Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that were originally characterized as sodium dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporters. Vesicular glutamate transport proteins sequester the excitatory neurotransmitter GLUTAMATE from the CYTOPLASM into SECRETORY VESICLES in exchange for lumenal PROTONS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

Evidence for a novel glutamate-mediated signaling pathway in keratinocytes. (1/509)

Phenotypic alterations in keratinocyte behavior are essential for maintaining epidermal integrity during growth and wound repair and rely on co-ordinated cell signaling events. Numerous growth factors and cytokines have been shown to be instrumental in guiding such changes in keratinocyte activity; here we provide evidence which proposes a novel epidermal signaling pathway mediated by the excitatory amino acid glutamate. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter at synaptic junctions within the central nervous system; however, we have identified expression in vivo of several regulatory molecules associated with glutamate signaling in keratinocytes. In resting rat skin epidermis, different classes of glutamate receptors, transporters, and a recently described clustering protein were shown to display distinct distribution patterns, supportive of a multifunctional cellular communication pathway. Immunoreactive N-methyl-D-aspartate-type, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate-type, and metabotropic-type glutamate receptors were colocalized with the specific glutamate transporter EAAC1 in basal layer keratinocytes, and GLT-1, a related transporter, was expressed suprabasally. In full-thickness rat skin wounds, marked modifications in the distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and EAAC1 were observed during re-epithelialization, and alterations in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression accompanied embryonic epidermal development, implicating glutamate signaling in these important biologic events. Furthermore, we provide evidence that these receptors are functional in vitro. These data provide strong evidence to support a role for glutamate in the control of epidermal renewal, and therefore suggest potentially novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of skin disease and enhancement of wound healing.  (+info)

Optical detection of synaptically induced glutamate transport in hippocampal slices. (2/509)

Although it has long been believed that glial cells play a major role in transmitter uptake at synapses in the CNS, the relative contribution of glial and neuronal cells to reuptake of synaptically released glutamate has been unclear. Recent identification of the diverse glutamate transporter subtypes provides an opportunity to examine this issue. To monitor glutamate transporter activity, we optically detected synaptically induced changes of membrane potential from hippocampal CA1 field in slice preparations using a voltage-sensitive dye, RH155. In the presence of ionotropic glutamate-receptor blockers, synaptic inputs gave rise to a slow depolarizing response (SDR) in the dendritic field. The amplitude of SDR correlated well with presynaptic activities, suggesting that it was related to transmitter release. The SDR was found to be caused by the activities of glutamate transporters because it was not affected by blockers for GABAA, nACh, 5-HT3, P2X, or metabotropic glutamate receptors but was greatly reduced by dihydrokainate (DHK), a specific blocker for GLT-1 transporter, and by D, L-threo-beta-hydroxyaspartate (THA), a blocker for EAAC, GLAST, and GLT-1 transporters. When SDR was detected with RH482 dye, which stains both glial and neuronal cells, 1 mM DHK and 1 mM THA were equally effective in suppressing SDR. The SDR was very small in GLT-1 knockout mice but was maintained in gerbil hippocampi in which postsynaptic neurons were absent because of ischemia. Because GLT-1 transporters are exclusively expressed in astrocytes, our results provide direct evidence that astrocytes play the dominant role in sequestering synaptically released glutamate.  (+info)

Identification of truncated human glutamate transporter. (3/509)

Excitatory amino-acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is a high affinity Na+-dependent L-glutamate/D, L-Aspartate transporter protein. A truncated form of EAAC1 (tEAAC1) was identified by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction in the human cell line, ACHN, in which EAAC1 mRNA was highly expressed. The deduced amino acid sequence of tEAAC1 lacks 31-77 amino acids including the first extracellular domain. The mRNA encoding tEAAC1 was detected in various cells of human origin but not in cells of rat or mouse origin. The expression of tEAAC1 mRNA was proportional to that of full-length EAAC1 (fEAAC1) mRNA, suggesting common transcriptional regulation between tEAAC1 and fEAAC1. In addition, the expression of EAAC1 mRNA was relatively low or non-existent in non-adherent cells.  (+info)

Expression of the GLT-1 subtype of Na+-dependent glutamate transporter: pharmacological characterization and lack of regulation by protein kinase C. (4/509)

Several subtypes of Na+-dependent glutamate transporters have been pharmacologically differentiated in brain tissues. Five distinct cDNA clones that express Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity have been isolated. One goal of the current study was to compare the pharmacological properties of the rat GLT-1 subtype of transporter to those identified previously using rat brain tissues. To accomplish this goal, GLT-1 was stably transfected into two different cell lines that express low levels of endogenous transport activity (MCB and L-M (TK-)). Several clones stably transfected with GLT-1 were isolated. In each cell line, Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity was saturable with similar Km values (19 and 37 microM). The pharmacological properties of GLT-1-mediated transport in these cell lines paralleled those observed for the predominant pharmacology observed in cortical crude synaptosomes. These data are consistent with other lines of evidence that suggest that GLT-1 may be sufficient to explain most of the Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity in cortical synaptosomes. Although recent studies using HeLa cells have suggested that GLT-1 can be rapidly up-regulated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC), modulation of PKC or phosphatase activity had no effect on GLT-1-mediated activity in these transfected cell lines. To determine if GLT-1 regulation by PKC is cell-specific, HeLa cells, which endogenously express the EAAC1 subtype of transporter, were stably transfected with GLT-1. Although EAAC1-mediated activity was increased by activation of PKC, we found no evidence for regulation of GLT-1. Despite the present findings, GLT-1 activity may be regulated by PKC under certain conditions.  (+info)

Nontransportable inhibitors attenuate reversal of glutamate uptake in synaptosomes following a metabolic insult. (5/509)

Na+-dependent, high-affinity glutamate transporters in the central nervous system are generally credited with regulating extracellular levels of L-glutamate and maintaining concentrations below those that would induce excitotoxic injury. Under pathological conditions, however, it has been suggested that these same transporters may contribute to excitotoxic injury by serving as sites of efflux for cellular L-glutamate. In this study, we examine the efflux of [3H]D-aspartate from synaptosomes in response to both alternative substrates (i.e., heteroexchange), such as L-glutamate, and a metabolic insult (5 mM potassium cyanide and 1 mM iodoacetate). Exposure of synaptosomes containing [3H]D-aspartate to either L-glutamate or metabolic inhibitors increased the efflux of the radiolabeled substrate to over 200% of control values. Two previously identified competitive transport inhibitors (L-trans-2, 3-pyrrolidine dicarboxylate and dihydrokainate) failed to stimulate [3H]D-aspartate efflux but did inhibit glutamate-mediated heteroexchange, consistent with the action of nontransportable inhibitors. These compounds also attenuated the efflux of [3H]D-aspartate from synaptosomes exposed to the metabolic inhibitors. These results add further strength to the model of central nervous system injury-induced efflux of L-glutamate through its high-affinity transporters and identify a novel strategy to attenuate this process.  (+info)

Structural features of the glutamate transporter family. (6/509)

Neuronal and glial glutamate transporters remove the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft and thus prevent neurotoxicity. The proteins belong to a large and widespread family of secondary transporters, including bacterial glutamate, serine, and C4-dicarboxylate transporters; mammalian neutral-amino-acid transporters; and an increasing number of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic proteins that have not yet been functionally characterized. Sixty members of the glutamate transporter family were found in the databases on the basis of sequence homology. The amino acid sequences of the carriers have diverged enormously. Homology between the members of the family is most apparent in a stretch of approximately 150 residues in the C-terminal part of the proteins. This region contains four reasonably well-conserved sequence motifs, all of which have been suggested to be part of the translocation pore or substrate binding site. Phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal stretch revealed the presence of five subfamilies with characterized members: (i) the eukaryotic glutamate transporters, (ii) the bacterial glutamate transporters, (iii) the eukaryotic neutral-amino-acid transporters, (iv) the bacterial C4-dicarboxylate transporters, and (v) the bacterial serine transporters. A number of other subfamilies that do not contain characterized members have been defined. In contrast to their amino acid sequences, the hydropathy profiles of the members of the family are extremely well conserved. Analysis of the hydropathy profiles has suggested that the glutamate transporters have a global structure that is unique among secondary transporters. Experimentally, the unique structure of the transporters was recently confirmed by membrane topology studies. Although there is still controversy about part of the topology, the most likely model predicts the presence of eight membrane-spanning alpha-helices and a loop-pore structure which is unique among secondary transporters but may resemble loop-pores found in ion channels. A second distinctive structural feature is the presence of a highly amphipathic membrane-spanning helix that provides a hydrophilic path through the membrane. Recent data from analysis of site-directed mutants and studies on the mechanism and pharmacology of the transporters are discussed in relation to the structural model.  (+info)

Differential expressions of glycine transporter 1 and three glutamate transporter mRNA in the hippocampus of gerbils with transient forebrain ischemia. (7/509)

The extracellular concentrations of glutamate and its co-agonist for the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, glycine, may be under the control of amino acid transporters in the ischemic brain. However, there is little information on changes in glycine and glutamate transporters in the hippocampal CA1 field of gerbils with transient forebrain ischemia. This study investigated the spatial and temporal expressions of glycine transporter 1 (GLYT1) and three glutamate transporter (excitatory amino acid carrier 1, EAAC1; glutamate/aspartate transporter, GLAST; glutamate transporter 1, GLT1) mRNA in the gerbil hippocampus after 3 minutes of ischemia. The GLYT1 mRNA was transiently upregulated by the second day after ischemia in astrocytelike cells in close vicinity to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, possibly to reduce glycine concentration in the local extracellular spaces. The EAAC1 mRNA was abundantly expressed in almost all pyramidal neurons and dentate granule cells in the control gerbil hippocampus, whereas the expression level in CA1 pyramidal neurons started to decrease by the fourth day after ischemia in synchrony with degeneration of the CA1 neurons. The GLAST and GLT1 mRNA were rather intensely expressed in the dentate gyrus and CA3 field of the control hippocampus, respectively, but they were weakly expressed in the CA1 field before and after ischemia. As GLAST and GLT1 play a major role in the control of extracellular glutamate concentration, the paucity of these transporters in the CA1 field may account for the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to ischemia, provided that the functional GLAST and GLT1 proteins are also less in the CA1 field than in the CA3 field. This study suggests that the amino acid transporters play pivotal roles in the process of delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 field.  (+info)

Effects of inhibiting glutamine synthetase and blocking glutamate uptake on b-wave generation in the isolated rat retina. (8/509)

The purpose of the present experiments was to evaluate the contribution of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in retinal glial (Muller) cells to photoreceptor cell synaptic transmission. Dark-adapted isolated rat retinas were superfused with oxygenated bicarbonate-buffered media. Recordings were made of the b-wave of the electroretinogram as a measure of light-induced photoreceptor to ON-bipolar neuron transmission. L-methionine sulfoximine (1-10 mM) was added to superfusion media to inhibit glutamine synthetase, a Muller cell specific enzyme, by more than 99% within 5-10 min, thereby disrupting the conversion of glutamate to glutamine in the Muller cells. Threo-hydroxyaspartic acid and D-aspartate were used to block glutamate transporters. The amplitude of the b-wave was well maintained for 1-2 h provided 0.25 mM glutamate or 0.25 mM glutamine was included in the media. Without exogenous glutamate or glutamine the amplitude of the b-wave declined by about 70% within 1 h. Inhibition of glutamate transporters led to a rapid (2-5 min) reversible loss of the b-wave in the presence and absence of the amino acids. In contrast, inhibition of glutamine synthetase did not alter significantly either the amplitude of the b-wave in the presence of glutamate or glutamine or the rate of decline of the b-wave found in the absence of these amino acids. Excellent recovery of the b-wave was found when 0.25 mM glutamate was resupplied to L-methionine sulfoximine-treated retinas. The results suggest that in the isolated rat retina uptake of released glutamate into photoreceptors plays a more important role in transmitter recycling than does uptake of glutamate into Muller cells and its subsequent conversion to glutamine.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Glutamate transporter function of rat hippocampal astrocytes is impaired following the global ischemia. AU - Yeh, Tu Hsueh. AU - Hwang, Hwa Min. AU - Chen, Jin Jung. AU - Wu, Tony. AU - Li, Allen Hon Lun. AU - Wang, Hung Li. PY - 2005/4. Y1 - 2005/4. N2 - Astroglial glutamate transporters, GLT-1 and GLAST, play an essential role in removing released glutamate from the extracellular space and are essential for maintaining a low concentration of extracellular glutamate in the brain. It was hypothesized that impaired function of glial glutamate transporters induced by transient global ischemia may lead to an elevated level of extracellular glutamate and subsequent excitotoxic neuronal death. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recording of hippocampal CA1 astrocytes in control or postischemic slices, and measured glutamate transporter activity by recording glutamate-evoked transporter currents. Six to 24 h after global ischemia, maximal ...
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The present study provides the first report of EAAC1 expression in prostate cells. More importantly, this report coupled to earlier studies [5-7] provides (to the best of our knowledge) the first definitive identification of EAAC1 as a preferential functional L-aspartate transporter. The operation of EAAC1 as a high-affinity L-aspartate transporter in prostate cells differs from its dominant focus as a glutamate transporter in excitatory cells. As such, the kinetic properties of EAAC1 as a high-affinity L-aspartate transporter have not been established for other mammalian cells. King et al [11] reported that L-aspartate uptake in heart myocytes is mediated by a high affinity sodium-dependent transporter (Km ~7 uM aspartate), and suggested that the transport might be associated with the expression in heart of EAAC1. Similarly, mammary cells reportedly express an XAG- transporter that exhibits a significantly higher affinity for aspartate (Km = 32 uM) than for glutamate (Km = 112 uM); thereby ...
The D-isomer of aspartate is efficiently transported by high-affinity Na(+)/K(+)-dependent glutamate transporters and is an effective ligand of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To facilitate analysis of the regulation of these proteins in their native membranes, we synthesized a photolabile analogue of D-aspartate, 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-D-aspartate (MNI-D-aspartate). This compound was photolyzed with a quantum efficiency of 0.09 at pH 7.4. Photorelease of d-aspartate in acute hippocampal slices through brief (1 ms) UV laser illumination of MNI-d-aspartate triggered rapidly activating currents in astrocytes that were inhibited by the glutamate transporter antagonist DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA), indicating that they resulted from electrogenic uptake of D-aspartate. These transporter currents exhibited a distinct tail component that was approximately 2% of the peak current, which may result from the release of K(+) into the extracellular space during counter transport. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glutamate transporter protein subtypes are expressed differentially during rat cns development. AU - Furuta, Akiko. AU - Rothstein, Jeffrey D.. AU - Martin, J. Lee. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Extracellular glutamate concentration are regulated by glial and neuronal transporter proteins. Four glutamate transporter subtypes have been identified in rat brain; GLAST and GLT-1 are primarily astrocytic, whereas EAAC1 and EAAT4 are neuronal. Using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry with subtype-specific antipeptide antibodies, we examined the protein expression and regional and cellular localization of each glutamate transporter subtype in embryonic and postnatal rat CNS. Each transporter had a specific patter of expression. GLAST immunoreactivity was low prenatally but became enriched in cerebellar Bergmann glia early postnatally and then was also present in forebrain later postnatally. The posttranslational modification of GLAST was unique among the subtypes; glycosylated GLAST ...
The D-isomer of aspartate is efficiently transported by high-affinity Na(+)/K(+)-dependent glutamate transporters and is an effective ligand of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To facilitate analysis of the regulation of these proteins in their native membranes, we synthesized a photolabile analogue of D-aspartate, 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-D-aspartate (MNI-D-aspartate). This compound was photolyzed with a quantum efficiency of 0.09 at pH 7.4. Photorelease of d-aspartate in acute hippocampal slices through brief (1 ms) UV laser illumination of MNI-d-aspartate triggered rapidly activating currents in astrocytes that were inhibited by the glutamate transporter antagonist DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA), indicating that they resulted from electrogenic uptake of D-aspartate. These transporter currents exhibited a distinct tail component that was approximately 2% of the peak current, which may result from the release of K(+) into the extracellular space during counter transport. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of glutamate transporters in glutamate homeostasis in the brain. AU - Takahashi, Michiko. AU - Billups, Brian. AU - Rossi, David. AU - Sarantis, Monique. AU - Hamann, Martine. AU - Attwell, David. PY - 1997/1. Y1 - 1997/1. N2 - Glutamate transporters in neurones and glia, four of which have been cloned from mammals, play a crucial rule in controlling the extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain. In normal conditions, they remove glutamate from the extracellular space and thereby help to terminate glutamatergic synaptic transmission and to prevent the extracellular glutamate concentration from rising to neurotoxic values. Glutamate transport on these carriers is thought to be driven by the cotransport of Na+, the countertransport of K+, and either the cotransport of H+ or the counter-transport of OH-. Activating the transporters also activates an anion conductance in their structure, the anion flux through which is not coupled to glutamate movement and varies ...
Our study indicates that glutamate transporter activity regulates AMPAR synaptic accumulation and stability. After glutamate transport inhibition, glutamate presumably diffuses to the edges of synaptic cleft, in which it binds to parasynaptically localized NMDARs. Stimulation of NR2B-NMDARs leads to AMPAR ubiquitination, internalization, and proteasome-mediated degradation. Furthermore, we show that the effect of EAAT suppression on AMPAR reduction is mediated mainly by the neuronal transporter EAAT3. Inhibition of glial transporters has no effect on AMPARs, and the reduction in AMPARs after EAAT inhibition remains in the absence of glia in the culture, suggesting a minimal role of glial glutamate transporters. Moreover, the knockdown of EAAT3 by siRNA caused similar effects on AMPAR expression to that of EAAT inhibition. In addition, we show that the population of EAAT3 at the postsynaptic, rather than the presynaptic, site is responsible for AMPAR regulation. These findings indicate that the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glial restricted precursors protect against chronic glutamate neurotoxicity of motor neurons in vitro. AU - Maragakis, Nicholas J. AU - Rao, Mahendra S.. AU - Llado, Jeronia. AU - Wong, Victor. AU - Xue, Haipeng. AU - Pardo, Andrea. AU - Herring, Joseph. AU - Kerr, Douglas. AU - Coccia, Carol. AU - Rothstein, Jeffrey D. PY - 2005/4/15. Y1 - 2005/4/15. N2 - We have examined the expression of glutamate transporters in primary and immortalized glial precursors (GRIPs). We subsequently transduced these cells with the GLT1 glutamate transporter and examined the ability of these cells to protect motor neurons in an organotypic spinal cord culture. We show that glial restricted precursors and GRIP-derived astrocytes predominantly express glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT1. Oligodendrocyte differentiation of GRIPs results in downregulation of all glutamate transporter subtypes. Having identified these precursor cells as potential vectors for delivering glutamate transporters to ...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death globally and new biomarkers and treatments are severely needed. Here, we employed HCT116 and LoVo human CRC cells made resistant to either SN38 or oxaliplatin, to investigate whether altered expression of the high affinity glutamate transporters Solute Carrier (SLC)-1A1 and -1A3 (EAAT3, EAAT1) is associated with the resistant phenotypes. Analyses included real-time quantitative PCR, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses, radioactive tracer flux measurements, and biochemical analyses of cell viability and glutathione content. Results were evaluated using one- and two-way ANOVA and Students two-tailed t-test, as relevant. In SN38-resistant HCT116 and LoVo cells, SLC1A1 expression was down-regulated ~60 % and up-regulated ~4-fold, respectively, at both mRNA and protein level, whereas SLC1A3 protein was undetectable. The changes in SLC1A1 expression were accompanied by parallel changes in DL-Threo-β-Benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA)-sensitive,
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS that is cleared from the extracellular space by a family of high-affinity glutamate transporters. The astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2 is thought to carry out the uptake of the vast quantity of glutamate, and dysregulation of EAAT2 expression is involved in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders with marked excitotoxic components. Here, we present a novel epigenetic mechanism by which the human EAAT2 gene is kept in a silent state. Sequence inspection identified a classical CpG island at the EAAT2 promoter ...
Synaptic transmission of most vertebrate synapses is thought to be terminated by rapid transport of the neurotransmitter into presynaptic nerve terminals or neuroglia. L-Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in brain and its transport represents the mechanism by which it is removed from the …
The mammalian genome contains four genes encoding GABA transporters (GAT1, slc6a1; GAT2, slc6a13; GAT3, slc6a11; BGT1, slc6a12) and five glutamate transporter genes (EAAT1, slc1a3; EAAT2, slc1a2; EAAT3, slc1a1; EAAT4, slc1a6; EAAT5, slc1a7). These transporters keep the extracellular levels of GABA and excitatory amino acids low and provide amino acids for metabolic purposes. The various transporters have different properties both with respect to their transport functions and with respect to their ability to act as ion channels. Further, they are differentially regulated. To understand the physiological roles of the individual transporter subtypes, it is necessary to obtain information on their distributions and expression levels. Quantitative data are important as the functional capacity is limited by the number of transporter molecules. The most important and most abundant transporters for removal of transmitter glutamate in the brain are EAAT2 (GLT-1) and EAAT1 (GLAST), while GAT1 and GAT3 are the
Contributions of glial glutamate transport and transmission to drug abuse One of the most insidious clinical features of addiction is the vulnerability to relap...
The GLAST1 knockout mouse is a genetically modified mouse strain in which the gene of this member of the superfamily of the glutamate/aspartate transport proteins has been disrupted. - Italia
Scientists from the MIPT Research Center for Molecular Mechanisms of Aging and Age-Related Diseases have joined forces with their colleagues from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and uncovered how sodium ions drive glutamate transport in the central nervous system.
The glutamate transporter GLT-1 is crucial for the maintenance of low interstitial glutamate concentrations. by disrupting the association between Hsp90 and GLT-1. Utilizing a style of TLE, we showed that long-term systemic administration of 17AAG significantly suppressed spontaneous repeated seizures and ameliorated astrogliosis. General, these results claim that up-regulation of GLT-1 by inhibiting Hsp90 in reactive astrocytes could be a potential healing focus on for the treating epilepsy and excitotoxicity. Launch Epilepsy is among the most common chronic neurological illnesses, yet around one-third of affected sufferers do not react to anticonvulsive medications PFI-3 supplier that focus on neurons (Kwan et al., 2011). Latest studies claim that astrocytes certainly are a potential focus on for the healing treatment of intractable epilepsy (Hja, 2014; Robel et al., 2015). GLT-1 (EAAT2; slc1a2) is normally predominantly portrayed in astrocytes and in charge of maintaining low extracellular ...
SLC1A1, also known as excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A1 gene. Excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 is a member of the high-affinity glutamate transporters which plays an essential role in transporting glutamate across plasma membranes in neurons. In the brain, excitatory amino acid transporters are crucial in terminating the postsynaptic action of the neurotransmitter glutamate, and in maintaining extracellular glutamate concentrations below neurotoxic levels. EAAT3 also transports aspartate, and mutations in this gene are thought to cause dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, also known as glutamate-aspartate transport defect. EAAT3 is also the major route of neuronal cysteine uptake. Cysteine is a component of the major antioxidant glutathione, and mice lacking EAAT3 exhibit reduced levels of glutathione in neurons, increased oxidative stress, and age-dependent loss of neurons, especially neurons of the substantia nigra. SLC1A1 has been ...
In the brain, termination of glutamatergic neurotransmission is achieved predominantly by rapid uptake of synaptically released glutamate into astrocytes through the sodium-dependent glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST and its subsequent conversion to glutamine by the enzyme GS (Rothstein et al., 1996; Sonnewald et al., 1997). To date, several factors, including glutamate itself, have been identified that rapidly alter the activity of the glutamate uptake process by post-translational modification of glutamate transporters (for review, see Gegelashvili and Schousboe, 1998). However, the factor or factors regulating the expression of glial glutamate transporter as well as of GS are still unknown. Pronounced increases in glial expression levels of GLT-1, GLAST, and GS have been observed in coculture systems with neurons (Hayashi et al., 1988; Swanson et al., 1997; Schlag et al., 1998). Although originally it had been suggested that these effects involve glutamate signaling, recent work by ...
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In mammalian cells, the uptake of amino acids is mediated by specialized, energy-dependent and passive transporters with overlapping substrate specificities. Most energy-dependent transporters are coupled either to the cotransport of Na+ or Cl- or to the countertransport of K+. Passive transporters are either facilitated transporters or channels. As a prelude to the molecular characterization of the different classes of transporters, we have isolated transporter cDNAs by expression-cloning with Xenopus laevis oocytes and we have characterized the cloned transporters functionally by uptake studies into oocytes using radiolabelled substrates and by electrophysiology to determine substrate-evoked currents. Mammalian transporters investigated include the dibasic and neutral amino acid transport protein D2/NBAT (system b0+) and the Na(+)- and K(+)-dependent neuronal and epithelial high-affinity glutamate transporter EAAC1 (system XAG-). A detailed characterization of these proteins has provided new ...
Najimi, Mustapha ; Stéphenne, Xavier ; Sempoux, Christine ; Sokal, Etienne ; Khuu, Ngoc Dung. Modulation of EAAT-2 glutamate transporter expression in human liver cholestasis.21st Biennial Meeting of the International-Society-for-Neurochemistry/38th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Neurochemistry (Cancun (Mexico), Aug 19-24, 2007). In: Journal of Neurochemistry, Vol. 102, p. 46-47 (2007 ...
There are 30,000 cases of ALS at any given time in the United States. Presently there is no cure for ALS and few treatment options. 90 percent of cases have unk...
We cloned and expressed a human metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 alpha (HmGluR1 alpha) in a novel cell line. The human mGluR1 alpha cDNA was found to be 86% identical to rat mGluR1 alpha, and the predicted protein sequence was found to be 93% identical to rat mGluR1 alpha. We expressed HmGluR1 alpha in AV12-664, an adenovirus-transformed Syrian hamster cell line. To prevent tonic activation of HmGluR1 alpha by glutamate that may be released by these cells into the extracellular medium, HmGluR1 alpha was co-expressed in AV12-664 cells with a rat glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). This allowed investigation of the effect that clearance of glutamate from the extracellular space would have on HmGluR1 alpha function. A comparison of mRNA levels revealed that HmGluR1 alpha was similarly expressed in cells with or without co-expression of GLAST. However, HmGluR1 alpha-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis was efficiently elicited only in cells co-expressing rat GLAST. Blockade of glutamate ...
Selected Publications:. Akyuz, N., Georgieva, E. R., Zhou, Z., Stolzenberg, S., Cuendet, M. A.,. Khelashvili, G., Altman,. R. B., Terry, D. S., Freed, J. H., Weinstein, H., Boudker, O.,. Blanchard, S. C.: Transport domain. motions in a glutamate transporter homologue determine turnover rate.. Nature (2015).. ###. Stolzenberg, S., Khelashvili, G., Weinstein, H.: Structural. Intermediates in a Model of the. Substrate Translocation Path of the Bacterial Glutamate Transporter. Homologue GltPh.. J Phys Chem B, 116, 5372-5383 (2012).. ###. Zhao, C.*, Stolzenberg, S.*, Gracia, L., Weinstein, H., Noskov, S., Shi,. L.: Ion-Controlled. Conformational Dynamics in the Outward-Open Transition from an Occluded. State of LeuT.. Biophys J., 103, 878-888 (2012).. * denotes equal contribution ...
Gap detection or gap pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) has been successfully used in rat and guinea pig models of tinnitus, yet this system has proven to have low efficacy in CBA mice, with low basal GPIAS and subtle tinnitus like effects. Here, we tested five mouse strains (CBA, BalbC, CD-1, C57BL/6 and sv129) for pre-pulse inhibition and gap detection with varying interstimulus intervals (ISI) and found the that mice from a CBA genetic background had the poorest capacities of suppressing the startle response in presence of a pre-pulse or a gap. CD-1 mice displayed variable responses throughout all ISI. Interestingly, C57BL/6, sv129 and BalbC showed efficient suppression with either pre-pulses or gaps with shorter ISI. The glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) is expressed in support cells from the cochlea and buffers the excess of glutamate. We hypothesized that loss of GLAST function could sensitize the ear to tinnitus-inducing agents, such as salicylate. Using shorter ISI to
Data from our laboratory have demonstrated that antiexcitotoxic actions are involved in the neuroprotective actions of citicoline.7 Indeed, we found that citicoline is able to reduce infarct volume in parallel to a decrease in ischemia-induced elevation in brain glutamate levels measured by microdialysis. High extracellular glutamate concentrations in the brain may result from increased release and/or from decreased uptake. Ischemia-induced glutamate release has been shown to be largely due to reversed operation of neuronal glutamate transporters, a fact that results from a severe depletion in adenosine 5′-triphosphate levels caused by ischemia.8 Of note, our results also showed that ischemia-induced adenosine 5′-triphosphate loss was decreased both in vivo and in vitro by previous administration of citicoline. These results support the hypothesis that citicoline-induced effect on neuronal adenosine 5′-triphosphate levels accounts, at least in part, for the decrease in extracellular ...
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AJNR 181171 Lloyd GA (1982) Primary orbital meningioma a review of 41 patients investigated radiologically. Protein Kinases and Phosphatases Protein apo naproxen vs naproxen are potent endogenous regulators of glutamate transporter activity, with protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase A (PKA), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) naprxoen implicated in the intracellular control of EAAT activity, expression and cell- surface trafficking.
Table of Contents -- CHAPTER 1: Introduction and Background -- 1.1. Glutamate and the CNS............................................................................................................................................................................................................2-6 -- 1.1.A. Glutamatergic Neurotransmission.............................................................................................................................................................................2 -- 1.1.B. CNS Sources of Glutamate..............................................................................................................................................................................3 -- 1.1.C. Regulation of Extracellular Glutamate Concentrations.................................................................................................................................................3-6 -- 1.2. ...
The Lage team has barely slowed down during the pandemic as evidenced by the mass production of 1.2 billion human excitatory neurons by @gretapinta and @JacquiMMartn1 to study the biological mechanisms that are affected in neuropsychiatric disease.. ...
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Machtens, J. P.; Kortzak, D.; Lansche, C.; Leinenweber, A.; Kilian, P.; Begemann, B.; Zachariae, U.; Ewers, D.; de Groot, B. L.; Briones, R. et al.; Fahlke, C.: Mechanisms of anion conduction by coupled glutamate transporters. Cell 160 (3), pp. 542 - 553 (2015 ...
Excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is an important subtype of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) and is the route for neuronal cysteine uptake. CoCl 2 is not only a hypoxia-mimetic reagent but also an oxidative stress inducer. Here, we found that CoCl 2 induced significant EAAC1 over...
Genetic polymorphisms in Solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 2 (SLC1A2) have been linked with essential tremor. SLC1A2 encodes excitatory amino acid transporter type 2 (EAAT2), which clears glutamate from the synaptic cleft. One postulated mechanism for essential tremor is the over-excitation of glutamatergic olivo-cerebellar climbing fibers, leading to excitotoxic death of Purkinje cells. Other glutamatergic excitatory signals are transmitted to Purkinje cells via parallel fibers of cerebellar granule neurons. Therefore, the expression level of glutamate transporters could be important in essential tremor pathogenesis. Using Western blotting, we compared the expression levels of the two main glutamate transporters in the cerebellar cortex, EAAT1 and EAAT2, in postmortem tissue from 16 essential tremor cases and 13 age-matched controls. We also studied the localization of EAAT1 and EAAT2 using immunohistochemistry in 10 essential tremor cases and 12 controls.
Glutamate excitotoxicity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Systemic injection of kainic acid (KA) in the rat produces an animal model of human temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the temporal expression of the sodium-dependent n
EAAC1/EAAT3 is a transporter of glutamate (Glu) present at the post‐synaptic neuronal element, in opposition to the two other main transporters, GLAST/EAAT1 and GLT1/EAAT2, expressed at the excitatory amino acid (EAA) synapse by surrounding astrocytes. Although, in the adult, EAAC1/EAAT3 exhibits a rather low expression level and is considered to make a minor contribution to Glu removal from the synapse, its early expression during brain development, before the astrocytes are functional, suggests that such a neuronal transporter is involved in the developmental effects of EAA and, possibly, in the biosynthesis and trophic role of GABA, which is excitatory in nature in different brain regions during the earlier stages of brain development. This neuronal Glu transporter is considered to have a dual action as it is apparently involved in the neuronal uptake of cysteine, which acts as a key substrate for the synthesis of glutathione, a major anti‐oxidant, because the neurones do not express the Xc-
Glutamate plays an important role in skin barrier signaling. In our previous study, Yokukansan (YKS) affected glutamate receptors in NC/Nga mice and was ameliorated in atopic dermatitis lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of YKS on skin and cultured human keratinocytes. Glutamate concentrations in skin of YKS-treated and nontreated NC/Nga mice were measured. Then, glutamate release from cultured keratinocytes was measured, and extracellular glutamate concentrations in YKS-stimulated cultured human keratinocytes were determined. The mRNA expression levels of NMDA receptor 2D (NMDAR2D) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) were also determined in YKS-stimulated cultured keratinocytes. The glutamate concentrations and dermatitis scores increased in conventional mice, whereas they decreased in YKS-treated mice. Glutamate concentrations in cell supernatants of cultured keratinocytes increased proportionally to the cell density. However, they decreased dose-dependently with YKS. YKS
The neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1 contains several conserved acidic amino acids in its transmembrane domain, which are possibly important in catalyzing t
Restoration of Glutamate Transporter Protein (EAAT2) for the treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), AD, and PD.. Collaborator: Professor Glenn Lin at Ohio State University. The concentration of glutamate in the synaptic cleft is tightly regulated by the interplay between glutamate release and glutamate clearance. Abnormal glutamate release and/or dysfunction of glutamate clearance can cause over-stimulation of glutamate receptors and result in neuronal injury or death known as excitotoxicity. Excitotoxicity contributes to a number of acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Blocking glutamate receptors and/or reducing glutamate release have been therapeutic strategies for the prevention of excitotoxicity; however, the benefits of these approaches are limited. We have targeted the glial glutamate transporter EAAT2, which is primarily localized in peri-synaptic processes of astrocytes closely associated with excitatory synaptic contacts, and which is responsible for maintaining low ...
Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and extracellular glutamate levels are controlled by a family of transporters known as excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). The EAATs transport glutamate and aspartate with similar micromolar affinities and this transport is coupled to the movement of Na(+), K(+), and H(+). The crystal structure of a prokaryotic homologue of the EAATs, aspartate transporter from Pyrococcus horokoshii (Glt(Ph)), has yielded important insights into the architecture of this transporter family. Glt(Ph) is a Na(+)-dependent transporter that has significantly higher affinity for aspartate over glutamate and is not coupled to H(+) or K(+). The highly conserved carboxy-terminal domains of the EAATs and Glt(Ph) contain the substrate and ion binding sites, however, there are a couple of striking differences in this region that we have investigated to better understand the transport mechanism. An arginine residue is in ...
Expression of this gene is affected by vitamin A. The encoded protein of this gene may be associated with the cytoskeleton. A similar protein in rats may play a role in the regulation of cell differentiation. The rat protein binds and inhibits the cell membrane glutamate transporter EAAC1. The expression of the rat gene is upregulated by retinoic acid, which results in a specific reduction in EAAC1-mediated glutamate transport. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
We have recently reported a neuroprotective effect of aspirin concomitant with inhibition of glutamate release in an in vitro model of brain ischemia using rat forebrain slices exposed to OGD.10 We have now used another model of cerebral ischemia consisting of cultured rat cortical neurons exposed to OGD to elucidate further this neuroprotective effect. Our results show that, in cortical neurons, aspirin causes specific protection that is due to inhibition of OGD-induced release of glutamate, by the inhibition of the fall in ATP responsible for the reversal of glutamate uptake systems in cerebral ischemia.. OGD causes cell damage to cortical neurons, as deduced by the release of LDH, the inhibition of MTT reduction, and the staining with propidium iodide. In addition, aspirin inhibits neuronal death induced by OGD, as demonstrated with all 3 of these viability parameters.. The next question we approached concerned the mechanism involved. Although aspirin possesses a wide spectrum of ...
The immune privileged nature of the CNS can make it vulnerable to chronic and latent infections. Little is known about the effects of lifelong brain infections, and thus inflammation, on the neurological health of the host. Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that can infect any mammalian nucleated cell with average worldwide seroprevalence rates of 30%. Infection by Toxoplasma is characterized by the lifelong presence of parasitic cysts within neurons in the brain, requiring a competent immune system to prevent parasite reactivation and encephalitis. In the immunocompetent individual, Toxoplasma infection is largely asymptomatic, however many recent studies suggest a strong correlation with certain neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Here, we demonstrate a significant reduction in the primary astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT-1, following infection with Toxoplasma. Using microdialysis of the murine frontal cortex over the course of infection, a significant increase in extracellular ...
Bacigaluppi, M., Russo, G. L., Peruzzotti-Jametti, L., Rossi, S., Sandrone, S., Butti, E., . . . Martino, G. (2016). Neural Stem Cell Transplantation Induces Stroke Recovery by Upregulating Glutamate Transporter GLT-1 in Astrocytes. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(41), 10529.. Beck, M. H., Haumesser, J. K., Kühn, J., Altschüler, J., Kühn, A. A., & van Riesen, C. (2016). Short- and long-term dopamine depletion causes enhanced beta oscillations in the cortico-basal ganglia loop of parkinsonian rats. Experimental Neurology, 286, 124-136. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2016.10.005.. Huang, C.-W., Chen, Y.-W., Lin, Y.-R., Chen, P.-H., Chou, M.-H., Lee, L.-J., . . . Chen, S.-L. (2016). Conditional Knockout of Breast Carcinoma Amplified Sequence 2 (BCAS2) in Mouse Forebrain Causes Dendritic Malformation via β-catenin. Scientific Reports, 6, 34927. doi: 10.1038/srep34927. Sack, M., Lenz, J. N., Jakovcevski, M., Biedermann, S. V., Falfán-Melgoza, C., Deussing, J., . . . Auer, M. K. ...
TY - ABST. T1 - A functioning glycolysis is important for maintenance of glutamate transport in cultured astrocytes. AU - Schousboe, Arne. AU - Sickmann, Helle Mark. AU - Bak, Lasse Kristoffer. AU - Schousboe, Inger. AU - Bouman, S.D.. AU - Waagepetersen, Helle S.. N1 - Conference code: 3. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. KW - Former Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences. U2 - 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.05927.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.05927.x. M3 - Conference abstract in journal. SP - 288. EP - 289. JO - Journal of Neurochemistry. JF - Journal of Neurochemistry. SN - 0022-3042. IS - s1. Y2 - 27 June 2008 through 1 July 2008. ER - ...
Principal Investigator:KONDOH Takeshi, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:展開研究, Research Field:Cerebral neurosurgery
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Anti-EAAT1 (GLAST) (ext.)-FITC Antibody (#AGC-021-F) from Alomone Labs is a highly specific rabbit polyclonal Ab directly conjugated to FITC. Ideal for live cell flow cytometry experiments. Lyophilized. Global shipping at room temperature. Your top supplier for glutamate transporter research!
Serine/threonine-protein kinase which is involved in the regulation of a wide variety of ion channels, membrane transporters, cell growth, survival and proliferation. Up-regulates Na(+) channels: SCNN1A/ENAC, K(+) channels: KCNA3/Kv1.3, KCNE1 and KCNQ1, amino acid transporter: SLC6A19, glutamate transporter: SLC1A6/EAAT4, glutamate receptors: GRIA1/GLUR1 and GRIK2/GLUR6, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger: SLC9A3/NHE3, and the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase ...
GLT25D2兔多克隆抗体(ab122192)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 - amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
... heptane transport by O-diazoacetyl-L-serine. An initial step in identifying the L-system amino acid transporter". The Journal ... Rajapakse AG, Ming XF, Carvas JM, Yang Z (March 2009). "The hexosamine biosynthesis inhibitor azaserine prevents endothelial ... and research indicates that it may have potential in identifying the L-leucine-favoring system transporter in human T- ...
This transport process is dependent on several cytoplasmic phosphoryl transfer proteins - Enzyme I (I), HPr, Enzyme IIA (IIA), ... The PTS Mannose-Fructose-Sorbose (Man) Family (TC# 4.A.6) is a group of multicomponent PTS systems that are involved in sugar ... ISBN 978-0-632-05357-5. Plumbridge, Jacqueline (Jan 1999). "Convergent pathways for utilization of the amino sugars N- ... and Enzyme IIB (IIB) as well as the integral membrane sugar permease complex (IICD). It is not part of the PTS-AG or PTS-GFL ...
Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... Ag(I),...). Strictly metal-selective MTs with metal-specific physiological functions were discovered by Dallinger et al. (1997 ... In this way the thionein-metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ...
This region, called the variable (V) domain, is composed of amino acid sequences that define each type of antibody and their ... The immune complex is then transported to cellular systems where it can be destroyed or deactivated. The first correct ... Ag] <=> [AbAg]}}} where [Ab] is the antibody concentration and [Ag] is the antigen concentration, either in free ([Ab],[Ag]) or ... The variable region in turn has hyper-variable regions which are unique amino acid sequences in each antibody. Antigens are ...
2002). "The seven amino acids of human RAMP2 (86) and RAMP3 (59) are critical for agonist binding to human adrenomedullin ... Xu P, Dai AG, Zhou HD, et al. (2004). "[Study of the expression and role of adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin receptor in ... 2002). "Role of adrenomedullin and its receptor system in renal pathophysiology". Peptides. 22 (11): 1925-1931. doi:10.1016/ ... "RAMPs regulate the transport and ligand specificity of the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor". Nature. 393 (6683): 333-339. doi ...
This gene encodes a member of a family of small membrane proteins that share a 35-amino acid signature sequence domain, ... Zouzoulas A, Therien AG, Scanzano R, et al. (2003). "Modulation of Na,K-ATPase by the gamma subunit: studies with transfected ... Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase gamma chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FXYD2 gene. ... have been shown to induce channel activity in experimental expression systems. Transmembrane topology has been established for ...
... amino acids and protein sources to animal feed manufacturers; food additives and ingredients for the treatment and flavoring of ... turf and irrigation management systems, dry bulk handling solution as well as equipment for transport, chemical, and precision ... In the early 1970s the company acquired agencies for luxury watch brands, and also formed an agreement with Demag AG and set up ... rail systems, car park systems, electrification systems and building maintenance units. Jebsen & Jessen Packaging manufactures ...
Amino Acid and Sulfur Metabolism (Rainer Hoefgen) Applied Metabolome Analysis (Joachim Kopka) Central Metabolism (Alisdair ... Fernie) Experimental Systems Biology (Patrick Giavilisco) Systems Biology and Mathematical Modelling (Zoran Nikoloski) Systems ... Member of the Bayer AG board Robert Seckler - University of Potsdam In order to further and reinforce the institute's pursuance ... Intercellular Macromolecular Transport (Fritz Kragler) Regulatory Networks (Marek Mutwil) Plant Proteomics (Alexander Graf) The ...
Amino acid sequence analysis has placed 14 of these serpins in serpin clade Q and three in serpin clade K with the remaining ... The clade classification system is difficult to use for Drosophila serpins and instead a nomenclature system has been adopted ... Stein PE, Leslie AG, Finch JT, Turnell WG, McLaughlin PJ, Carrell RW (September 1990). "Crystal structure of ovalbumin as a ... Bartalena L, Robbins J (1992). "Variations in thyroid hormone transport proteins and their clinical implications". Thyroid. 2 ( ...
A key feature of Ti plasmids is their ability to drive the production of opines, which are derivatives of various amino acids ... Hooykaas PJ, Beijersbergen AG (1994). "The virulence system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Annual Review of Phytopathology. 32 ... For the T-DNA, a nick will be created at the T-DNA's border sequence, and the nicked T-strand will be transported to the cell ... A bioinformatics study of the amino acid sequences of the VirH protein showed similarities between them and a superfamily of ...
The gene produces a 38.2 kDa protein composed of 333 amino acids. The protein contains a predicted phytoene synthase domain. ... McKenzie M, Tucker EJ, Compton AG, Lazarou M, George C, Thorburn DR, Ryan MT (December 2011). "Mutations in the gene encoding ... The protein is involved in the assembly of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Mutations in the NDUFAF6 ... which is characterized by lesions in the central nervous system and rapid deterioration of cognitive and motor functions. In ...
All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed the RGS domain which conveys GAP activity. Regulator of G ... Berman DM, Wilkie TM, Gilman AG (1996). "GAIP and RGS4 are GTPase-activating proteins for the Gi subfamily of G protein alpha ... 2000). "RGS4 and RGS2 bind coatomer and inhibit COPI association with Golgi membranes and intracellular transport". Mol. Biol. ... "Identification of novel ErbB3-interacting factors using the split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid system". Genome Res. 13 ( ...
Sequenced genomes of various plant and algae species shows that the amino acid sequence is more than 25% conserved, which is a ... This finding suggests that an efficient antioxidant system is required for the oxidase to function as a safety valve for stress ... Alternative oxidase Metalloprotein McDonald AE, Ivanov AG, Bode R, Maxwell DP, Rodermel SR, Hüner NP (August 2011). " ... serving the same function as cytochrome c oxidase from mitochondrial electron transport. In Chlamydomonas, there are two copies ...
... also has an amidated carboxyl-terminal amino acid which is valine. The sequence of amino acids in secretin is H-His- ... This function of the peptide is mediated by the central melanocortin system. Secretin is used in a diagnostic tests for ... They determined that a substance secreted by the intestinal lining stimulates the pancreas after being transported via the ... ISBN 978-0-7216-2888-2. Polak JM, Coulling I, Bloom S, Pearse AG (1971). "Immunofluorescent localization of secretin and ...
The useful materials (e.g. amino acids) from the digested particles are moved into the cytosol, and waste is removed by ... This intracellular transport depends on the size of the phagosomes. Larger organelles (with a diameter of about 3 μm) are ... Dupuy AG, Caron E (June 2008). "Integrin-dependent phagocytosis: spreading from microadhesion to new concepts". Journal of Cell ... It is part of the adaptive immune system, but it links to the innate response by recruiting macrophages to phagocytose ...
Ag nanoparticles at room temperature when treated with silver ions and additionally deliver essential vitamins and amino acids ... Through studying the transport of biogenic substances in the Tatar Strait in the Sea of Japan, a Russian team noted that ... Different system types can be used to yield different biogenic products. In the field of paleochemotaxonomy the presence of ... Odunfa VS (1979). "Free amino acids in the seed and root exudates in relation to the nitrogen requirements of rhizosphere soil ...
... amino acid sequence identity with its serum homologue ceruloplasmin, the hephaestin protein includes an additional 86 amino ... copper-dependent ferroxidase responsible for transporting dietary iron from intestinal enterocytes into the circulatory system ... Griffiths TA, Mauk AG, MacGillivray RT (November 2005). "Recombinant expression and functional characterization of human ... Hephaestin is a protein of 1135 aminoacids formed from a precursor of 1158 aminoacids and is 130.4 kDa. It is predicted to bind ...
Agalsidase alpha and beta are both recombinant forms of the human α-galactosidase A enzyme and both have the same amino acid ... Patil AG, K PK, Mulimani VH, Veeranagouda Y, Lee K (November 2010). "alpha-Galactosidase from Bacillus megaterium VHM1 and its ... Fan JQ, Ishii S, Asano N, Suzuki Y (January 1999). "Accelerated transport and maturation of lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A in ... Watkins WM (1980). "Biochemistry and Genetics of the ABO, Lewis, and P blood group systems". Advances in Human Genetics. ...
2002). „The seven amino acids of human RAMP2 (86) and RAMP3 (59) are critical for agonist binding to human adrenomedullin ... Xu P; Dai AG; Zhou HD; et al. (2004). „[Study of the expression and role of adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin receptor in ... McLatchie LM, Fraser NJ, Main MJ, Wise A, Brown J, Thompson N, Solari R, Lee MG, Foord SM (1998). „RAMPs regulate the transport ... 2002). „Role of adrenomedullin and its receptor system in renal pathophysiology.". Peptides. 22 (11): 1925-31. PMID 11754983. ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... Bukrinskaya AG, Ghorpade A, Heinzinger NK, et al. (1996). "Phosphorylation-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, ...
... inhibition of retinoic acid-induced apoptosis, and involvement in budding and fusion of the endomembrane system. Acyl-CoAs also ... because these enzymes are responsible for amino acid catabolism, this acylation renders the whole process inactive. This ... Duncan, JA; Gilman, AG (19 June 1998). "A cytoplasmic acyl-protein thioesterase that removes palmitate from G protein alpha ... Glick, BS; Rothman, JE (1987). "Possible role for fatty acyl-coenzyme A in intracellular protein transport". Nature. 326 (6110 ...
CystLT1 is a receptor for a specific class of leukotrienes that contain the amino acid cysteine. These cysteinyl leukotrienes ... de Vries HE, Kuiper J, de Boer AG, Van Berkel TJ, Breimer DD (June 1997). "The blood-brain barrier in neuroinflammatory ... Albumin is the most abundant protein found in human plasma and is capable of carrying and transporting drugs (like zafirlkast) ... Zafirlukast, like other LTRAs, works by inhibiting the immune system. Through its action on inflammatory cells in the lungs, ...
In all retroviral systems, commonly found a conserved amino acid sequences pol and a gag-pol (Pr180) precursor. The viral ... Philipp-Staheli J, Marquardt T, Thouless ME, Bruce AG, Grant RF, Tsai CC, Rose TM (March 2006). "Genetic variability of the ... The virus undergoes maturation as the A-type particles assemble in the cytosol and being transported to plasma membrane. The ... The reverse transcriptase made up of 1771 amino acid protein, gp70 surface 586 aa protein, Pr95 911 aa protein, and Pr78 657 aa ...
CRH is a 41-amino-acid peptide hormone that is secreted by the parvocellular neurosecretory cells, which are found within the ... Once released by the hypothalamus, CRH travels through the hypophyseal portal system to the anterior pituitary, where it binds ... Salata RA, Jarrett DB, Verbalis JG, Robinson AG (March 1988). "Vasopressin stimulation of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) in ... the transport of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membrane, cholesterol binding to P450SCC and, an increase in pregnenolone ...
... is a 32 amino acid peptide hormone secreted by parafollicular cells (also known as C cells) of the thyroid gland in ... Davey RA, Turner AG, McManus JF, Chiu WS, Tjahyono F, Moore AJ, Atkins GJ, Anderson PH, Ma C, Glatt V, MacLean HE, Vincent C, ... ISBN 978-0-7817-6852-8. Carney SL (1997). "Calcitonin and human renal calcium and electrolyte transport". Mineral and ... Boron WF, Boulpaep EL (2004). "Endocrine system chapter". Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approach. Elsevier/ ...
MHC Class I molecules present small peptides, typically 7-10 amino acids in length, to the immune system. A glycoprotein called ... From the golgi bodies, the complex is transported, again via vesicle transport, to the cell membrane. This is the point at ... Grandea AG, Van Kaer L (April 2001). "Tapasin: an ER chaperone that controls MHC class I assembly with peptide". Trends in ... The HLA-A signal peptide is a series of hydrophobic amino acids present at the N-terminus of the protein that directs it to the ...
VSGs are made up of N terminal domain of around 300-350 amino acids with low sequence homology (13-30% identity), and a more ... Trypanosoma have a simple, polarized membrane transport system consisting of a single ER, lysosome, and Golgi apparatus. VSG is ... Barbour AG, Restrepo BI (2000). "Antigenic variation in vector-borne pathogens". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 6 (5): 449-57. ... 100 amino acids . N-terminal domains are grouped into classes A-C depending on their cysteine patterns. C-term domains are ...
... occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the ... In some aircraft fuel systems to reduce fire hazard (see inerting system). To inflate race car and aircraft tires, reducing the ... 7 days Ag crucible Na 3 NO 4 {\displaystyle {\ce {NaNO3{}+Na2O->[{\ce {Ag~crucible}}][{\ce {300^{\circ }C~for~7days}}]Na3NO4 ... When insulated in proper containers such as Dewar flasks, it can be transported without much evaporative loss. Like dry ice, ...
Dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (proton glutamate symporter). *Monovalent cation/proton antiporter (Sodium/proton ... FadL outer membrane protein transport family, including Fatty acid transporter FadL (n=14,S=14) ... Murzin AG, Lesk AM, Chothia C (March 1994). "Principles determining the structure of beta-sheet barrels in proteins. I. A ... cellular systems. ... consist mostly of hydrophobic amino acids.[8] Membrane proteins ...
... rich in hydroxylated amino acids such as serine, threonine, and proline, and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Soll J, Schleiff E (March 2004 ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... the new chloroplast host had to develop a unique protein targeting system to avoid having chloroplast proteins being sent to ...
Inclusion of the amino acid L-tryptophan, a precursor of 5HT, in the feed of rainbow trout made the trout less aggressive and ... CRH is transported to the anterior pituitary through the portal blood vessel system of the hypophyseal stalk and vasopressin is ... Dayer AG, Rusconi Serpa S (epub May 29, 2015). Methylation of NR3C1 is related to maternal PTSD, parenting stress and maternal ... including the metabolic system, cardiovascular system, immune system, reproductive system and central nervous system. The HPA ...
... essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.[4] The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, ... Needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, builds bone, supports synthesis and function of blood cells Dairy ... then transporting the acquired nutrients to local ecosystems.[56][57] ... Ag. Cd. In. Sn. Sb. Te. I. Xe Cs. Ba. La. *. Hf. Ta. W. Re. Os. Ir. Pt. Au. Hg. Tl. Pb. Bi. Po. At. Rn ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... The resulting densified fuel is easier to transport and feed into thermal generation systems, such as boilers. ... MAN B&W Diesel, Wärtsilä, and Deutz AG, as well as a number of smaller companies, such as Elsbett, offer engines that are ... EU to phase out palm oil from transport fuel by 2030 *^ a b The Royal Society (January 2008). Sustainable biofuels: prospects ...
This drug article relating to the genito-urinary system is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Fesoterodine (INN, used as the fumarate under the brand name Toviaz) is an antimuscarinic drug developed by Schwarz Pharma AG ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ... 2-[(1R)-3-(Di(propan-2-yl)amino)-1-phenylpropyl]-4-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl] 2-methylpropanoate ...
... results in an amino acid switch: valine to methionine exchange at codon 66, Val66Met, which is in the prodomain of BDNF.[39][38 ... BDNF acts on certain neurons of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, helping to support survival of ... Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M (June 2007). "BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to dendrites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA ... as the amino acid change occurs on the portion of the prodomain where sortilin binds; and sortilin is essential for normal ...
... amino acid chains) and polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens ... Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after cells in the immune system come into ... Both T cells and B cells are cellular components of adaptive immunity. [1] The Ag abbreviation stands for an antibody generator ... These algorithms consider factors such as the likelihood of proteasomal processing, transport into the endoplasmic reticulum, ...
The effects of histone methylation are residue dependent (e.g. which amino acid on which histone tail is methylated) therefore ... Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system[edit]. Alzheimer's Disease (AD)[edit]. Main article: Alzheimer's ... Nasir J, Floresco SB, O'Kusky JR, Diewert VM, Richman JM, Zeisler J, Borowski A, Marth JD, Phillips AG, Hayden MR (June 1995 ... mRNA axon transport, neurite outgrowth during development, and neuromuscular junction formation. The causal function loss in ...
Other formulas, based on free amino acids, are the least antigenic and provide complete nutritional support in severe forms of ... The person should then be transported to the emergency room, where additional treatment can be given. Other treatments include ... Glucocorticoid steroids are used to calm down the immune system cells that are attacked by the chemicals released during an ... Taylor SL, Baumert JL, Kruizinga AG, et al. (2014). "Establishment of Reference Doses for residues of allergenic foods: report ...
Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the ... and about 34 from the electron transport system).[4] However, this maximum yield is never quite reached because of losses due ... Stock D, Leslie AG, Walker JE (1999). "Molecular architecture of the rotary motor in ATP synthase". Science. 286 (5445): 1700-5 ... Citric acid cycle. Main article: Citric acid cycle. This is also called the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. When ...
McMullen BA, Fujikawa K, Kisiel W, Sasagawa T, Howald WN, Kwa EY, Weinstein B (June 1983). "Complete amino acid sequence of the ... Factor X is an enzyme, a serine endopeptidase, which plays a key role at several stages of the coagulation system. Factor X is ... Turpie AG (June 2007). "Oral, direct factor Xa inhibitors in development for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic ... ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport. • blood coagulation, extrinsic pathway. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. ...
"Amino Acids. 39 (1): 11-27. doi:10.1007/s00726-009-0394-9. PMC 2883014 . PMID 19946787.. ... The most common system is the four-stage TNM system (abbreviated from Tumor/Nodes/Metastases). Its components include the size ... The protein ZIP1 is responsible for the active transport of zinc into prostate cells. One of the zinc's important roles is to ... Bourdoumis A, Papatsoris AG, Chrisofos M, Efstathiou E, Skolarikos A, Deliveliotis C (2010). "The novel prostate cancer antigen ...
This has revealed a common fold with amino acid-binding bacterial proteins and with the glutamate-binding module of AMPA- ... Ludolph AG, Udvardi PT, Schaz U, Henes C, Adolph O, Weigt HU, et al. (May 2010). "Atomoxetine acts as an NMDA receptor blocker ... This information is then transported to the nucleus. Phosphorylation of Jacob does not take place with extrasynaptic NMDA ... that usually occurs due to cross-reactivity of antibodies produced by the immune system against ectopic brain tissues, such as ...
Besides ascorbate, medically important conditional pro-oxidants include uric acid and sulfhydryl amino acids such as ... Enzyme systems[edit]. O. 2. Oxygen. ⟶. ⋅. O. 2. −. Superoxide. →. Superoxide. dismutase. H. 2. O. 2. Hydrogen. peroxide. →. ... Reaume AG, Elliott JL, Hoffman EK, Kowall NW, Ferrante RJ, Siwek DF, Wilcox HM, Flood DG, Beal MF, Brown RH, Scott RW, Snider ... the superoxide anion is produced as a by-product of several steps in the electron transport chain.[62] Particularly important ...
Amino acid-derived. *Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate) ... Due to its long lifetime in the mid-troposphere, carbon monoxide is also used as tracer of transport for pollutant plumes.[56] ... Silver(I,III) oxide (Ag2O2). *Triuranium octoxide (U3O8) ... 1989). Global climate change linkages: acid rain, air quality, ... In the presence of strong acids and water, carbon monoxide reacts with alkenes to form carboxylic acids in a process known as ...
Halpern JH, Lerner AG, Passie T (2018). A Review of Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) and an Exploratory Study ... C-5 stereocenter could be analysed as having the same configuration of the alpha carbon of the naturally occurring amino acid L ... Because the masses involved are so small, concealing and transporting illicit LSD is much easier than smuggling cocaine, ... The effects of LSD are believed to occur as a result of alterations in the serotonin system.[14] As little as 20 micrograms can ...
... the 50 amino acids near the C-terminus, being deleted.[64] This results in a truncated lamin A precursor (a.k.a. progerin or ... Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease whose symptoms span across multiple systems[56] and can vary ... Epstein, CJ; Martin, GM; Schultz, AL; Motulsky, AG (1966). "Werner's syndrome a review of its symptomatology, natural history, ... which would normally transport it to the nucleus where it can interact with the DNA. This leads to a reduction in DNA repair.[ ...
Leslie AG, Walker JE. Structural model of F1-ATPase and the implications for rotary catalysis. „Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B ... Transport elektronów z udziałem alternatywnych oksydaz NAD(P)H i ubichinolu w znikomym stopniu prowadzi do syntezy ATP w ... A component of the fatty acid beta oxidation pathway. „J. Biol. Chem.". 252 (23), s. 8440-5, 1977. PMID: 925004. ... Kita K, Hirawake H, Miyadera H, Amino H, Takeo S. Role of complex II in anaerobic respiration of the parasite mitochondria from ...
... and its acid metabolites (2-methyl-4-amino-5-pyrimidine carboxylic acid, 4-methyl-thiazole-5-acetic acid, and thiamine ... while the reaction catalyzed by OGDH is a rate-limiting step in the citric acid cycle. In the nervous system, PDH is also ... Absorption and transportEdit. AbsorptionEdit. Thiamine is released by the action of phosphatase and pyrophosphatase in the ... Webb ME, Marquet A, Mendel RR, Rébeillé F, Smith AG (October 2007). "Elucidating biosynthetic pathways for vitamins and ...
Basic transport phenomena in biomedical engineering, de Ronald L. Fournier. *Neuroscience: exploring the brain, de Mark F. Bear ... a b Manual for pharmacy technicians, By Linda Fred, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, pagina 246 ... Combinația dintre amar și sărat de către suplimentarea prin ingestie a lichidelor cu conținut ridicat de potasiu reprezintă o ... Potasiul se dizolvă în acid sulfuric diluat, formând soluții ce conțin ionul K+, împreună cu hidrogenul gazos. ...
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green ... A novel possible use of GFP includes using it as a sensitive monitor of intracellular processes via an eGFP laser system made ... Fakhrudin N, Ladurner A, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, Baumgartner L, Markt P, Schuster D, Ellmerer EP, Wolber G, Rollinger JM, ... protein transport, and RNA dynamics, which in the past had been studied using fixed (i.e., dead) material. Obtained data are ...
Amino acid-derived. *Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate) ... Lee AG, Cool DR, Grunwald WC, Neal DE, Buckmaster CL, Cheng MY, Hyde SA, Lyons DM, Parker KJ (August 2011). "A novel form of ... Brownstein MJ, Russell JT, Gainer H (January 1980). "Synthesis, transport, and release of posterior pituitary hormones". ... 1-({(4R,7S,10S,13S,16S,19R)-19-amino-7-(2-amino-2-oxoethyl)-10-(3-amino-3-oxopropyl)-16-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-13-[(1S)-1- ...
Transamination, or the transfer of an amine (or NH2) group from an amino acid to a keto acid by an aminotransferase (also known ... as the body lacks the ability to transport fatty acids into the mitochondria to be processed as a fuel source. The disease is ... Engel AG, Shen XM, Selcen D, Sine S (Dec 2012). "New horizons for congenital myasthenic syndromes". Annals of the New York ... In the EC system of classification, the accepted name for RNA Polymerase is DNA-directed RNA polymerase. Described primarily ...
Stable isotope labeling by/with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). *Isobaric labeling *Tandem mass tags (TMT) ... An extraction system removes ions from the sample, which are then targeted through the mass analyzer and into the detector. The ... Comisarow MB, Marshall AG (1974). "Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy". Chemical Physics Letters. 25 (2): ... The ions are then transported by magnetic or electric fields to the mass analyzer. ...
There are six known isoforms of BRCA1,[28] with isoforms 1 and 2 comprising 1863 amino acids each.[citation needed] ... Wang H, Shao N, Ding QM, Cui J, Reddy ES, Rao VN (Jul 1997). "BRCA1 proteins are transported to the nucleus in the absence of ... Ruffner H, Jiang W, Craig AG, Hunter T, Verma IM (July 1999). "BRCA1 is phosphorylated at serine 1497 in vivo at a cyclin- ... In Australia and the UK, Myriad's licensee permitted use by health systems but announced a change of plans in August 2008. Only ...
... is also a metabolic product of amino acid deamination catalyzed by enzymes such as glutamate dehydrogenase 1. Ammonia ... Ag+ + e− ⇌ Ag +0.83 +0.80 The range of thermodynamic stability of liquid ammonia solutions is very narrow, as the potential for ... Ammonia is also found throughout the Solar System on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, among other places: on ... This is an efficient way to package hydrogen into a chemical that is much cheaper to store and transport than pure hydrogen be ...
"1H NMR studies of deuterated ribonuclease HI selectively labeled with protonated amino acids". Journal of Biomolecular NMR. 2 ( ... Scerri, Eric (2007). The Periodic System, Its Story and Its Significance. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19- ... as hydrogen can be produced on-site and does not need to be transported.[93] ... Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn ...
AA: amino acids. • HMB: β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid. • ↑ represents activation. • Τ represents inhibition ... Immune system[edit]. Although there have been hundreds of studies on physical exercise and the immune system, there is little ... Folland, JP; Williams, AG (2007). "The adaptations to strength training : morphological and neurological contributions to ... "Transport mode choice and body mass index: Cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence from a European-wide study". Environment ...
In mammals, this metabolic pathway is important in beta oxidation of fatty acids and catabolism of amino acids and choline, as ... In eukaryotes, the enzymes in this electron transport system use the energy released from the oxidation of NADH to pump protons ... Leslie AG, Walker JE (2000). "Structural model of F1-ATPase and the implications for rotary catalysis". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. ... Oxidative phosphorylation (UK /ɒkˈsɪd.ə.tɪv/, US /ˈɑːk.sɪˌdeɪ.tɪv/ [1] or electron transport-linked phosphorylation) is the ...
Amino acidsEdit. Collagen has an unusual amino acid composition and sequence: *Glycine is found at almost every third residue. ... Also serves as part of the filtration system in capillaries and the glomeruli of nephron in the kidney.. COL4A1, COL4A2, COL4A3 ... Mahajan VB, Olney AH, Garrett P, Chary A, Dragan E, Lerner G, Murray J, Bassuk AG (2010). "Collagen XVIII mutation in Knobloch ... From the blood, the peptides (containing hydroxyproline) are transported into the target tissues (e.g., skin, bones, and ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Anesthetics / pharmacology * Animals * Bone and Bones / metabolism ... and actual amino acid transport activity and associated ion channel activities. A variety of soluble compounds (e.g. glutamate ...
In experimental models, chronic loss of glutamate transport can produce a loss of motor neurons and, therefore, could ... but defects in synaptosomal high-affinity glutamate transport have been observed. ... Amino Acid Sequence * Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis / metabolism* ... In experimental models, chronic loss of glutamate transport can produce a loss of motor neurons and, therefore, could ...
Systemic injection of kainic acid (KA) in the rat produces an animal model of human temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the ... 0/Amino Acid Transport System X-AG; 0/Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists; 0/Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3; 0/Glutamate Plasma ... Amino Acid Transport System X-AG / metabolism*. Animals. Cell Line. Disease Models, Animal. Epilepsy / chemically induced, ... Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists / toxicity*. Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3. Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins. ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic [D12.776.157.530.200.249]. *Amino Acid Transport System X-AG [D12.776.157.530.200.249.500] ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic [D12.776.543.585.200.249]. *Amino Acid Transport System X-AG [D12.776.543.585.200.249.500] ... Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins [D12.776.157.530.200.249.500.500]. *Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1 [D12.776. ... Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins [D12.776.543.585.200.249.500.500]. *Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1 [D12.776. ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Motor Neurons * Neuroglia * Glutamic Acid * In Vitro Techniques ... After G3 seeding, cells integrated into the culture slice and resulted in levels of glutamate transport sufficient to enhance ... After G3 seeding, cells integrated into the culture slice and resulted in levels of glutamate transport sufficient to enhance ... After G3 seeding, cells integrated into the culture slice and resulted in levels of glutamate transport sufficient to enhance ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Medicine & Life Sciences Oligodendroglia Medicine & Life Sciences ...
Nevertheless, it is known from previous studies (44) that intricate interactions between the xc− and XAG− transport systems ... Kort JJ. Impairment of excitatory amino acid transport in astroglial cells infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type ... 1) In normal conditions, XAG− and Xc− transport systems cooperate to regulate glutathione (GSH) synthesis. The xc− antiporter ... The observed perturbations of the EAAT (XAG−) expression and function may thus arise from normal transport systems interaction ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Solitary Nucleus Synaptic Transmission Neuroglia Glutamic Acid ... Acid-sensing ion channels contribute to chemosensitivity of breathing-related neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract. ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Presynaptic Terminals Northwestern University Interdepartmental Neuroscience ...
Valproic Acid Chemical Compounds * Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Chemical Compounds ... Johnson, J., Pajarillo, E., Karki, P., Kim, J., Son, D. S., Aschner, M., & Lee, E. (2018). Valproic acid attenuates manganese- ... T1 - Valproic acid attenuates manganese-induced reduction in expression of GLT-1 and GLAST with concomitant changes in murine ... Valproic acid attenuates manganese-induced reduction in expression of GLT-1 and GLAST with concomitant changes in murine ...
... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 - amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Nucleus Accumbens Amphetamine Mesencephalon Prefrontal Cortex ... For example, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit ... For example, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit ... For example, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Electroencephalography Animal Models 14 引用 (Scopus) ... Impaired cytoplasmic-nuclear transport of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nagara, Y., Tateishi, T ... Launch of new review/editing system for Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology. Yamamura, T., Kira, J-I., Suzumura, A., ... Anti-KIR4.1 antibodies in Japanese patients with idiopathic central nervous system demyelinating diseases. Watanabe, M., ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * homeostasis * hypoxia * glutamates * anion * brain * transporters ... Glutamate transport on these carriers is thought to be driven by the cotransport of Na+, the countertransport of K+, and either ... Glutamate transport on these carriers is thought to be driven by the cotransport of Na+, the countertransport of K+, and either ... Glutamate transport on these carriers is thought to be driven by the cotransport of Na+, the countertransport of K+, and either ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Injections Keywords. *Brain mRNA. *Glutamate uptake ...
... this is mediated by members of the XAG amino acid transport family. 15 16 The XAG transporters are a multigene family of Na+- ... We have reported that the rat lens expresses Xc-, an amino acid transport system capable of mediating cystine uptake in a ... dependent amino acid transporters, which include the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT1 to -5) and the alanine serine ... Cloning and functional characterization of a system ASC-like Na+ dependent neutral amino acid transporter. J Biol Chem. 1996; ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Animals Apoptosis Calcium Calpain Carbon Carbon Monoxide ...
Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2 * Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Inbred ICR Mouse ... The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc−, Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a ... N2 - The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc−, Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a ... AB - The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc−, Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Glutamate Receptors * N-Methylaspartate 19 Scopus citations ... Ag and Si Codoped Phosphate Glasses: Plasmonic Nanocomposites with Enhanced UV Transparency. Jiménez, J. A., 2017, In: Journal ... A framework for describing health care delivery organizations and systems. Piña, I. L., Cohen, P. D., Larson, D. B., Marion, L ... A feasibility study of a deuterium-deuterium neutron generator-based boron neutron capture therapy system for treatment of ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Astrocytes * Neuroglia * Neurons * Glutamic Acid * Vibrissae ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Glutamate Receptors * N-Methylaspartate 19 Scopus citations ... Anantharamu, L., Chlebus, B. S. & Rokicki, M. A., Oct 1 2017, In: Theory of Computing Systems. 61, 3, p. 820-850 31 p.. ... Ag and Si Codoped Phosphate Glasses: Plasmonic Nanocomposites with Enhanced UV Transparency. Jiménez, J. A., 2017, In: Journal ... A framework for describing health care delivery organizations and systems. Piña, I. L., Cohen, P. D., Larson, D. B., Marion, L ...
Amino Acid Sequence. *Amino Acid Transport System X-AG. *Amino Acids/metabolism* ... Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) function as both substrate transporters and ligand-gated anion channels. ... A model for the topology of excitatory amino acid transporters determined by the extracellular accessibility of substituted ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * High Fat Diet * Lactic Acid * Neuroglia ... The Role of Methylated Circulating Nucleic Acids as a Potential Biomarker in Alzheimers Disease. Pai, M. C., Kuo, Y. M., Wang ... Treadmill exercise activates Nrf2 antioxidant system to protect the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons from MPP+ toxicity. Tsou ... in normotensive rats resets the resting blood pressure to lower levels by upregulating the hypothalamic GABAergic system. Hsu, ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG グルタミン酸トランスポーター Peptide Elongation Factors ペプチド延長因子 ... Amino Acid Transport System ASC アミノ酸輸送系ASC Amino Acid Transport Systems アミノ酸トランスポーター ... solute carrier family 1 (glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter), member 4. Disease : Chemicals : Biological Phenomena : ... Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter
Glutamic Acid * D-Aspartic Acid * Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Pressure ... The effects of acute intraocular pressure elevation on rat retinal glutamate transport. Holcombe, D. J., Lengefeld, N., Gole, G ... 31st International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2018, ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Nerve Endings * Neuroglia * Synaptosomes * Glutamic Acid ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Neuropathology * Psychotic Disorders * Rodentia * Ischemia and reperfusion injury. Zhai, Y ... Ohno, Y., 01-01-2017, Imaging of the Cardiovascular System, Thorax, and Abdomen. CRC Press, p. 177-198 22 p.. Research output: ... Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS). Minato, Y. & Baughn, A. D., 01-01-2017, Kucers the Use of Antibiotics: A Clinical Review of ... Kubagawa, H., Chen, C. C., Torii, I., Cooper, M. D., Masuda, K., Katsura, Y. & Kawamoto, H., 2008, How the Immune System ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Astrocytes * Synapses * Memantine * Grooming 58 引用 (Scopus) ... Three Distinct Two-Component Systems Are Involved in Resistance to the Class I Bacteriocins, Nukacin ISK-1 and Nisin A, in ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG * Purkinje Cells * Amino Acid Transport Systems ... 3-Fluoro-N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (3F-NMDA) stereoisomers as conformational probes for exploring agonist binding at NMDA ... N-(cyclohexylmethyl)-2-((5-((phenylmethyl)amino)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)thio)acetamide ...
Système X-AG de transport dacides aminés Entry term(s):. Amino Acid Transport System X AG. Amino Acid Transport System XAG. ... Amino Acid Transport System X AG Amino Acid Transport System XAG Glutamate-Aspartate Transporter - Narrower Concept UI. ... for GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTER use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEM X-AG 1989-2001; for GLUTAMATE TRANSPORT GLYCOPROTEIN use AMINO ACID ... TRANSPORT SYSTEM X-AG 1990-2001; for GLUTAMATE-ASPARTATE TRANSPORTER use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEM X-AG (NM) 1997-2001. ...
  • A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. (bvsalud.org)
  • The clearance of extracellular glutamate is ensured by a high-affinity glutamate uptake system called X AG − ( 48 ) involving excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT) (for reviews, see Refs. (physiology.org)
  • A model for the topology of excitatory amino acid transporters determined by the extracellular accessibility of substituted cysteines. (nih.gov)
  • Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) function as both substrate transporters and ligand-gated anion channels. (nih.gov)
  • The mammalian solute carrier family 1 contains five high affinity, Na + -dependent glutamate transporters and two structurally related Na + -dependent, neutral amino acid transporters. (vtt.fi)
  • Mammalian glutamate transporters take up 1 L-Glu, L-Asp, or D-Asp molecule along with 3 Na + and 1 H + , in exchange for 1 K + , whereas the neutral amino acid transporters instead mediate Na + -dependent exchange of small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Cys and Thr. (vtt.fi)
  • Excitatory amino-acid transporters (EAATs) in the central nervous system maintain extracellular glutamate concentrations below excitotoxic levels and may limit the activation of glutamate receptors. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we characterized the GLU transporters and examined their functions in the feeding circuits of the central nervous system (CNS) in Lymnaea. (elsevier.com)
  • Second, we cloned two types of GLU transporters from the Lymnaea CNS, the excitatory amino acid transporter (LymEAAT) and the vesicular GLU transporter (LymVGLUT). (elsevier.com)
  • Shi T, Joshi V , Joshi M, Vitha S, Gibbs H, Wang K, Okumoto S (2019) Broad-spectrum amino acid transporters ClAAP3 and ClAAP6 expressed in watermelon fruits. (tamu.edu)
  • Transporters involved in amino acid absorption in the human small intestine. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Expression of amino acid transporters along the mouse intestine. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • B 0 AT1, b 0,+ AT, y + LAT1, LAT2, rBAT, SIT1, and PAT1 show the typical signature for transporters primarily involved in amino acid absorption (high in the small intestine, low in colon). (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Known amino acid transporters belong to four different classes and three different structural folds. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • The APC (amino acid, polyamine, organo‐cation) family of transporters have a structure that is also closely related to LeuT, but do not translocate Na + ‐ions. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • To further characterize the influence of chronic ethanol exposure on the developing brain, we assessed the transcriptional and translational regulation of glutamate transporters in a less artificial in vitro system. (cshl.edu)
  • Expression of the excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 was analyzed in comparison to untreated controls with semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. (cshl.edu)
  • There are two means of glucose transport, facilitative and secondary active transport, each of which involves different classes of transporters. (asnjournals.org)
  • It is possible that other transporters may account for additional glucose transport activity in the kidney. (asnjournals.org)
  • Its primary function here is to mediate active glucose and galactose transport across the apical membrane at low sugar concentration, but it also mediates expression of facilitative transporters at high glucose concentration. (asnjournals.org)
  • Levels of DF-AG in plasma were high, as reflected by a DF-AG/DF ratio of 0.62 ± 0.21 (C max mean ± S.D.) and 0.84 ± 0.21 (area under the concentration-time curve mean ± S.D.). Both DF and DF-AG were also studied as substrates of different human drug transporters in vitro. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In experimental models, chronic loss of glutamate transport can produce a loss of motor neurons and, therefore, could contribute to the disease. (nih.gov)
  • It is particularly striking that approximately 65% of sporadic ALS patients have been reported to express aberrant glutamate transporter transcripts in affected neurons, a phenotype correlated with inhibition of glutamate transport. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • MHC class II molecules are transported to the endocytic pathway, where they bind peptides derived from proteins entering the endosomal-phagosomal pathway, which are then at the plasma membrane presented to CD4 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • All of their matrix proteins are nuclear-encoded, synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol, and post-translationally transported into the organelle. (deepdyve.com)
  • Some peroxisomal proteins possess an amino-terminal signal which may be cleaved after import. (deepdyve.com)
  • SGLT members are multifunctional membrane-bound proteins that display a vast array of functions from sodium-coupled co-transport for sugars, monocarboxylates, amino acids, vitamins, osmolytes, and ions to sodium uniporter activity, channels for urea and water, glucose sensing, and tumor suppression ( 4 , 5 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Most Ags are absorbed through the transcellular pathway, followed by lysosomal degradation that converts proteins into smaller peptides and/or constitutive amino acids. (jimmunol.org)
  • The remainder is transported in the form of intact proteins or their polypeptide by-products, resulting in Ag-specific immune responses in the submucosa. (jimmunol.org)
  • Translocation of glutamate transporter subtype excitatory amino acid carrier 1 protein in kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We examined the temporal expression of the sodium-dependent neuronal glutamate transporter, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), in KA-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • These cells (G3 cells) have a nearly fourfold increase in glutamate transporter expression and at least a twofold increase in the V max for glutamate transport. (elsevier.com)
  • We assessed the effect of HIV infection on glutamate transporter expression as well as on glutamate uptake by macrophages and showed that glutamate transport was partially decreased in the course of virus replication, whereas excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (EAAT-2) gene expression was dramatically increased. (physiology.org)
  • These findings suggest that the transporter component of the glutamate system might not play a significant role in the alterations in glutamate transmission observed following repeated amphetamine administration. (elsevier.com)
  • The decrease in excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (or glutamate transporter-1) expression and increase in glutamate release were attenuated by CPG, sulfasalazine or xCT knockout. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC). (wakehealth.edu)
  • An excitatory amino-acid transporter with properties of a ligand-gated chloride channel. (nih.gov)
  • We propose to conduct a thorough analysis of glutamate transporter mutations in the facile C. elegans model system. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • While the extrusion of excess copper via the CopA copper ATPase and the CusCFBA transporter and the regulation of these systems appear fairly clear, there are still major open questions concerning the metallation of cuproenzymes. (springer.com)
  • In the outward open conformation (PDB: 3TT1) amino acids can enter the transporter through the gap between the scaffold and the bundle from top. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Facilitative transport, which is driven by the concentration gradient across cellular membranes, occurs in essentially all cell types and is mediated by members of the GLUT transporter family. (asnjournals.org)
  • Secondary active transport is the first step in transcellular glucose transport in the intestine and kidney and is mediated by members of the SGLT transporter family. (asnjournals.org)
  • Therefore, caution is warranted when assessing renal and hepatic transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions with DF and DF-AG. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, increased sensitivity of glutamate receptors and enhanced transmembrane transport of glutamate were found in primary astrocyte cultures. (cshl.edu)
  • Finally, this study shows that glutamate transport by macrophages is less affected than what has been described in astrocytes. (physiology.org)
  • This was accomplished by modifying the amino acid sequence of PilA, the structural pilin protein. (asm.org)
  • 5 6 7 8 Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is inherently unstable in free solution. (arvojournals.org)
  • Sulfur contains the amino acids methionine and cysteine which create protein. (agriculture-xprt.com)
  • MTs have the capacity to bind both physiological (such as zinc, copper, selenium) and xenobiotic (such as cadmium, mercury, silver, arsenic) heavy metals through the thiol group of its cysteine residues, which represent nearly 30% of its constituent amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their production is dependent on availability of the dietary minerals such as zinc, copper, and selenium, as well as the amino acids histidine and cysteine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" by people in Profiles. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Ag presentation can also occur independently of Ii expression and newly synthesized class II mol- ecules by recycling of mature class II molecules from the plasma membrane into acidic compartments ( 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc − , Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Adler J, Epstein W (1974) Phosphotransferase system enzymes as chemoreceptors for certain sugars in Escherichia coli Chemotaxis. (springer.com)
  • Biospectra AG (Switzerland) is a manufacturer of analytical instrumentation for biochemical process control - analyzer systems automatic measurements of fermentation compounds, such as: nutrients, sugars, glucose, carbonic acids, amino acids, vitamins, antibiotics. (zhdanov.ru)
  • Nucleic acids research. (elsevier.com)
  • The appearance of protein synthesis controlled by nucleic acids was one of the crucial events in prebiotic evolution. (springer.com)
  • The evolution of nucleic acids coding for the primitive enzymes was extremely slow in prebiotic times before development of membranes. (springer.com)
  • If a variant of nucleic acid (RNA) arose that made a superior type of enzyme, the new enzyme could not selectively contribute to the replication of the new RNA in its competition with the neighboring old RNA copies. (springer.com)
  • Pipkorn R, Wiessler M, Waldeck W, Hennrich U, Nokihara K, Beining M, Braun K. Improved Synthesis Strategy for Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA) appropriate for Cell-specific Fluorescence Imaging. (medsci.org)
  • A search for the very first documentations of peptide nucleic acids (PNA) led to Miller's and Urey's experiments in the year 1953. (medsci.org)
  • Further, PNAs have applications in analysis of biosensor chips for identification of nucleic acids [ 22 ]. (medsci.org)
  • They reveal similarities to the native nucleic acids whose phospho-ribose backbone is substituted by a backbone of poly-2-aminoaethyl glycine with nucleobases connected via an acetate linker [ 31 - 34 ]. (medsci.org)
  • We are using Arabidopsis and watermelon systems to characterize citrulline metabolism. (tamu.edu)
  • Such systems, able to perform metabolism and replication of macromolecules, existed long before the first cells. (springer.com)
  • Osmolytes, often referred to as compatible solutes ( 9 ) owing to their compatibility with cellular metabolism at high internal concentrations, can be either transported into the cell or synthesized de novo and act by counterbalancing the external osmotic strength, thus preventing water loss and plasmolysis ( 14 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Although the metabolism and disposition of diclofenac (DF) has been studied extensively, information regarding the plasma levels of its acyl- β - d -glucuronide (DF-AG), a major metabolite, in human subjects is limited. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The pathogenesis of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unknown, but defects in synaptosomal high-affinity glutamate transport have been observed. (nih.gov)
  • However, CPG, sulfasalazine or xCT knockout did not significantly affect the impaired glutathione system [i.e., decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG)] induced by MA. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • In order to increase glutathione levels, taking 100 milligrams of lipoic acid daily is recommended. (osumex.co.uk)
  • MHC class II molecules are found on the basolateral plasma membrane domain of polarized epithelial cells, where they can present Ag to intraepithelial lymphocytes in the vascular space. (jimmunol.org)
  • Epithelial cells from various organs are involved in MHC class II-restricted Ag presentation (for reviews see Ref. 1 and 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Class II molecules have also been detected in intracellular vesicles in tissue epithelial cells of human and rodents in vivo ( 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 ), but little is known about the actual endocytic compartment to which class II molecules traffic and the signals involved in this transport in epithelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In healthy individuals, small but immunologically significant amounts of Ag cross the defensive epithelial barrier via one of two functional pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • After G3 seeding, cells integrated into the culture slice and resulted in levels of glutamate transport sufficient to enhance total glutamate uptake. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results confirmed the presence of GLU uptake systems in the Lymnaea CNS and showed that LymEAAT is required for proper rhythm generation, particularly for generation of the feeding rhythm. (elsevier.com)
  • While much information is available regarding uptake of these osmolytes from the external environment ( 8 , 40 , 53 ), detailed analysis of osmolyte synthesis systems in Listeria has remained largely unexplored. (asm.org)
  • Ames FL G (1984) The histidine transport system of Salmonella typhimurium. (springer.com)
  • Ames FL G, Nikaido H (1978) Identification of a membrane protein as a histidine transport component in Salmonella typhimurium . (springer.com)
  • Ames FL G, Spudich EN (1976) Protein-protein interaction in transport: Periplasmic histidine-binding protein J interacts with P protein. (springer.com)
  • Comparison of the biological efficacy of dl -methionine and hydroxy-4-methylbutanoic acid (HMB) in pigs and poultry. (cambridge.org)
  • Intracellular accumulation of the amino acid proline has previously been linked to the salt tolerance and virulence potential of a number of bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Perhaps the best-characterised bacterial osmolyte synthesis system is that of proline ( 5 , 24 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Introduction - the endocrine system is an integration system that influences the metabolic activities of cells. (mruni.eu)
  • It has been proposed that Geobacter sulfurreducens requires conductive pili for long-range electron transport to Fe(III) oxides and for high-density current production in microbial fuel cells. (asm.org)
  • These results demonstrate that the pili of G. sulfurreducens must be conductive in order for the cells to be effective in extracellular long-range electron transport. (asm.org)
  • The basolateral membrane faces the vascular space, where the class II molecules may present Ag to emigrating T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Polarized cells may have a more complex sorting system than nonpolarized cells, as they have separate apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains, in addition to separate apical and basolateral early endosomal populations ( 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • There, the interaction of gliadin with macrophages elicits a MyD88-dependent proinflammatory cytokine milieu that facilitates the interaction of T cells with APCs, leading ultimately to the Ag-specific adaptive immune response seen in patients with CD. (jimmunol.org)
  • Biospectra AG also offers a parallel fermentation system with 6 bioreactors at 0.5-2.5l scale for analysis factors affecting quality, stability and productivity of bioprocesses in large-scale bioreactors. (zhdanov.ru)
  • For example, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit expression are altered in a region- and withdrawal-specific manner. (elsevier.com)
  • Our findings show that Na + binding opens and stabilizes the extra cellular gate, thereby allowing for amino acid substrate binding. (elsevier.com)
  • From a hydroxyurea-treated, alanine-resistant, constitutive mutant, alar4, we isolated, in a stepwise fashion, mutants, resistant to higher concentrations of alanine, that have increased velocity of amino acid transport through the A system. (statescale.cf)
  • Although not involved in resorption of the bulk of glucose in the kidney, the kinetic characteristics of SGLT1 are favorable for transport of glucose when present at low concentrations. (asnjournals.org)
  • Therefore, DF-AG concentrations were determined in plasma (acidified blood derived) of six healthy volunteers following a single oral DF dose (50 mg). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Central nervous system disorders are still a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and can lead to dementia and death. (physiology.org)
  • The best histopathological correlate of HAD is the number of activated mononuclear phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) ( 26 ), suggesting that HAD is the consequence of indirect mechanisms involving mononuclear phagocytes rather than that of direct virus effect. (physiology.org)
  • Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter essential for function of the nervous system. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Glutamate is a major excitatory transmitter in the central nervous system that may produce cellular injury when its concentration is abnormally increased in the synaptic cleft. (elsevier.com)
  • Description: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. (strokedoctor.com)
  • These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures. (strokedoctor.com)
  • Central nervous system: stores information, generates thoughts, and determines reactions in response to the sensory input system The endocrine system differs from the nervous system in one primary manner…speed! (mruni.eu)
  • Endocrine System Overview Endocrine System Nervous System Similarities Chemical messenger is hormone Chemical messenger is neurotransmitter Both control organs/systems to maintain homeostasis Messenger travels long distances - intercellular communication Messengers travel a very short distance. (mruni.eu)
  • 8 ] concluded that the adaptive evolution of bacterial metabolic networks in response to changing environments proceeds essentially by horizontal gene transfer (i.e. genes acquired from other species) of genes involved primarily in the transport and catalysis of external nutrients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 5. Lipoic Acid is considered a universal antioxidant. (osumex.co.uk)
  • Systemic injection of kainic acid (KA) in the rat produces an animal model of human temporal lobe epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An alanine was substituted for each of the five aromatic amino acids in the carboxyl terminus of PilA, the region in which G. sulfurreducens PilA differs most significantly from the PilAs of microorganisms incapable of long-range extracellular electron transport. (asm.org)
  • DNA transcription, mRNA splicing and degradation, protein synthesis and targeting, and actual amino acid transport activity and associated ion channel activities. (nih.gov)
  • First, measurement of the accumulation of 3H-labeled GLU revealed the presence of GLU transport systems in the Lymnaea CNS. (elsevier.com)
  • The highest accumulation rate was observed in the buccal ganglia, supporting the involvement of GLU transport systems in feeding behavior. (elsevier.com)
  • Neuraminidase deficiency and accumulation of sialic acid in lymphocytes in adult type sialidosis with partial beta-galactosidase deficiency. (statescale.cf)
  • When we compared their amino acid sequences with those of mammalian EAATs and VGLUTs, we found that the functional domains of both types are well conserved. (elsevier.com)
  • Biospectra also offers optionall in-built glucose controller for various microbial and mammalian cell cultivation systems allows the precise level control for glucose in critical and important ranges near the ks values. (zhdanov.ru)
  • To measure E Cl , we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (I Cl(Ca) ) and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. (elsevier.com)
  • It is specifically need in large amounts at the tips of growing roots and shoots and in developing fruits, because relatively little calcium is transported in phloem. (agriculture-xprt.com)
  • Since the C. elegans model system offers several unique advantages and most biological processes are conserved, we expect that results of the proposed study should provide new insight into basic mechanisms of Glu regulation at the synapse and may suggest novel strategies for preventing neurodegeneration in ALS. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • such as synthesis, regulation, long-distance transport, its role as an N-carrier, and as an osmolyte using molecular and metabolic cues. (tamu.edu)
  • This latter phenomenon uses the paracellular pathway that involves a sophisticated regulation of intercellular tjs that leads, ultimately, to Ag presentation to the GALT. (jimmunol.org)
  • EAAC1, GLT-1, and GLAST, it has become possible to determine if the loss of glutamate transport in ALS is subtype specific. (nih.gov)
  • Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue. (bvsalud.org)