Researchers believe that prickle homolog 1 controls REST by transporting it out of the nucleus, which prevents it from binding ...
N- but not C-terminal extension increases the half-life of peptides until they are 15 amino acids long. Beyond 15 amino acids, ... Ag presentation by MHC class I is a highly inefficient process because cytosolic peptidases destroy most peptides after ... Changes in the maternal immune system are essential for acceptance of the fetus and for development of the placenta. The ... Subsequently, these newly formed complexes can be transported to the plasma membrane for presentation. Every step in this ...
Acid Blue 225 (AB225) and Acid Violet 109 (AV109), as models for wastewater pollutants. HRP-MABs decolorized 77.3% and 76.1% of ... Basel : MDPI AG, 2021) RIS. TY - JOUR AU - Jokić, Ivana AU - Đurić, Zoran G. AU - Radulović, Katarina AU - Frantlović, Miloš AU ... Weber-Morris model fitting indicates the main contribution of intra-particle diffusion to overall mass transport resistance. ... and amino-modified diatomite was used for Azoxystrobin and Iprodione removal from water. Cell-MG membrane was structurally and ...
Visitor accessibility was also improved with the finalisation of the last part of the sky train public transport system, ... They supply a vast array of feed ingredients from amino acids and minerals, to yeasts, antioxidants, herbal ingredients and ... The umbrella incorporates with Clariant (former Südchemie AG) and Agraquest Inc two more technology platforms. The newest ... Victam had even taken care of transport of the last 500 metres with mini-buses to keep visitors out of the 30+°C heat. ...
Inhibition of amino acid transport into the brain. Phenylalanine is transported into the brain across the blood-brain barrier ... by a transporter system that is specific for large neutral amino acids, including tyrosine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine ... DiLella AG, Kwok SCM, Ledley FD, et al. Molecular structure and polymorphic map of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. ... by phenylalanine of amino acid transport within the brain may result in a relative deficiency of certain critical amino acids ...
... and bile acid derivatives. The impacted bile acid profile was consistent with altered expression of ileal bile acid transporter ... genes and hepatic bile acid synthesis genes, supporting the potential role of Parasutterella in bile acid maintenance and ... Notable changes in microbial-derived metabolites were aromatic amino acid, bilirubin, purine, ... indole-2-carboxylic acid, and indole-3-carboxylic acid in cecal contents. Tryptophan, as one of the essential amino acids in ...
... amino acids and peptides, and those metal complexes provide both solubility and shielding during long-distance transport ( ... for organic acids, on an Agilent 1290 Infinity system (Agilent, Walbronn), including degasser, binary pump, temperature- ... Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS Callahan DL, Baker AJ, Kolev SD, Wedd AG. 2006. Metal ion ligands in hyperaccumulating ... The significance of amino acids and amino acid-derived molecules in plant responses and adaptation to heavy metal stress. ...
... they help in breakdown of protein food materials into amino acids, which the body can use for energy, and also play a vital ... swelling and expanding system, polymeric bio-adhesive system, high density system and other delayed gastric emptying system. ... Chaithanya AV1*, Aiswarya Lakshmi AG1, Anjumol MA. 1. 1. P. G. Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, ... Non-Fickian transport). ... Floating Drug Delivery System: A Brief Review Haridwar Lodh1*, ...
  • 1980. Selective depression of excitatory amino-acid induced depolarizations by magnesium ions in isolated spinal cord preparations. (cdc.gov)
  • There, peptides are loaded on MHC class I before transport of the peptide/MHC complex to the cell surface ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, aptamers and antisense-oligonucleotides), which are internalised by cells at a very low rate when applied alone. (mdpi.com)
  • Plant growth and Cd uptake were measured, and the accumulation of peptides, and organic and amino acids in plant tissues were assessed. (deepdyve.com)
  • The present study also supports the important role of peptides and organic acids, particular of phytochelatins, in Cd tolerance and accumulation although the changes of those metabolites was not the main reason for the decreased Cd accumulation. (deepdyve.com)
  • A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID . (nih.gov)
  • Both astrocytes and neurons used Na(+)-dependent systems as the major route for cysteine uptake (80-90% of total), while Na(+)-independent uptake represented a minor component of total transport (10-20% of total). (nih.gov)
  • 80-90%) for cysteine uptake in both neurons and astrocytes, with a minor contribution from the ASC transport system (Na(+)-dependent neutral amino acid transport system for alanine, serine, and cysteine). (nih.gov)
  • In the Na(+)-independent transport systems (10-20% of total cysteine transport), multifunctional ectoenzyme/amino acid transporter gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), and the neutral amino acid L-system contributed approximately equally towards cysteine uptake, in both neurons and astrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The present studies demonstrate that astrocytes and neurons accumulate cysteine by both Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent uptake systems, with major uptake occurring through the X(AG(-)) system and minor uptake via the ASC, GGT and L-systems. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acids, Cd uptake, Cd translocation, glutathione, organic acids, phytochelatins, phytoremediation, phytoextraction, salinity INTRODUCTION Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most serious pollutants in the landscape because it can accumulate readily in plants to levels that are harmful in animal and human diets without being toxic to the plant itself. (deepdyve.com)
  • Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediate hepatic drug uptake and serve as the loci of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The complement control protein (CCP) modules (also known as short consensus repeats SCRs or SUSHI repeats) contain approximately 60 amino acid residues and have been identified in several proteins of the complement system. (embl.de)
  • These modules have been identified more than 140 times in over 20 proteins, including 12 proteins of the complement system. (embl.de)
  • Nitrogen (N) is a component of many macromolecules including nucleic acids and proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Globulins are a diverse group of proteins that transport various substances in the blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Besides mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, the liver is also a central organ for carbohydrate metabolism and for a vast array of further metabolic pathways, such as the synthesis of glutathione via amino acid metabolism, driving antioxidant defense mechanisms [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Liver samples were subjected to a targeted metabolomics analysis using the AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit (Biocrates Life Sciences AG, Innsbruck, Austria). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The impacted bile acid profile was consistent with altered expression of ileal bile acid transporter genes and hepatic bile acid synthesis genes, supporting the potential role of Parasutterella in bile acid maintenance and cholesterol metabolism. (nature.com)
  • In comparison, Cd inhibited the synthesis of organic acids in shoots and roots in the absence of NaCl, but increased it in shoots in the presence of NaCl. (deepdyve.com)
  • While Cd increased the concentrations of amino acids in plant shoots, the effect of NaCl on the synthesis of amino acids was inconsistent. (deepdyve.com)
  • These studies demonstrate that a Cys430-Phe mutation does not prevent the de novo synthesis of the b subunit, but alters the conformation of the mutant protein sufficiently to impair its intracellular transport, resulting in its deficiency in this patient. (embl.de)
  • At LN, Socaire plants showed an increased root biomass (including a higher number and total length of lateral roots), a differential regulation of a nitrate transporter (a NPF6.3 -like homologue) belonging to the Low Affinity Transport System (LATS), and an upregulation of a nitrate transporter (a NRT2.1 -like homologue) belonging to the High Affinity nitrate Transport System (HATS) compared to Faro. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers believe that prickle homolog 1 controls REST by transporting it out of the nucleus, which prevents it from binding to DNA and suppressing gene activity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It remains unclear how the interaction between prickle homolog 1 and REST contributes to the normal development of the nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each mutation changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in the prickle homolog 1 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One of the known mutations appears to disrupt the interaction between prickle homolog 1 and REST, blocking the transport of REST out of the nucleus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids and a length of 10-30 residues. (mdpi.com)
  • The complement control protein (CCP) modules (also known as short consensus repeats) are defined by a consensus sequence within a stretch of about 60 amino acid residues. (embl.de)
  • Carnitine facilitates the flux of long-chain fatty acids for hepatic mitochondrial beta-oxidation, which acts to ameliorate the negative energy balance commonly affecting high-yielding dairy cows. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notable changes in microbial-derived metabolites were aromatic amino acid, bilirubin, purine, and bile acid derivatives. (nature.com)
  • The amino acid, cysteine, is the key rate-limiting substrate for the biosynthesis of GSH, and the maintenance of adequate intracellular GSH levels is dependent upon the extracellular availability and transport of cysteine into cells. (nih.gov)
  • The amino acid biosynthesis pathways in MED/Q genome are partitioned among the host and endosymbiont genomes in a manner distinct from other hemipterans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism. (bvsalud.org)
  • Comparing the metabolite profiles on 100 d, carnitine increased the concentration of short- and long-chain acyl-carnitines, which may be explained by an enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid shuttle and hence greater energy availability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Niacinamide builds complex compounds out of fatty acids and cholesterol. (ulprospector.com)
  • Extracellular l-glutamate poses a severe excitotoxic threat to neurons and glia when unregulated, therefore low synaptic levels of this neurotransmitter must be maintained via a rapid and robust transport system. (unthsc.edu)
  • The effect of BaCl2 on intestinal sugar transport in the rat in vitro . (cdc.gov)
  • Through stimulating the in vitro oxidation of palmitate to acid-soluble products and decreasing the generation of esterified palmitate, supplementary carnitine improved the fat-corrected milk yield [ 5 ] and milk fat content [ 6 ], which was explained by increased acetyl-CoA availability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that delivers constituents to the lysosome. (frontiersin.org)
  • The expansion of detoxification genes families, such as P450s, may contribute to the development of insecticide resistance traits and a broad host range in MED/Q and MEAM1/B, and facilitate species' invasions into intensively managed cropping systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1989. Cellular alterations and enhanced induction of cleft palate after coadministration of retinoic acid and TCDD. (cdc.gov)
  • In the present study, primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons were employed to characterize cysteine transport systems. (nih.gov)
  • This pathway also regulates the movement of nerve cells (neurons) in the developing nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 6. Increased Expression of System xc- in Glioblastoma Confers an Altered Metabolic State and Temozolomide Resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Inflammation triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) load can however pose a challenge to the metabolic integrity via the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, leading to immune system activation and respective metabolic alterations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together with pH determination, bicarbonate measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous potentially serious disorders associated with acid-base imbalance in the respiratory and metabolic systems. (cdc.gov)
  • As a result, REST may inappropriately suppress certain genes in the developing nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Purity's Advanced D™ goes beyond ordinary Vitamin D formulas to promote multiple areas of general wellbeing including immune system function, heart health, brain function, and bone & muscle strength. (purityproducts.com)
  • In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, the molecular targets of hyaluronan to regulate synaptic transmission in the central nervous system have not been fully identified. (elsevier.com)
  • The function of this protein is unclear, although it appears to play an important role in the development of the nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MAR: Well, I started out doing a little bit of both because the Institute of Neurological Sciences had the novel idea that if you were going to study the nervous system, you wouldn't be working in just one discipline. (nih.gov)
  • Measurements of creatine kinase are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, skeletal muscle diseases, and diseases of the central nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • The mutant b subunit was secreted from the cells much less effectively than the wild type and remained susceptible to endoglycosidase H, indicating that it was not transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus where the processing of oligosaccharides occurs. (embl.de)
  • Strong acids are those that are completely ionized in body fluids, and weak acids are those that are incompletely ionized in body fluids. (medscape.com)
  • Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is considered a strong acid because it is present only in a completely ionized form in the body, whereas carbonic acid (H2 CO3) is a weak acid because it is ionized incompletely, and, at equilibrium, all three reactants are present in body fluids. (medscape.com)
  • Advanced D™ provides a powerful dose of cholecalciferol (Vitamin D) backed by nutrients that work in tandem with this crucial vitamin to support the health of numerous systems within the body. (purityproducts.com)
  • Early seed germination and a functional root system development during establishment are crucial attributes contributing to nutrient competence under marginal nutrient soil conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • En el SISTEMA NERVIOSO CENTRAL regulan la neurotransmisión por medio de la recaptación sináptica del glutamato, un neurotransmisor excitador. (bvsalud.org)
  • Understanding the regulation of acid-base balance requires appreciation of the fundamental definitions and principles underlying this complex physiologic process. (medscape.com)
  • Among the Na(+)-dependent systems, X(AG(-)) was the major contributor (approx. (nih.gov)