A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
'Amino Acid Transport System y+', also known as System Y+, is a sodium-independent cationic amino acid transporter that mediates the uptake of primarily basic amino acids, such as arginine and lysine, into cells through a facilitated diffusion process.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Amino Acid Transport System y+L is a sodium-independent cationic amino acid transporter, primarily responsible for the uptake of arginine and lysine into cells via a proton gradient. This system plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism, growth, and survival, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various disease states, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.

L-type amino acid transporters in two intestinal epithelial cell lines function as exchangers with neutral amino acids. (1/28)

The present study examined the functional characteristics of the inward [(14)C]-L-leucine transporter in two intestinal epithelial cell lines (human Caco-2 and rat IEC-6). The uptake of [(14)C]-L-leucine was largely promoted through an energy-dependent and sodium-insensitive transporter, although a minor component of [(14)C]-L-leucine uptake ( approximately 15%) required extracellular sodium. [(14)C] -L-leucine uptake was insensitive to N-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, but competitively inhibited by 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). Both L- and D-neutral amino acids, but not acidic and basic amino acids, markedly inhibited [(14)C]-L-leucine accumulation. The efflux of [(14)C]-L-leucine was markedly increased (P < 0.05) by L-leucine and BCH, but not by L-arginine. In IEC-6 cells, but not in Caco-2 cells, the uptake of [(14)C]-L-leucine at acidic pH (5.0 and 5.4) was greater (P < 0.05) than at pH 7.4. In conclusion, it is likely that system B(0) might be responsible for the sodium-dependent uptake of L-leucine in Caco-2 and IEC-6 cells, whereas sodium-independent uptake of L-leucine may include system LAT1, whose activation results in transstimulation of L-leucine outward transfer.  (+info)

Functional and molecular characteristics of system L in human breast cancer cells. (2/28)

The functional and molecular properties of system L in human mammary cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) have been examined. All transport experiments were conducted under Na(+)-free conditions. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was almost abolished by BCH (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid). AIB uptake by MDA-MB-231 cells was also inhibited by L-alanine (83.6%), L-lysine (75.6%) but not by L-proline. Similarly, L-lysine and L-alanine, respectively, reduced AIB influx into MCF-7 cells by 45.3% and 63.7%. The K(m) of AIB uptake into MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was, respectively, 1.6 and 8.8 mM, whereas the V(max) was, respectively, 9.7 and 110.0 nmol/mg protein/10 min. AIB efflux from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was trans-stimulated by BCH, L-glutamine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-lysine and AIB (all at 2 mM). In contrast, L-glutamate, L-proline, L-arginine and MeAIB had no effect. The interaction between L-lysine and AIB efflux was one of low affinity. The fractional release of AIB from MDA-MB-231 cells was trans-accelerated by D-leucine and D-tryptophan but not by D-alanine. MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells expressed LAT1 and CD98 mRNA. MCF-7 cells also expressed LAT2 mRNA. The results suggest that AIB transport in mammary cancer cells under Na(+)-free conditions is predominantly via system L which acts as an exchange mechanism. The differences in the kinetics of AIB transport between MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells may be due to the differential expression of LAT2.  (+info)

Basolateral LAT-2 has a major role in the transepithelial flux of L-cystine in the renal proximal tubule cell line OK. (3/28)

During renal reabsorption, the amino acid transporters b(o,+) and y(+)L have a major role in the apical uptake of cystine and dibasic amino acids and in the basolateral efflux of dibasic amino acids, respectively. In contrast, the transporters responsible for the basolateral efflux of the apically transported cystine are unknown. This study shows the expression of system L and y(+)L transport activities in the basolateral domain of the proximal tubule-derived cell line OK and the cloning of the corresponding LAT-2 and y(+)LAT-1 cDNAs. Stable transfection with a LAT-2 antisense sequence demonstrated the specific role of LAT-2 in the basolateral system L amino acid exchange activity in OK cells. This partial reduction of LAT-2 expression decreased apical-to-basolateral trans-epithelial flux of cystine and resulted in a twofold to threefold increase in the intracellular content of cysteine. In contrast, the content of serine, threonine, and alanine showed a tendency to decrease, whereas other LAT-2 substrates were not affected. This demonstrates that LAT-2 plays a major specific role in the net basolateral efflux of cysteine and points to LAT-2 as a candidate gene to modulate cystine reabsorption.  (+info)

Functional properties of multispecific amino acid transporters and their implications to transporter-mediated toxicity. (4/28)

The absorption, distribution and excretion of most of xenobiotics, drugs, environmental toxins and their metabolites are mediated by membrane transporters. Recent advances in the transporter molecular biology have made it possible to investigate the mechanisms of transport of those exogenous compounds and their transporter-mediated toxicity at the molecular level. Exogenous compounds including drugs and toxic substances occurring in the environment pass through the transporters with broad substrate selectivity, namely "multispecific" transporters, taking advantage of the multispecific nature to exert their toxic effects. The remarkable examples of such transporter-mediated toxicity are 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium (MPP+)-neurotoxicity mediated by dopamine transporters, cephaloridine-nephrotoxicity mediated by organic anion transporters and methylmercury-toxicity mediated by system L amino acid transporters. The molecular identification of system L transporter LAT1 (L-type amino acid transporter 1) has lead to the understanding of the mechanisms of their multispecific substrate recognition and revealed their localization at the blood-brain barrier and placental barrier. LAT1 relies on the hydrophobic interaction between substrate amino acid side chains and the substrate binding site, so that many variations are possible for the substrate amino acid side chains, which is the basis of the broad substrate selectivity. System L transporters, thus, function as a path for the membrane permeation of drugs and toxic compounds occurring in the environment with amino acid-related structures. Beside methylmercury-cysteine conjugate, amino acid-related neurotoxins such as beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and 3-hydroxykynurenine are proposed to pass through system L transporters to exert their toxicity. Because the presence of such transporters is crucial for the manifestation of the organ toxicity, the inhibition of the transporters would be expected to be beneficial to prevent the disorders caused by the transporter-mediated toxicity.  (+info)

Identification of a novel system L amino acid transporter structurally distinct from heterodimeric amino acid transporters. (5/28)

A cDNA that encodes a novel Na+-independent neutral amino acid transporter was isolated from FLC4 human hepatocarcinoma cells by expression cloning. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the encoded protein designated LAT3 (L-type amino acid transporter 3) transported neutral amino acids such as l-leucine, l-isoleucine, l-valine, and l-phenylalanine. The LAT3-mediated transport was Na+-independent and inhibited by 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, consistent with the properties of system L. Distinct from already known system L transporters LAT1 and LAT2, which form heterodimeric complex with 4F2 heavy chain, LAT3 was functional by itself in Xenopus oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence of LAT3 was identical to the gene product of POV1 reported as a prostate cancer-up-regulated gene whose function was not determined, whereas it did not exhibit significant similarity to already identified transporters. The Eadie-Hofstee plots of LAT3-mediated transport were curvilinear, whereas the low affinity component is predominant at physiological plasma amino acid concentration. In addition to amino acid substrates, LAT3 recognized amino acid alcohols. The transport of l-leucine was electroneutral and mediated by a facilitated diffusion. In contrast, l-leucinol, l-valinol, and l-phenylalaninol, which have a net positive charge induced inward currents under voltage clamp, suggesting these compounds are transported by LAT3. LAT3-mediated transport was inhibited by the pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide, consistent with the property of system L2 originally characterized in hepatocyte primary culture. Based on the substrate selectivity, affinity, and N-ethylmaleimide sensitivity, LAT3 is proposed to be a transporter subserving system L2. LAT3 should denote a new family of organic solute transporters.  (+info)

Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates LAT1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle: role in cell growth. (6/28)

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) contributes to vascular disease by stimulating the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since amino acids are required for cell growth, the present study examined the effect of PDGF on system L amino acid transport, which is the predominant cellular pathway for the uptake of essential amino acids. System L amino acid transport was monitored by measuring the uptake of L-leucine. Treatment of SMCs with PDGF stimulated L-leucine transport in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and this was associated with a selective increase in LAT1 mRNA and protein. PDGF failed to induce the expression of the other system L transport proteins, LAT2 and the heavy chain of the 4F2 cell surface antigen. The induction of LAT1 by PDGF was dependent on de novo RNA and protein synthesis and on mTOR activity. Serum, thrombin, and angiotensin II likewise stimulated L-leucine transport by inducing LAT1 expression. Inhibition of system L amino acid transport by the model substrate 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid blocked growth factor-mediated SMC proliferation and induced SMC apoptosis, whereas it had no effect on quiescent cells. These results demonstrate that growth factors stimulate system L amino acid transport by inducing LAT1 gene expression and that system L amino acid transport is essential for SMC proliferation and survival. The capacity of vascular mitogens to induce LAT1 expression may represent a basic mechanism by which tho acid transport * apoptosis  (+info)

Identification of LAT4, a novel amino acid transporter with system L activity. (7/28)

System L amino acid transporters mediate the movement of bulky neutral amino acids across cell membranes. Until now three proteins that induce system L activity have been identified: LAT1, LAT2, and LAT3. The former two proteins belong to the solute carrier family 7 (SLC7), whereas the latter belongs to SLC43. In the present study we present a new cDNA, designated LAT4, which also mediates system L activity when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Human LAT4 exhibits 57% identity to human LAT3. Like LAT3, the amino acid transport activity induced by LAT4 is sodium-, chloride- and pH-independent, is not trans-stimulated, and shows two kinetic components. The low affinity component of LAT4 induced activity is sensitive to the sulfhydryl-specific reagent N-ethylmaleimide but not that with high affinity. Mutation in LAT4 of the SLC43 conserved serine 297 to alanine abolishes sensitivity to N-ethylmaleimide. LAT4 activity is detected at the basolateral membrane of PCT kidney cells. In situ hybridization experiments show that LAT4 mRNA is restricted to the epithelial cells of the distal tubule and the collecting duct in the kidney. In the intestine, LAT4 is mainly present in the cells of the crypt.  (+info)

Homocysteine transport by human aortic endothelial cells: identification and properties of import systems. (8/28)

Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Transport of L-homocysteine into and out of the human vascular endothelium is poorly understood. We hypothesized that cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) would import L-homocysteine on one or more of the L-cysteine transport systems. Inhibitors of the transporters were used to characterize the uptake of [35S]L-homocysteine, [35S]L-homocystine, and [35S]L-cysteine. We found that L-homocysteine uptake is mediated by the sodium-dependent cysteine transport systems X(AG), ASC, and A, and the sodium-independent transport system L. Thus, HAEC utilize multiple cysteine transporters (X(AG) > or = L > ASC > A) to import L-homocysteine. Kinetic analysis supported the uptake results. Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) for the four systems yielded values of 19.0, 27.1, 112, and 1000 microM for systems L, X(AG), ASC, and A, respectively. The binding and uptake of [35S]L-homocystine, the disulfide homodimer of L-homocysteine, was mediated by systems X(AG), L, and ASC but not by system A. In contrast to [35S]L-homocysteine, system x(c) was active for [35S]L-homocystine uptake. A similar pattern was observed for [35S]L-cysteine. Thus, L-homocysteine and L-homocystine found in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects can gain entry into the vascular endothelium by way of multiple L-cysteine transporters.  (+info)

The amino acid transport system L is a type of membrane transport system that is responsible for the uptake of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) into cells. This system is composed of several different proteins, including the light chain subunit LAT1 and the heavy chain subunit CD98hc, which form a heterodimer that functions as an amino acid transporter.

The transport system L primarily mediates the uptake of LNAAs such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan into cells. It plays important roles in various physiological processes, including protein synthesis, neurotransmitter synthesis, and cell signaling.

The transport system L is also known as the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) or the sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT). Mutations in genes encoding components of this transport system have been associated with various diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer.

Cyclic amino acids are a type of modified amino acid where the side chain of the amino acid forms a ring structure. This is different from the typical structure of amino acids, which have a linear side chain. The formation of the ring can occur within the same amino acid molecule or between two amino acid molecules.

Cyclic amino acids play important roles in various biological processes. For example, some cyclic amino acids are involved in the structure and function of proteins, while others serve as signaling molecules or neurotransmitters. Some common examples of cyclic amino acids include proline, hydroxyproline, and sarcosine.

It is worth noting that not all modified amino acids with ring structures are considered cyclic amino acids. For example, some amino acids may have a sulfur atom in their side chain that forms a disulfide bond with another cysteine residue, but this is not considered a cyclic structure because the ring is formed between two separate molecules rather than within a single molecule.

Amino acid transport systems refer to the various membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the active or passive translocation of amino acids across cell membranes in the body. These transport systems play a crucial role in maintaining amino acid homeostasis within cells and regulating their availability for protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and other physiological processes.

There are several distinct amino acid transport systems, each with its own specificity for particular types of amino acids or related molecules. These systems can be classified based on their energy requirements, substrate specificity, and membrane localization. Some of the major amino acid transport systems include:

1. System A - This is a sodium-dependent transport system that primarily transports small, neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, and proline. It has several subtypes (ASC, A, and AN) with different substrate affinities and kinetic properties.
2. System L - This is a sodium-independent transport system that transports large, neutral amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. It has several subtypes (L1, L2, and y+L) with different substrate specificities and transport mechanisms.
3. System B0 - This is a sodium-dependent transport system that transports both neutral and basic amino acids such as arginine, lysine, and ornithine. It has several subtypes (B0,+, B0-, and b0,+) with different substrate affinities and kinetic properties.
4. System y+ - This is a sodium-independent transport system that transports primarily basic amino acids such as arginine, lysine, and ornithine. It has several subtypes (y+L, y+, b0,+) with different substrate specificities and transport mechanisms.
5. System X-AG - This is a sodium-independent antiporter system that exchanges glutamate and aspartate for neutral amino acids such as cystine, serine, and threonine. It plays an essential role in maintaining redox homeostasis by regulating the intracellular levels of cysteine, a precursor of glutathione.

These transport systems are critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis and regulating various physiological processes such as protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and immune function. Dysregulation of these transport systems has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these transport systems is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Amino acid transport systems are specialized cellular mechanisms responsible for the active transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These systems are essential for maintaining proper amino acid homeostasis within cells and organisms. They consist of several types of transporters that can be categorized based on their energy source, electrochemical gradient, substrate specificity, and functional characteristics.

The term 'basic' in this context typically refers to the fundamental understanding of these transport systems, including their structure, function, regulation, and physiological roles. Amino acid transport systems play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as protein synthesis, neurotransmission, cell signaling, and energy metabolism.

There are two primary types of amino acid transport systems:

1. **Na+-dependent transporters:** These transporters utilize the sodium gradient across the cell membrane to drive the uptake of amino acids. They can be further divided into subtypes based on their substrate specificity and functional properties, such as system A, system ASC, system B0, system B, system L, and system y+.
2. **Na+-independent transporters:** These transporters do not rely on the sodium gradient for amino acid transport. Instead, they use other energy sources like proton gradients or direct coupling to membrane potential. Examples of Na+-independent transporters include system L, system y+, and system x-AG.

Understanding the basic aspects of amino acid transport systems is essential for elucidating their roles in health and disease. Dysregulation of these systems has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic diseases.

Leucine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. It is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), along with isoleucine and valine. Leucine is critical for protein synthesis and muscle growth, and it helps to regulate blood sugar levels, promote wound healing, and produce growth hormones.

Leucine is found in various food sources such as meat, dairy products, eggs, and certain plant-based proteins like soy and beans. It is also available as a dietary supplement for those looking to increase their intake for athletic performance or muscle recovery purposes. However, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

Aminoisobutyric acids are a type of compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and an isobutyric acid group. Isobutyric acid is a type of short-chain fatty acid with the chemical formula (CH3)2CHCO2H. Aminoisobutyric acids can be found in some natural sources, such as certain types of bacteria, and they can also be synthesized in the laboratory for use in research and other applications.

There are several different isomers of aminoisobutyric acid, depending on the position of the amino group relative to the carbon chain. The most common isomer is 2-aminoisobutyric acid, also known as 2-methylalanine or 2-methylpropionic acid. This compound is a naturally occurring amino acid that is found in some proteins and is used in research to study protein structure and function.

Other isomers of aminoisobutyric acid include 3-aminoisobutyric acid, which is also known as tert-leucine or 2-methylbutyric acid, and 4-aminoisobutyric acid, which is also known as neopentylamine or 2,2-dimethylpropionic acid. These compounds are less common than 2-aminoisobutyric acid and have different chemical properties and uses.

In general, aminoisobutyric acids are used in research to study a variety of biological processes, including protein folding, enzyme function, and cell signaling. They can also be used as building blocks for the synthesis of other chemicals and materials.

Amino acid transport system A, also known as system ASC or alanine-serine-cysteine transporter, is a type of amino acid transporter found in the membranes of cells. It is responsible for the uptake of small neutral amino acids, such as alanine, serine, and cysteine, into the cell. This transport system plays an important role in maintaining amino acid homeostasis within the body and is particularly important in tissues with high rates of protein turnover, such as the intestines and kidneys. It is also expressed in the brain, where it is involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter synthesis. Defects in this transport system have been implicated in various diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer.

The amino acid transport system y+ is a type of sodium-independent cationic amino acid transporter that is responsible for the uptake of positively charged amino acids, such as arginine and lysine, into cells. It is a part of a larger family of amino acid transporters that are involved in the transport of various types of amino acids across cell membranes.

The y+ system is composed of several different transporter proteins, including rBAT/4F2hc heteromeric amino acid transporter (Cat1), and light chains such as y+LAT1, y+LAT2, and y+LAT3. These transporters are widely expressed in various tissues, including the small intestine, kidney, liver, and brain.

The y+ system plays important roles in various physiological processes, including protein synthesis, immune function, and neurotransmitter metabolism. Dysregulation of this transport system has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurological disorders, and kidney disease.

Biological transport, active is the process by which cells use energy to move materials across their membranes from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This type of transport is facilitated by specialized proteins called transporters or pumps that are located in the cell membrane. These proteins undergo conformational changes to physically carry the molecules through the lipid bilayer of the membrane, often against their concentration gradient.

Active transport requires energy because it works against the natural tendency of molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, a process known as diffusion. Cells obtain this energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is produced through cellular respiration.

Examples of active transport include the uptake of glucose and amino acids into cells, as well as the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters. The sodium-potassium pump, which helps maintain resting membrane potential in nerve and muscle cells, is a classic example of an active transporter.

Neutral amino acid transport systems refer to a group of membrane transporters that facilitate the movement of neutral amino acids across cell membranes. Neutral amino acids are those that have a neutral charge at physiological pH and include amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, cysteine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan.

There are several different transport systems that have been identified for neutral amino acids, each with its own specificity and affinity for different amino acids. Some of the major neutral amino acid transport systems include:

1. System A: This transporter preferentially transports small, neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, and threonine. It is found in many tissues, including the intestines, kidneys, and brain.
2. System B0+: This transporter preferentially transports large, neutral amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, and phenylalanine. It is found in many tissues, including the intestines, kidneys, and brain.
3. System L: This transporter preferentially transports large, neutral amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, and phenylalanine. It is found in many tissues, including the intestines, kidneys, and brain.
4. System y+: This transporter preferentially transports cationic amino acids such as lysine and arginine, but it can also transport some neutral amino acids. It is found in many tissues, including the intestines, kidneys, and brain.
5. System b0,+: This transporter preferentially transports cationic amino acids such as lysine and arginine, but it can also transport some neutral amino acids. It is found in many tissues, including the intestines, kidneys, and brain.

These transport systems play important roles in maintaining amino acid homeostasis in the body, as well as in various physiological processes such as protein synthesis, neurotransmitter synthesis, and cell signaling. Dysregulation of these transport systems has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic disorders.

The amino acid transport system ASC, also known as system asc or L system, is a type of amino acid transporter found in the membranes of cells. It is responsible for the uptake of small neutral amino acids, such as alanine, serine, and cysteine, into the cell. This transport system is important for maintaining proper levels of these amino acids within the cell, which are necessary for various cellular processes including protein synthesis and metabolism. It is also known to be upregulated in certain cancer cells, allowing them to take up more amino acids from their environment and support their rapid growth. The system asc transporter is a part of the solute carrier 7 (SLC7) family, which are membrane-bound proteins that facilitate the transport of various molecules across cell membranes.

CD98, also known as 4F2 cell surface antigen or solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2), is a heterodimeric amino acid transporter protein. It is composed of two subunits: a heavy chain (CD98hc) and a light chain (4F2hc). CD98 is widely expressed in various tissues, including hematopoietic cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells.

As an antigen, CD98 can be recognized by specific antibodies and play a role in immune responses. The protein is involved in several biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. It also functions as a receptor for certain viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).

CD98 has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. In cancer, CD98 overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy. In autoimmune disorders, CD98 may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In infectious diseases, CD98 can serve as a target for viral entry and replication.

Overall, CD98 is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, making it an attractive target for therapeutic interventions.

Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid, which means that it is not required in the diet because the body can produce it from other amino acids. It is produced in the liver and is also found in some foods such as meat, poultry, and fish.

Beta-alanine plays a role in the production of carnosine, a dipeptide molecule that helps to regulate muscle pH and improve muscle function during high-intensity exercise. When muscles contract during intense exercise, they produce hydrogen ions, which can cause the muscle pH to decrease (become more acidic), leading to fatigue and reduced muscle function. Carnosine acts as a buffer against this acidity, helping to maintain optimal muscle pH levels and improve performance during high-intensity exercise.

Beta-alanine supplements have been shown to increase carnosine levels in muscles, which may lead to improved athletic performance, particularly in activities that require short bursts of intense effort, such as weightlifting or sprinting. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effects and potential benefits of beta-alanine supplementation.

It's important to note that while beta-alanine supplements are generally considered safe for most people, they can cause a tingling sensation in the skin (paresthesia) when taken in high doses. This is a harmless side effect and typically subsides within an hour or so of taking the supplement.

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are a group of three essential amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. They are called "branched-chain" because of their chemical structure, which has a side chain that branches off from the main part of the molecule.

BCAAs are essential because they cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. They are crucial for muscle growth and repair, and play a role in energy production during exercise. BCAAs are also important for maintaining proper immune function and can help to reduce muscle soreness and fatigue after exercise.

Foods that are good sources of BCAAs include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, and legumes. BCAAs are also available as dietary supplements, which are often used by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance muscle growth and recovery. However, it is important to note that excessive intake of BCAAs may have adverse effects on liver function and insulin sensitivity, so it is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Neutral amino acids are a type of amino acids that are characterized by the presence of a neutral side chain in their chemical structure. In other words, the side chain of these amino acids does not contain any ionizable groups, such as carboxyl or amino groups, which can give rise to positive or negative charges.

There are nine neutral amino acids in total, and they include:

1. Alanine (Ala) - has a methyl group (-CH3) as its side chain
2. Glycine (Gly) - has a hydrogen atom (-H) as its side chain
3. Valine (Val) - has an isopropyl group (-CH(CH3)2) as its side chain
4. Leucine (Leu) - has a branched alkyl group (-CH2CH(CH3)2) as its side chain
5. Isoleucine (Ile) - has a sec-butyl group (-CH(CH3)(CH2CH3)) as its side chain
6. Proline (Pro) - has a cyclic structure containing a secondary amino group (-NH-) as its side chain
7. Phenylalanine (Phe) - has an aromatic ring with a methyl group (-CH3) attached to it as its side chain
8. Tryptophan (Trp) - has an indole ring as its side chain
9. Methionine (Met) - has a sulfur-containing alkyl group (-CH2CH2SH) as its side chain

Neutral amino acids play important roles in various biological processes, such as protein synthesis, metabolism, and signaling pathways. They are also essential components of many dietary proteins and are required for the growth, development, and maintenance of tissues and organs in the body.

Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 (LAT1) is a type of transmembrane protein responsible for the transport of large neutral amino acids across the cell membrane. It is also known as SLC7A5, which is its official gene name according to the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). LAT1 forms a heterodimer with another protein called 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) or SLC3A2, and this complex is located on the plasma membrane.

LAT1 transports large neutral amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and methionine, as well as several drugs and toxins. It has a high affinity for these amino acids and plays an essential role in their uptake into cells. LAT1 is widely expressed in various tissues, including the brain, placenta, skeletal muscle, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas.

In the brain, LAT1 is responsible for the transport of large neutral amino acids across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is crucial for maintaining brain function. Dysregulation of LAT1 has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

The amino acid transport system y+L is a type of sodium-independent cationic amino acid transporter found in cell membranes. It is responsible for the uptake of positively charged amino acids, such as lysine and arginine, into cells. This transport system plays an important role in various physiological processes, including protein synthesis, nutrient absorption, and waste removal. Dysfunction of the y+L transport system has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. It's one of the building blocks of proteins and is necessary for the production of various molecules in the body, such as neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the brain).

Phenylalanine has two forms: L-phenylalanine and D-phenylalanine. L-phenylalanine is the form found in proteins and is used by the body for protein synthesis, while D-phenylalanine has limited use in humans and is not involved in protein synthesis.

Individuals with a rare genetic disorder called phenylketonuria (PKU) must follow a low-phenylalanine diet or take special medical foods because they are unable to metabolize phenylalanine properly, leading to its buildup in the body and potential neurological damage.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

CD98 light chains are a type of cell surface protein found on many different types of cells in the body. They are part of a larger complex called CD98, which also includes a heavy chain component. Together, these proteins play a role in various cellular processes, including amino acid transport and cell-cell adhesion.

As antigens, CD98 light chains can be recognized by the immune system and may elicit an immune response. Antigens are typically foreign substances that invade the body and trigger an immune response, but self-antigens like CD98 light chains can also be targeted in certain autoimmune diseases or conditions where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues.

CD98 light chains have been implicated in various disease processes, including cancer and autoimmune disorders. For example, some studies have suggested that high levels of CD98 expression may be associated with more aggressive tumor behavior and worse prognosis in certain types of cancer. Additionally, abnormalities in CD98 regulation have been linked to the development of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

Overall, while CD98 light chains are an important component of normal cellular function, their dysregulation or aberrant expression can contribute to various disease processes and may represent a potential target for therapeutic intervention in certain conditions.

Alanine is an alpha-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. The molecular formula for alanine is C3H7NO2. It is a non-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body through the conversion of other nutrients, such as pyruvate, and does not need to be obtained directly from the diet.

Alanine is classified as an aliphatic amino acid because it contains a simple carbon side chain. It is also a non-polar amino acid, which means that it is hydrophobic and tends to repel water. Alanine plays a role in the metabolism of glucose and helps to regulate blood sugar levels. It is also involved in the transfer of nitrogen between tissues and helps to maintain the balance of nitrogen in the body.

In addition to its role as a building block of proteins, alanine is also used as a neurotransmitter in the brain and has been shown to have a calming effect on the nervous system. It is found in many foods, including meats, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, and legumes.

4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate is a chemical compound with the formula C6H5ClHgSO3. It is an organomercury compound, where mercury is bonded to a phenyl ring and a sulfonate group. This compound is an white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and denser than water.

It has been used historically as a diuretic and antiseptic, but its use in medicine has been discontinued due to the toxicity of mercury. Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences, including damage to the nervous system, kidneys, and digestive system. Therefore, handling and disposal of 4-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate should be done with caution and in accordance with local regulations for hazardous materials.

Glutamine is defined as a conditionally essential amino acid in humans, which means that it can be produced by the body under normal circumstances, but may become essential during certain conditions such as stress, illness, or injury. It is the most abundant free amino acid found in the blood and in the muscles of the body.

Glutamine plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, energy production, and acid-base balance. It serves as an important fuel source for cells in the intestines, immune system, and skeletal muscles. Glutamine has also been shown to have potential benefits in wound healing, gut function, and immunity, particularly during times of physiological stress or illness.

In summary, glutamine is a vital amino acid that plays a critical role in maintaining the health and function of various tissues and organs in the body.

Leucine-tRNA Ligase, also known as Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase, is an enzyme (EC 6.1.1.4) that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the esterification of the amino acid leucine to its corresponding transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule. The resulting leucine-tRNA complex is then used in the translation process, where genetic information encoded in mRNA is translated into a specific protein sequence.

The reaction catalyzed by Leucine-tRNA Ligase can be represented as follows:

Leucine + tRNA(Leu) + ATP → Leucyl-tRNA(Leu) + AMP + PP\_i

In this reaction, leucine is activated by attachment to an adenosine monophosphate (AMP) molecule with the help of ATP. The activated leucine is then transferred to the appropriate tRNA molecule, releasing AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate (PP\_i). This enzyme's function is essential for maintaining the accuracy of protein synthesis, as it ensures that only the correct amino acids are incorporated into proteins according to the genetic code.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

Proline is an organic compound that is classified as a non-essential amino acid, meaning it can be produced by the human body and does not need to be obtained through the diet. It is encoded in the genetic code as the codon CCU, CCC, CCA, or CCG. Proline is a cyclic amino acid, containing an unusual secondary amine group, which forms a ring structure with its carboxyl group.

In proteins, proline acts as a structural helix breaker, disrupting the alpha-helix structure and leading to the formation of turns and bends in the protein chain. This property is important for the proper folding and function of many proteins. Proline also plays a role in the stability of collagen, a major structural protein found in connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin.

In addition to its role in protein structure, proline has been implicated in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, apoptosis, and oxidative stress response. It is also a precursor for the synthesis of other biologically important compounds such as hydroxyproline, which is found in collagen and elastin, and glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.

Cystine is a naturally occurring amino acid in the body, which is formed from the oxidation of two cysteine molecules. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that it can be produced by the body and does not need to be obtained through diet. Cystine plays important roles in various biological processes, including protein structure and antioxidant defense. However, when cystine accumulates in large amounts, it can form crystals or stones, leading to conditions such as cystinuria, a genetic disorder characterized by the formation of cystine kidney stones.

Isoleucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C6H13NO2. Isoleucine is crucial for muscle protein synthesis, hemoglobin formation, and energy regulation during exercise or fasting. It is found in various foods such as meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts. Deficiency of isoleucine may lead to various health issues like muscle wasting, fatigue, and mental confusion.

CD98 heavy chain is a type of protein found on the surface of many different types of cells in the human body. It is also known as SLCA1 or 4F2hc. The CD98 heavy chain combines with various other proteins to form transporter proteins, which are involved in the transport of various molecules across the cell membrane.

In the context of immunology and medical terminology, antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. The CD98 heavy chain is not typically referred to as an antigen itself, but it may contribute to the overall antigenic properties of the cell expressing it.

However, it's important to note that the term "CD98 Heavy Chain" refers to a specific protein and not a medical condition or disease. If you have any specific concerns about this protein or its role in health and disease, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or a researcher in the field of immunology.

Jones HN, Ashworth CJ, Page KR, McArdle HJ (2006). "Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a ... "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is ... 2006). "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic ... 2006). "Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 ( ...
"Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder". J. ... SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in ... Bröer S (January 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-286. ... Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A19 gene. ...
... is a member of the system y+ family of transporters characterized by sodium-independent transport of cationic amino acids.[ ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A3 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3". Hosokawa H, Sawamura T, ... Cationic amino acid transporter 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A3 gene. SLC7A3 ... Vekony N, Wolf S, Boissel JP, Gnauert K, Closs EI (Oct 2001). "Human cationic amino acid transporter hCAT-3 is preferentially ...
... and l-γ-Amino-β-Hydroxybutyric Acids in GABA Receptor and Transport Test Systems". Journal of Neuroscience. 1 (2): 132-140. doi ... γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand ... Beta hydroxy acids, GABA analogues, GABAA receptor agonists, GABAB receptor agonists, Gamma-Amino acids, Human metabolites, ... Effect of gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABHB) on experimentally-induced epileptic activity]" [Effect of γ-amino-β- ...
Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... This facilitates transport of numerous small molecules into the enterocyte from the intestinal lumen. These include broken down ... Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth ...
Kudo Y, Boyd CA (August 2002). "Changes in expression and function of syncytin and its receptor, amino acid transport system B( ... Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A5 gene. Glutamate transporter Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5". Tailor CS, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y ... Uchiyama T, Matsuda Y, Wada M, Takahashi S, Fujita T (April 2005). "Functional regulation of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid ...
The plants are slowly starved of these amino acids and eventually DNA synthesis stops. ESPS Inhibitors affect grasses and ... They are medically important by interfering with components of the nervous system affecting membrane transport, protein ... ALS Inhibitors affect grasses and dicots by inhibiting the first step in some amino acid synthesis, acetolactate synthesis. ... Alkaloids are derived from amino acids, and contain nitrogen. ...
Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... Although the perception and transmission of pain stimuli in the central nervous system have not been fully elucidated, ... TCAs do not block dopamine transport directly but might facilitate dopaminergic effects indirectly by inhibiting dopamine ...
HPAT1 and 2 are integral to the central nervous system because they transport GABA and its analogues which can induce and ... Unlike most amino acid transporters in the exchange of Na+ with amino acid symporters, proton-coupled amino acid transporters ... "Amino acid derivatives are substrates or non-transported inhibitors of the amino acid transporter PAT2 (slc36a2)". Biochimica ... Unlike typical mammalian amino acid transporters which function in exchanging Na+/amino acid symporters, these- transporters ...
Orlowski, M.; Meister, A. (1970-11-01). "The Gamma-Glutamyl Cycle: A Possible Transport System for Amino Acids". Proceedings of ... It has a relatively unusual γ-bond between the constituent amino acids, L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine and is a key ... Control experiments with combinations of the constituent amino acids that make up GGC, including L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine ... GGC is synthesized from L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine in the cytoplasm of virtually all cells in an adenosine triphosphate ( ...
Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... In this way thionein and metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ... of its constituent amino acid residues. MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding ...
It synthesises amino acids, vitamins, nitrogenous bases and haem for the protozoan. Haem is necessary for the growth and ... While the protozoan has its separate mitochondria that provide electron transport system for the production of cellular energy ... In return the protozoan offers its enzymes for the complete metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids and ... and that it helps the host in synthesising the amino acid arginine from ornithine. As more structural and molecular details ...
... a disease that leads to cystine stones in the urinary system due to impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids. ... This protein plays a role in the high-affinity and sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids ... b(0,+)-type amino acid transporter 1, also known as b(0,+)AT1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SLC7A9 gene. This ... Heterodimeric amino acid transporter Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000021488 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
"Coupled and uncoupled proton movement by amino acid transport system N." EMBO Journal. 20 (24): 7041-51. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... Since Systems A are electrogenic which Systems N are not, the amino acid:cation stoichiometries may differ. Fischer, WN; Loo, ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids". Plant Journal. 29 ( ... Six AAAPs in A. thaliana are well characterized and transport neutral and charged amino acids with varying specificities and ...
P. aeruginosa contain 13 RND transport systems, including one HME-RND and the remaining HAE-RNDs. Among the best identified are ... RND proteins are large and can include more than 1000 amino acid residues. They are generally composed of two homologous ... Most of the RND superfamily transport systems are made of large polypeptide chains. RND proteins exist primarily in gram- ... The RND protein dictates the substrate for the completed transport systems including: metal ions, xenobiotics or drugs. ...
AT heterodimer is the main apical reabsorption system for cystine in the kidney". Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 283 (3): F540- ... amino acid transport on substrate affinity of the heteromeric b(0,+) amino acid transporter". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (19): 14331- ... dibasic and neutral amino acid transporters, activator of cystine, dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 1". Pras E ... of truncation of the COOH-terminal region of a Na+-independent neutral and basic amino acid transporter on amino acid transport ...
Ackers GK (1969). "Molecular sieve studies of interacting protein systems. IV. Molecular size of the D-amino acid oxidase ... Ackers GK (1967). "Molecular sieve studies of interacting protein systems. I. Equations for transport of associating systems". ... thermodynamics of protein-protein interactions including important changes due to single amino acid substitutions. "Obituary - ...
von Versen-Höynck F, Rajakumar A, Parrott MS, Powers RW (April 2009). "Leptin affects system A amino acid transport activity in ... Amino acid transport is also regulated by DNA methylation of amino acid transporter genes, modifying their expression in the ... trigger the regulation of amino acid transporters in the placenta. Amino acid transport is necessary for fetal growth, and its ... Cleal JK, Lofthouse EM, Sengers BG, Lewis RM (December 2018). "A systems perspective on placental amino acid transport". The ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, ... The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ...
Various mechanisms are used to transport molecules across the BBB. Small polar molecules such as glucose, amino acids, and ... The BBB normally blocks nearly 98% of drugs from accessing the central nervous system, so FUS has the potential to address a ... Large molecules such as proteins and peptides use receptor-mediated or absorption-mediated endocytic transport to access the ... Transiently disrupting the BBB allows for paracellular transport of molecules, and there is evidence that the physical stress ...
"Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport". J. Biol ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A1 gene. Amino acid ... 2007). "Activation of a system A amino acid transporter, ATA1/SLC38A1, in human hepatocellular carcinoma and preneoplastic ... a subtype of amino acid transporter A, from human placenta". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 273 (3): 1175-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...
The transport mechanism for tryptophan is shared with the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine. ... amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation on the exercise-induced change in plasma and muscle concentration of amino acids in ... Branch-chained amino acid supplementation has proven to have little to no effect on performance. There has been little success ... Amino acids, brain neurotransmitters and a functional link between muscle and brain that is important in sustained exercise. In ...
... heptane transport by O-diazoacetyl-L-serine. An initial step in identifying the L-system amino acid transporter". The Journal ... and research indicates that it may have potential in identifying the L-leucine-favoring system transporter in human T- ...
The amino-acid sequence identity can go down to 15% between ParM and other actin-like ATPase. The mechanism of partition ... The net result being transport of partition complex to the cell pole. The partition system of the plasmid R388 has been found ... Amino-acid sequence identity can go down to 21% for TubZ proteins. The mechanism is similar to a treadmill mechanism: Multiple ... This system has been proposed to be the type IV partition system. It is thought to be a derivative of the type I partition ...
Alpha-Amino acids, Organic disulfides, Sulfur amino acids, Non-proteinogenic amino acids). ... In this system, the anionic form of cystine is transported in exchange for glutamate. Cystine is quickly reduced to cysteine.[ ... and two carboxylic acid groups. As for other amino acids, the amine and carboxylic acid groups exist in rapid equilibrium with ... Cystine is the oxidized derivative of the amino acid cysteine and has the formula (SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H)2. It is a white solid that ...
Hormones can be amino acid complexes, steroids, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, or prostaglandins. The endocrine system is ... A hormone is any of a class of signaling molecules produced by cells in glands in multicellular organisms that are transported ... The human endocrine system consists of several systems that operate via feedback loops. Several important feedback systems are ... The endocrine system has three sets of endocrine outputs which include the magnocellular system, the parvocellular system, and ...
Sodium bicarbonate is absorbed by active transport and glucose and amino acid co-transport Fructose is absorbed by facilitated ... are an important part of the digestive tract's local immune system. They are part of the lymphatic system, and provide a site ... splits one amino acid at a time. Aminopeptidase and dipeptidase free the end amino acid products. Lipids (fats) are degraded ... The epithelial cells of the villi transport nutrients from the lumen of the intestine into these capillaries (amino acids and ...
Glutamate (the conjugate base of glutamic acid) is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and ... However, there is a possibility that two human-specific "fixed" amino acid substitutions, D71G in GRIN3A and R727H in GRIN3B, ... Weaver CD, Gundersen V, Verdoorn TA (January 1998). "A high affinity glutamate/aspartate transport system in pancreatic islets ... Meldrum B (1993). "Amino acids as dietary excitotoxins: a contribution to understanding neurodegenerative disorders". Brain Res ...
This transport system normally removes cysteine from the fluid destined to become urine and returns this essential amino acid ... This is usually to accumulate high concentrations of molecules that a cell needs, such as glucose or amino acids. If the ... Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) EAAT1 EAAT2 EAAT3 EAAT4 EAAT5 Glucose transporter Monoamine transporters, including ... Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved ...
... amino acids, certain phytohormones, and even messenger RNAs are transported in the phloem through sieve tube elements. Phloem ... Recent evidence indicates that mobile proteins and RNA are part of the plant's long-distance communication signaling system. ... These sugars are transported to non-photosynthetic parts of the plant, such as the roots, or into storage structures, such as ... This transport process is called translocation. In trees, the phloem is the innermost layer of the bark, hence the name, ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral. Other names Transporters, Amino Acid; Permeases, Amino Acid; Permease, Amino Acid; Amino ... Amino Acid Transport Systems. Slc36a1 protein, mouse 0 *Amino Acid Transport Systems *Symporters. J Biol Chem 2004 Jan 23;279(4 ... Amino Acid Transport Systems. J Biol Chem 2002 Jun 7;277(23):21017-26 CATB(0) protein, mouse 0 *Amino Acid Transport Systems. ... Amino Acid Transport Systems. J Biol Chem 1999 Oct 8;274(41):29005-10 mmuP protein, E coli 0 *Amino Acid Transport Systems * ...
A leucine-sensitive amino acid transport system with high affinity for basic amino acids( AMINO ACIDS, BASIC). ... Amino Acid Transport System y+L*Amino Acid Transport System y+L ... Amino Acid Transport System y+. *Amino Acid Transport System y+ ... "Amino Acid Transport System y+L" by people in this website by year, and whether "Amino Acid Transport System y+L" was a major ... "Amino Acid Transport System y+L" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ...
Jones HN, Ashworth CJ, Page KR, McArdle HJ (2006). "Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a ... "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is ... 2006). "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic ... 2006). "Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 ( ...
Dive into the research topics of The binding specificity of amino acid transport system y+L in human erythrocytes is altered ... The binding specificity of amino acid transport system y+L in human erythrocytes is altered by monovalent cations. ...
Branched-chain amino acid ABC transporter permease protein (Branched-chain amino acid ABC-type transport system, permease ... 2981 Branched-chain amino acid ABC transporter permease protein (Branched-chain amino acid ABC-type transport system, permease ... Powered by cMonkey algorithm developed in Baliga lab at Institute for Systems Biology ...
Cystinuria is an autosomal-recessive defect in reabsorptive transport of cystine and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, ... Recent evidence suggests that the 4F2HC/4F2LC complex accounts for the Y+L amino acid transport system at the basolateral ... renal basic amino acid transporter) in chromosome 2, encoding a transport protein for cystine and dibasic amino acids. [14] In ... At least 2 transport systems are responsible for cystine reabsorption, as follows:. * High-affinity system: This system is ...
Effect of cholesterol on the branched-chain amino acid transport system of Streptococcus cremoris.. Zheng, T; Driessen, A J; ... The effect of cholesterol on the activity of the branched-chain amino acid transport system of Streptococcus cremoris was ... suggesting that the membrane fluidity controls the activity of the branched-chain amino acid carrier. ... The leucine transport activity decreased with the membrane fluidity, as determined by steady-state fluorescence polarization of ...
System y+L is a broad-scope amino acid transporter which binds and translocates cationic and neutral amino acids. Na+ ... N2 - System y+L is a broad-scope amino acid transporter which binds and translocates cationic and neutral amino acids. Na+ ... AB - System y+L is a broad-scope amino acid transporter which binds and translocates cationic and neutral amino acids. Na+ ... abstract = "System y+L is a broad-scope amino acid transporter which binds and translocates cationic and neutral amino acids. ...
Amino Acid Transport System L. *Messenger RNA. *Cell Proliferation. *Tyrosine. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data ... The glutamine transporter ASCT2 (SLC1A5) promotes tumor growth independently of the amino acid transporter LAT1 (SLC7A5).. J ... The transporters for glutamine and essential amino acids, ASCT2 (solute carrier family 1 member 5, SLC1A5) and LAT1 (solute ... Moreover, previous work has suggested that glutamine influx via ASCT2 triggers essential amino acids entry ...
... all essential amino acids) Incomplete proteins  Low in one or more essential amino acid  Usually plant sources are incomplete ... Functions as enzymes and hormones  Transport nutrients.  Assist the immune system.  Serve as a source of energy when ... Large molecules  Made up of chains of amino acids  Are found in every cell in the body  Are involved in most of the bodys ... Complete proteins  Contain all essential amino acids.  Usually animal source are complete proteins  Are considered higher ...
D) Detection of chromatophore-encoded transport systems. Annotation or TCDB-family, predicted mode of transport, substrates, ... 2014). Dynamic recruitment of amino acid transporters to the insect/symbiont interface. Mol. Ecol. 23, 1608-1623. doi: 10.1111/ ... The mechanism enabling metabolite transport across the symbionts IM and OM, with symbiont-encoded transport systems being ... The remaining transport systems do not appear apt to establish metabolic connectivity (Figure 2D). Solely two systems, a DME ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral * Carrier Proteins * Glycine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins ... None of the axons displayed immunoreactivity for glutamic acid decarboxylase. Electron microscopy of two cells revealed direct ... Transmitters were identified by using antibodies raised against vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2, glutamic acid ...
... which is increasingly used as a model system in gut microbiome research. Using a bottom-up approach, we uncovered the ... Correspondingly, systems for amino acid transport were especially prevalent among all strains of the consortium (Fig. S11). ... By quantifying amino acid levels we could show that Bacteroidales and Lachnospirales strains exhibited similar amino acid ... and the carbohydrate and amino acid composition of fetal calf serum originates from the amino acid composition of selected Bos ...
Tunneling Transport Phenomena in Topological Systems. *Peng, Yunhui, Ph.D.. Modelling the Effects of Disease-Associated Single ... Amino Acid Variants and Rescuing the Effects by Small Molecules. *Raghavendra, Achyut, Ph.D.. Physiological and Environmental ... Zeng, Chuanchang, Ph.D. - Topological Excitations and Anomalous Transport Phenomena in Condensed Matter Systems ... Galactic Chemical Evolution and Radioactivities in the Early Solar System. *Childress, Anthony, Ph.D.. Graphene Foam and ...
System Y+ high affinity basic amino acid transporter (CAT1) (ecotropic retrovival leukemia virus receptor (ERR)) (transports ... 2] "Transport of cationic amino acids by the mouse ecotropic retrovirus receptor." Kim J.W.et.al. 1652100. ...
gi,22965603,ref,ZP_00013201.1, COG0410: ABC-type branched-chain amino acid transport systems, ATPase component [Rhodo.... ... gi,15800607,ref,NP_286621.1, ATP-binding component of putrescine transport system [Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933] g.... ... gi,24112225,ref,NP_706735.1, ATP-binding component of putrescine transport system [Shigella flexneri 2a str. 301] gi,.... ... gi,22536320,ref,NP_687171.1, amino acid ABC transporter, ATP-binding protein [Streptococcus agalactiae 2603V/R] gi,25.... ...
Pinto, V., Pinho, M. J., & Soares-Da-Silva, P. (2013). Renal amino acid transport systems and essential hypertension. FASEB ...
These compositional characteristics were reflected in a functional enrichment in membrane transport, signal transduction, ... These compositional characteristics were reflected in a functional enrichment in membrane transport, signal transduction, ... metagenome of Italians shows an overall enrichment of genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism and amino acid ... were transport systems, followed by several enzymes acting on different substrates in metabolic pathways, and proteins involved ...
They also carried organic molecules, such as amino acids, necessary for life as we know it. Amino acids are the building blocks ... Scientists said that these asteroids transported water and organic molecules throughout the solar system. Indeed, such ... Could Mars have been the 1st planet in our solar system to host life? Image via NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center.. Could Mars ... It was an energetic collision that formed the Earth-moon system and, as the same time, wiped out all potential life on Earth. ...
... in Peptide and amino acid transport mechanisms in the cerebral nervous system, Exchange diffusion of large neutral amino acids ... NAA concentration was measured by HPLC (L-8500 amino acid analyzer system, Hitachi). The amino acids are phenylalanine, ... NAAs are transported by the neutral amino acid carrier system in the blood-brain barrier in a competitive fashion (Oldendorf, ... 1977) Kinetics of competitive inhibition of neutral amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier. J Neurochem 28:103-108 ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/*physiology; Cystine/*metabolism; Cystinosis/*etiology/pathology; Kidney Failure, Chronic ...
The amino acid sequences of β-casomorphins among these bovine variants and those found in human milk are similar, often ... immune system, mineral transport, and possibly function as antagonists or agonists of opioid receptors (Teschemacher, H., 2003 ... Insulin promotes the absorption of amino acids and glucose by tissues, the cells of which subsequently utilize the nutrients ... Food opioid peptides, also known as exogenous opioids or exorphins, have been identified based on their amino acid sequences ...
2000). Transport properties of a system y+L neutral and basic amino acid transporter. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 20787-20793. 10777485 ... and l-type amino acid transport activity with broad specificity for small and large zwitterionic amino acids. J. Biol. Chem. ... 2003). Two amino acid residues determine the low substrate affinity of human cationic amino acid transporter-2A. J. Biol. Chem ... View Proteins belonging to: The Amino Acid-Polyamine-Organocation (APC) Family. 2.A.3 The Amino Acid-Polyamine-Organocation ( ...
Fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism and transport systems are discussed, alongside clinical implications and modern ... The pathways of amino acid synthesis and degradation in humans are described along with an introduction to the urea cycle. ... the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation). The concept of tissue and organ specificity is introduced, and finally ... An investigation of the utility of QuEChERS for extracting acid, base, neutral and amphiphilic species from example ...
Pregabalin is a substrate for system L transporter which is responsible for the transport of large amino acids across the blood ... Body System Preferred Term. 150 mg/d [N = 185] % 300 mg/d [N = 90] % 600 mg/d [N = 395] % All PGB* [N = 670]† % Placebo [N = ... Body system Preferred term. 75 mg/d [N=84] % 150 mg/d [N=302] % 300 mg/d [N=312] % 600 mg/d [N=154] % All PGB* [N=852] % ... Body system Preferred term. 75 mg/day [N=77] % 150 mg/day [N=212] % 300 mg/day [N=321] % 600 mg/day [N=369] % All PGB* [N=979] ...
In such systems excitation energy transport (EET) plays a substantial role and is important, e.g., for light-harvesting in the ... The developed methodology has been applied to the smallest chiral amino acid, alanine. It has been found that an enrichment of ... Such cosmic sources of enantiomerically enriched molecules may offer an explanation for the dominance of L-amino acids on Earth ... This has been motivated by the observation of enantiomerically enriched left-handed amino acids on meteorites and comets, which ...
... chain of aspartic acid and the positively charged arginine turned out to be knock-out criteria for using the transport system. ... which comprises 51 amino acid building blocks and controls the metabolism of sugar, or cyclosporine, an eleven amino acid- ... A sequence of the three amino acids arginine, glycine and aspartic acid is the key to the docking at these receptors. Kesslers ... 21.02.2018] Peptides, short amino acid chains that control many functions in the human body, represent a billion-dollar market ...
Pregabalin is a substrate for system L transporter which is responsible for the transport of large amino acids across the blood ... Body System Preferred Term 150 mg/d [N = 185] % 300 mg/d [N = 90] % 600 mg/d [N = 395] % All PGB * [N = 670] † % Placebo [N = ... System Organ Class Preferred term 150 mg/d 300 mg/d 450 mg/d 600 mg/d All PGB *. Placebo. ... Body system Preferred term 75 mg/day. 150 mg/day. 300 mg/day. 600 mg/day. All PGB *. Placebo. ...
  • Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes. (reference.md)
  •  Large molecules  Made up of chains of amino acids  Are found in every cell in the body  Are involved in most of the body's functions and life processes Daily requirements of proteins: It is 1gm/kg of body weight per day for adults. (slideshare.net)
  • Complete proteins  Contain all essential amino acids. (slideshare.net)
  • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins . (earthsky.org)
  • Proposed functions of PMRS include maintenance of redox state in proteins, stimulation of cell growth, reduction of lipid hydroperoxides, recycling of α -tocopherol, reduction of ferric ion prior to iron uptake by a transferring-independent pathway, and the maintenance of the extracellular concentration of ascorbic acid [ 2 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although a number of causes of poor fetal growth are known, the involvement of placental transport proteins in the etiology of growth retardation is not understood. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Protein secretion systems are complex molecular machineries that translocate proteins through the outer membrane and sometimes through multiple other barriers. (bvsalud.org)
  • For this, it identifies and clusters co-localized genes encoding proteins of secretion systems using sequence similarity search with Hidden Markov Model (HMM) protein profiles. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this chapter, we describe a complete pipeline of analysis, starting from (i) the integration of information from a reference set of experimentally studied systems, (ii) the identification of conserved proteins and the construction of their HMM protein profiles, (iii) the definition and optimization of "macsy-models," and (iv) their use and online distribution as tools to search genomic data for secretion systems of interest. (bvsalud.org)
  • Transmitters were identified by using antibodies raised against vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2, glutamic acid decarboxylase and the glycine transporter 2. (nih.gov)
  • They proposed that Lys158 is central to proton-coupled transport and that the amine group serves the same functional role as the Na2 ion in LeuT, thus demonstrating common principles among proton- and sodium-coupled transporters. (tcdb.org)
  • Liu X, Bush DR. ( 2006 ) Expression and transcriptional regulation of amino acid transporters in plants. (academictree.org)
  • Ortiz-Lopez A, Chang H, Bush DR. ( 2000 ) Amino acid transporters in plants. (academictree.org)
  • However, in artificial systems, there had been no example of a water oxidation system that has a catalytic center surrounded by hole transporters until now. (chemistryviews.org)
  • Measurement of [ 14 C]betaine uptake by HEK293 cells transiently transfected with human or rat sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs), SNAT1, SNAT2 and SNAT4 revealed that only human and rat SNAT2 have betaine uptake activity. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The high-affinity system mediates uptake of 10% of L-cystine and the dibasic amino acids at the apical membrane of the straight third segment (S3) of the proximal tubule. (medscape.com)
  • SLC7A5, complexed with SLC3A2 in the plasma membrane, mediates the uptake of neutral amino acids. (reactome.org)
  • The initial rate of uptake of methylaminoisobutyric acid (a nonmetabolizable amino acid analogue) was 63% lower in vesicles from placentas of small for gestational age babies. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • BAIBA is one of the myokines, affectionately known as "exercise factors", which play a powerful role behind the benefits of regular exercise-increased glucose uptake, increased free fatty acid oxidation, and reduced fat mass. (naturalscience.com)
  • Betaine uptake is induced by hypertonic stress in a placental trophoblast cell line, and involvement of amino acid transport system A was proposed. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Here, we aimed to identify the subtype(s) of system A that mediates hypertonicity-induced betaine uptake. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Betaine exclusively inhibited the uptake activity of SNAT2 among the rat system A subtypes. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Well-known examples include insulin, which comprises 51 amino acid building blocks and controls the metabolism of sugar, or cyclosporine, an eleven amino acid-peptide that has been proven to suppress organ rejection after transplants. (tum.de)
  • Cystinuria is an autosomal-recessive defect in reabsorptive transport of cystine and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, arginine, and lysine from the luminal fluid of the renal proximal tubule and small intestine. (medscape.com)
  • [ 9 ] showed abnormal excretion of the dibasic amino acids lysine, arginine, and ornithine in persons with cystinuria. (medscape.com)
  • Na + replacement with K + does not affect lysine transport, but markedly decreases the affinity of the transporter for L-leucine and L-glutamine. (uandes.cl)
  • This observation suggests that the specificity of system y + L varies depending on the ionic composition of the medium. (uandes.cl)
  • In agreement with the prediction, the specificity of system y + L was altered by the monovalent cations. (uandes.cl)
  • have presented the crystal structure of apo-ApcT, a proton-coupled broad-specificity amino acid transporter, at 2.35 Å resolution. (tcdb.org)
  • In K + , the carrier behaved as a cationic amino acid specific carrier, interacting weakly with neutral amino acids. (uandes.cl)
  • 2] "Transport of cationic amino acids by the mouse ecotropic retrovirus receptor. (tcdb.org)
  • Peptides are short chains of amino acids. (tum.de)
  • In 1993, Lee et al cloned a human complementary DNA, rBAT (renal basic amino acid transporter) in chromosome 2, encoding a transport protein for cystine and dibasic amino acids. (medscape.com)
  • Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001 ) ANT1, an aromatic and neutral amino acid transporter in Arabidopsis. (academictree.org)
  • A leucine-sensitive amino acid transport system with high affinity for basic amino acids( AMINO ACIDS, BASIC). (musc.edu)
  • High-affinity system: This system is affected in persons with cystinuria. (medscape.com)
  • It is now apparent that both increased insulin and increased availability of amino acids are important for maximizing muscle protein anabolism. (bmj.com)
  • 2 On the other hand, if amino acid concentrations are maintained at normal or higher concentrations, net protein deposition in muscle will occur because of stimulation of synthesis and possibly because of a simultaneous decrease in breakdown. (bmj.com)
  • The importance of amino acid availability for the stimulatory effects of insulin to be evident was highlighted by Bennet et al , 3 who reported that insulin, given with sufficient amino acids, can stimulate leg and whole body protein balance by mechanisms including stimulation of protein synthesis and inhibition of protein breakdown. (bmj.com)
  • In sharp contrast, amino acid ingestion alone significantly increases muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. (bmj.com)
  • 5 However, consumption of both amino acids and CHO results in much greater effects on muscle protein anabolism, 6 suggesting an interactive effect between insulin, amino acid availability, and resistance exercise. (bmj.com)
  • Also, it is well established that the stimulatory effect of amino acids on muscle protein synthesis is greater after exercise than at rest. (bmj.com)
  • Here, we describe how to identify protein secretion systems in bacterial genomes using the MacSyFinder program. (bvsalud.org)
  • Unfortunately, protein and some elements in existing dispersion media are suboptimal for potential nose-to-brain transport of nanomaterial s because olfactory transport has size- and ion-composition requirements. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, we designed a protein-free dispersion media containing phospholipids and amino acids in an isotonic balanced electrolyte solution, a solution for nasal and olfactory transport (SNOT). (cdc.gov)
  • 2000. Assessing the role of ortho -substitution on polychlorinated biphenyl binding to transthyretin, a thyroxine transport protein. (cdc.gov)
  • Cyclic hexapeptide in its bioactive form with the integrin-binding tripeptide sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid: Green spheres represent carbon atoms, red oxygen atoms, blue nitrogen atoms and white hydrogen atoms. (tum.de)
  • A sequence of the three amino acids arginine, glycine and aspartic acid is the key to the docking at these receptors. (tum.de)
  • Insulin promotes the absorption of amino acids and glucose by tissues, the cells of which subsequently utilize the nutrients for an array of metabolic functions. (ift.org)
  • Introduction to Renal Transport Abnormalities Many substances are secreted or reabsorbed in the renal tubule system, including electrolytes, protons, bicarbonate molecules, glucose, uric acid, amino acids, and free water. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This form usually involves a reduction in the glucose transport maximum (the maximum rate at which glucose can be resorbed) and subsequent escape of glucose in the urine. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In a recent study, 20 children diagnosed with ADHD were treated with either Ritalin® or food supplements containing a mix of vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, amino acids, essential fatty acids, phospholipids, and probiotics targeting biochemical risk factors for ADHD. (lifeextension.com)
  • Cloning of an amino acid transporter with functional characteristics and tissue expression pattern identical to that of system A". J Biol Chem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low-affinity system: This system is present in the S1-S2 part of the proximal tubule and is responsible for 90% of L-cystine reabsorption. (medscape.com)
  • In nature, the reaction is promoted by the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II, in which a catalytic center is surrounded by hole-transporting amino acid residues. (chemistryviews.org)
  • These compositional characteristics were reflected in a functional enrichment in membrane transport, signal transduction, signaling molecules and interaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cholesterol reduced both counterflow and proton motive force -driven leucine transport. (bvsalud.org)
  • The leucine transport activity decreased with the membrane fluidity , as determined by steady- state fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene incorporated into the fused membranes , suggesting that the membrane fluidity controls the activity of the branched-chain amino acid carrier. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the presence of Na + , L-leucine was the neutral amino acid that interacted more powerfully. (uandes.cl)
  • Our results indicate that SNAT2 transports betaine, and that tonicity-sensitive SNAT2 expression may be involved in regulation of betaine concentration in placental trophoblasts. (elsevierpure.com)
  • However, both the negatively charged side chain of aspartic acid and the positively charged arginine turned out to be knock-out criteria for using the transport system. (tum.de)
  • The developed methodology has been applied to the smallest chiral amino acid, alanine. (fu-berlin.de)
  • It comprised six molecules of the simplest amino acid, alanine. (tum.de)
  • Interestingly, some bioactive peptides cross the mucosal barrier to mediate a physiological response at various molecular targets within several systems. (ift.org)
  • Food opioid peptides, also known as exogenous opioids or exorphins, have been identified based on their amino acid sequences and bioinformatic screening. (ift.org)
  • Peptides, short amino acid chains that control many functions in the human body, represent a billion-dollar market, also in the pharmaceutical industry. (tum.de)
  • Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present in all cell types that transfers electrons from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors maintaining redox homeostasis for a successful cell physiology [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • PMRS activity also plays an important role affecting recycling of extracellular ascorbic acid, thus preventing its depletion [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • PMRS donates electrons to extracellular ascorbate free radical (AFR) derived from intracellular redox molecules like glutathione (GSH), L-ascorbic acid, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and other reduced equivalents [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 1998. Ammonia: Emission, atmospheric transport and deposition. (cdc.gov)
  • Assist the immune system. (slideshare.net)
  • Although using these technolo- acting on the pathogen in each microenvironment, what gies to analyze pathogens within a host is still in its infancy, bacterial factors are responsible for the host damage, and initial studies indicate that these technologies will be valu- able tools for understanding how the pathogen reacts to the how the immune system is evaded. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, pathogens must have specific mecha- clearly complex, and, in many cases, the study of these nisms for mediating colonization, avoiding the host's interactions is limited by the lack of a suitable animal immune system, and acquiring necessary nutrients. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors noted that β-casomorphin (BCM-7) from β-casein may function as an immunosuppressant and impair tolerance to dietary antigens in the gut immune system, which may contribute to the onset of T1D. (ift.org)
  • Support for the Digestive System and the Immune System: Florastor works to improve the natural flora of your digestive tract while also providing support for your immune system and the homeostasis of your digestive system. (kcmuseum.org)
  • Polygonum multiflorum is said to contain Vitamin X. Pharmacology studies show that an extract improves the cardiovascular system, enhances immune functions, slows degeneration of glands, increases antioxidant activity, and reduces the accumulation of lipid peroxidation. (selfgrowth.com)
  • A dampening of the immune system, or immunosuppression can occur with the taking of various pharmaceuticals. (vitanetonline.com)
  • Neutral amino acid transport in epithelial cells and its malfunction in Hartnup disorder. (medscape.com)
  • It presents a functional unit of a physical barrier consisting of a mucus layer and a monolayer of epithelial cells and of a mucosal lymphoid system that together efficiently discriminate between pathogenic and commensal microorganisms 16 . (nature.com)
  • In the present thesis, novel quantum-classical methods for the simulation of light-induced excited state dynamics in complex (bio)molecular systems have been developed and applied to selected examples. (fu-berlin.de)
  • This transport creates concern for potential neurotoxicity of insoluble nanomaterial s and a need for toxicity screening tests that detect nose-to-brain transport. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings support the potential for SNOT to disperse nanomaterial s in a manner permitting nose-to-brain transport for neurotoxicity studies. (cdc.gov)
  • Roles of neuroactive amino acids in ammonia neurotoxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Nephropathic cystinosis is an inherited (autosomal recessive) lysosomal storage disorder caused by defective transport of the amino acid cystine out of lysosomes. (medscape.com)
  • Scientists said that these asteroids transported water and organic molecules throughout the solar system. (earthsky.org)
  • They also carried organic molecules, such as amino acids , necessary for life as we know it. (earthsky.org)
  • Such cosmic sources of enantiomerically enriched molecules may offer an explanation for the dominance of L-amino acids on Earth. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Gymnemic Acid blocks the sugar receptors on your tastebuds, which makes eating sweets less appealing. (naturalscience.com)
  • [ 10 ] In 1961, Milne et al demonstrated reduced intestinal absorption of dibasic amino acids in persons with cystinuria. (medscape.com)
  • Hereditary pellagra-like skin rash with temporary cerebellar ataxia, constant renal amino-aciduria, and other bizarre biochemical features. (medscape.com)
  • Laboratories that perform biochemical genetic testing are required by CLIA regulations to meet the general quality systems requirements for nonwaived testing and the personnel requirements for high-complexity testing. (cdc.gov)
  • These recommendations also are intended as a resource for medical and public health professionals who evaluate laboratory practices, for users of laboratory services to facilitate their collaboration with newborn screening systems and use of biochemical genetic tests, and for standard-setting organizations and professional societies in developing future laboratory quality standards and practice recommendations. (cdc.gov)
  • Find out how nutrients such as essential fatty acids, B vitamins, choline, phosphatidylserine, amino acids, and zinc can help manage ADHD symptoms without the dangerous side effects of stimulant drugs. (lifeextension.com)
  • Zinpro ProPath LQ Zn 180 (zinc amino acid complex) is an exceptionally versatile nutritional ingredient designed for liquid feed applications across species and diets. (zinpro.com)
  • Functions as enzymes and hormones  Transport nutrients. (slideshare.net)
  • Its primary function is to transport oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. (freescience.info)
  • When the intestinal barrier is healthy, it allows selective paracellular transport of nutrients, regulating solute and water fluxes while preventing the entry of bacteria and toxins. (nature.com)
  • 2000). "Primary structure, functional characteristics and tissue expression pattern of human ATA2, a subtype of amino acid transport system A.". Biochim. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mio Kondo, Shigeyuki Masaoka, Osaka University, Japan, and colleagues have developed a catalyst system for water oxidation that integrates these two functions. (chemistryviews.org)
  • The effect of cholesterol on the activity of the branched-chain amino acid transport system of Streptococcus cremoris was studied in membrane vesicles of S. cremoris fused with liposomes made of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine , soybean phosphatidylethanolamine, and various amounts of cholesterol . (bvsalud.org)
  • Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of the system A amino acid transporter and the Na+/H+ exchanger in vesicles isolated from the microvillous membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast of placentas of appropriate and small for gestational age babies. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Comprised of bones and connective tissues like ligaments and tendons, the skeletal system serves as a framework that provides support and protection for other organs. (freescience.info)
  • Impairment of these processes may have a particularly severe effect on tissues that require a large amount of energy, such as the nervous system, resulting in the neurological problems characteristic of Arts syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The central dopaminergic system is of interest in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. (jneurosci.org)
  • Amino Acid Transport System y+L" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (musc.edu)
  • Various authors have studied amino acid transport in cell membranes obtained from the proximal renal tubule of humans, rats, and rabbits. (medscape.com)
  • The amino acid sequences of β-casomorphins among these bovine variants and those found in human milk are similar, often differing only by a single amino acid. (ift.org)
  • One crucial system for students in the human body is the skeletal system. (freescience.info)
  • The human body's control center is the nervous system, which consists of the brain, spinal cord, and a vast network of nerves. (freescience.info)
  • 36 with the thyroid hormone system: Mechanisms and possible consequences for animal and human health. (cdc.gov)
  • COG4133: ABC-type transport system involved in cytochrome c biogenesis, ATPase compone. (cornell.edu)
  • Here we have studied the interaction of the carrier with various amino acids in the presence of Na + , K + , Li + and guanidinium ion. (uandes.cl)
  • Guanidinium stimulated the interaction of the carrier with neutral amino acids, but the effect was restricted to certain analogues (e.g. (uandes.cl)
  • Thus, in the presence of guanidinium, the carrier discriminates sharply among different neutral amino acids. (uandes.cl)
  • 2009 ) Salicylic acid transport in Ricinus communis involves a pH-dependent carrier system in addition to diffusion. (academictree.org)
  • However, their absence does not exclude this disease, since the seven different toxins appear to involve the ocular system to various degrees. (medscape.com)
  • 1. Fat provides the body with essential fatty acids and energy. (slideshare.net)
  • The hole-transporting ability of the biscarbazole units proved essential for efficient water oxidation. (chemistryviews.org)
  • This flexible computational tool uses the knowledge gathered from experimental studies to identify homologous systems in genome data. (bvsalud.org)