Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acid Transport System y+Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amino Acid Transport System y+LSodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Leucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 126.96.36.199.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Cystinuria: An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Specific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3: A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
L-type amino acid transporters in two intestinal epithelial cell lines function as exchangers with neutral amino acids. (1/28)The present study examined the functional characteristics of the inward [(14)C]-L-leucine transporter in two intestinal epithelial cell lines (human Caco-2 and rat IEC-6). The uptake of [(14)C]-L-leucine was largely promoted through an energy-dependent and sodium-insensitive transporter, although a minor component of [(14)C]-L-leucine uptake ( approximately 15%) required extracellular sodium. [(14)C] -L-leucine uptake was insensitive to N-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, but competitively inhibited by 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). Both L- and D-neutral amino acids, but not acidic and basic amino acids, markedly inhibited [(14)C]-L-leucine accumulation. The efflux of [(14)C]-L-leucine was markedly increased (P < 0.05) by L-leucine and BCH, but not by L-arginine. In IEC-6 cells, but not in Caco-2 cells, the uptake of [(14)C]-L-leucine at acidic pH (5.0 and 5.4) was greater (P < 0.05) than at pH 7.4. In conclusion, it is likely that system B(0) might be responsible for the sodium-dependent uptake of L-leucine in Caco-2 and IEC-6 cells, whereas sodium-independent uptake of L-leucine may include system LAT1, whose activation results in transstimulation of L-leucine outward transfer. (+info)
Functional and molecular characteristics of system L in human breast cancer cells. (2/28)The functional and molecular properties of system L in human mammary cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) have been examined. All transport experiments were conducted under Na(+)-free conditions. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was almost abolished by BCH (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid). AIB uptake by MDA-MB-231 cells was also inhibited by L-alanine (83.6%), L-lysine (75.6%) but not by L-proline. Similarly, L-lysine and L-alanine, respectively, reduced AIB influx into MCF-7 cells by 45.3% and 63.7%. The K(m) of AIB uptake into MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was, respectively, 1.6 and 8.8 mM, whereas the V(max) was, respectively, 9.7 and 110.0 nmol/mg protein/10 min. AIB efflux from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was trans-stimulated by BCH, L-glutamine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-lysine and AIB (all at 2 mM). In contrast, L-glutamate, L-proline, L-arginine and MeAIB had no effect. The interaction between L-lysine and AIB efflux was one of low affinity. The fractional release of AIB from MDA-MB-231 cells was trans-accelerated by D-leucine and D-tryptophan but not by D-alanine. MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells expressed LAT1 and CD98 mRNA. MCF-7 cells also expressed LAT2 mRNA. The results suggest that AIB transport in mammary cancer cells under Na(+)-free conditions is predominantly via system L which acts as an exchange mechanism. The differences in the kinetics of AIB transport between MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells may be due to the differential expression of LAT2. (+info)
Basolateral LAT-2 has a major role in the transepithelial flux of L-cystine in the renal proximal tubule cell line OK. (3/28)During renal reabsorption, the amino acid transporters b(o,+) and y(+)L have a major role in the apical uptake of cystine and dibasic amino acids and in the basolateral efflux of dibasic amino acids, respectively. In contrast, the transporters responsible for the basolateral efflux of the apically transported cystine are unknown. This study shows the expression of system L and y(+)L transport activities in the basolateral domain of the proximal tubule-derived cell line OK and the cloning of the corresponding LAT-2 and y(+)LAT-1 cDNAs. Stable transfection with a LAT-2 antisense sequence demonstrated the specific role of LAT-2 in the basolateral system L amino acid exchange activity in OK cells. This partial reduction of LAT-2 expression decreased apical-to-basolateral trans-epithelial flux of cystine and resulted in a twofold to threefold increase in the intracellular content of cysteine. In contrast, the content of serine, threonine, and alanine showed a tendency to decrease, whereas other LAT-2 substrates were not affected. This demonstrates that LAT-2 plays a major specific role in the net basolateral efflux of cysteine and points to LAT-2 as a candidate gene to modulate cystine reabsorption. (+info)
Functional properties of multispecific amino acid transporters and their implications to transporter-mediated toxicity. (4/28)The absorption, distribution and excretion of most of xenobiotics, drugs, environmental toxins and their metabolites are mediated by membrane transporters. Recent advances in the transporter molecular biology have made it possible to investigate the mechanisms of transport of those exogenous compounds and their transporter-mediated toxicity at the molecular level. Exogenous compounds including drugs and toxic substances occurring in the environment pass through the transporters with broad substrate selectivity, namely "multispecific" transporters, taking advantage of the multispecific nature to exert their toxic effects. The remarkable examples of such transporter-mediated toxicity are 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium (MPP+)-neurotoxicity mediated by dopamine transporters, cephaloridine-nephrotoxicity mediated by organic anion transporters and methylmercury-toxicity mediated by system L amino acid transporters. The molecular identification of system L transporter LAT1 (L-type amino acid transporter 1) has lead to the understanding of the mechanisms of their multispecific substrate recognition and revealed their localization at the blood-brain barrier and placental barrier. LAT1 relies on the hydrophobic interaction between substrate amino acid side chains and the substrate binding site, so that many variations are possible for the substrate amino acid side chains, which is the basis of the broad substrate selectivity. System L transporters, thus, function as a path for the membrane permeation of drugs and toxic compounds occurring in the environment with amino acid-related structures. Beside methylmercury-cysteine conjugate, amino acid-related neurotoxins such as beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and 3-hydroxykynurenine are proposed to pass through system L transporters to exert their toxicity. Because the presence of such transporters is crucial for the manifestation of the organ toxicity, the inhibition of the transporters would be expected to be beneficial to prevent the disorders caused by the transporter-mediated toxicity. (+info)
Identification of a novel system L amino acid transporter structurally distinct from heterodimeric amino acid transporters. (5/28)A cDNA that encodes a novel Na+-independent neutral amino acid transporter was isolated from FLC4 human hepatocarcinoma cells by expression cloning. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the encoded protein designated LAT3 (L-type amino acid transporter 3) transported neutral amino acids such as l-leucine, l-isoleucine, l-valine, and l-phenylalanine. The LAT3-mediated transport was Na+-independent and inhibited by 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, consistent with the properties of system L. Distinct from already known system L transporters LAT1 and LAT2, which form heterodimeric complex with 4F2 heavy chain, LAT3 was functional by itself in Xenopus oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence of LAT3 was identical to the gene product of POV1 reported as a prostate cancer-up-regulated gene whose function was not determined, whereas it did not exhibit significant similarity to already identified transporters. The Eadie-Hofstee plots of LAT3-mediated transport were curvilinear, whereas the low affinity component is predominant at physiological plasma amino acid concentration. In addition to amino acid substrates, LAT3 recognized amino acid alcohols. The transport of l-leucine was electroneutral and mediated by a facilitated diffusion. In contrast, l-leucinol, l-valinol, and l-phenylalaninol, which have a net positive charge induced inward currents under voltage clamp, suggesting these compounds are transported by LAT3. LAT3-mediated transport was inhibited by the pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide, consistent with the property of system L2 originally characterized in hepatocyte primary culture. Based on the substrate selectivity, affinity, and N-ethylmaleimide sensitivity, LAT3 is proposed to be a transporter subserving system L2. LAT3 should denote a new family of organic solute transporters. (+info)
Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates LAT1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle: role in cell growth. (6/28)Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) contributes to vascular disease by stimulating the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since amino acids are required for cell growth, the present study examined the effect of PDGF on system L amino acid transport, which is the predominant cellular pathway for the uptake of essential amino acids. System L amino acid transport was monitored by measuring the uptake of L-leucine. Treatment of SMCs with PDGF stimulated L-leucine transport in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and this was associated with a selective increase in LAT1 mRNA and protein. PDGF failed to induce the expression of the other system L transport proteins, LAT2 and the heavy chain of the 4F2 cell surface antigen. The induction of LAT1 by PDGF was dependent on de novo RNA and protein synthesis and on mTOR activity. Serum, thrombin, and angiotensin II likewise stimulated L-leucine transport by inducing LAT1 expression. Inhibition of system L amino acid transport by the model substrate 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid blocked growth factor-mediated SMC proliferation and induced SMC apoptosis, whereas it had no effect on quiescent cells. These results demonstrate that growth factors stimulate system L amino acid transport by inducing LAT1 gene expression and that system L amino acid transport is essential for SMC proliferation and survival. The capacity of vascular mitogens to induce LAT1 expression may represent a basic mechanism by which tho acid transport * apoptosis (+info)
Identification of LAT4, a novel amino acid transporter with system L activity. (7/28)System L amino acid transporters mediate the movement of bulky neutral amino acids across cell membranes. Until now three proteins that induce system L activity have been identified: LAT1, LAT2, and LAT3. The former two proteins belong to the solute carrier family 7 (SLC7), whereas the latter belongs to SLC43. In the present study we present a new cDNA, designated LAT4, which also mediates system L activity when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Human LAT4 exhibits 57% identity to human LAT3. Like LAT3, the amino acid transport activity induced by LAT4 is sodium-, chloride- and pH-independent, is not trans-stimulated, and shows two kinetic components. The low affinity component of LAT4 induced activity is sensitive to the sulfhydryl-specific reagent N-ethylmaleimide but not that with high affinity. Mutation in LAT4 of the SLC43 conserved serine 297 to alanine abolishes sensitivity to N-ethylmaleimide. LAT4 activity is detected at the basolateral membrane of PCT kidney cells. In situ hybridization experiments show that LAT4 mRNA is restricted to the epithelial cells of the distal tubule and the collecting duct in the kidney. In the intestine, LAT4 is mainly present in the cells of the crypt. (+info)
Homocysteine transport by human aortic endothelial cells: identification and properties of import systems. (8/28)Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Transport of L-homocysteine into and out of the human vascular endothelium is poorly understood. We hypothesized that cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) would import L-homocysteine on one or more of the L-cysteine transport systems. Inhibitors of the transporters were used to characterize the uptake of [35S]L-homocysteine, [35S]L-homocystine, and [35S]L-cysteine. We found that L-homocysteine uptake is mediated by the sodium-dependent cysteine transport systems X(AG), ASC, and A, and the sodium-independent transport system L. Thus, HAEC utilize multiple cysteine transporters (X(AG) > or = L > ASC > A) to import L-homocysteine. Kinetic analysis supported the uptake results. Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) for the four systems yielded values of 19.0, 27.1, 112, and 1000 microM for systems L, X(AG), ASC, and A, respectively. The binding and uptake of [35S]L-homocystine, the disulfide homodimer of L-homocysteine, was mediated by systems X(AG), L, and ASC but not by system A. In contrast to [35S]L-homocysteine, system x(c) was active for [35S]L-homocystine uptake. A similar pattern was observed for [35S]L-cysteine. Thus, L-homocysteine and L-homocystine found in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects can gain entry into the vascular endothelium by way of multiple L-cysteine transporters. (+info)
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This is one of a number of cell lines derived from malignant gliomas (see also ATCC ® HTB-15™ and HTB-16™ ) by J. Ponten and associates from 1966 to 1969 (see also Allen, 2016).
Buy SLC7A7 elisa kit, Monkey Y+L amino acid transporter 1 (SLC7A7) ELISA Kit-NP_001119578.1 (MBS7228917) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Nuclear Neuroimaging is becoming an important diagnostic tool with increasing impact in neurological and neuro-oncological practice. An emerging use of brain FDG-PET is the early recognition of a potentially treatable cause of rapid progressive dementia. This is the case of Autoimmune Limbic Encephalitis, where brain FDG-PET findings may appear even before characteristic brain MRI hyperintensities. On the other hand, PET is a well-established method in systemic oncology, and is being increasingly used to supplement MRI in the clinical management of brain tumors. The evidence-based recommendation by the PET- Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology working group (RANO) and the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO) on the clinical use of PET imaging in gliomas, and the recently published joint guidelines of the SNMMI and EANM focusing on radiotracers that are used in clinical practice imaging, i.e. glucose metabolism, 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG), and system L amino acid transport ...
How much of Leucine (Leu or L) α-amino acid is present in Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds harvested, canned food in details, quantity how high or low Leucine (Leu or L) α-amino acid nutrient content it has.
Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members ofthe glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family.EMBO J. 1999 Jan 4;18(1):49-57. PMID: 9878049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Amino acid transport across cellular membranes is mediated by multiple transporters with overlapping specificities. We recently have identified the vertebrate proteins which mediate Na+-independent exchange of large neutral amino acids corresponding to transport system L. This transporter consists of a novel amino acid permease-related protein (LAT1 or AmAT-L-lc) which for surface expression and function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen. We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately 48% identical with LAT1 and thus belong to the same family of ...
A year or so ago I was aware that Royal Canin was using feathers in their pet food, to be honest at the time I thought it was an act of desperate cost saving, however it is a whole lot more clever than that!. So a little understanding of immune responses is essential here, basically the body is set up to detect and destroy evil foreign proteins(invaders). Sometimes however it goes wrong and recognises good (or normal) proteins as evil too. In food this causes Adverse Food Reactions, Atopic Dermatitis and so on. Now the immune response is also linked to the size of these proteins - the protein size is measured in Daltons which is the measurement for mass on an molecular scale - and the bigger the protein the bigger the response. This can be partly due to it being easier to "see" by the immune system.. The goal of Royal Canin was to produce a food with protein molecules that were less than 1kDa (1000 Daltons) in size to prevent the immune reaction. Now part of the Royal Canin philosophy is for ...
Redistribution n Drug releases re-enters circulatory system from l Depot binding l Protein binding l Ion trapping n Bound / unbound drug l Ratio maintained l Prolongs drug effects ~
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesbranched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein (TIGR00796; HMM-score: 412.2) ...
The L5 Translucent Magazine was developed to implement improvements recommended by military and law enforcement personnel. Lancer Systems, working with a major small arms manufacturer, applied an engineered translucent polymer, steel feed lips and a removable rubber coated bottom to produce a 30 round translucent magazine that can withstand the rigors of professional use.. Features:. * Made in the ...
PROFESSIONAL ISSUES IN IT Scenario Software projects have a reputation for delivering over cost, over time and failing to meet the user or client expectations. The IT department you are a project manager in is no exception. The team of over 40 seem to work hard but rarely satisfy either the demand for IT services or on new software developments. As an IT professional you find the situation frustrating as the systems function is currently overloaded and is under performing. Unfortunately, a culture of mistrust has built up between the business users and the IT service function. Task 1 A new CEO has taken over the running of the company. At the last company he worked for COBIT (Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies) was in place. He is wondering if it might help improve the situation in the scenarios organisation. You have been asked to investigate. Write a report outlining your evaluation of this possibility for the CEO. State clearly any assumptions you make and give ...
It was originated by A.J. Hackett, et al. along with the Hs 578Bst (see ATCC HTB-125), which is a normal fibroblast-like line from the same patient. The Hs 578T cell strain was derived from a carcinoma of the breast.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. L-type amino acid transporter 1 - SLC7 family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
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The mechanism of the observed decrease in the plasma concentration of several amino acids in the presence of high levels of Leu has remained unexplained. In the present study a decrease in the plasma concentration of Ile, Val, Phe, Tyr, Met, Ala, Pro and Gly was observed after the intraperitoneal injection of Leu to weanling rats. Decreases in net intracellular concentrations in muscle accompanied the decrease in plasma of all of these amino acids except Pro and Gly. An increase in the distribution ratio muscle/plasma was observed exclusively for Gly after administration of Leu or of a non-insulinogenic transport system L analogue. Diazoxide suppressed the Leu-induced decreases in plasma and muscle intracellular concentrations of Ile and Val as well as of Pro in plasma. An increase in the distribution ratio liver/plasma was observed for Pro and Gly in the absence but not in the presence of diazoxide. All the above changes were statistically significant. Hence insulin probably mediates Leu ...
To evaluate the expression of alanine-serine-cysteine-transporter 2 (ASCT2) and L-type amino acid transporter1 (LAT1) in prostate cancer (PCa) and their impact on uptake of 18F-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18F-fluciclovine) which is approved for the detection of recurrent PCa. Twenty-five hormone-naïve patients with histologically confirmed PCa underwent PET/CT before prostatectomy. Dynamic imaging was performed immediately after injection of 368 ± 10 MBq of 18F-fluciclovine and the uptake in PCa was expressed as SUVmax at six sequential 4-min time frames and as tracer distribution volume (VT) using Logan plots over 0-24 min. The expression of ASCT2 and LAT1 was studied with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing three cores per carcinoma lesion. The TMA slides were scored independently by two trained readers based on visual intensity of ASCT2/LAT1 expression on a four-tiered scale. The correlations between ASCT2/LAT1 staining intensity, SUVmax/VT, and
Abstract:. Peptides and proteins are large biomolecules composed of long chains of L -amino acids and plays key functions in the living organisms. A variety of techniques are used to characterize these biomolecules and, among the techniques used, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been extensively employed both for the preparative as well as the analytical characterization of peptides and proteins. Various HPLC techniques developed for the separation of proteins rely on the differences in the adsorption characteristics, surface charge, ligand specificity, and molecular size of protein molecules. Advancements made in these HPLC techniques have contributed immensely to the development of peptides and proteins based pharmaceuticals. Present article summarizes the principle, methods, and applications of the most common HPLC techniques used in the field of peptides and proteins.. ...
Neurotransmitters associated with pediatric neurotransmitter diseases include the catecholamines, serotonin, and the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobuytric (GABA).. The pathways leading to the metabolism (production), synthesis (building up of), and catabolism (break down) of neurotransmitters are extremely complicated systems. The following is the pathways for the dopamine neurotransmitters pathway.. When there is a disruption within the neurotransmitter system, it can cause abnormalities with many of the brains essential functions. In pediatric neurotransmitter diseases children are born with genetic defects that affect the neurotransmitter pathways and the use of the related neurotransmitter. The specific pediatric neurotransmitter disease is determined by where the defect in the pathway occurs. For example in Aromatic L Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency the AADC enzyme is affected in the dopamine pathway and children cannnot effectively utilize the neurotransmitter ...
It should be noted that the functionally defined L-type amino acid transport activities as described in this and many other studies may result from a mixture of functionally similar amino acid transporters that share common features such as Na+ dependence, BCH sensitivity, and neutral amino acid substrate preference. To date, at least four members of this family, LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, and LAT4, have been cloned (Bodoy et al., 2005). LAT1 and LAT2 are heterodimeric transporters that require coexpression of both LAT and 4F2hc for function and exhibit trans-stimulation (Verrey, 2003). In contrast, LAT3 and LAT4 are structurally distinct from LAT1 and LAT2 and are functional independent of 4F2hc (Babu et al., 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). It has been shown that different LAT subtypes exhibit distinct expression profiles across tissues and species (Verrey, 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). Moreover, different LAT subtypes show differences in substrate specificity, transport kinetics, and other properties such as ...
Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. PMID 11901210 ...
When you are not feeling up to par, there are a few solutions available to remedy the situation: 1) you wait it out and hope it goes away; 2) you Google to find the answer (and sometimes you feel worse after reading what those symptoms might really be; or 3) you take yourself to the doctor.. Babies and pets are the only ones who must suffer in silence because they are unable to tell you they dont feel well. An astute parent, or pet parent, notices a not-so-perky or listless demeanor or crying/whining and that is all you have to go on.. Toddlers or children are more vocal. Theyll come up to you and say "Ive got a tummy ache" and will point a chubby finger around the area of their bellybutton. Well, that doesnt help much, so, it is up to you to play detective and decide if the malady warrants a trip to the pediatrician, or even the E.R., or just a few days spent in bed. Pain that is generally located around the center of the abdomen, or the bellybutton is considered "simple" abdominal pain ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems/chemistry/*metabolism, Amino Acid Transport Systems; Neutral/chemistry/metabolism, Endoplasmic Reticulum/*metabolism, Membrane Proteins/genetics/*metabolism, Mutation, Protein Folding, Protein Structure; Quaternary, Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology/genetics/*metabolism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism, Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism ...
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Staphylococcus aureus; strain: COL; locus tag: SACOL1443 (SACOL_RS07360); symbol: brnQ3; product: branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein
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Acetic acid;heptane-1,2,3,4,5,6,7-heptol | C9H20O9 | CID 312987 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
(4-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-yl)methanol hydrochloride |p|SPC Code: SPC-a553|/p||p|CAS RN: 105176-66-7|/p||p|Smiles: Cl.OCC12(CCC(N)(CC1)CC2)|/p||p|Formula: HCl.C9H17NO|/p||p|MolWeight: 191.701|/p||p|Purity: 95|/p|
L-leucine 4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide hydrochloride;4467-68-9;H-leu-4m-betana hcl;H-leu-4mbna hcl;L-leu-4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide hcl;L-leucine 4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide hydrochloride;L-leucyl-4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide hydrochloride;TS77403.Tetrahedron
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Several studies have shown that the cRNA of human, rabbit, or rat rBAT induces in Xenopus oocytes sodium-independent, high affinity uptake of L-cystine via a system b0,(+)-like amino acid exchanger. We have shown that mutations in rBAT cause type I cystinuria (Calonge, M. J., Gasparini, P., Chillarón, J., Chillón, M., Gallucci, M., Rousaud, F., Zelante, L., Testar, X., Dallapiccola, B., Di Silverio, F., Barceló, P., Estivill, X., Zorzano, A., Nunes, V., and Palacín, M. (1994) Nat. Genet. 6, 420-425; Calonge, M. J., Volipini, V., Bisceglia, L., Rousaud, F., De Sanctis, L., Beccia, E., Zelante, L., Testar, X., Zorzano, A., Estivill, X., Gasparini, P., Nunes, V., and Palacín, M. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92, 9667-9671). Apart from oocytes, no other expression system has been used for transfection of functional rBAT activity. Furthermore, the b0,(+)-like transport activity has not been clearly described in the kidney or intestine. Here, we report that a "proximal tubular-like" cell ...
The transport of S-cysteine conjugates was studied in the kidney cell line, LLC-PK1, using the nephrotoxin, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (L-DCVC), as the model compound. The saturable uptake of this conjugate did not require sodium and was selectively inhibited by the amino acid transport system L-specific substrate, 2-amino-2-norbornane carboxylic acid, as well as a variety of other S-cysteine conjugates and neutral amino acids with large, nonpolar side chains. Kinetic studies suggested the existence of both low and high affinity transport systems with Km values that differed by 25-fold. Although these uptake systems showed no discernible differences in substrate specificity, the low affinity transport was more sensitive to trans-stimulation. L-DCVC uptake in subconfluent cultures was about 3-fold that of confluent cells, suggesting either adaptive regulation to cell growth or polarization of transport to the basolateral membrane. L-DCVC toxicity in LLC-PK1 cells was inhibited in the ...
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Abstract The synthesis of optically pure (1 S ,4 S )-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid starting from easily available chiral pool l ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hyperosmotic stress up-regulates amino acid transport in vascular endothelial cells. AU - Kempson, Stephen A.. AU - Hoshaw, Martha J.. AU - Hinesley, Rose S.. AU - Mcateer, James A.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Cultured vascular endothelial cells take up L-proline by sodium- dependent transport. Cells incubated in medium made hyperosmotic by addition of sucrose showed a dose-dependent increase in Na+/proline cotransport. Studies with α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid revealed that the up-regulation was specific for amino acid transport system A. Up-regulation was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, indicating roles for gene transcription and protein synthesis. Upregulation was maximum after five to six hours of hyperosmotic treatment, but returned to control levels when osmotic stress was maintained for 24 hours. The decline at 24 hours was accompanied by a significant increase in Na+/γ-aminobutyric acid cotransport. The activity of this system, which also ...
The original databanks were created by geologists interested in the movement of the planetary poles, and they were first used by archaeologists during the s. Jeffrey Eighmys Archaeometrics Laboratory at Colorado State provides details of the method and its specific use in the American southwest. This method is a chemical procedure that uses a dynamical systems formula to establish the effects of the environmental context systems theoryand was developed by Douglas Frink and the Archaeological Consulting Team.. OCR has been used recently to date the construction of Watson Brake. Racemization dating is a process which uses the measurement of the decay rate of carbon protein amino acids to date once-living organic tissue. All living organisms have protein; protein is made up of amino acids.. All but one of these amino acids glycine has two different chiral forms mirror images of each other. While an organism lives, their proteins are composed of only left-handed laevo, or L amino acids, but once ...
This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world� s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest possible sensitivity
PhD thesis defense at P-O Bäckströms sal (Aulan), SLU building 8th May, 13.00Title: New insights into plant amino acid transport and its contribution to ni...
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Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth ... Microvilli on the apical surface increase surface area for the digestion and transport of molecules from the intestinal lumen. ...
Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... Histology image: 11706loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Digestive System: Alimentary Canal - jejunum, ... This typically occurs through active transport.. *Water uptake. This follows the osmotic gradient established by Na+/K+ ATPase ...
Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... 150 mg/day), it acts on serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, whereas at high doses (>300 mg/day), it also affects ... Although the perception and transmission of pain stimuli in the central nervous system have not been fully elucidated, ...
Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... In this way the thionein-metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ... of its constituent amino acid residues. MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding ...
The plants are slowly starved of these amino acids and eventually DNA synthesis stops. ESPS Inhibitors affect grasses and ... They are medically important by interfering with components of the nervous system affecting membrane transport, protein ... ALS Inhibitors affect grasses and dicots by inhibiting the first step in some amino acid synthesis, acetolactate synthesis. ... Alkaloids are derived from amino acids, and contain nitrogen. ...
"Coupled and uncoupled proton movement by amino acid transport system N". EMBO Journal. 20 (24): 7041-51. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... Since Systems A are electrogenic which Systems N are not, the amino acid:cation stoichiometries may differ. Fischer, WN; Loo, ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids". Plant Journal. 29 ( ... Six AAAPs in A. thaliana are well characterized and transport neutral and charged amino acids with varying specificities and ...
P. aeruginosa contain 13 RND transport systems, including one HME-RND and the remaining HAE-RNDs. Among the best identified are ... RND proteins are large and can include more than 1000 amino acid residues. They are generally composed of two homologous ... Most of the RND superfamily transport systems are made of large polypeptide chains. RND proteins exist primarily in gram- ... The RND protein dictates the substrate for the completed transport systems including: metal ions, xenobiotics or drugs. ...
In this system, the anionic form of cystine is transported in exchange for glutamate. Cystine is quickly reduced to cysteine.[ ... Cystine is the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid cysteine and has the formula (SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H)2. It is a white solid that ... This transport system, which is highly specific for cystine and glutamate, increases the concentration of cystine inside the ... The presence of cystine in urine is often indicative of amino acid reabsorption defects. Cystinuria has been reported to occur ...
Amino acid synthesis. Chloroplasts alone make almost all of a plant cell's amino acids in their stroma except the sulfur- ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system. ... Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. ...
The bacteria synthesise amino acids, vitamins, and haem for the protozoan. In return the protozoan offers its enzymes for the ... The bacteria are known to provide essential nutrients to the host, and provide electron transport system for the production of ... the genomic cooperation between bacterium and host in the synthesis of essential amino acids is heavily influenced by multiple ... complete metabolic pathways for the biosysnthesis of amino acids, lipids and nucleotides, that are absent in the bacterium. ...
... is a member of a heterodimeric Na+-independent anionic amino acid transport system highly specific for cystine and ... the amino acid transport activity system xc-". Pflugers Archiv. 442 (2): 286-96. doi:10.1007/s004240100537. PMID 11417227. ... the light chain of amino acid transport system xc-". Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2 (4): 665-71. doi:10.1089/ars.2000.2.4- ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A11 solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11". Lutgen V, Resch J, ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, ... The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ...
Jones HN, Ashworth CJ, Page KR, McArdle HJ (2006). "Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a ... "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is ... 2006). "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic ... 2006). "Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 ( ...
... is a member of the system y+ family of transporters characterized by sodium-independent transport of cationic amino acids.[ ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A3 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3". Hosokawa H, Sawamura T, ... Cationic amino acid transporter 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A3 gene. SLC7A3 ... Ito K, Groudine M (1997). "A new member of the cationic amino acid transporter family is preferentially expressed in adult ...
"Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport". J. Biol ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A1 gene. Amino acid ... 2007). "Activation of a system A amino acid transporter, ATA1/SLC38A1, in human hepatocellular carcinoma and preneoplastic ... a subtype of amino acid transporter A, from human placenta". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 273 (3): 1175-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...
"Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder". J. ... SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in ... Solute carrier family 6 member 19 also known as the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 or system B(0) ... Bröer S (January 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-286. ...
... via the bile acid transport system, where most is stored; though some remains in the blood stream and may contaminate tissue. ... Microcystins contain several uncommon non-proteinogenic amino acids such as dehydroalanine derivatives and the uncommon β-amino ... The impact of exposure to microcystin by patients with a compromised immune system is not yet fully known, but is starting to ... Some evidence shows the toxin can be transported by irrigation into the food chain, Microcystins are chemically stable over a ...
... but often the various transport systems can handle unnatural amino acids with apolar side-chains. In the second case, a ... while the added amino acids are called non-standard amino acids (NSAAs), or unnatural amino acids (uAAs; term not used in ... or non-canonical amino acids. The first element of the system is the amino acid that is added to the genetic code of a certain ... An amino acid auxotrophic expression host is supplemented with an amino acid analog during target protein expression. This ...
Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... are water-soluble and are thus readily transported through the circulatory system. Other hormones, including steroid and ... Peptides composed of scores or hundreds of amino acids are referred to as proteins. Examples of protein hormones include ... Vertebrate hormones fall into three main chemical classes: Amino acid derived - Examples include melatonin and thyroxine. ...
Glutamate (the conjugate base of glutamic acid) is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and ... However, there is a possibility that two human-specific "fixed" amino acid substitutions, D71G in GRIN3A and R727H in GRIN3B, ... Weaver CD, Gundersen V, Verdoorn TA (January 1998). "A high affinity glutamate/aspartate transport system in pancreatic islets ... Meldrum B (1993). "Amino acids as dietary excitotoxins: a contribution to understanding neurodegenerative disorders". Brain Res ...
Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... A hormone is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by ... Female endocrine system. Male endocrine system Endocrine disease Endocrinology Exocrine gland Neuroendocrinology Nervous system ... The human endocrine system consists of several systems that operate via feedback loops. Several important feedback systems are ...
The amino-acid sequence identity can go down to 15% between ParM and other actin-like ATPase. The mechanism of partition ... The net result being transport of partition complex to the cell pole. The partition system of the plasmid R388 has been found ... Amino-acid sequence identity can go down to 21% for TubZ proteins. The mechanism is similar to a treadmill mechanism: Multiple ... This system has been proposed to be the type IV partition system. It is thought to be a derivative of the type I partition ...
This transport system normally removes cysteine from the fluid destined to become urine and returns this essential amino acid ... such as glucose or amino acids. When the lipid bilayer is impermeable to the molecule needing transport, active transport is ... Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) EAAT1 EAAT2 EAAT3 EAAT4 EAAT5 Glucose transporter Monoamine transporters, including ... Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes passively, carrier proteins can transport ions and ...
The transport mechanism for tryptophan is shared with the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine. ... amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation on the exercise-induced change in plasma and muscle concentration of amino acids in ... Branch-chained amino acid supplementation has proven to have little to no effect on performance. There has been little success ... Amino acids, brain neurotransmitters and a functional link between muscle and brain that is important in sustained exercise. In ...
Kudo Y, Boyd CA (August 2002). "Changes in expression and function of syncytin and its receptor, amino acid transport system B( ... Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A5 gene. Glutamate transporter Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5". Tailor CS, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y ... Uchiyama T, Matsuda Y, Wada M, Takahashi S, Fujita T (April 2005). "Functional regulation of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid ...
... rich in hydroxylated amino acids such as serine, threonine, and proline, and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... the new chloroplast host had to develop a unique protein targeting system to avoid having chloroplast proteins being sent to ... Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence. They can be from 20-150 amino acids ...
Amino acid transport systems, Amino acids diamino, Mutation, Sulphydryl compounds, urine, Cystine, Carrier proteins, Cystinuria ... The genetic basis of the disorder is best characterized in humans and is caused by mutations in one of the amino acid ... which results in hyperexcretion of cystine and the dibasic amino acids in the urine and subsequent precipitation of cystine due ... in French and English Bulldogs that affect nonconserved amino acid residues, arguing against functional impact on the proteins ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Astrocytes Ischemia Glutamic Acid Hippocampal CA1 Region ...
Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ... Transport mediated by SA1 is also electrogenic. Amino acid transport Systems A and N thus appear closely related in function as ...
... is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a ... xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System. Fri, 09/06/2013 - 13:53 ... Home » xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System ... an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The cysteine is subsequently transported ...
What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean in finance? ... Definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ... redirected from Amino acid transport systems, neutral). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. neutral. ...
Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by liquid ...
The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular ... like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(18): ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ...
Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems. U ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ...
The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... "The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ...
Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. In: Journal of Biochemistry. 1991 ; Vol. 110, No. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Journal of Biochemistry. 1991 Jul;110(1):9-11. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Hiroyuki Fukui, Hiroyuki ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. / Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, ...
... ... chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis has been proposed as a model for the coupling of energy metabolism with amino acid transport ... Although this model has been extensively studied in procaryotic systems, it has not been well characterized in eucaryotic ... systems. Isolation of a mutant yeast strain with altered plasma membrane ATPase activity and the preparation of spheroplasts ...
Jones, C. R., Srinivas, S. R., Devoe, L. D., Ganapathy, V., & Prasad, P. D. (2002). Inhibition of system A amino acid transport ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. American journal of obstetrics ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. / Jones, Chandra R.; Srinivas, ... Jones, CR, Srinivas, SR, Devoe, LD, Ganapathy, V & Prasad, PD 2002, Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ...
Amino acid transport systems, neutral explanation free. What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid ... transport systems, neutral medical term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean? ... Looking for online definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the Medical Dictionary? ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral , definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary https:// ...
A reduced activity of LAT1 remains the primary hypothesis possibly due to a modification of intracellular amino acid content ... relation to genotype and amino acid transport system L Chloé C Feral 1 , Floriane S Tissot 1 , Lionel Tosello 1 , Nicolas ... relation to genotype and amino acid transport system L Chloé C Feral et al. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017 May. . ... Fluorine-18 labeled amino acids for tumor PET/CT imaging. Qi Y, Liu X, Li J, Yao H, Yuan S. Qi Y, et al. Oncotarget. 2017 Aug 4 ...
Cystinuria is an autosomal-recessive defect in reabsorptive transport of cystine and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, ... Amino acid transport system. Localization in proximal converted tubule. S3. S1, S2 ... Cloning and chromosomal localization of a human kidney cDNA involved in cystine, dibasic, and neutral amino acid transport. J ... Amino acid metabolism in cystinuria. Q J Med New Series. 1974. 214:507-12. ...
series parallel diagram single cell analysis of kynurenine and system l amino acid transport in t cells nature communications. ... Piezo Controllers Drivers For Nanopositioning Systems Series Parallel Diagram Position Control Electronics Optimizes System ...
We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a process in ... N2 - We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ... AB - We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ... abstract = "We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ...
Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N. ... Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N. Together they form a unique ...
... a branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein) contributed to Erava heteroresistance in S. aureus. Genetic ... Furthermore, two efflux pump family proteins encoded by USA300HOU_RS01625 (a branched-chain amino acid transport system II ... encodes a branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein), USA300HOU_RS03535 and USA300HOU_Tet(K), each into ... and branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein, Na/Pi cotransporter family protein in Staphylococcus aureus ...
... and the ability to take up one or more of the 20 common L-alpha-amino acids was studied in order to obtain a complete picture … ... All known amino-acid permeases (AAPs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae belong to a single family of homologous proteins. Genes of 15 ... Amino Acid Transport Systems * Amino Acids / metabolism* * Amino Acids / pharmacokinetics * DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics ... Radiolabelled amino-acid uptake measurements showed that Agp1p is a general permease for most uncharged amino acids (Ala, Gly, ...
... in the vertebrate nervous system. The process by which developing neurons select between these two cell fates is poorly ... Vesicular Transport Proteins* * gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / metabolism* Substances * Amino Acid Transport Systems ... in the vertebrate nervous system. The process by which developing neurons select between these two cell fates is poorly ... Gad1/2 and Viaat that regulate GABA synthesis and transport, and the kainate receptors Grik2/3. Third, ectopic expression of ...
AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS : THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ...
Double mutants deficient in transport of both these amino acids still possess the general amino acid transport system, a third ... system which was described previously. Evidence for additional amino acid transport systems in Chlorella is discussed. ... Six amino acids are transported at high rates across the plasmalemma of Chlorella vulgaris only after the induction of two ... List of Publication » Selection and characterization of chlorella mutants deficient in amino Acid transport : further evidence ...
branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein Aromatic compound transport protein 1076 ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 4 3UKJ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 7 4EYQ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein UNP residues 27-385 1076 ...
Amino acid transport system xc xCT antibody. *Amino acid transport system xc- ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. ... Solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter light chain, xc- system), member 11 ... Solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11 ...
TransporterProteinSubstratesMetabolismTryptophanPeptidesCellsFingerprintGlutamineAnaloguesExtracellular amino acidsCationic amino acidsGeneral amino-acid permeaseGlutamateSpecificityGlycineNitrogenMetabolicPermeaseHigh affinitySaccharomycesCharacterizationSubstrateCell membranesPlacentaPathwaysMechanismsNeutral amino acid transportHeteromericMethylaminoTransporters playSubstancesMammalian aminoEssential aminoNeuronsInsulinPlacentalNutrientMolecularStarvationBrain interstitialInduces systemSubtypeGene expressionAffinityNucleic AcidsMechanism
- We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that shows close similarity to the recently identified System N transporter (SN1). (pnas.org)
- The System A transporter (SA1) and SN1 share many functional characteristics, including a marked sensitivity to low pH, but, unlike SN1, SA1 does not mediate proton exchange. (pnas.org)
- Consistent with this sensitivity, we found that the System N transporter (SN1) mediates proton exchange as well as Na + cotransport ( 26 ). (pnas.org)
- xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. (novusbio.com)
- OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of ethanol on system A amino acid transporter in BeWo cells. (elsevier.com)
- System A activity in these cells is mediated exclusively by the system A subtype, amino acid transporter A2 (ATA2). (elsevier.com)
- L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. (abcam.com)
- The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
- Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
- Translocation of glutamate transporter subtype excitatory amino acid carrier 1 protein in kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
- We examined the temporal expression of the sodium-dependent neuronal glutamate transporter, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), in KA-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
- Anti-tumor effects of an antagonistic mAb against the ASCT2 amino acid transporter on KRAS-mutated human colorectal cancer cells. (nih.gov)
- Anti-tumor effects of mAb against L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) bound to human and monkey LAT1 with dual avidity modes. (nih.gov)
- Aromatic amino acid auxotrophs constructed by recombinant marker exchange in Methylophilus methylotrophus AS1 cells expressing the aroP-encoded transporter of Escherichia coli. (bireme.br)
- The procedure begins with the Mu-driven integration of the Escherichia coli gene aroP, which encodes the common aromatic amino acid transporter, into the genome of M. methylotrophus. (bireme.br)
- Here, we document that the purified Hfq protein of the plant pathogen and natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens binds to the previously described sRNA AbcR1 and its target mRNA atu2422 , which codes for the substrate binding protein of an ABC transporter taking up proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). (asm.org)
- The selectivity of the nontransported inhibitors 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid for, respectively, PAT1 and the H + -coupled di/tripeptide transporter PepT1 (SLC15A1) were examined. (aspetjournals.org)
- Sloan JL, Mager S. Cloning and functional expression of a human Na(+) and Cl(-)-dependent neutraland cationic amino acid transporter B(0+).J Biol Chem. (tcdb.org)
- The open reading frame encodes a 642-amino acid protein named amino acid transporter B(0+). (tcdb.org)
- Thus, hATB(0+) is the first cloned B(0+) amino acid transporter. (tcdb.org)
- Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and expression of porcine y+L amino acid Transporter-1. (semanticscholar.org)
- Lysine deficiency and feed restriction independently alter cationic amino acid transporter expression in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). (semanticscholar.org)
- So far, transporter IVIVE of hepatocyte data generally does not account for any potential differences in the transporter expression between the tissue and the actual cellular system used, which may contribute to this underprediction trend observed. (aspetjournals.org)
- "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is mediated by an intronic element. (tcdb.org)
- "Immunohistochemical localization of the amino acid transporter SNAT2 in the rat brain. (tcdb.org)
- "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation and cap-independent translation. (tcdb.org)
- "Localization of the Na(+)-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 in the cerebral cortex. (tcdb.org)
- Mutations in these genes cause the nitrogen-regulated general amino acid permease gene ( GAP1 ) to be abnormally expressed and block the nonspecific induction of arginase ( CAR1 ) and the peptide transporter ( PTR2 ). (asm.org)
- Because System A also catalyzes Na + -dependent amino acid transport sensitive to low pH, we considered that the protein(s) responsible might belong to the same family as VGAT and, in particular, SN1. (pnas.org)
- To demonstrate that the rBAT protein is functionally related to this transport activity, we have transfected OK cells with human rBAT antisense and sense sequences. (uzh.ch)
- In contrast, the chronic phase is associated with an induction of ata2 gene expression as evidenced from the increase in the steady-state levels of ATA2 mRNA, restoration of the intracellular pool of ATA2 protein, and blockade of the induction by cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The increase in system A activity induced by amino acid starvation is blocked specifically by system A substrates, including the non-metabolizable α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid. (elsevier.com)
- RT-qPCR analysis and the in vitro overexpression experiments indicated that USA300HOU_RS00550 (an Na/Pi cotransporter family protein) and USA300HOU_RS01625 (a branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein) contributed to Erava heteroresistance in S. aureus . (biomedcentral.com)
- Mechanistically, genetic studies in Drosophila, along with cellular and biophysical studies in mammalian systems, demonstrate the dominant negative effect exerted by the mutant on the wild-type (WT) protein, which explains dominant inheritance. (bireme.br)
- The nuclear transport activity of various mutants was estimated by analyzing the proportion of protein localized in the nucleus. (bireme.br)
- RESULTS In the absence of insulin, gAd stimulated AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation, SNAT2 protein expression, and system A activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid β- N -methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. (mdpi.com)
- For instance, BMAA is a small non-protein amino acid that appears to be synthesized by the entire cyanobacterial phylum [ 5 , 6 ], suggesting that BMAA is a fundamental cellular metabolite in cyanobacteria. (mdpi.com)
- Note: Tryptophan and Phenylalanine are amino acids commonly found in protein-rich foods such a meat, nuts, and legumes. (amazonaws.com)
- The heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of a type II glycoprotein and a non‐glycosylated polytopic membrane protein. (embopress.org)
- Plasma concentrations of amino acids are frequently elevated in insulin-resistant states, and a protein-enriched diet can impair glucose metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Plasma concentrations of alanine and particularly branched-chain amino acids (AAs) are elevated in insulin-resistant states such as obesity ( 1 , 2 ), and high dietary protein intake impairs glucose metabolism mainly by changing the utilization of gluconeogenic precursors ( 3 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Identification and functional analysis of fructosyl amino acid-binding protein from Gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter sp. (semanticscholar.org)
- Characterization of the binding protein-dependent cellobiose and cellotriose transport system of the cellulose degrader Streptomyces reticuli. (semanticscholar.org)
- A protein chain can consist of anything from ten to tens of thousands of amino acids. (nobelprize.org)
- Some antibiotics inhibit the monitoring mechanism of the molecular ruler (see illustration above), others hinder the formation of the connection between amino acids or block the tunnel through which the emerging protein chain leaves the ribosome. (nobelprize.org)
- Induction of AGP1 by amino acids also requires Grr1p, the F-box protein of the SCF Grr1 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex also required for transduction of the glucose signal generated by the Snf3p and Rgt2p glucose sensors. (asm.org)
- The essential role of Grr1p in this amino acid signaling pathway lends further support to the hypothesis that this protein participates in integrating nutrient availability with the cell cycle. (asm.org)
- Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism 16. (whsmith.co.uk)
- "Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions. (tcdb.org)
- Phylogenetic characterization of novel transport protein families revealed by genome analyses. (antievolution.org)
- Tracing pathways of transport protein evolution. (antievolution.org)
- Ssy1p is a unique member of the amino acid permease gene family, and Ptr3p is predicted to be a hydrophilic protein that lacks known functional homologs. (asm.org)
- Subcellular fractionation experiments reveal that both Ssy1p and Ptr3p are localized to the plasma membrane (PM). Ssy1p requires the endoplasmic reticulum protein Shr3p, the amino acid permease-specific packaging chaperonin, to reach the PM, whereas Ptr3p does not. (asm.org)
- As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly energized, system A substrates, such as glutamine, glycine, proline and alanine, reach high transmembrane gradients and constitute major components of the intracellular amino acid pool. (biomedsearch.com)
- For less permeable substrates the placenta possesses both passive and active transport mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
- Changes in energy availability or ion gradients can profoundly influence net transfer of substrates transported by active mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
- b o,+ AT‐reconstituted systems from HeLa or MDCK cells catalysed transport of arginine that was totally dependent on the presence of one of the b o,+ substrates inside the liposomes. (embopress.org)
- At the cellular level, availability of substrates for energy production, such as AAs and free fatty acids (FFAs), may play an important role in modulating the response to insulin ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- It also mediates an anion leak conductance that is differentially inhibited by transported substrates ( Zhang and Grewer, 2007 ). (tcdb.org)
- The chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis has been proposed as a model for the coupling of energy metabolism with amino acid transport in S. cerevisiae. (kzoo.edu)
- This is mainly because a standard methodology for extracting functional category information, such as individual metabolism, energy generation and transportation systems, has not yet been fully established. (biomedcentral.com)
- Well-known examples include insulin, which comprises 51 amino acid building blocks and controls the metabolism of sugar, or cyclosporine, an eleven amino acid-peptide that has been proven to suppress organ rejection after transplants. (eurekalert.org)
- Carbohydrate Metabolism I: Glycolysis and the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle 13. (whsmith.co.uk)
- Endocrine Metabolism V: Reproductive System 33. (whsmith.co.uk)
- The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
- l-Tryptophan, which is transported exclusively by the general transport system, was used as a substrate. (umn.edu)
- In the presence of glucose as an energy source, NCAO inhibited tryptophan transport competitively (Ki=80 μM) during short time intervals (1-2 min), but adding 100 μM NCAO to a yeast cell suspension resulted in a time-dependent activation of tryptophan transport during the first 15 min of treatment. (umn.edu)
- Following the activation a time-dependent decay of tryptophan transport activity occurred. (umn.edu)
- When a yeast cell suspension was treated with NCAO in the absence of an energy source, an 80% inactivation of tryptophan transport occurred in 90 min. (umn.edu)
- Addition of a fivefold excess of L-lysine during NCAO treatment or prevented inactivation of tryptophan transport. (umn.edu)
- The amino-acids tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine seem to play an important role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. (nature.com)
- Both neurotransmitters are synthesized from aromatic amino-acids, i.e. serotonin from tryptophan, and noradrenalin from tyrosine or its precursor phenylalanine. (nature.com)
- Taken together, different classes of NVU-AATs constitute an integrated dynamic system controlling the homeostasis of AAs such as large neutral amino acids (LNAAs: L-tyrosine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-phenylalanine, L-histidine, L-valine, L-tryptophan, and L-methionine) in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF). (frontiersin.org)
- A number of members of the medical profession have observed that high doses of the trace element selenium, and of the amino acids cysteine, tryptophan, and glutamine can together rapidly reverse the symptoms of AIDS, as predicted by Dr. Harold D. Foster's nutritional hypothesis. (newmediaexplorer.org)
- Poly(A)+ RNA from OK cells induced by system b0,(+)-like transport activity in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
- We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger activity induced by rBAT cRNA in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
- RESULTS: Treatment of BeWo cells with ethanol reduced the activity of system A. The effect was dose and treatment time dependent. (elsevier.com)
- Ethanol did not alter the messenger RNA levels for system A. CONCLUSION: Exposure of BeWo cells to ethanol significantly reduces the function of system A. This finding has potential implications that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of the fetal alcohol syndrome. (elsevier.com)
- The other two known system A subtypes, ATA1 and ATA3, are not expressed in these cells. (elsevier.com)
- Exposure of these cells to an amino acid-free medium induces system A activity. (elsevier.com)
- Mutants for these transport systems were obtained after incubation of Chlorella cells in the presence of acridine orange or ethidium bromide, followed by a selection procedure using the toxic amino acid analogs l-canavanine (for l-arginine), and l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (for l-proline). (fau.de)
- These results demonstrate the pivotal role played by SNAT2 induction in the short-term hypertonic RVI and suggest that neutral amino acids behave as compatible osmolytes in hypertonically stressed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- This effect appeared to be mediated by interleukin-6 release and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling because gAd failed to stimulate system A in cells in which STAT3 had been silenced using small interfering RNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cells use several transport systems to take up folates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This is known as the most abundant amino acid that is present in a person's muscle cells. (archive.org)
- Ussing's definition of active transport made possible an understanding, at the cellular level, of the way in which ions and water are pumped into and out of living cells in order to regulate the ionic composition and water balance in cells, organs, and organisms. (britannica.com)
- Apart from its cation selectivity, it appears to be related to the amino acid transport system B previously characterized in vertebrate epithelial cells. (biologists.org)
- In the first, MSG moves through the incomplete (immature) blood-brain-barrier in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of the unborn and very young, and kills brain cells (neurons), causing permanent damage to the endocrine system that controls appetite. (truthinlabeling.org)
- The alteration of fas receptor and ligand system in hepatocellular carcinomas: How do hepatoma cells escape from the host immune surveillance in vivo ? (wiley.com)
- No system b o,+ transport was detected in liposomes derived from cells expressing rBAT alone. (embopress.org)
- In mammals, L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) enters cells via Na+-dependent transporters SVCT1 (solute carrier family 23 member 1, SLC23A1) and SVCT2 (solute carrier family 23 member 1, SLC23A2). (ebi.ac.uk)
- Vitamin C transport systems of mammalian cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Blood brain barrier (BBB) is a vasculature of the central nervous system (CNS) that is formed by capillary endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
- These are quite different from other capillaries found in the body as their endothelial wall possesses tight junctions which obstruct transport between cells. (hindawi.com)
- More specifically, the endothelial cells also possess transporters which show permeability characteristics and allow transport of oxygen and CO 2 across the BBB, bu these selectively prevent other substances from crossing [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The nitrogen-regulated permeases, the general AAP ( GAP1 [ 34 ]), and the proline-specific permease ( PUT4 [ 63 ]) are high-capacity systems that are induced by growth on low-quality nitrogen sources, their expression enables cells to use amino acids as sole nitrogen sources ( 14 , 27 , 45 ). (asm.org)
- In cells lacking SHR3 , AAPs specifically accumulate in the ER and are not transported to the plasma membrane (PM) ( 38 , 43 ). (asm.org)
- When taken in a form of capsule of tablet, L-glutamine can give protection to your muscles during rigorous workouts and can also enhance your immune system to make it more likely to increase muscle mass. (archive.org)
- Plant roots incorporate inorganic nitrogen into the amino acids glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and aspartic acid, which together serve as the primary metabolites of nitrogen transport to other tissues. (biologists.org)
- Aspartic acid aminotransferase and asparagine synthase use glutamic acid and glutamine, respectively, as nitrogen donors to produce aspartic acid and asparagine. (biologists.org)
- It is the sole system that transports glutamate and glutamine, but it can also transport aspartate and asparagine ( Singh and Röhm 2008 ). (tcdb.org)
- The accumulation by synaptosomal fractions from rat central nervous system tissue of transmitter candidate amino acids and non‐candidate amino acids was studied with respect to ionic requirements, metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and ontogeny. (elsevier.com)
- No potent inhibitors of l‐glutamic acid accumulation were found among several structural analogues or derivatives. (elsevier.com)
- Many of these prn mutations can be directly classified according to the gene product(s) affected on the basis of growth phenotype with respect to L-arginine and L-ornithine utilization, proline-dependent resistance to certain toxic amino acid analogues and effect on supplementation of proline auxotrophies. (cambridge.org)
- The resulting recombinant strain, with improved permeability to certain amino acids and their analogues, was used for mutagenesis. (bireme.br)
- System A function also varies inversely with the concentration of extracellular amino acids as part of adaptive regulation and up-regulates with cell proliferation and hypertonic shock, suggesting additional homeostatic roles. (pnas.org)
- Both Ssy1p and Ptr3p have previously been implicated in relaying signals regarding the presence of extracellular amino acids. (asm.org)
- These findings suggest that Ssy1p and Ptr3p function in the PM as components of a sensor of extracellular amino acids. (asm.org)
- Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate. (abcam.com)
- For example, in the central nervous system, glutamate transporters are critically important in maintaining the extracellular glutamate concentration below neurotoxic levels, and defects of the human D2 gene have been shown to account for the formation of kidney stones in patients with cystinuria. (biologists.org)
- Taurine is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory semi-essential amino acid extensively involved in neurological activities, acting as neurotrophic factor, binding to GABA A/glycine receptors and blocking the excitotoxicity glutamate-induced pathway leading to be a neuroprotective effect and neuromodulation. (mdpi.com)
- It was trans-stimulated by amino acids with the same specificity as rBAT-induced transport activity in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
- Genes of 15 AAPs were overexpressed in different strains, and the ability to take up one or more of the 20 common L-alpha-amino acids was studied in order to obtain a complete picture of the substrate specificity for these permeases. (nih.gov)
- Amino acids are taken up by different transport systems with overlapping substrate specificity. (aspetjournals.org)
- The inhibitory effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid were additive, demonstrating that both PAT1 and PepT1 contribute to intestinal transport of ALA. This is the first demonstration of overlap in substrate specificity between these distinct transporters for amino acids and dipeptides. (aspetjournals.org)
- We show here that SSY1 is required for transcriptional induction, in response to multiple amino acids, of the AGP1 gene encoding a low-affinity, broad-specificity amino acid permease. (asm.org)
- Developmental studies revealed GABA and l‐glutamic acid to have absolute sodium requirements for cortical synaptosomal accumulation from the 16th gestational day through adulthood, with glycine accumulation showing a decreasing sodium requirement as maturation proceeded over this period. (elsevier.com)
- Cyclic hexapeptide in its bioactive form with the integrin-binding tripeptide sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid: Green spheres represent carbon atoms, red oxygen atoms, blue nitrogen atoms and white hydrogen atoms. (eurekalert.org)
- A sequence of the three amino acids arginine, glycine and aspartic acid is the key to the docking at these receptors. (eurekalert.org)
- All four permeases are transcriptionally induced by an extracellular amino acid, but differ in expression with respect to the nitrogen source. (nih.gov)
- or γ- 15 N). The metabolic fate of the dietary 15 N and 13 C was traced using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrogen was the major contributor to the observed amino acid isotopomers with one additional unit mass (M+1). (biologists.org)
- However, there was differential incorporation, with the amine nitrogen of asparagine being incorporated into other amino acids more efficiently than the amide nitrogen. (biologists.org)
- Hilger, D. 2007-04-06 00:00:00 Amino acid transport is a ubiquitous phenomenon and serves a variety of functions in prokaryotes, including supply of carbon and nitrogen for catabolic and anabolic processes, pH homeostasis, osmoprotection, virulence, detoxification, signal transduction and generation of electrochemical ion gradients. (deepdyve.com)
- The volume further deals with the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biotechnological production of amino acids for use as pharmaceuticals and, particularly, as food and feed additives. (springer.com)
- Maternal diet and obesity impact fuels, hormones, and inflammation with powerful effects on fetal metabolic systems. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The acquired form of 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) metabolic acidosis was first described in 1989 and its relationship to chronic acetaminophen ingestion was proposed the next year. (asnjournals.org)
- Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. (hindawi.com)
- The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which poisonous. (wikipedia.org)
- The availability of both a positive selection technique and an extensive nutritional screening system has enabled the identification of fourteen spontaneous deletion mutations, recognized as extending into the prn B gene, specifying the principal L-proline permease, and into at least one other prn gene. (cambridge.org)
- Systematic analysis of amino acid permease genes showed that Ssy1p is involved in transcriptional induction of at least five genes in addition to AGP1 . (asm.org)
- Our results show that the amino acid permease homologue Ssy1p is a sensor of external amino acids, coupling availability of amino acids to transcriptional events. (asm.org)
- By contrast, in the outer-medullary preparation, L-phenylalanine transport occurred via two transport systems, namely a high-affinity system with K1A congruent to 0.33 mM and a low-affinity system with K2A congruent to 7 mM respectively. (biochemj.org)
- The physiological importance of the arrangement of low-affinity and high-affinity transport systems along the kidney proximal tubule is discussed. (biochemj.org)
- The majority of other AAP family members are low-capacity, high-affinity amino acid permeases, each exhibiting characteristic narrow substrate specificities ( 31 ). (asm.org)
- Larimore, FS & Roon, RJ 1978, ' Possible Site-Specific Reagent for the General Amino Acid Transport System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ', Biochemistry , vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 431-436. (umn.edu)
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides an attractive model system for studying adhesion in yeast because of its well-characterized genetics and gene expression systems and the conservation of signal transduction pathways among the yeasts. (asm.org)
- The SSY1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a member of a large family of amino acid permeases. (asm.org)
- Amino acids are transported into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by both general and specific transport systems. (asm.org)
- Selection and characterization of chlorella mutants deficient in amino Acid transport : further evidence for three independent systems. (fau.de)
- The characterization of the control mechanisms of amino acid biosynthesis has revealed insights into principles of genetic and biochemical regulation, such as transcriptional regulators and a new class of regulatory elements, the riboswitch. (springer.com)
- The effect on system A activity was associated with a decrease in the maximal velocity of the transport system without affecting the substrate affinity. (elsevier.com)
- Insulin increased AKT and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, system A activity, and SNAT2 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Both systems have a broad substrate range which excludes 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, an amino acid analog accepted by the mammalian Na(+)-coupled system A. In order to gain insights into the K(+)-coupling mechanism and into amino acid and K+ homeostasis in insects, current studies are designed to delineate the molecular characteristics of these insect transporters. (biologists.org)
- These heterodimers facilitate the transport of amino acids across cell membranes. (novusbio.com)
- Numerous solutes move across the NVU cell membranes with various transport mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
- frequently occurs by way of active transport within cell membranes, an excess of one nutrient (A) may inhibit absorption of a second nutrient (B), if they share the same absorption pathway. (britannica.com)
- Fetal growth is dependent on nutrient availability, which in turn is related to the capacity of the placenta to transport these nutrients. (hindawi.com)
- Furthermore, the placenta with its nutrient transport functions is increasingly seen as being the mediator of maternal nutrition effects on the lifelong health consequences for the child [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- A wide range of nutrients (e.g., amino acids, phosphorus, and lactate) are transported across the placenta mediated by secondary active transport, utilizing energy provided by ion gradients such as sodium, chloride, and protons [ 14 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Their function as exchangers presumably relies on the active accumulation of amino acids through other mechanisms. (pnas.org)
- Animals that feed on nutritionally unbalanced resources such as phloem sap, which typically has sub-optimal amounts of essential amino acids, have evolved mechanisms for acquiring or synthesizing these amino acids. (biologists.org)
- The mechanisms that independently control or modulate Ure2p in response to ammonium and Nil2p activity in response to amino acids have not been elucidated. (asm.org)
- System-L amino acid transporters play a key role in pancreatic β-cell signalling and function. (nih.gov)
- This work has furthermore advanced our understanding of the roles these transporters play in amino acid homeostasis and in various pathologies. (biologists.org)
- Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 transporters play an important role in hepatic drug disposition. (aspetjournals.org)
- Glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons mediate much of the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, respectively, in the vertebrate nervous system. (nih.gov)
- The BBB endothelium together with the astrocytes and neurons are the fundamental elements of the neurovascular unit (NVU) system. (frontiersin.org)
- When combined with insulin, gAd did not affect system A activity or SNAT expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In contrast, fAd abolished insulin-stimulated AKT Thr308 and IRS-1 Tyr612 phosphorylation, system A activity, and SNAT2 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
- As a result, fAd inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport, which may have important implications for placental nutrient transport and fetal growth in pregnancy complications associated with altered maternal adiponectin levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Ive been told by some people to add BCAA's and some insulin spiking amino acids to this shake. (exrx.net)
- We hypothesized that adiponectin regulates placental amino acid transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
- however, the primary determinant of fetal growth is nutrient supply, which is dependent on placental nutrient transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Obesity in pregnancy ( 9 , 10 ) and gestational diabetes mellitus ( 11 ) are associated with low maternal circulating levels of adiponectin, but the impact of adiponectin on placental nutrient transport functions is unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The activity of a range of nutrient transporters has been reported to be decreased in placentas of growth restricted fetuses, whereas at least some studies indicate that placental nutrient transport is upregulated in fetal overgrowth. (hindawi.com)
- These findings suggest that changes in placental nutrient transport may directly contribute to the development of abnormal fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
- Fetal growth is largely determined by nutrient supply, which is dependent upon placental nutrient transport. (hindawi.com)
- This suggests that changes in placental nutrient transport directly contribute to altered fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
- We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a process in which amino acid starvation induces the transport activity. (elsevier.com)
- Molecular characteristics of mammalian and insect amino acid transporters: implications for amino acid homeostasis. (biologists.org)
- Using similar approaches, we are investigating the molecular characteristics of K(+)-coupled amino acid transporters in the larval lepidopteran insect midgut. (biologists.org)
- Dr Julian Dow Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow: Genetic analysis of epithelial transport in Drosophila. (bio.net)
- however, the molecular basis for this transport system is still unknown. (tcdb.org)