Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acid Transport System y+Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amino Acid Transport System y+LSodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Leucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 18.104.22.168.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
L-type amino acid transporters in two intestinal epithelial cell lines function as exchangers with neutral amino acids. (1/28)The present study examined the functional characteristics of the inward [(14)C]-L-leucine transporter in two intestinal epithelial cell lines (human Caco-2 and rat IEC-6). The uptake of [(14)C]-L-leucine was largely promoted through an energy-dependent and sodium-insensitive transporter, although a minor component of [(14)C]-L-leucine uptake ( approximately 15%) required extracellular sodium. [(14)C] -L-leucine uptake was insensitive to N-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, but competitively inhibited by 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). Both L- and D-neutral amino acids, but not acidic and basic amino acids, markedly inhibited [(14)C]-L-leucine accumulation. The efflux of [(14)C]-L-leucine was markedly increased (P < 0.05) by L-leucine and BCH, but not by L-arginine. In IEC-6 cells, but not in Caco-2 cells, the uptake of [(14)C]-L-leucine at acidic pH (5.0 and 5.4) was greater (P < 0.05) than at pH 7.4. In conclusion, it is likely that system B(0) might be responsible for the sodium-dependent uptake of L-leucine in Caco-2 and IEC-6 cells, whereas sodium-independent uptake of L-leucine may include system LAT1, whose activation results in transstimulation of L-leucine outward transfer. (+info)
Functional and molecular characteristics of system L in human breast cancer cells. (2/28)The functional and molecular properties of system L in human mammary cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) have been examined. All transport experiments were conducted under Na(+)-free conditions. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was almost abolished by BCH (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid). AIB uptake by MDA-MB-231 cells was also inhibited by L-alanine (83.6%), L-lysine (75.6%) but not by L-proline. Similarly, L-lysine and L-alanine, respectively, reduced AIB influx into MCF-7 cells by 45.3% and 63.7%. The K(m) of AIB uptake into MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was, respectively, 1.6 and 8.8 mM, whereas the V(max) was, respectively, 9.7 and 110.0 nmol/mg protein/10 min. AIB efflux from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was trans-stimulated by BCH, L-glutamine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-lysine and AIB (all at 2 mM). In contrast, L-glutamate, L-proline, L-arginine and MeAIB had no effect. The interaction between L-lysine and AIB efflux was one of low affinity. The fractional release of AIB from MDA-MB-231 cells was trans-accelerated by D-leucine and D-tryptophan but not by D-alanine. MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells expressed LAT1 and CD98 mRNA. MCF-7 cells also expressed LAT2 mRNA. The results suggest that AIB transport in mammary cancer cells under Na(+)-free conditions is predominantly via system L which acts as an exchange mechanism. The differences in the kinetics of AIB transport between MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells may be due to the differential expression of LAT2. (+info)
Basolateral LAT-2 has a major role in the transepithelial flux of L-cystine in the renal proximal tubule cell line OK. (3/28)During renal reabsorption, the amino acid transporters b(o,+) and y(+)L have a major role in the apical uptake of cystine and dibasic amino acids and in the basolateral efflux of dibasic amino acids, respectively. In contrast, the transporters responsible for the basolateral efflux of the apically transported cystine are unknown. This study shows the expression of system L and y(+)L transport activities in the basolateral domain of the proximal tubule-derived cell line OK and the cloning of the corresponding LAT-2 and y(+)LAT-1 cDNAs. Stable transfection with a LAT-2 antisense sequence demonstrated the specific role of LAT-2 in the basolateral system L amino acid exchange activity in OK cells. This partial reduction of LAT-2 expression decreased apical-to-basolateral trans-epithelial flux of cystine and resulted in a twofold to threefold increase in the intracellular content of cysteine. In contrast, the content of serine, threonine, and alanine showed a tendency to decrease, whereas other LAT-2 substrates were not affected. This demonstrates that LAT-2 plays a major specific role in the net basolateral efflux of cysteine and points to LAT-2 as a candidate gene to modulate cystine reabsorption. (+info)
Functional properties of multispecific amino acid transporters and their implications to transporter-mediated toxicity. (4/28)The absorption, distribution and excretion of most of xenobiotics, drugs, environmental toxins and their metabolites are mediated by membrane transporters. Recent advances in the transporter molecular biology have made it possible to investigate the mechanisms of transport of those exogenous compounds and their transporter-mediated toxicity at the molecular level. Exogenous compounds including drugs and toxic substances occurring in the environment pass through the transporters with broad substrate selectivity, namely "multispecific" transporters, taking advantage of the multispecific nature to exert their toxic effects. The remarkable examples of such transporter-mediated toxicity are 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium (MPP+)-neurotoxicity mediated by dopamine transporters, cephaloridine-nephrotoxicity mediated by organic anion transporters and methylmercury-toxicity mediated by system L amino acid transporters. The molecular identification of system L transporter LAT1 (L-type amino acid transporter 1) has lead to the understanding of the mechanisms of their multispecific substrate recognition and revealed their localization at the blood-brain barrier and placental barrier. LAT1 relies on the hydrophobic interaction between substrate amino acid side chains and the substrate binding site, so that many variations are possible for the substrate amino acid side chains, which is the basis of the broad substrate selectivity. System L transporters, thus, function as a path for the membrane permeation of drugs and toxic compounds occurring in the environment with amino acid-related structures. Beside methylmercury-cysteine conjugate, amino acid-related neurotoxins such as beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and 3-hydroxykynurenine are proposed to pass through system L transporters to exert their toxicity. Because the presence of such transporters is crucial for the manifestation of the organ toxicity, the inhibition of the transporters would be expected to be beneficial to prevent the disorders caused by the transporter-mediated toxicity. (+info)
Identification of a novel system L amino acid transporter structurally distinct from heterodimeric amino acid transporters. (5/28)A cDNA that encodes a novel Na+-independent neutral amino acid transporter was isolated from FLC4 human hepatocarcinoma cells by expression cloning. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the encoded protein designated LAT3 (L-type amino acid transporter 3) transported neutral amino acids such as l-leucine, l-isoleucine, l-valine, and l-phenylalanine. The LAT3-mediated transport was Na+-independent and inhibited by 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, consistent with the properties of system L. Distinct from already known system L transporters LAT1 and LAT2, which form heterodimeric complex with 4F2 heavy chain, LAT3 was functional by itself in Xenopus oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence of LAT3 was identical to the gene product of POV1 reported as a prostate cancer-up-regulated gene whose function was not determined, whereas it did not exhibit significant similarity to already identified transporters. The Eadie-Hofstee plots of LAT3-mediated transport were curvilinear, whereas the low affinity component is predominant at physiological plasma amino acid concentration. In addition to amino acid substrates, LAT3 recognized amino acid alcohols. The transport of l-leucine was electroneutral and mediated by a facilitated diffusion. In contrast, l-leucinol, l-valinol, and l-phenylalaninol, which have a net positive charge induced inward currents under voltage clamp, suggesting these compounds are transported by LAT3. LAT3-mediated transport was inhibited by the pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide, consistent with the property of system L2 originally characterized in hepatocyte primary culture. Based on the substrate selectivity, affinity, and N-ethylmaleimide sensitivity, LAT3 is proposed to be a transporter subserving system L2. LAT3 should denote a new family of organic solute transporters. (+info)
Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates LAT1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle: role in cell growth. (6/28)Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) contributes to vascular disease by stimulating the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since amino acids are required for cell growth, the present study examined the effect of PDGF on system L amino acid transport, which is the predominant cellular pathway for the uptake of essential amino acids. System L amino acid transport was monitored by measuring the uptake of L-leucine. Treatment of SMCs with PDGF stimulated L-leucine transport in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and this was associated with a selective increase in LAT1 mRNA and protein. PDGF failed to induce the expression of the other system L transport proteins, LAT2 and the heavy chain of the 4F2 cell surface antigen. The induction of LAT1 by PDGF was dependent on de novo RNA and protein synthesis and on mTOR activity. Serum, thrombin, and angiotensin II likewise stimulated L-leucine transport by inducing LAT1 expression. Inhibition of system L amino acid transport by the model substrate 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid blocked growth factor-mediated SMC proliferation and induced SMC apoptosis, whereas it had no effect on quiescent cells. These results demonstrate that growth factors stimulate system L amino acid transport by inducing LAT1 gene expression and that system L amino acid transport is essential for SMC proliferation and survival. The capacity of vascular mitogens to induce LAT1 expression may represent a basic mechanism by which tho acid transport * apoptosis (+info)
Identification of LAT4, a novel amino acid transporter with system L activity. (7/28)System L amino acid transporters mediate the movement of bulky neutral amino acids across cell membranes. Until now three proteins that induce system L activity have been identified: LAT1, LAT2, and LAT3. The former two proteins belong to the solute carrier family 7 (SLC7), whereas the latter belongs to SLC43. In the present study we present a new cDNA, designated LAT4, which also mediates system L activity when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Human LAT4 exhibits 57% identity to human LAT3. Like LAT3, the amino acid transport activity induced by LAT4 is sodium-, chloride- and pH-independent, is not trans-stimulated, and shows two kinetic components. The low affinity component of LAT4 induced activity is sensitive to the sulfhydryl-specific reagent N-ethylmaleimide but not that with high affinity. Mutation in LAT4 of the SLC43 conserved serine 297 to alanine abolishes sensitivity to N-ethylmaleimide. LAT4 activity is detected at the basolateral membrane of PCT kidney cells. In situ hybridization experiments show that LAT4 mRNA is restricted to the epithelial cells of the distal tubule and the collecting duct in the kidney. In the intestine, LAT4 is mainly present in the cells of the crypt. (+info)
Homocysteine transport by human aortic endothelial cells: identification and properties of import systems. (8/28)Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Transport of L-homocysteine into and out of the human vascular endothelium is poorly understood. We hypothesized that cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) would import L-homocysteine on one or more of the L-cysteine transport systems. Inhibitors of the transporters were used to characterize the uptake of [35S]L-homocysteine, [35S]L-homocystine, and [35S]L-cysteine. We found that L-homocysteine uptake is mediated by the sodium-dependent cysteine transport systems X(AG), ASC, and A, and the sodium-independent transport system L. Thus, HAEC utilize multiple cysteine transporters (X(AG) > or = L > ASC > A) to import L-homocysteine. Kinetic analysis supported the uptake results. Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) for the four systems yielded values of 19.0, 27.1, 112, and 1000 microM for systems L, X(AG), ASC, and A, respectively. The binding and uptake of [35S]L-homocystine, the disulfide homodimer of L-homocysteine, was mediated by systems X(AG), L, and ASC but not by system A. In contrast to [35S]L-homocysteine, system x(c) was active for [35S]L-homocystine uptake. A similar pattern was observed for [35S]L-cysteine. Thus, L-homocysteine and L-homocystine found in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects can gain entry into the vascular endothelium by way of multiple L-cysteine transporters. (+info)
"Coupled and uncoupled proton movement by amino acid transport system N". EMBO Journal. 20 (24): 7041-51. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... Since Systems A are electrogenic which Systems N are not, the amino acid:cation stoichiometries may differ. Fischer, WN; Loo, ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids". Plant Journal. 29 ( ... Six AAAPs in A. thaliana are well characterized and transport neutral and charged amino acids with varying specificities and ...
... is a member of a heterodimeric Na+-independent anionic amino acid transport system highly specific for cystine and ... the amino acid transport activity system xc-". Pflugers Archiv. 442 (2): 286-96. doi:10.1007/s004240100537. PMID 11417227. ... the light chain of amino acid transport system xc-". Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2 (4): 665-71. doi:10.1089/ars.2000.2.4- ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A11 solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11". Lutgen V, Resch J, ...
"Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder". J. ... SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in ... Solute carrier family 6 member 19 also known as the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 or system B(0) ... Bröer S (January 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-286. ...
Jones HN, Ashworth CJ, Page KR, McArdle HJ (2006). "Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a ... "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is ... 2006). "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic ... 2006). "Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 ( ...
Kudo Y, Boyd CA (August 2002). "Changes in expression and function of syncytin and its receptor, amino acid transport system B( ... Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A5 gene. Glutamate transporter Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5". Tailor CS, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y ... Uchiyama T, Matsuda Y, Wada M, Takahashi S, Fujita T (April 2005). "Functional regulation of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid ...
... and l-γ-Amino-β-Hydroxybutyric Acids in GABA Receptor and Transport Test Systems" (pdf). Journal of Neuroscience. 1 (2): 132- ... γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand ... Effect of gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABHB) on experimentally-induced epileptic activity]" [Effect of γ-amino-β- ... García-Flores E, Farías R (1997). "γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid as add-on therapy in adult patients with severe focal epilepsy ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... 150 mg/day), it acts on serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, whereas at high doses (>300 mg/day), it also affects ... Although the perception and transmission of pain stimuli in the central nervous system have not been fully elucidated, ...
... encodes a small non-coding RNA involved in the regulation of a number of amino acid transport systems as well as amino acid ... GcvB RNA also is involved in regulating a variety of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis such as ilvC, gdhA, thrL and ... "The gcvB gene encodes a small untranslated RNA involved in expression of the dipeptide and oligopeptide transport systems in ... "The gcvB gene encodes a small untranslated RNA involved in expression of the dipeptide and oligopeptide transport systems in ...
Amino Acid Transport System L at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates ... "Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of the glycoprotein-associated amino acid ... "Entrez Gene: SLC3A2 solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 2". Kucharzik T, ... Verrey F, Closs EI, Wagner CA, Palacin M, Endou H, Kanai Y (2004). "CATs and HATs: the SLC7 family of amino acid transporters ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)
... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.522.214.171.1240 -- amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 -- amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 -- amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 -- amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
... encodes a small non-coding RNA involved in the regulation of a number of amino acid transport systems as well as amino acid ...
Amino Acid Transport System L at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Verrey F, Closs EI, Wagner CA, Palacin M, Endou H, Kanai Y (2004). "CATs and HATs: the SLC7 family of amino acid transporters ... CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ... Boado RJ, Li JY, Nagaya M, Zhang C, Pardridge WM (1999). "Selective expression of the large neutral amino acid transporter at ...
Expanded genetic code
... but often the various transport systems can handle unnatural amino acids with apolar side-chains. In the second case, a ... while the added amino acids are called non-standard amino acids (NSAAs), or unnatural amino acids (uAAs; term not used in ... or non-canonical amino acids. The first element of the system is the amino acid that is added to the genetic code of a certain ... An amino acid auxotrophic expression host is supplemented with an amino acid analog during target protein expression. This ...
... as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. ... "Lipoic acid affects cellular migration into the central nervous system and stabilizes blood-brain barrier integrity". J. ... No difference in brain uptake of glucose, amino acids, organic acids, purines, nucleosides, or choline was observed between ... Other methods used to get through the BBB may entail the use of endogenous transport systems, including carrier-mediated ...
Membrane transport protein
This transport system normally removes cysteine from the fluid destined to become urine and returns this essential amino acid ... such as glucose or amino acids. When the lipid bilayer is impermeable to the molecule needing transport, active transport is ... Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) EAAT1 EAAT2 EAAT3 EAAT4 EAAT5 Glucose transporter Monoamine transporters, including ... Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes passively, carrier proteins can transport ions and ...
The plants are slowly starved of these amino acids and eventually DNA synthesis stops. ESPS Inhibitors affect grasses and ... They are medically important by interfering with components of the nervous system affecting membrane transport, protein ... ALS Inhibitors affect grasses and dicots by inhibiting the first step in some amino acid synthesis, acetolactate synthesis. ... Alkaloids are derived from amino acids, and contain nitrogen. ...
... because the transport system which brings tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier is also selective for the other amino acids ... High plasma levels of other large neutral amino acids compete for transport and prevent the elevated plasma tryptophan from ... In animals including humans, serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan by a short metabolic pathway consisting ... aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (DDC) and the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate. The TPH-mediated reaction is the rate-limiting ...
Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth ... Microvilli on the apical surface increase surface area for the digestion and transport of molecules from the intestinal lumen. ...
The bacteria synthesise amino acids, vitamins, and haem for the protozoan. In return the protozoan offers its enzymes for the ... The bacteria are known to provide essential nutrients to the host, and provide electron transport system for the production of ... the genomic cooperation between bacterium and host in the synthesis of essential amino acids is heavily influenced by multiple ... complete metabolic pathways for the biosysnthesis of amino acids, lipids and nucleotides, that are absent in the bacterium. ...
... part of the system of Na-K-Cl cotransporters) couple with the amino or imino acids on the molecular level and transport them ... instead of the amino group found in amino acids. Proline is considered and usually referred to as an amino acid, but unlike ... The neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19 (affecting glycine, proline, and other neutral amino acids like cysteine and ... "Neutral amino acid transport mediated by ortholog of imino acid transporter SIT1/SLC6A20 in opossum kidney cells" (Free full ...
Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... In this way the thionein-metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ... of its constituent amino acid residues. MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, ... The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ...
... a disease that leads to cystine stones in the urinary system due to impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids. ... This protein plays a role in the high-affinity and sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids ... Solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 9 also known as SLC7A9 is a protein which in ... Heterodimeric amino acid transporter Solute carrier family "SLC7A9". Feliubadaló L, Font M, Purroy J, Rousaud F, Estivill X, ...
... is a member of the system y+ family of transporters characterized by sodium-independent transport of cationic amino acids.[ ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A3 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3". Hosokawa H, Sawamura T, ... Cationic amino acid transporter 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A3 gene. SLC7A3 ... Ito K, Groudine M (1997). "A new member of the cationic amino acid transporter family is preferentially expressed in adult ...
"Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport". J. Biol ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A1 gene. Amino acid ... 2007). "Activation of a system A amino acid transporter, ATA1/SLC38A1, in human hepatocellular carcinoma and preneoplastic ... a subtype of amino acid transporter A, from human placenta". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 273 (3): 1175-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...
Susan K. Gilmour
She has begun evaluating new approaches to disrupting the transport system through which polyamines can be imported into cancer ... Amino Acids. 2014 Mar;46(3):543-52. Epub 2013 Jul 25. http://www.limr.org/doc/Page.asp?PageID=DOC004139 http://www. ... with an inhibitor of the polyamine transport system not only blocks tumor growth but also promotes anticancer immune responses ...
This is one of a number of cell lines derived from malignant gliomas (see also ATCC ® HTB-15™ and HTB-16™ ) by J. Ponten and associates from 1966 to 1969 (see also Allen, 2016).
The SLC43 family is composed of only three genes coding for the plasma membrane facilitator system l amino acid transporters LAT3 (SLC43A1; TC 2.A.1.44.1) and LAT4 (SLC43A2; TC 2.A.1.44.2), and the orphan protein EEG1 (SLC43A3; TC 2.A.1.44.3). Beside
Okamoto Y., Sakata M., Ogura K., Yamamoto T., Yamaguchi M., Tasaka K., Kurachi H., Tsurudome M., Murata Y.. The neutral amino acid transport system L is a sodium-independent transport system in human placenta and choriocarcinoma cells. Recently, it was found that the heterodimer composed of hLAT1 (a light-chain protein) and 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc), a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is responsible for system L amino acid transport. We found that the mRNAs of 4F2hc and hLAT1 were expressed in the human placenta and a human choriocarcinoma cell line. The levels of the 4F2hc and hLAT1 proteins in the human placenta increased at full term compared with those at midtrimester. Immunohistochemical data showed that these proteins were localized mainly in the placental apical membrane. Data from leucine uptake experiments, Northern blot analysis, and immunoblot analysis showed that this transport system was partially regulated by protein kinase C and calcium ionophore in the human choriocarcinoma cell ...
Buy SLC7A7 elisa kit, Monkey Y+L amino acid transporter 1 (SLC7A7) ELISA Kit-NP_001119578.1 (MBS7228917) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Amount of Leucine (Leu or L) α-amino acid in Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds harvested, canned food
How much of Leucine (Leu or L) α-amino acid is present in Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds harvested, canned food in details, quantity how high or low Leucine (Leu or L) α-amino acid nutrient content it has.
Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members ofthe glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family.EMBO J. 1999 Jan 4;18(1):49-57. PMID: 9878049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Amino acid transport across cellular membranes is mediated by multiple transporters with overlapping specificities. We recently have identified the vertebrate proteins which mediate Na+-independent exchange of large neutral amino acids corresponding to transport system L. This transporter consists of a novel amino acid permease-related protein (LAT1 or AmAT-L-lc) which for surface expression and function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen. We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately 48% identical with LAT1 and thus belong to the same family of ...
Periodical: Halpern, Berthold, J. W. Westley, Ingilt Von Wrendenhagen, and Joshua Lederberg. Optical Resolution of D,L Amino Acids by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 20, 6 (1965): 710-714. Article. 5 Images ...
A year or so ago I was aware that Royal Canin was using feathers in their pet food, to be honest at the time I thought it was an act of desperate cost saving, however it is a whole lot more clever than that!. So a little understanding of immune responses is essential here, basically the body is set up to detect and destroy evil foreign proteins(invaders). Sometimes however it goes wrong and recognises good (or normal) proteins as evil too. In food this causes Adverse Food Reactions, Atopic Dermatitis and so on. Now the immune response is also linked to the size of these proteins - the protein size is measured in Daltons which is the measurement for mass on an molecular scale - and the bigger the protein the bigger the response. This can be partly due to it being easier to "see" by the immune system.. The goal of Royal Canin was to produce a food with protein molecules that were less than 1kDa (1000 Daltons) in size to prevent the immune reaction. Now part of the Royal Canin philosophy is for ...
Distribution & Fate Lesson 5. Distribution n Drug disperses throughout system l does not reach target l silent receptors n...
Redistribution n Drug releases re-enters circulatory system from l Depot binding l Protein binding l Ion trapping n Bound / unbound drug l Ratio maintained l Prolongs drug effects ~
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesbranched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein (TIGR00796; HMM-score: 412.2) ...
The L5 Translucent Magazine was developed to implement improvements recommended by military and law enforcement personnel. Lancer Systems, working with a major small arms manufacturer, applied an engineered translucent polymer, steel feed lips and a removable rubber coated bottom to produce a 30 round translucent magazine that can withstand the rigors of professional use.. Features:. * Made in the ...
PROFESSIONAL ISSUES IN IT Scenario Software projects have a reputation for delivering over cost, over time and failing to meet the user or client expectations. The IT department you are a project manager in is no exception. The team of over 40 seem to work hard but rarely satisfy either the demand for IT services or on new software developments. As an IT professional you find the situation frustrating as the systems function is currently overloaded and is under performing. Unfortunately, a culture of mistrust has built up between the business users and the IT service function. Task 1 A new CEO has taken over the running of the company. At the last company he worked for COBIT (Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies) was in place. He is wondering if it might help improve the situation in the scenarios organisation. You have been asked to investigate. Write a report outlining your evaluation of this possibility for the CEO. State clearly any assumptions you make and give ...
It was originated by A.J. Hackett, et al. along with the Hs 578Bst (see ATCC HTB-125), which is a normal fibroblast-like line from the same patient. The Hs 578T cell strain was derived from a carcinoma of the breast.
Dayang Parking Park Lift - two post (China Manufacturer) - Parking Facilities - Transportation Facilities Products - DIYTrade...
Dayang Parking Park Lift two post - Dayang Products Made In China, China Manufacturer. Working Principle This parking system is designed two spaces of up and down as one unit. The bottom car can go in and out directly. When the upper space needs to park a car, the car in the bottom should be driven out. Characteristics of the System l Save land area and take full use of the current space to raise
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Transport of 3-Fluoro-L-α-Methyl-Tyrosine by Tumor-Upregulated L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1: A Cause of the Tumor Uptake in...
l-3-(18)F-α-methyl tyrosine ((18)F-FAMT) has been developed as a PET radiotracer for tumor imaging. Clinical studies have demonstrated the usefulness of (18)F-FAMT PET for the prediction of prognosis and the differentiation of malignant tumors and b
Leucine and tissue distribution of bulky and small neutral amino acids in rats: dissociation between transport and insulin...
The mechanism of the observed decrease in the plasma concentration of several amino acids in the presence of high levels of Leu has remained unexplained. In the present study a decrease in the plasma concentration of Ile, Val, Phe, Tyr, Met, Ala, Pro and Gly was observed after the intraperitoneal injection of Leu to weanling rats. Decreases in net intracellular concentrations in muscle accompanied the decrease in plasma of all of these amino acids except Pro and Gly. An increase in the distribution ratio muscle/plasma was observed exclusively for Gly after administration of Leu or of a non-insulinogenic transport system L analogue. Diazoxide suppressed the Leu-induced decreases in plasma and muscle intracellular concentrations of Ile and Val as well as of Pro in plasma. An increase in the distribution ratio liver/plasma was observed for Pro and Gly in the absence but not in the presence of diazoxide. All the above changes were statistically significant. Hence insulin probably mediates Leu ...
Correlation between 18 F-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid ( 18 F-fluciclovine) uptake and expression of alanine...
To evaluate the expression of alanine-serine-cysteine-transporter 2 (ASCT2) and L-type amino acid transporter1 (LAT1) in prostate cancer (PCa) and their impact on uptake of 18F-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18F-fluciclovine) which is approved for the detection of recurrent PCa. Twenty-five hormone-naïve patients with histologically confirmed PCa underwent PET/CT before prostatectomy. Dynamic imaging was performed immediately after injection of 368 ± 10 MBq of 18F-fluciclovine and the uptake in PCa was expressed as SUVmax at six sequential 4-min time frames and as tracer distribution volume (VT) using Logan plots over 0-24 min. The expression of ASCT2 and LAT1 was studied with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing three cores per carcinoma lesion. The TMA slides were scored independently by two trained readers based on visual intensity of ASCT2/LAT1 expression on a four-tiered scale. The correlations between ASCT2/LAT1 staining intensity, SUVmax/VT, and
Like normal cells, cancer cells require amino acids for growth, maintenance, and cell signaling, and L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) are the delivery vehicles that supply them.
In article ,jmack-070794234545 at jmack.pipeline.com,, jmack at pipeline.com (John Mack) wrote: , Yes. We know L-amino acids fold into right-handed helices. (And vice , versa.) , , Therefore, look for forces (coriolis? asymmetric surface catalysts?) that , favor right-handed helices. , , If right-handed helices are favored in one hemisphere due to the coriolis , force, then that may be the hemisphere where these were first incorporated , into successful, Darwinian replicating, nano-machines which eventually , became living things. , , Thus, it is just fortuitous that life began in the hemisphere that favored , right-handed helices and also L-amino acids. After all, life would be just , the same with D-amino acids and left-handed helices. , , Maybe the L and D nanomachines existed simultaneously on Earth and , dominated their respective hemispheres! But, for some unknown reason (a , comet striking Earth?) the D nanomachines never developed into living , things. The L machines did. The living ...
Abstract:. Peptides and proteins are large biomolecules composed of long chains of L -amino acids and plays key functions in the living organisms. A variety of techniques are used to characterize these biomolecules and, among the techniques used, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been extensively employed both for the preparative as well as the analytical characterization of peptides and proteins. Various HPLC techniques developed for the separation of proteins rely on the differences in the adsorption characteristics, surface charge, ligand specificity, and molecular size of protein molecules. Advancements made in these HPLC techniques have contributed immensely to the development of peptides and proteins based pharmaceuticals. Present article summarizes the principle, methods, and applications of the most common HPLC techniques used in the field of peptides and proteins.. ...
Neurotransmitters associated with pediatric neurotransmitter diseases include the catecholamines, serotonin, and the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobuytric (GABA).. The pathways leading to the metabolism (production), synthesis (building up of), and catabolism (break down) of neurotransmitters are extremely complicated systems. The following is the pathways for the dopamine neurotransmitters pathway.. When there is a disruption within the neurotransmitter system, it can cause abnormalities with many of the brains essential functions. In pediatric neurotransmitter diseases children are born with genetic defects that affect the neurotransmitter pathways and the use of the related neurotransmitter. The specific pediatric neurotransmitter disease is determined by where the defect in the pathway occurs. For example in Aromatic L Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency the AADC enzyme is affected in the dopamine pathway and children cannnot effectively utilize the neurotransmitter ...
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Mediation of Highly Concentrative Uptake of Pregabalin by L-Type Amino Acid Transport in Chinese Hamster Ovary and Caco-2 Cells...
It should be noted that the functionally defined L-type amino acid transport activities as described in this and many other studies may result from a mixture of functionally similar amino acid transporters that share common features such as Na+ dependence, BCH sensitivity, and neutral amino acid substrate preference. To date, at least four members of this family, LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, and LAT4, have been cloned (Bodoy et al., 2005). LAT1 and LAT2 are heterodimeric transporters that require coexpression of both LAT and 4F2hc for function and exhibit trans-stimulation (Verrey, 2003). In contrast, LAT3 and LAT4 are structurally distinct from LAT1 and LAT2 and are functional independent of 4F2hc (Babu et al., 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). It has been shown that different LAT subtypes exhibit distinct expression profiles across tissues and species (Verrey, 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). Moreover, different LAT subtypes show differences in substrate specificity, transport kinetics, and other properties such as ...
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When you are not feeling up to par, there are a few solutions available to remedy the situation: 1) you wait it out and hope it goes away; 2) you Google to find the answer (and sometimes you feel worse after reading what those symptoms might really be; or 3) you take yourself to the doctor.. Babies and pets are the only ones who must suffer in silence because they are unable to tell you they dont feel well. An astute parent, or pet parent, notices a not-so-perky or listless demeanor or crying/whining and that is all you have to go on.. Toddlers or children are more vocal. Theyll come up to you and say "Ive got a tummy ache" and will point a chubby finger around the area of their bellybutton. Well, that doesnt help much, so, it is up to you to play detective and decide if the malady warrants a trip to the pediatrician, or even the E.R., or just a few days spent in bed. Pain that is generally located around the center of the abdomen, or the bellybutton is considered "simple" abdominal pain ...
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Amino Acid Transport Systems/chemistry/*metabolism, Amino Acid Transport Systems; Neutral/chemistry/metabolism, Endoplasmic Reticulum/*metabolism, Membrane Proteins/genetics/*metabolism, Mutation, Protein Folding, Protein Structure; Quaternary, Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology/genetics/*metabolism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism, Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism ...
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: COL; locus tag: SACOL1443 (SACOL_RS07360); symbol: brnQ3; product: branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein
(4-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-yl)methanol hydrochloride |p|SPC Code: SPC-a553|/p||p|CAS RN: 105176-66-7|/p||p|Smiles: Cl.OCC12(CCC(N)(CC1)CC2)|/p||p|Formula: HCl.C9H17NO|/p||p|MolWeight: 191.701|/p||p|Purity: 95|/p|
Are Clavamox Side Effects Putting Your Health at Risk? | Dec 11, 2017 Check these Clavamox side effect reports: A 20-year-old female patient was diagnosed with oropharyngeal pain, treated with CLAVAMOX and reported epstein-barr virus infection. Dosage: 1 G, Bid. Patient was hospitalized.
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The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular"...
Several studies have shown that the cRNA of human, rabbit, or rat rBAT induces in Xenopus oocytes sodium-independent, high affinity uptake of L-cystine via a system b0,(+)-like amino acid exchanger. We have shown that mutations in rBAT cause type I cystinuria (Calonge, M. J., Gasparini, P., Chillarón, J., Chillón, M., Gallucci, M., Rousaud, F., Zelante, L., Testar, X., Dallapiccola, B., Di Silverio, F., Barceló, P., Estivill, X., Zorzano, A., Nunes, V., and Palacín, M. (1994) Nat. Genet. 6, 420-425; Calonge, M. J., Volipini, V., Bisceglia, L., Rousaud, F., De Sanctis, L., Beccia, E., Zelante, L., Testar, X., Zorzano, A., Estivill, X., Gasparini, P., Nunes, V., and Palacín, M. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92, 9667-9671). Apart from oocytes, no other expression system has been used for transfection of functional rBAT activity. Furthermore, the b0,(+)-like transport activity has not been clearly described in the kidney or intestine. Here, we report that a "proximal tubular-like" cell ...
The transport of S-cysteine conjugates was studied in the kidney cell line, LLC-PK1, using the nephrotoxin, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (L-DCVC), as the model compound. The saturable uptake of this conjugate did not require sodium and was selectively inhibited by the amino acid transport system L-specific substrate, 2-amino-2-norbornane carboxylic acid, as well as a variety of other S-cysteine conjugates and neutral amino acids with large, nonpolar side chains. Kinetic studies suggested the existence of both low and high affinity transport systems with Km values that differed by 25-fold. Although these uptake systems showed no discernible differences in substrate specificity, the low affinity transport was more sensitive to trans-stimulation. L-DCVC uptake in subconfluent cultures was about 3-fold that of confluent cells, suggesting either adaptive regulation to cell growth or polarization of transport to the basolateral membrane. L-DCVC toxicity in LLC-PK1 cells was inhibited in the ...
The report generally describes 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoro-6,6-dimethyl-3,5-heptane-, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 1,1,1,2,2-Pentafluoro-6,6-dimethyl-3,5-heptane-
Description: This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world� s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest ...
ChemicalBook provide Chemical industry users with L-Leucine Boiling point Melting point,L-Leucine Density MSDS Formula Use,If You also need to L-Leucine Other information,welcome to contact us.
Name: L-Leucine CAS NO: 61-90-5 Appearance: white crystal Density: 1.289g/cm3 Melting point: 222℃ Molecular weight: 131.17 Chemical Formula: C6H13NO2 Solubility: soluble in water
4-Nitrophenyl bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-7-carboxylate | C14H15NO4 | CID 579216 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Synonyms for L-leucine in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for L-leucine. 1 word related to leucine: essential amino acid. What are synonyms for L-leucine?
tert-butyl (4-aminobicyclo[2.1.1]hexan-1-yl)carbamate hydrochloride | SpiroChem | Tailor-Made Molecules
|p|SPC Code: SPC-a812a|/p||p|CAS RN: 1461705-62-3|/p||p|Smiles: O=C(OC(C)(C)C)NC1(C2)CCC2(N)C1.Cl|/p||p|Formula: C11H21ClN2O2|/p||p|MolWeight: 248.8|/p||p|Purity: 95%|/p|
This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world� s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest possible sensitivity
2R,5R,6S)-6-[(2,6-Dimethoxybenzoyl)amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid | C17H20N2O6S ...
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: (2R,5R,6S)-6-[(2,6-Dimethoxybenzoyl)amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-.
L-LEUCINE (13C6, 97-99%; D10, 97-99%; 15N, 97-99%), Creative Peptides L-Iso-0348 - Creative Peptides
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xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System | Antibody News: Novus Biologicals
... is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a ... xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System. Fri, 09/06/2013 - 13:53 ... Home » xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System ... an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The cysteine is subsequently transported ...https://www.novusbio.com/antibody-news/antibodies/xct-amino-acid-transport-and-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation.
... accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process ... Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, ... Amino Acid Transport System A / physiology*. Amino Acids, Neutral / metabolism*. Biological Transport. Cell Membrane / ... 0/Amino Acid Transport System A; 0/Amino Acids, Neutral; 0/Hypertonic Solutions; 0/RNA, Small Interfering; 0/SLC38A2 protein, ...http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/role-neutral-amino-acid-transporter/16734764.html
Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...
Among the amino acid transport systems, the A system is sodium-dependent and inhibited by NMAIB, the L system is sodium ... 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 System L is a major amino acid transporter that transports large neutral amino acids in a Na+- ... Su, TZ, Lunney, E, Campbell, G, et al (1995) Transport of gabapentin, a gamma-amino acid drug, by system L alpha-amino acid ... 61 System L is a major Na+-independent system for the transport of large neutral amino acids, including several essential amino ...http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2181705
Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism | PNAS
Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ... Transport mediated by SA1 is also electrogenic. Amino acid transport Systems A and N thus appear closely related in function as ...https://www.pnas.org/content/97/14/7715
Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral
What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean in finance? ... Definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ... redirected from Amino acid transport systems, neutral). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia. ...https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Amino+acid+transport+systems%2C+neutral
The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular"...
The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular ... like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(18): ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ...http://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/1364/
AID 456218 - Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by...
Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by liquid ...https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/456218
Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems |...
Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems. U ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ...http://www.biochemj.org/content/220/1/15
Amino acid transport systems, neutral | definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary
Amino acid transport systems, neutral explanation free. What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid ... transport systems, neutral medical term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean? ... Looking for online definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the Medical Dictionary? ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral , definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary https:// ...https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Amino+acid+transport+systems%2C+neutral
Involvement of transporter recruitment as well as gene expression in the substrate-induced adaptive regulation of amino acid...
We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a process in ... N2 - We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ... AB - We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ... abstract = "We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ...https://augusta.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/involvement-of-transporter-recruitment-as-well-as-gene-expression
Recombinant Human xCT protein (ab112403) | Abcam
Amino acid transport system xc xCT antibody. *Amino acid transport system xc- ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. ... Solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter light chain, xc- system), member 11 ... Solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11 ...https://www.abcam.com/Recombinant-Human-xCT-protein-ab112403.html
Metab, Misc + CDB Flashcards by Carla Marie Lee | Brainscape
Sodium-dependent amino acid transport system in renal tubules and intestines 41 ... Branched-chain amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, valine (LIV) [Think MAPLE tree, tree of LIVe, has BRANCHes] ... Which among the branched chain amino acids has a higher plasma level than the rest of the accumulating substances ... D/O of amino acid metabolism that looks like tetanus (muscular rigidity + opisthotonus) ...https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/metab-misc-cdb-4026518/packs/5949532
Inhibition of L-type amino acid transporter modulates the expression of cell cycle regulatory factors in KB oral cancer cells.
... heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), an inhibitor of L-type amino acid transporters, on the cell growth suppression in KB human ... 0/Amino Acid Transport Systems; 0/Cell Cycle Proteins From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... Amino Acid Transport Systems / antagonists & inhibitors*. Blotting, Western. Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology*. Cell Line, ... 20606299 - Inhibition of l-type amino acid transporter modulates the expression of cell cycle regu.... 8136159 - Cell cycle- ...http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Inhibition-L-Type-Amino-Acid/20606299.html
Sequence Similarity - 4FB4: The Structure of an ABC-Transporter Family Protein from Rhodopseudomonas palustris in...
branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein Aromatic compound transport protein 1076 ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 4 3UKJ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 7 4EYQ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein UNP residues 27-385 1076 ...https://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/sequenceCluster.do?structureId=4FB4&entity=1&seqid=40
Frontiers | Aliskiren Administration during Early Postnatal Life Sex-Specifically Alleviates Hypertension Programmed by...
... technology and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented ... technology and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented ... Pinto, V., Pinho, M.J., and Soares-da-Silva, P. (2013). Renal amino acid transport systems and essential hypertension. FASEB J. ... Slc6a19 gene encodes an amino acid transporter B0AT1. Slc4a4 gene encodes a sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) involved in ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2016.00299/full
rbsC - Ribose ABC transporter permease - Paenibacillus polymyxa (strain E681) - rbsC gene & protein
Branched-chain amino acid transport system / permease component family protein. Brevibacillus laterosporus GI-9 ... TransportSAAS annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without manual ... Belongs to the binding-protein-dependent transport system permease family.SAAS annotation. Automatic assertion according to ...https://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/E0R9T9
Veis 1087 - Inner-membrane translocator - Verminephrobacter eiseniae (strain EF01-2) - Veis 1087 gene & protein
Branched-chain amino acid transport system / permease component family protein. BURCE. 345. ... TransportSAAS annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without manual ... Belongs to the binding-protein-dependent transport system permease family.SAAS annotation. Automatic assertion according to ...https://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A1WGV6
Mediation of Highly Concentrative Uptake of Pregabalin by L-Type Amino Acid Transport in Chinese Hamster Ovary and Caco-2 Cells...
L-type amino acid transport system is an ubiquitous Na+-independent transport system for large, neutral amino acids across ... and system b0,+ is one of the Na+-independent amino acid transport systems in intestine (Costa et al., 2000). System b0,+ is ... Su TZ, Lunney E, Campbell G, and Oxender DL (1995) Transport of gabapentin, a gamma-amino acid drug, by system l alpha-amino ... 4; Table 1). This result strongly suggests that PGB and leucine share the same L-type amino acid transport system transport ...http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/313/3/1406.long
Series Parallel Diagram Single Cell Analysis Of Kynurenine And System L Amino Acid Transport In T Cells Nature Communications ~...
series parallel diagram single cell analysis of kynurenine and system l amino acid transport in t cells nature communications. ... Piezo Controllers Drivers For Nanopositioning Systems Series Parallel Diagram Position Control Electronics Optimizes System ...https://tracologie.info/series-parallel-diagram
MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
0 (Amino Acid Transport Systems); 0 (Amino Acids, Aromatic); 0 (AroP protein, E coli); 0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Escherichia coli ... methylotrophus AS1 mutants auxotrophic for aromatic amino acids. Thus, introduction of foreign amino acid transporter genes ... 919 amino acids [aa]), which puts MmeI also in subtype IIC of the restriction-modification systems. Based on a molecular model ... To improve the amino acid production by metabolic engineering, eliminating the pathway bottleneck is known to be very effective ...http://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=standard.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=B03.440.400.425.525.520.500
Transporter expression and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) | Open-i
Amino Acid Transport System y+/metabolism*. *Amino Acid Transport Systems/metabolism*. *Antigens, CD98 Light Chains/metabolism* ... Bottom Line: Among aromatic amino acid transporters, ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 were found to transport BPA with Km values of ... Bottom Line: Among aromatic amino acid transporters, ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 were found to transport BPA with Km values of ... Amino Acid Transport System y+/metabolism*. *Amino Acid Transport Systems/metabolism*. *Antigens, CD98 Light Chains/metabolism* ...https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4376436_cas0106-0279-f5&req=4
Placental Metabolism and Regulation of Nutrient Transfer to the Fetus | Springer for Research & Development
Placental amino acid uptake. III. Transport systems for neutral amino acids. Am J Physiol. 1976;230:706-710.PubMedGoogle ... Transport of amino acids in the placenta. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985;822:169-201.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... and amino acids; protein synthesis; amino acid interconversion; glycero-lipid synthesis; and chain lengthening or shortening of ... Umbilical uptake of amino acids in the unstressed fetal lamb. J Clin Invest. 1976;58:1428-1434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4613-9240-8_3
PDF] Heteromeric amino acid transporters: biochemistry, genetics, and physiology. | Semantic Scholar
HATs represent several of the classic mammalian amino acid transport systems (e.g., L isoforms, y(+)L isoforms, asc, x(c)(-), ... In addition to the role in amino acid transport, one HSHAT [the heavy subunit of the cell-surface antigen 4F2 (also named CD98 ... The heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are composed of two polypeptides: a heavy subunit (HSHAT) and a light subunit ( ... Obligatory amino acid exchange via systems bo,+-like and y+L-like. A tertiary active transport mechanism for renal reabsorption ...https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Heteromeric-amino-acid-transporters%3A-biochemistry%2C-Chillar%C3%B3n-Roca/9d7fb82ef12d96940f9f0250932186321cae1e95
Frontiers | Threonine appears to be essential for proliferation of human as well as mouse embryonic stem cells | Cell and...
Other essential and nonessential amino acids need not be added to the medium for mES cell proliferation. Furthermore, the ... cell proliferation depends exclusively on the nutritionally essential amino acid, L-threonine, in the medium. ... Care 17, 80-85.Abstract: Of the amino acids, threonine alone is essential for mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell proliferation ... Keywords: threonine, embryonic stem cells, cell proliferation, humans, amino acid transport systems ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2014.00018/full
Essential Amino Acids Summary Report | CureHunter
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are ... Glycine (Aminoacetic Acid) 9. Amino Acid Transport Systems (Amino Acid Transporter) 10. Insulin (Novolin) ... Essential Amino Acids. Subscribe to New Research on Essential Amino Acids Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Amino Acids: 10808*Essential Amino Acids: 403*Arginine: 7940 ...http://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD000601-Essential-Amino-Acids.do
TransporterCystineCysteineHeterodimersEssential and non-essential aminoSubstratesProteinsAromaticMammalian cellsInhibitionHigh affinityRenalLipidsElectrogenicRegulationAnaloguesActivity inducedGlutathioneAnionicFatty acidsEnergy metabolismCellularAlaninePhysiologicalSimilarityModulatesAffinitiesRecombinantAffinityRegulateSubstanceGeneAccumulationGlucoseProtonPhenylalanineKineticMetabolicIsoformsGlycogenFound
- The light subunit xCT dimerises with the heavy subunit 4F2hc and the role of the xCT-4F2hc heterodimer, also known as system Xc-, is to couple the release of one molecule of intracellular glutamate to the uptake of one molecule of extracellular cystine (2). (novusbio.com)
- following uptake the cystine is converted to cysteine, an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. (novusbio.com)
- In contrast, the chronic phase is associated with an induction of ata2 gene expression as evidenced from the increase in the steady-state levels of ATA2 mRNA, restoration of the intracellular pool of ATA2 protein, and blockade of the induction by cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The increase in system A activity induced by amino acid starvation is blocked specifically by system A substrates, including the non-metabolizable α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid. (elsevier.com)
- As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly energized, system A substrates, such as glutamine, glycine, proline and alanine, reach high transmembrane gradients and constitute major components of the intracellular amino acid pool. (biomedsearch.com)
- Uptake of PGB was mutually exclusive with leucine, GBP and 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, the substrates preferential for system L. The preloaded PGB in CHO cells was exchangeable with leucine, but at a lower exchange rate than that of leucine and GBP. (aspetjournals.org)
- The different isoforms also exhibit different relative affinities for the amino acid substrates. (wikipedia.org)
- Although molecular cloning has recently identified the proteins that mediate Systems ASC and L ( 13 - 17 ), System A has eluded biochemical purification, genetic approaches, and expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes ( 10 , 18 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
- Under these conditions, the expression of SNAT2 gene is induced and newly synthesized SNAT2 proteins are preferentially targeted to the cell membrane, leading to a significant increase of system A transport Vmax. (biomedsearch.com)
- The Amino Acid/Auxin Permease (AAAP) Family (TC# 2.A.18) is a family of secondary carrier proteins, a member of the APC Superfamily that includes hundreds of proteins from plants, animals, fungi and lower eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
- The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
- Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
- Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
- Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
- Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na + -dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
- Three principal transport systems account for much of the amino acid uptake by mammalian cells ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Taken together, these results suggest that L-type transport is the major transport route for PGB and GBP uptake in mammalian cells. (aspetjournals.org)
- System A and other more specialized transport systems may thus provide the concentrations of cytoplasmic amino acids necessary to drive the uptake of other amino acids by exchange through Systems ASC and L. System A also exhibits several unusual properties, including the recognition of N -methylated amino acids, tolerance of Li + substitution for Na + , and sensitivity to inhibition by low extracellular pH ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Transport by System N also depends on Na + but shows a striking sensitivity to inhibition by low external pH. (pnas.org)
- However, the mutual inhibition alone is insufficient to conclude which specific transport system is involved in PGB transport in the ileum. (aspetjournals.org)
- The early conclusion on system L-mediated PGB transport in the rat ileum was also complicated by lack of mutual inhibition between GBP and PGB in intestine and lack of carrier-mediated uptake of GBP and PGB in Caco-2 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
- Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. (mdpi.com)
- The inhibition of system Xc- has been found to alter a number of behaviors, which suggests that it plays a key role in excitatory signaling. (wikipedia.org)
- Several studies have shown that the cRNA of human, rabbit, or rat rBAT induces in Xenopus oocytes sodium-independent, high affinity uptake of L-cystine via a system b0,(+)-like amino acid exchanger. (uzh.ch)
- By contrast, in the outer-medullary preparation, L-phenylalanine transport occurred via two transport systems, namely a high-affinity system with K1A congruent to 0.33 mM and a low-affinity system with K2A congruent to 7 mM respectively. (biochemj.org)
- Na+-dependent uptake of D-glucose by pars convoluta and pars recta membrane vesicles could be described by single, but different, transport systems, namely a low-affinity system with KA congruent to 3.5 mM and a high-affinity system with KA congruent to 0.30 mM respectively. (biochemj.org)
- Both the high-affinity and the low-affinity Na+-dependent L-phenylalanine transport system of pars recta membrane vesicles seem to operate with a 1:1 stoichiometry. (biochemj.org)
- The physiological importance of the arrangement of low-affinity and high-affinity transport systems along the kidney proximal tubule is discussed. (biochemj.org)
- Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate. (abcam.com)
- The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). (uzh.ch)
- These results demonstrate that rBAT is functionally related to the L-cystine uptake via system b0,(+)-like in the apical pole of the renal OK cell line. (uzh.ch)
- Renal transport of neutral amino acids. (biochemj.org)
- System A has also provided a paradigm for short- and long-term regulation by physiological stimuli. (pnas.org)
- In addition, amino acid transport System A has provided a paradigm for the short- and long-term regulation of transport activity ( 1 , 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
- System A function also varies inversely with the concentration of extracellular amino acids as part of adaptive regulation and up-regulates with cell proliferation and hypertonic shock, suggesting additional homeostatic roles. (pnas.org)
- We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a process in which amino acid starvation induces the transport activity. (elsevier.com)
- Oben J A, Diehl A M. Sympathetic nervous system regulation of liver repair. (springer.com)
- The cysteine is subsequently transported in to neurons, where it supports glutathione production. (novusbio.com)
- There are many mechanisms that exist to regulate the expression of system Xc-, although it is not the sole determinate of extracellular glutamate or intracellular glutathione. (wikipedia.org)
- The chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis has been proposed as a model for the coupling of energy metabolism with amino acid transport in S. cerevisiae. (kzoo.edu)
- Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
- in chemistry a neutral state is one in which a substance is neither acid nor alkaline. (thefreedictionary.com)
- An antiporter functions with a one-to-one counter-transport, which is when one substance is transported across the membrane at the same time another substance is transported across the membrane in the opposite direction. (wikipedia.org)
- The transport properties for phenylalanine and glucose in luminal-membrane vesicles from outer cortex (pars convoluta) and outer medulla (pars recta) of rabbit kidney were studied by a spectrophotometric method. (biochemj.org)
- Attempts to calculate the stoichiometry of the different Na+/D-glucose transport systems by using Hill-type plots revealed that the ratio of the Na+/hexose co-transport probably is 1:1 in the case of pars convoluta and 2:1 in membrane vesicles from pars recta. (biochemj.org)
- These functionally defined systems were originally characterized by kinetic and competition studies ( Christensen, 1990 ). (aspetjournals.org)
- Without comprehensive kinetic analysis, it is often difficult to specify a transport system responsible for uptake of an unknown substrate ( Christensen, 1990 ). (aspetjournals.org)