A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

L-type amino acid transporters in two intestinal epithelial cell lines function as exchangers with neutral amino acids. (1/28)

The present study examined the functional characteristics of the inward [(14)C]-L-leucine transporter in two intestinal epithelial cell lines (human Caco-2 and rat IEC-6). The uptake of [(14)C]-L-leucine was largely promoted through an energy-dependent and sodium-insensitive transporter, although a minor component of [(14)C]-L-leucine uptake ( approximately 15%) required extracellular sodium. [(14)C] -L-leucine uptake was insensitive to N-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, but competitively inhibited by 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). Both L- and D-neutral amino acids, but not acidic and basic amino acids, markedly inhibited [(14)C]-L-leucine accumulation. The efflux of [(14)C]-L-leucine was markedly increased (P < 0.05) by L-leucine and BCH, but not by L-arginine. In IEC-6 cells, but not in Caco-2 cells, the uptake of [(14)C]-L-leucine at acidic pH (5.0 and 5.4) was greater (P < 0.05) than at pH 7.4. In conclusion, it is likely that system B(0) might be responsible for the sodium-dependent uptake of L-leucine in Caco-2 and IEC-6 cells, whereas sodium-independent uptake of L-leucine may include system LAT1, whose activation results in transstimulation of L-leucine outward transfer.  (+info)

Functional and molecular characteristics of system L in human breast cancer cells. (2/28)

The functional and molecular properties of system L in human mammary cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) have been examined. All transport experiments were conducted under Na(+)-free conditions. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was almost abolished by BCH (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid). AIB uptake by MDA-MB-231 cells was also inhibited by L-alanine (83.6%), L-lysine (75.6%) but not by L-proline. Similarly, L-lysine and L-alanine, respectively, reduced AIB influx into MCF-7 cells by 45.3% and 63.7%. The K(m) of AIB uptake into MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was, respectively, 1.6 and 8.8 mM, whereas the V(max) was, respectively, 9.7 and 110.0 nmol/mg protein/10 min. AIB efflux from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was trans-stimulated by BCH, L-glutamine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-lysine and AIB (all at 2 mM). In contrast, L-glutamate, L-proline, L-arginine and MeAIB had no effect. The interaction between L-lysine and AIB efflux was one of low affinity. The fractional release of AIB from MDA-MB-231 cells was trans-accelerated by D-leucine and D-tryptophan but not by D-alanine. MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells expressed LAT1 and CD98 mRNA. MCF-7 cells also expressed LAT2 mRNA. The results suggest that AIB transport in mammary cancer cells under Na(+)-free conditions is predominantly via system L which acts as an exchange mechanism. The differences in the kinetics of AIB transport between MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells may be due to the differential expression of LAT2.  (+info)

Basolateral LAT-2 has a major role in the transepithelial flux of L-cystine in the renal proximal tubule cell line OK. (3/28)

During renal reabsorption, the amino acid transporters b(o,+) and y(+)L have a major role in the apical uptake of cystine and dibasic amino acids and in the basolateral efflux of dibasic amino acids, respectively. In contrast, the transporters responsible for the basolateral efflux of the apically transported cystine are unknown. This study shows the expression of system L and y(+)L transport activities in the basolateral domain of the proximal tubule-derived cell line OK and the cloning of the corresponding LAT-2 and y(+)LAT-1 cDNAs. Stable transfection with a LAT-2 antisense sequence demonstrated the specific role of LAT-2 in the basolateral system L amino acid exchange activity in OK cells. This partial reduction of LAT-2 expression decreased apical-to-basolateral trans-epithelial flux of cystine and resulted in a twofold to threefold increase in the intracellular content of cysteine. In contrast, the content of serine, threonine, and alanine showed a tendency to decrease, whereas other LAT-2 substrates were not affected. This demonstrates that LAT-2 plays a major specific role in the net basolateral efflux of cysteine and points to LAT-2 as a candidate gene to modulate cystine reabsorption.  (+info)

Functional properties of multispecific amino acid transporters and their implications to transporter-mediated toxicity. (4/28)

The absorption, distribution and excretion of most of xenobiotics, drugs, environmental toxins and their metabolites are mediated by membrane transporters. Recent advances in the transporter molecular biology have made it possible to investigate the mechanisms of transport of those exogenous compounds and their transporter-mediated toxicity at the molecular level. Exogenous compounds including drugs and toxic substances occurring in the environment pass through the transporters with broad substrate selectivity, namely "multispecific" transporters, taking advantage of the multispecific nature to exert their toxic effects. The remarkable examples of such transporter-mediated toxicity are 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium (MPP+)-neurotoxicity mediated by dopamine transporters, cephaloridine-nephrotoxicity mediated by organic anion transporters and methylmercury-toxicity mediated by system L amino acid transporters. The molecular identification of system L transporter LAT1 (L-type amino acid transporter 1) has lead to the understanding of the mechanisms of their multispecific substrate recognition and revealed their localization at the blood-brain barrier and placental barrier. LAT1 relies on the hydrophobic interaction between substrate amino acid side chains and the substrate binding site, so that many variations are possible for the substrate amino acid side chains, which is the basis of the broad substrate selectivity. System L transporters, thus, function as a path for the membrane permeation of drugs and toxic compounds occurring in the environment with amino acid-related structures. Beside methylmercury-cysteine conjugate, amino acid-related neurotoxins such as beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and 3-hydroxykynurenine are proposed to pass through system L transporters to exert their toxicity. Because the presence of such transporters is crucial for the manifestation of the organ toxicity, the inhibition of the transporters would be expected to be beneficial to prevent the disorders caused by the transporter-mediated toxicity.  (+info)

Identification of a novel system L amino acid transporter structurally distinct from heterodimeric amino acid transporters. (5/28)

A cDNA that encodes a novel Na+-independent neutral amino acid transporter was isolated from FLC4 human hepatocarcinoma cells by expression cloning. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the encoded protein designated LAT3 (L-type amino acid transporter 3) transported neutral amino acids such as l-leucine, l-isoleucine, l-valine, and l-phenylalanine. The LAT3-mediated transport was Na+-independent and inhibited by 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, consistent with the properties of system L. Distinct from already known system L transporters LAT1 and LAT2, which form heterodimeric complex with 4F2 heavy chain, LAT3 was functional by itself in Xenopus oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence of LAT3 was identical to the gene product of POV1 reported as a prostate cancer-up-regulated gene whose function was not determined, whereas it did not exhibit significant similarity to already identified transporters. The Eadie-Hofstee plots of LAT3-mediated transport were curvilinear, whereas the low affinity component is predominant at physiological plasma amino acid concentration. In addition to amino acid substrates, LAT3 recognized amino acid alcohols. The transport of l-leucine was electroneutral and mediated by a facilitated diffusion. In contrast, l-leucinol, l-valinol, and l-phenylalaninol, which have a net positive charge induced inward currents under voltage clamp, suggesting these compounds are transported by LAT3. LAT3-mediated transport was inhibited by the pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide, consistent with the property of system L2 originally characterized in hepatocyte primary culture. Based on the substrate selectivity, affinity, and N-ethylmaleimide sensitivity, LAT3 is proposed to be a transporter subserving system L2. LAT3 should denote a new family of organic solute transporters.  (+info)

Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates LAT1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle: role in cell growth. (6/28)

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) contributes to vascular disease by stimulating the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since amino acids are required for cell growth, the present study examined the effect of PDGF on system L amino acid transport, which is the predominant cellular pathway for the uptake of essential amino acids. System L amino acid transport was monitored by measuring the uptake of L-leucine. Treatment of SMCs with PDGF stimulated L-leucine transport in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and this was associated with a selective increase in LAT1 mRNA and protein. PDGF failed to induce the expression of the other system L transport proteins, LAT2 and the heavy chain of the 4F2 cell surface antigen. The induction of LAT1 by PDGF was dependent on de novo RNA and protein synthesis and on mTOR activity. Serum, thrombin, and angiotensin II likewise stimulated L-leucine transport by inducing LAT1 expression. Inhibition of system L amino acid transport by the model substrate 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid blocked growth factor-mediated SMC proliferation and induced SMC apoptosis, whereas it had no effect on quiescent cells. These results demonstrate that growth factors stimulate system L amino acid transport by inducing LAT1 gene expression and that system L amino acid transport is essential for SMC proliferation and survival. The capacity of vascular mitogens to induce LAT1 expression may represent a basic mechanism by which tho acid transport * apoptosis  (+info)

Identification of LAT4, a novel amino acid transporter with system L activity. (7/28)

System L amino acid transporters mediate the movement of bulky neutral amino acids across cell membranes. Until now three proteins that induce system L activity have been identified: LAT1, LAT2, and LAT3. The former two proteins belong to the solute carrier family 7 (SLC7), whereas the latter belongs to SLC43. In the present study we present a new cDNA, designated LAT4, which also mediates system L activity when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Human LAT4 exhibits 57% identity to human LAT3. Like LAT3, the amino acid transport activity induced by LAT4 is sodium-, chloride- and pH-independent, is not trans-stimulated, and shows two kinetic components. The low affinity component of LAT4 induced activity is sensitive to the sulfhydryl-specific reagent N-ethylmaleimide but not that with high affinity. Mutation in LAT4 of the SLC43 conserved serine 297 to alanine abolishes sensitivity to N-ethylmaleimide. LAT4 activity is detected at the basolateral membrane of PCT kidney cells. In situ hybridization experiments show that LAT4 mRNA is restricted to the epithelial cells of the distal tubule and the collecting duct in the kidney. In the intestine, LAT4 is mainly present in the cells of the crypt.  (+info)

Homocysteine transport by human aortic endothelial cells: identification and properties of import systems. (8/28)

Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Transport of L-homocysteine into and out of the human vascular endothelium is poorly understood. We hypothesized that cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) would import L-homocysteine on one or more of the L-cysteine transport systems. Inhibitors of the transporters were used to characterize the uptake of [35S]L-homocysteine, [35S]L-homocystine, and [35S]L-cysteine. We found that L-homocysteine uptake is mediated by the sodium-dependent cysteine transport systems X(AG), ASC, and A, and the sodium-independent transport system L. Thus, HAEC utilize multiple cysteine transporters (X(AG) > or = L > ASC > A) to import L-homocysteine. Kinetic analysis supported the uptake results. Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) for the four systems yielded values of 19.0, 27.1, 112, and 1000 microM for systems L, X(AG), ASC, and A, respectively. The binding and uptake of [35S]L-homocystine, the disulfide homodimer of L-homocysteine, was mediated by systems X(AG), L, and ASC but not by system A. In contrast to [35S]L-homocysteine, system x(c) was active for [35S]L-homocystine uptake. A similar pattern was observed for [35S]L-cysteine. Thus, L-homocysteine and L-homocystine found in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects can gain entry into the vascular endothelium by way of multiple L-cysteine transporters.  (+info)

No, such switches do not normally happen. Did you specify in any way that you have D-amino acids in you system? This is necessary - even though the standard terms in the force field are symmetric wrt L- and D-amino acids, the CMAP cross terms are different and so you need to use toppar_all36_prot_c36_d_aminoacids.str and the residue names in it; this is in CHARMM, I have no idea about CHARMM-GUI or GROMACS ...
Portable, professional-grade plasma systems maximize uptime and productivity in handheld and automated cutting and gouging operations.
If youre considering long term care for a friend or loved one, proper planning can make a difference. By evaluating the needs of your loved one and the services provided by the Center, you can make an informed decision that will please you and the new resident. You should schedule a visit to various Centers to meet with the Director of Admissions and tour the building and grounds. If a meal or activity is in progress, ask if you can join on. Observe the quality and presentation of the food and the interaction with the residents.. Other things to observe during your visit..... ...
This is one of a number of cell lines derived from malignant gliomas (see also ATCC ®   HTB-15™  and  HTB-16™ ) by J. Ponten and associates from 1966 to 1969 (see also Allen, 2016).
Buy SLC7A7 elisa kit, Monkey Y+L amino acid transporter 1 (SLC7A7) ELISA Kit-NP_001119578.1 (MBS7228917) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Nuclear Neuroimaging is becoming an important diagnostic tool with increasing impact in neurological and neuro-oncological practice. An emerging use of brain FDG-PET is the early recognition of a potentially treatable cause of rapid progressive dementia. This is the case of Autoimmune Limbic Encephalitis, where brain FDG-PET findings may appear even before characteristic brain MRI hyperintensities. On the other hand, PET is a well-established method in systemic oncology, and is being increasingly used to supplement MRI in the clinical management of brain tumors. The evidence-based recommendation by the PET- Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology working group (RANO) and the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO) on the clinical use of PET imaging in gliomas, and the recently published joint guidelines of the SNMMI and EANM focusing on radiotracers that are used in clinical practice imaging, i.e. glucose metabolism, 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG), and system L amino acid transport ...
How much of Leucine (Leu or L) α-amino acid is present in Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds harvested, canned food in details, quantity how high or low Leucine (Leu or L) α-amino acid nutrient content it has.
Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members ofthe glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family.EMBO J. 1999 Jan 4;18(1):49-57. PMID: 9878049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Amino acid transport across cellular membranes is mediated by multiple transporters with overlapping specificities. We recently have identified the vertebrate proteins which mediate Na+-independent exchange of large neutral amino acids corresponding to transport system L. This transporter consists of a novel amino acid permease-related protein (LAT1 or AmAT-L-lc) which for surface expression and function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen. We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately 48% identical with LAT1 and thus belong to the same family of ...
A year or so ago I was aware that Royal Canin was using feathers in their pet food, to be honest at the time I thought it was an act of desperate cost saving, however it is a whole lot more clever than that!. So a little understanding of immune responses is essential here, basically the body is set up to detect and destroy evil foreign proteins(invaders). Sometimes however it goes wrong and recognises good (or normal) proteins as evil too. In food this causes Adverse Food Reactions, Atopic Dermatitis and so on. Now the immune response is also linked to the size of these proteins - the protein size is measured in Daltons which is the measurement for mass on an molecular scale - and the bigger the protein the bigger the response. This can be partly due to it being easier to see by the immune system.. The goal of Royal Canin was to produce a food with protein molecules that were less than 1kDa (1000 Daltons) in size to prevent the immune reaction. Now part of the Royal Canin philosophy is for ...
Redistribution n Drug releases re-enters circulatory system from l Depot binding l Protein binding l Ion trapping n Bound / unbound drug l Ratio maintained l Prolongs drug effects ~
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesbranched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein (TIGR00796; HMM-score: 412.2) ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), an inhibitor of L-type amino acid transporters, on the cell growth suppression in KB human oral cancer cells and to study the roles of cell cycle regulatory factors in the BCH-induced growth inhibition. The effect of BCH on cell growth suppression and the influence of BCH to cell cycle regulatory factors in KB cell growth inhibition were examined using cell cycle analysis, immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. The BCH treatment induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in KB cells. The expression of cyclin D3 was remarkably decreased by BCH treatment. The BCH inhibited the expression of cyclin-dependent protein kinase 6 (CDK6) in a time-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of CDK inhibitor p27 was increased by BCH treatment in KB cells, but not CDK inhibitors p21 and p15. These results suggest that, in KB cells, the inhibition of LAT1 by BCH causes cell cycle arrest at Cl phase ...
Methamphetamine - combines information from national sources and the 12 NDEWS Sentinel Community Site (SCS) reports to create a fuller understanding of trends in the availability and use of the drug in the U.S.. Source: Methamphetamine: A Regional Drug Crisis , NDEWS l National Drug Early Warning System l University of Maryland. ...
The L5 Translucent Magazine was developed to implement improvements recommended by military and law enforcement personnel. Lancer Systems, working with a major small arms manufacturer, applied an engineered translucent polymer, steel feed lips and a removable rubber coated bottom to produce a 30 round translucent magazine that can withstand the rigors of professional use.. Features:. * Made in the ...
PROFESSIONAL ISSUES IN IT Scenario Software projects have a reputation for delivering over cost, over time and failing to meet the user or client expectations. The IT department you are a project manager in is no exception. The team of over 40 seem to work hard but rarely satisfy either the demand for IT services or on new software developments. As an IT professional you find the situation frustrating as the systems function is currently overloaded and is under performing. Unfortunately, a culture of mistrust has built up between the business users and the IT service function. Task 1 A new CEO has taken over the running of the company. At the last company he worked for COBIT (Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies) was in place. He is wondering if it might help improve the situation in the scenarios organisation. You have been asked to investigate. Write a report outlining your evaluation of this possibility for the CEO. State clearly any assumptions you make and give ...
It was originated by A.J. Hackett, et al. along with the Hs 578Bst (see ATCC HTB-125), which is a normal fibroblast-like line from the same patient. The Hs 578T cell strain was derived from a carcinoma of the breast.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. L-type amino acid transporter 1 - SLC7 family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
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The mechanism of the observed decrease in the plasma concentration of several amino acids in the presence of high levels of Leu has remained unexplained. In the present study a decrease in the plasma concentration of Ile, Val, Phe, Tyr, Met, Ala, Pro and Gly was observed after the intraperitoneal injection of Leu to weanling rats. Decreases in net intracellular concentrations in muscle accompanied the decrease in plasma of all of these amino acids except Pro and Gly. An increase in the distribution ratio muscle/plasma was observed exclusively for Gly after administration of Leu or of a non-insulinogenic transport system L analogue. Diazoxide suppressed the Leu-induced decreases in plasma and muscle intracellular concentrations of Ile and Val as well as of Pro in plasma. An increase in the distribution ratio liver/plasma was observed for Pro and Gly in the absence but not in the presence of diazoxide. All the above changes were statistically significant. Hence insulin probably mediates Leu ...
To evaluate the expression of alanine-serine-cysteine-transporter 2 (ASCT2) and L-type amino acid transporter1 (LAT1) in prostate cancer (PCa) and their impact on uptake of 18F-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18F-fluciclovine) which is approved for the detection of recurrent PCa. Twenty-five hormone-naïve patients with histologically confirmed PCa underwent PET/CT before prostatectomy. Dynamic imaging was performed immediately after injection of 368 ± 10 MBq of 18F-fluciclovine and the uptake in PCa was expressed as SUVmax at six sequential 4-min time frames and as tracer distribution volume (VT) using Logan plots over 0-24 min. The expression of ASCT2 and LAT1 was studied with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing three cores per carcinoma lesion. The TMA slides were scored independently by two trained readers based on visual intensity of ASCT2/LAT1 expression on a four-tiered scale. The correlations between ASCT2/LAT1 staining intensity, SUVmax/VT, and
It has been reported that D-amino acids other than aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and proline give sweet taste, and that when there are multiple D-amino acids with taste embellishing effects in a food product, they create a composite flavor quality. This example shows the analysis of D/L amino acids in yogurt drinks from different manufacturers. For some amino acids, the D-amino acid ratio is relatively high, and significant differences in the component ratio of D/L amino acids are evident depending on the manufacturer.. ...
The RHS C-19 Tool is owned and operated by Riverside Health System (Riverside). The RHS C-19 Tool is the property of Riverside, and no other party. You may only view the RHS C-19 Tool for your own informational, personal and non-commercial use. You may not license, sell, transfer, modify or otherwise make derivative uses of the RHS C-19 Tool, use any data mining, robots or similar data gathering or extraction methods, or reproduce, prepare derivative works from, distribute or display the RHS C-19 Tool except as provided herein. You may include hyperlinks to the RHS C-19 Tool so long as you reference Riverside Health System as the owner, and only provide information that is truthful and accurate. The RHS C-19 Tool may not be used for any other purpose without the express, prior written approval of the Vice President of Marketing for Riverside Health System. Except as expressly permitted above, any use of the RHS C-19 Tool without prior written permission is strictly prohibited. Any such ...
Abstract:. Peptides and proteins are large biomolecules composed of long chains of L -amino acids and plays key functions in the living organisms. A variety of techniques are used to characterize these biomolecules and, among the techniques used, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been extensively employed both for the preparative as well as the analytical characterization of peptides and proteins. Various HPLC techniques developed for the separation of proteins rely on the differences in the adsorption characteristics, surface charge, ligand specificity, and molecular size of protein molecules. Advancements made in these HPLC techniques have contributed immensely to the development of peptides and proteins based pharmaceuticals. Present article summarizes the principle, methods, and applications of the most common HPLC techniques used in the field of peptides and proteins.. ...
Neurotransmitters associated with pediatric neurotransmitter diseases include the catecholamines, serotonin, and the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobuytric (GABA).. The pathways leading to the metabolism (production), synthesis (building up of), and catabolism (break down) of neurotransmitters are extremely complicated systems. The following is the pathways for the dopamine neurotransmitters pathway.. When there is a disruption within the neurotransmitter system, it can cause abnormalities with many of the brains essential functions. In pediatric neurotransmitter diseases children are born with genetic defects that affect the neurotransmitter pathways and the use of the related neurotransmitter. The specific pediatric neurotransmitter disease is determined by where the defect in the pathway occurs. For example in Aromatic L Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency the AADC enzyme is affected in the dopamine pathway and children cannnot effectively utilize the neurotransmitter ...
It should be noted that the functionally defined L-type amino acid transport activities as described in this and many other studies may result from a mixture of functionally similar amino acid transporters that share common features such as Na+ dependence, BCH sensitivity, and neutral amino acid substrate preference. To date, at least four members of this family, LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, and LAT4, have been cloned (Bodoy et al., 2005). LAT1 and LAT2 are heterodimeric transporters that require coexpression of both LAT and 4F2hc for function and exhibit trans-stimulation (Verrey, 2003). In contrast, LAT3 and LAT4 are structurally distinct from LAT1 and LAT2 and are functional independent of 4F2hc (Babu et al., 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). It has been shown that different LAT subtypes exhibit distinct expression profiles across tissues and species (Verrey, 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). Moreover, different LAT subtypes show differences in substrate specificity, transport kinetics, and other properties such as ...
Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. PMID 11901210 ...
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When you are not feeling up to par, there are a few solutions available to remedy the situation: 1) you wait it out and hope it goes away; 2) you Google to find the answer (and sometimes you feel worse after reading what those symptoms might really be; or 3) you take yourself to the doctor.. Babies and pets are the only ones who must suffer in silence because they are unable to tell you they dont feel well. An astute parent, or pet parent, notices a not-so-perky or listless demeanor or crying/whining and that is all you have to go on.. Toddlers or children are more vocal. Theyll come up to you and say Ive got a tummy ache and will point a chubby finger around the area of their bellybutton. Well, that doesnt help much, so, it is up to you to play detective and decide if the malady warrants a trip to the pediatrician, or even the E.R., or just a few days spent in bed. Pain that is generally located around the center of the abdomen, or the bellybutton is considered simple abdominal pain ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems/chemistry/*metabolism, Amino Acid Transport Systems; Neutral/chemistry/metabolism, Endoplasmic Reticulum/*metabolism, Membrane Proteins/genetics/*metabolism, Mutation, Protein Folding, Protein Structure; Quaternary, Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology/genetics/*metabolism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism, Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism ...
Comprehensive supplier list for rel-(1R,4R)-5-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid,rel-(1R,4R,5S)-tert-Butyl 5-amino-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: COL; locus tag: SACOL1443 (SACOL_RS07360); symbol: brnQ3; product: branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein
diexo-3-Amino-7-oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid amide/ACM1212408871 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Acetic acid;heptane-1,2,3,4,5,6,7-heptol | C9H20O9 | CID 312987 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
(4-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-yl)methanol hydrochloride |p|SPC Code: SPC-a553|/p||p|CAS RN: 105176-66-7|/p||p|Smiles: Cl.OCC12(CCC(N)(CC1)CC2)|/p||p|Formula: HCl.C9H17NO|/p||p|MolWeight: 191.701|/p||p|Purity: 95|/p|
L-leucine 4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide hydrochloride;4467-68-9;H-leu-4m-betana hcl;H-leu-4mbna hcl;L-leu-4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide hcl;L-leucine 4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide hydrochloride;L-leucyl-4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide hydrochloride;TS77403.Tetrahedron
Are Clavamox Side Effects Putting Your Health at Risk? | Dec 11, 2017 Check these Clavamox side effect reports: A 20-year-old female patient was diagnosed with oropharyngeal pain, treated with CLAVAMOX and reported epstein-barr virus infection. Dosage: 1 G, Bid. Patient was hospitalized.
The city of Queens is a large county that contains many hospitals prepared to cater to patients. Unfortunately, hospitals and doctors in Queens do not always have the best reputation. Medical malpractice can cause many serious injuries and the lawyers of Rheingold, Servicio, Rheingold, Ruffo & Giuffra LLP have extensive experience in the field of medical malpractice and can help resolve / solve your case. We are very familiar with the special judges who are assigned cases of medical malpractice. We know how to move a case as quickly as possible to trial if the defendants are not offering fair solutions. Alternatively, we also know how to settle fast-track settlements through the use of judges, mediators and liquidation conferences in Queens. Our medical malpractice team includes attorneys, legal assistants, and medical consultants. Elmhurst Hospital Center Queens Hospital Center , If you or a loved one has been injured during a medical procedure because of the hospitals negligence, you may have ...
Several studies have shown that the cRNA of human, rabbit, or rat rBAT induces in Xenopus oocytes sodium-independent, high affinity uptake of L-cystine via a system b0,(+)-like amino acid exchanger. We have shown that mutations in rBAT cause type I cystinuria (Calonge, M. J., Gasparini, P., Chillarón, J., Chillón, M., Gallucci, M., Rousaud, F., Zelante, L., Testar, X., Dallapiccola, B., Di Silverio, F., Barceló, P., Estivill, X., Zorzano, A., Nunes, V., and Palacín, M. (1994) Nat. Genet. 6, 420-425; Calonge, M. J., Volipini, V., Bisceglia, L., Rousaud, F., De Sanctis, L., Beccia, E., Zelante, L., Testar, X., Zorzano, A., Estivill, X., Gasparini, P., Nunes, V., and Palacín, M. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92, 9667-9671). Apart from oocytes, no other expression system has been used for transfection of functional rBAT activity. Furthermore, the b0,(+)-like transport activity has not been clearly described in the kidney or intestine. Here, we report that a proximal tubular-like cell ...
The transport of S-cysteine conjugates was studied in the kidney cell line, LLC-PK1, using the nephrotoxin, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (L-DCVC), as the model compound. The saturable uptake of this conjugate did not require sodium and was selectively inhibited by the amino acid transport system L-specific substrate, 2-amino-2-norbornane carboxylic acid, as well as a variety of other S-cysteine conjugates and neutral amino acids with large, nonpolar side chains. Kinetic studies suggested the existence of both low and high affinity transport systems with Km values that differed by 25-fold. Although these uptake systems showed no discernible differences in substrate specificity, the low affinity transport was more sensitive to trans-stimulation. L-DCVC uptake in subconfluent cultures was about 3-fold that of confluent cells, suggesting either adaptive regulation to cell growth or polarization of transport to the basolateral membrane. L-DCVC toxicity in LLC-PK1 cells was inhibited in the ...
Description: This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world� s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest ...
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This is the first study to assess the transport of neutral amino acids in both polarized plasma membranes of the placental transporting epithelium isolated from pregnancies complicated by GDM or type 1 diabetes with and without accelerated fetal growth as well as from pregnancies associated with fetal overgrowth despite apparently normal glucose metabolism. The transport of amino acids across MVMs is a secondary active process and represents the rate-limiting step in transplacental transfer of amino acids (36). System A is a Na+-dependent transporter mediating the uptake of neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, and glutamine. In the current article, we demonstrate that amino acid transport mediated by system A is markedly increased in the syncytiotrophoblast MVM in association with diabetes during pregnancy. We suggest that these changes result in an increased uptake of neutral amino acids across MVM into the syncytiotrophoblast cytoplasm, which may increase the delivery of amino acids to ...
An interactive computer-simulation of experiments which may be performed on one of the classical in vitro techniques used to study intestinal absorption: the isolated, everted intestinal sac of the rat. The program simulates experiments designed to demonstrate the important characteristics of the transport of two important nutrients - hexoses and amino acids - in the small intestine. Introduction and Methods use a combination of text and high-resolution graphics to explain the everted sac preparation, the process of carrier-mediated transport of these nutrients and the methods used to measure it (using radiolabelled galactose, glycine and methionine and a scintillation counting technique). The Experiments section allows users to: 1. Measure the transport of these nutrients; 2. Demonstrate the Na+ dependence of the transport process; 3. Investigate the mutual interaction of the hexose and amino acid transport systems by performing a series of experiments (including a kinetic analysis and ...
4-Nitrophenyl bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-7-carboxylate | C14H15NO4 | CID 579216 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Synonyms for L-leucine in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for L-leucine. 1 word related to leucine: essential amino acid. What are synonyms for L-leucine?
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Abstract The synthesis of optically pure (1 S ,4 S )-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid starting from easily available chiral pool l ...
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Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... This facilitates transport of numerous small molecules into the enterocyte from the intestinal lumen. These include broken down ... Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth ...
Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... Histology image: 11706loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Digestive System: Alimentary Canal - jejunum, ... This typically occurs through active transport.. *Water uptake. This follows the osmotic gradient established by Na+/K+ ATPase ...
Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... In this way the thionein-metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ... of its constituent amino acid residues. MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding ...
Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... Although the perception and transmission of pain stimuli in the central nervous system have not been fully elucidated, ... TCAs do not block dopamine transport directly but might facilitate dopaminergic effects indirectly by inhibiting dopamine ...
Orlowski, M.; Meister, A. (1970-11-01). "The Gamma-Glutamyl Cycle: A Possible Transport System for Amino Acids". Proceedings of ... It has a relatively unusual γ-bond between the constituent amino acids, L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine and is a key ... Control experiments with combinations of the constituent amino acids that make up GGC, including L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine ... GGC is synthesized from L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine in the cytoplasm of virtually all cells in an adenosine triphosphate ( ...
Amino acid synthesis. Chloroplasts alone make almost all of a plant cell's amino acids in their stroma[158] except the sulfur- ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system.[156] ... Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell[145][147]-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. ...
Ackers GK (1969). "Molecular sieve studies of interacting protein systems. IV. Molecular size of the D-amino acid oxidase ... Ackers GK (1967). "Molecular sieve studies of interacting protein systems. I. Equations for transport of associating systems". ... thermodynamics of protein-protein interactions including important changes due to single amino acid substitutions. "Obituary - ...
"Coupled and uncoupled proton movement by amino acid transport system N." EMBO Journal. 20 (24): 7041-51. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... Since Systems A are electrogenic which Systems N are not, the amino acid:cation stoichiometries may differ. Fischer, WN; Loo, ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids". Plant Journal. 29 ( ... Six AAAPs in A. thaliana are well characterized and transport neutral and charged amino acids with varying specificities and ...
P. aeruginosa contain 13 RND transport systems, including one HME-RND and the remaining HAE-RNDs. Among the best identified are ... RND proteins are large and can include more than 1000 amino acid residues. They are generally composed of two homologous ... Most of the RND superfamily transport systems are made of large polypeptide chains. RND proteins exist primarily in gram- ... The RND protein dictates the substrate for the completed transport systems including: metal ions, xenobiotics or drugs. ...
In this system, the anionic form of cystine is transported in exchange for glutamate. Cystine is quickly reduced to cysteine.[ ... Cystine is the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid cysteine and has the formula (SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H)2. It is a white solid that ... This transport system, which is highly specific for cystine and glutamate, increases the concentration of cystine inside the ... The presence of cystine in urine is often indicative of amino acid reabsorption defects. Cystinuria has been reported to occur ...
The bacteria synthesise amino acids, vitamins, and haem for the protozoan. In return the protozoan offers its enzymes for the ... The bacteria are known to provide essential nutrients to the host, and provide electron transport system for the production of ... the genomic cooperation between bacterium and host in the synthesis of essential amino acids is heavily influenced by multiple ... complete metabolic pathways for the biosysnthesis of amino acids, lipids and nucleotides, that are absent in the bacterium. ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, ... The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ...
"Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport". J. Biol ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A1 gene. Amino acid ... 2007). "Activation of a system A amino acid transporter, ATA1/SLC38A1, in human hepatocellular carcinoma and preneoplastic ... a subtype of amino acid transporter A, from human placenta". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 273 (3): 1175-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...
Hormones can be amino acid complexes, steroids, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, or prostaglandins. The endocrine system can be ... of signaling molecules produced by cars in glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to ... The endocrine system has three sets of endocrine outputs which include the magnocellular system, the parvocellular system, and ... The human endocrine system consists of several systems that operate via feedback loops. Several important feedback systems are ...
... s carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system. In the ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. One of ... Chloroplasts alone make almost all of a plant cell's amino acids in their stroma except the sulfur-containing ones like ...
The transport mechanism for tryptophan is shared with the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine. ... amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation on the exercise-induced change in plasma and muscle concentration of amino acids in ... Branch-chained amino acid supplementation has proven to have little to no effect on performance. There has been little success ... Amino acids, brain neurotransmitters and a functional link between muscle and brain that is important in sustained exercise. In ...
The amino-acid sequence identity can go down to 15% between ParM and other actin-like ATPase. The mechanism of partition ... The net result being transport of partition complex to the cell pole. The partition system of the plasmid R388 has been found ... Amino-acid sequence identity can go down to 21% for TubZ proteins. The mechanism is similar to a treadmill mechanism: Multiple ... This system has been proposed to be the type IV partition system. It is thought to be a derivative of the type I partition ...
... heptane transport by O-diazoacetyl-L-serine. An initial step in identifying the L-system amino acid transporter". The Journal ... and research indicates that it may have potential in identifying the L-leucine-favoring system transporter in human T- ...
... amino acids, certain hormones, and even messenger RNAs are transported in the phloem through sieve tube elements. Phloem is ... Recent evidence indicates that mobile proteins and RNA are part of the plant's long-distance communication signaling system. ... These sugars are transported to non-photosynthetic parts of the plant, such as the roots, or into storage structures, such as ... This transport process is called translocation. In trees, the phloem is the innermost layer of the bark, hence the name, ...
... various transport systems can handle unnatural amino acids with apolar side-chains. In the second case, a biosynthetic pathway ... while the added amino acids are called non-standard amino acids (NSAAs), or unnatural amino acids (uAAs; term not used in ... or non-canonical amino acids. The first element of the system is the amino acid that is added to the genetic code of a certain ... An amino acid auxotrophic expression host is supplemented with an amino acid analog during target protein expression. This ...
This transport system normally removes cysteine from the fluid destined to become urine and returns this essential amino acid ... This is usually to accumulate high concentrations of molecules that a cell needs, such as glucose or amino acids. If the ... Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) EAAT1 EAAT2 EAAT3 EAAT4 EAAT5 Glucose transporter Monoamine transporters, including ... Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved ...
Sodium bicarbonate is absorbed by active transport and glucose and amino acid co-transport Fructose is absorbed by facilitated ... are an important part of the digestive tract's local immune system. They are part of the lymphatic system, and provide a site ... splits one amino acid at a time. Aminopeptidase and dipeptidase free the end amino acid products. Lipids (fats) are degraded ... The epithelial cells of the villi transport nutrients from the lumen of the intestine into these capillaries (amino acids and ...
... from the drugs binding site by the site chains of the two aromatic amino acids of the extracellular gate of the transport ... Therefore, the crystal structure of LeuT and its transport mechanism have been proven to be a good model system for the study ... The halogens on the SSRIs chemical structure all bind to the same HBP within LeuT and interact with similar amino acids, but ... Although detailed transport mechanism of the NSS proteins is not fully understood, it is clear that in order for transport to ...
Wastes such as urea and amino acids are thought to diffuse through the walls, while ions such as sodium and potassium are ... Pre-urine is formed in the tubules, when nitrogenous waste and electrolytes are transported through the tubule walls. ... Uric acid is left to mix with feces, which are then excreted. Complex cycling systems of Malpighian tubules have been described ... The Malpighian tubule system is a type of excretory and osmoregulatory system found in some insects, myriapods, arachnids and ...
... part of the system of Na-K-Cl cotransporters) couple with the amino or imino acids on the molecular level and transport them ... instead of the amino group found in amino acids. Proline is considered and usually referred to as an amino acid, but unlike ... The neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19 (affecting glycine, proline, and other neutral amino acids like cysteine and ... "Neutral amino acid transport mediated by ortholog of imino acid transporter SIT1/SLC6A20 in opossum kidney cells". American ...
However, glucose, amino acids, inorganic phosphate, and some other solutes are reabsorbed via secondary active transport ... Renin-angiotensin system: The kidneys sense low blood pressure. Release renin into the blood. Renin causes production of ... Reabsorption allows many useful solutes (primarily glucose and amino acids), salts and water that have passed through Bowman's ... This happens as a result of sodium transport from the lumen into the blood by the Na+/K+ATPase in the basolateral membrane of ...
The introduction of a charged amino-acid residue or a proline residue within the hydrophobic core of the signal peptide is ... It is a complex regulatory and transport system involving many proteins and protein complexes. MBP has an approximate molecular ... The malE gene codes for a precursor polypeptide (396 amino acid residues) which yields the mature MBP (370 residues) upon ... Boos W, Shuman H (March 1998). "Maltose/maltodextrin system of Escherichia coli: transport, metabolism, and regulation". ...
... but it is actively transported out of the nervous system by a high affinity transport system, which maintains its concentration ... Glutamate is a major constituent of a wide variety of proteins; consequently it is one of the most abundant amino acids in the ... Smith QR (April 2000). "Transport of glutamate and other amino at the blood-brain barrier". The Journal of Nutrition. 130 (4S ... Glutamate is formally classified as a non-essential amino acid, because it can be synthesized (in sufficient quantities for ...
... is a dodecadepsipeptide, that is, it is made of twelve alternating amino acids and esters to form a macrocyclic ... This difference is important for maintaining the selectivity of valinomycin for the transport of potassium ions (and not sodium ... ions) in biological systems. It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section ... It consists of enantiomers D- and L-valine (Val), D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, and L-lactic acid. Structures are alternately ...
... encodes a small non-coding RNA involved in the regulation of a number of amino acid transport systems as well as amino acid ... GcvB RNA also is involved in regulating a variety of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis such as ilvC, gdhA, thrL and ... "The gcvB gene encodes a small untranslated RNA involved in expression of the dipeptide and oligopeptide transport systems in ... "The gcvB gene encodes a small untranslated RNA involved in expression of the dipeptide and oligopeptide transport systems in ...
... are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion into the biliary system ... Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. Thus ... Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. All four of these bile acids ... Primary bile acidsEdit. Bile acid synthesis occurs in liver cells, which synthesize primary bile acids (cholic acid and ...
... rich in hydroxylated amino acids such as serine, threonine, and proline, and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... the new chloroplast host had to develop a unique protein targeting system to avoid having chloroplast proteins being sent to ... Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence.[42] They can be from 20-150 amino acids ...
Circulatory system. Octopuses have a closed circulatory system, where the blood remains inside blood vessels. Octopuses have ... Japanese erotic art, shunga, includes ukiyo-e woodblock prints such as Katsushika Hokusai's 1814 print Tako to ama (The Dream ... Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic acid sequence ... Octopus blood contains the copper-rich protein haemocyanin to transport oxygen. This makes the blood very viscous and it ...
I used be a researcher use the fruit fly as a model system to study mechanisms of intracellular transport (I then moved onto ... Truth be told, it's the size (in amino acids) of a protein I once studied. Yes, a bit geeky. ... other systems to study problems in cell biology, but now work in a hospital). I am a guy. And the 649 is a number to ...
"Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-1-4496-6139-7. .. ... Megafauna play a significant role in the lateral transport of mineral nutrients in an ecosystem, tending to translocate them ... Amato, Katherine R.; Meyer, Andreas L. S.; Wich, Serge; Sussman, Robert W.; Pan, Ruliang; Kone, Inza; Li, Baoguo (January 18, ... which possess calcium carbonate shells or exoskeletons experience physiological pressure as the carbonate reacts with acid. For ...
Baulieu EE (1997). "Neurosteroids: of the nervous system, by the nervous system, for the nervous system". Recent Progress in ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... pyrimidinone and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole derivatives". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 23 (3): 480-7. doi:10.1016/j.bmc. ...
Coordinate system * sw:Coordinate system. COPD * sw:COPD. Copper * sw:Copper. Cotton * sw:Cotton. Cricket * sw:Cricket. ... Acid * sw:Asidi. Adam Smith * sw:Adam Smith. Addiction * sw:Uraibu. Adolf Hitler * sw:Adolf Hitler. Afghanistan * sw: ... Transport * sw:Usafiri. Treaty of Versailles * sw:Mkataba wa Versailles. Tree * sw:Mti. Trigonometry * sw:Trigonometry. ... Kama viungo vya Kiswahili bado ni vyekundu, ni alama ya kwamba ama jina halikusahihishwa bado, au hakuna makala bado. Mpangilio ...
Inclusion of the amino acid L-tryptophan, a precursor of 5HT, in the feed of rainbow trout made the trout less aggressive and ... CRH is transported to the anterior pituitary through the portal blood vessel system of the hypophyseal stalk and vasopressin is ... including the metabolic system, cardiovascular system, immune system, reproductive system and central nervous system. The HPA ... Immune system[edit]. There is bi-directional communication and feedback between the HPA axis and immune system. A number of ...
... essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.[4] The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, ... Needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, builds bone, supports synthesis and function of blood cells Dairy ... then transporting the acquired nutrients to local ecosystems.[56][57] ... amino acids, organic acids, etc.) improves the bioavailability of the supplemented mineral.[36] ...
... primer-dependent RNA synthesis utilizes a small 22-25 amino acid long viral protein linked to the genome (VPg) to initiate ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ... Picornaviruses are classed under Baltimore's viral classification system as group IV viruses as they contain a single stranded ... Binding causes a conformational change in the viral capsid proteins, and myristic acid are released. These acids form a pore in ...
... such as the polyphenols and amino acids, but is a suspension when all of the insoluble components are considered, such as the ... 1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.. ... Compressed tea (such as Pu-erh) is produced for convenience in transport, storage, and ageing. It can usually be stored longer ... Williamson, G; Dionisi, F; Renouf, M (2011). "Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... The resulting densified fuel is easier to transport and feed into thermal generation systems, such as boilers. ... EU to phase out palm oil from transport fuel by 2030 *^ a b The Royal Society (January 2008). Sustainable biofuels: prospects ... "Technology Roadmap, Biofuels for Transport" (PDF). 2011.. *^ Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno; Martin, Michael ( ...
P450-containing systems. *Cytochrome b6f complex. *Electron transport chain. *Fatty acid synthetase complex ... HADHB encodes a 51.2 kDa protein that is composed of 474 amino acids; 124 peptides have been observed through mass spectrometry ... fatty acid metabolic process. • metabolism. • cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling. • fatty acid beta-oxidation. ... transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups. • enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. • long-chain-3- ...
... is a small 69 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 4263-4331) that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a ... particularly the muscles and nervous system. In most cases, the signs and symptoms of this disorder appear during childhood or ... May 2003). "A homoplasmic mitochondrial transfer ribonucleic acid mutation as a cause of maternally inherited hypertrophic ...
for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[۸۱] ... "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active ... "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[۲۹] ... "for their discoveries concerning نیتریک اکسید as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[۷۵] ...
This drug article relating to the genito-urinary system is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ... 2-[(1R)-3-(Di(propan-2-yl)amino)-1-phenylpropyl]-4-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl] 2-methylpropanoate ... Urea analogues: Acetohydroxamic acid. *Salicylhydroxamic acid. *Other: Collagen. *Dimethyl sulfoxide. *Magnesium hydroxide ...
The microbes are also responsible for metabolising the carbohydrates and amino acids present in the tea leaves.[15][16][17] ... Spent tea: Whole leaves and leaf bud systems should be easily seen and picked out of the wet spent tea, with a limited amount ... tuocha cakes may have had holes punched through the center so they could be tied together on a rope for easy transport. ... Wet pile fermented pu'er has higher levels of caffeine and much higher levels of gallic acid compared with traditionally aged ...
... results in an amino acid switch: valine to methionine exchange at codon 66, Val66Met, which is in the prodomain of BDNF.[39][38 ... BDNF acts on certain neurons of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, helping to support survival of ... Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M (June 2007). "BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to dendrites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA ... as the amino acid change occurs on the portion of the prodomain where sortilin binds; and sortilin is essential for normal ...
Goodman AB (July 2005). "Microarray results suggest altered transport and lowered synthesis of retinoic acid in schizophrenia ... 6-(N-ethyl-N-(5-isobutoxy-4-isopropyl-2-(E)-styrylphenyl)amino)nicotinic acid ... Reproductive system and breast disorders *Sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and decreased libido ... Isotretinoin, also known as 13-cis-retinoic acid and sold under the brand name Accutane among others, is a medication primarily ...
... as all ingested SOD is broken down into amino acids before being absorbed. However, ingestion of SOD bound to wheat proteins ... In biological systems, this means that its main reactions are with itself (dismutation) or with another biological radical such ... when it absorbs an excited electron released from compounds of the electron transport chain. Superoxide is known to denature ... and their active sites contain the same type and arrangement of amino acid side-chains. They are usually dimers, but ...
... and encodes a 666 amino acid protein that is expressed in the liver. It has been suggested that PCSK9 causes FH mainly by ... Class II: LDLR is not properly transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus for expression on the cell ... This process results in the removal of LDL from the circulatory system. Synthesis of cholesterol by the liver is suppressed in ... and the protein gene product contains 839 amino acids in mature form. A single abnormal copy (heterozygote) of FH causes ...
... uptake transporters for amino acids, bile acids, carboxylic acids, etc. Research Applications[edit]. When looking at Caco-2 ... Following stints at SmithKline Beecham and Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Hidalgo went on to co-found a company, Absorption Systems, in ... Artursson P (1990). "Epithelial transport of drug in cell culture. I: A model for studying the passive diffusion of drugs over ... 2005). "Construction of a functional transporter analysis system using MDR1 knockdown Caco-2 cells". Pharm Res. 22 (8): 1287-93 ...
In addition to these amino acids, some B vitamins including biotin, folic acid, nicotinamide, riboflavin, thiamine, ... The only domesticated species of honey bee are A. mellifera and A. cerana, and they are often maintained, fed, and transported ... is the listed common name in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System, the Entomological Society of America Common Names of ... Of these amino acids, honey bees require highest concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, and valine, however elevated ...
Cosmic rays are a form of high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System[1] and even from distant galaxies. ... 2011). Australian Transport Safety Bureau. *^ https://cars.usnews.com/cars-trucks/daily-news/100317-cosmic-rays-may-be-causing- ... In 2008, data corruption in a flight control system caused an Airbus A330 airliner to twice plunge hundreds of feet, resulting ... Primary cosmic rays primarily originate from outside the Solar System and sometimes even the Milky Way. When they interact with ...
In ALS, there are decreased levels of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), which is the main transporter that removes ... Sontheimer, Harald (2015). Diseases of the Nervous System. Academic Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-12-800403-6. . Archived from the ... Three genes implicated in ALS that are important for maintaining the cytoskeleton[35] and for axonal transport[10] include ... "G93A" means that the 93rd amino acid residue in the SOD1 protein has been changed from glycine to alanine. ...
However, these may increase with severe kidney problems.[20] Pentamidine can remain in the system for as long as 8 months after ... Some cases of anemia, possibly related to folic acid deficiency, have been described.[18] ... "The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.. ... the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[6] It is available as a generic medication.[1] In regions of ...
Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ... Water in food systems[edit]. Main article: Water. A major component of food is water, which can encompass anywhere from 50% in ... Food chemistry concepts are often drawn from rheology, theories of transport phenomena, physical and chemical thermodynamics, ... fatty acids (including essential fatty acids), fatty-acid derived phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and terpenoids, ...
Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... Transport[edit]. SVCTs appear to be the predominant system for vitamin C transport in the body,[102] the notable exception ... Mineral Nutrients and Amino Acids May or Must be Added.[87] Voluntary and mandatory fortification was described for various ... Ascorbic acid is absorbed in the body by both active transport and simple diffusion. Sodium-Dependent Active Transport-Sodium- ...
amino acid. A class of organic compounds containing an amine group and a carboxylic acid group which function as the ... of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system ... In humans, a set of nine amino acids, two fatty acids, thirteen vitamins, and fifteen minerals are considered essential ... A form of active transport and bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules out of the cell by expelling them through an ...
... amino acid chains) and polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens ... Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after cells in the immune system come into ... These algorithms consider factors such as the likelihood of proteasomal processing, transport into the endoplasmic reticulum, ... Lipids and nucleic acids are antigenic only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides.[citation needed] Non-microbial non ...
Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ... Transport mediated by SA1 is also electrogenic. Amino acid transport Systems A and N thus appear closely related in function as ...
ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology.. About ASM , Contact Us , Press Room. ASM is a member of. ...
"Amino Acid Transport System L" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Amino Acid Transport System L" was ... A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the ... "Amino Acid Transport System L" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Amino Acid Transport System L" by people in Profiles. ...
This transporter, designated ATA2 for amino acid transporter A2, was cloned from the human hepatoma ce … ... We report here on the primary structure and functional characteristics of the protein responsible for the system A amino acid ... transport activity that is known to be expressed in most human tissues. ... a subtype of amino acid transport system A Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jul 31;1467(1):1-6. doi: 10.1016/s0005-2736(00)00252-2. ...
... is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a ... xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System. Fri, 09/06/2013 - 13:53 ... Home » xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System ... an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The cysteine is subsequently transported ...
In this study, we investigated whether the uptake of glucose, system A amino acid transport, and cellular protein synthesis are ... Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, ... Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, ... Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, ...
Branched-chain amino acid transport system ATP-binding proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another ... tr,A0R7E1,A0R7E1_MYCS2 Branched-chain amino acid transport system ATP-binding protein OS=Mycolicibacterium smegmatis (strain ... It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.,p>,a href=/help/np_bind ... Branched-chain amino acid transport system ATP-binding protein. MYCSE. 259. Branched-chain amino acid transporter ATP-binding ...
What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean in finance? ... Definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ... redirected from Amino acid transport systems, neutral). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. neutral. ...
Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by liquid ...
The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular ... like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(18): ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ...
Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems. U ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ...
The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... "The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ...
Involved in a phospholipid transport pathway that maintains lipid asymmetry in the outer membrane by retrograde trafficking of ... Intermembrane phospholipid transport system lipoprotein MlaAAdd BLAST. 234. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s) ... "An ABC transport system that maintains lipid asymmetry in the gram-negative outer membrane.". Malinverni J.C., Silhavy T.J.. ... "An ABC transport system that maintains lipid asymmetry in the gram-negative outer membrane.". Malinverni J.C., Silhavy T.J.. ...
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC). ... "Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" was ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic*Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic. *Acidic Amino Acid Transport Proteins ... "Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ...
Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Journal of biochemistry. 1991 Jul;110(1):9-11. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. In: Journal of biochemistry. 1991 ; Vol. 110, No. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Hiroyuki Fukui, Hiroyuki ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. / Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, ...
... tryptophan-selective amino acid transport system in human macrophages. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Amino Acid ... Seymour, RL, Ganapathy, V, Mellor, AL & Munn, DH 2006, A high-affinity, tryptophan-selective amino acid transport system in ... A high-affinity, tryptophan-selective amino acid transport system in human macrophages. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 2006 Dec; ... A high-affinity, tryptophan-selective amino acid transport system in human macrophages. / Seymour, Robert L.; Ganapathy, ...
... ... chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis has been proposed as a model for the coupling of energy metabolism with amino acid transport ... Although this model has been extensively studied in procaryotic systems, it has not been well characterized in eucaryotic ... systems. Isolation of a mutant yeast strain with altered plasma membrane ATPase activity and the preparation of spheroplasts ...
Jones, C. R., Srinivas, S. R., Devoe, L. D., Ganapathy, V., & Prasad, P. D. (2002). Inhibition of system A amino acid transport ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. American journal of obstetrics ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. / Jones, Chandra R.; Srinivas, ... Jones, CR, Srinivas, SR, Devoe, LD, Ganapathy, V & Prasad, PD 2002, Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ...
Amino acid transport systems, neutral explanation free. What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid ... transport systems, neutral medical term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean? ... Looking for online definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the Medical Dictionary? ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral , definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary https:// ...
MMP1224 MMP1224 ABC-type amino acid transport/signal transduction systems periplasmic component-related (NCBI). Methanococcus ... ABC-type amino acid transport/signal transduction systems periplasmic component-related (NCBI) Methanococcus maripaludis strain ... ET) COG834 , ABC-type amino acid transport/signal transduction systems, periplasmic component/domain ...
Cystinuria is an autosomal-recessive defect in reabsorptive transport of cystine and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, ... Amino acid transport system. Localization in proximal converted tubule. S3. S1, S2 ... Cloning and chromosomal localization of a human kidney cDNA involved in cystine, dibasic, and neutral amino acid transport. J ... Amino acid metabolism in cystinuria. Q J Med New Series. 1974. 214:507-12. ...
Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta. Biochemical Journal. 2001 Jun 15;356( ... Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta. / Ritchie, James W. A. ; Taylor, ... Ritchie, JWA & Taylor, PM 2001, Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta, ... Ritchie, J. W. A., & Taylor, P. M. (2001). Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in ...
series parallel diagram single cell analysis of kynurenine and system l amino acid transport in t cells nature communications. ... Piezo Controllers Drivers For Nanopositioning Systems Series Parallel Diagram Position Control Electronics Optimizes System ...
... the role of the neutral amino acid transport system. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Neutral Amino Acid Transport ... The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid ... The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid ... The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid ...
Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N. ... Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N. Together they form a unique ...
... imports the amino acid cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, into cells with a 1:1 counter-transport of glutamate. It is ... belongs to the family of heterodimeric amino acid transporte … ... Amino Acid Transport Systems / metabolism * Amino Acid ... we show that system x(c)(-) is a rather evolutionarily new amino acid transport system. In addition, we summarize the current ... The antiporter system x(c)(-) imports the amino acid cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, into cells with a 1:1 counter- ...
Double mutants deficient in transport of both these amino acids still possess the general amino acid transport system, a third ... system which was described previously. Evidence for additional amino acid transport systems in Chlorella is discussed. ... Six amino acids are transported at high rates across the plasmalemma of Chlorella vulgaris only after the induction of two ... List of Publication » Selection and characterization of chlorella mutants deficient in amino Acid transport : further evidence ...
ABC-type polar amino acid transport system, ATPase component. *catalytic activity. *pyrophosphatase activity ... Binding-protein-dependent transport system inner membrane component (BPD_transp_1). Binding-protein-dependent transport system ... Crystal structure of an amino acid ABC transporter complex with arginines. Present annotations:. *Domain Annotation: SCOP ... ATPase-coupled organic acid transmembrane transporter activity. *ATPase-coupled carboxylic acid transmembrane transporter ...
branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein Aromatic compound transport protein 1076 ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 4 3UKJ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 7 4EYQ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein UNP residues 27-385 1076 ...
  • We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that shows close similarity to the recently identified System N transporter (SN1). (pnas.org)
  • The System A transporter (SA1) and SN1 share many functional characteristics, including a marked sensitivity to low pH, but, unlike SN1, SA1 does not mediate proton exchange. (pnas.org)
  • We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that belongs to a family of mammalian proteins originally defined by a neurotransmitter transporter. (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with this sensitivity, we found that the System N transporter (SN1) mediates proton exchange as well as Na + cotransport ( 26 ). (pnas.org)
  • A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. (harvard.edu)
  • One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain. (harvard.edu)
  • This transporter, designated ATA2 for amino acid transporter A2, was cloned from the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. (nih.gov)
  • When expressed in mammalian cells, hATA2 mediates Na+-dependent transport of alpha-(methylamino)isobutyric acid, a specific model substrate for system A. The transporter is specific for neutral amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. (novusbio.com)
  • Both wtPKBalpha and mPKBalpha expression led to a significant increase in the basal uptake of glucose and methyl-aminoisobutyric acid (a substrate for the system A amino acid transporter), at least to a level seen in control cells treated with insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC). (wakehealth.edu)
  • Competition studies showed that the high-affinity system did not correspond to any known transporter activity and displayed a marked selectivity for tryptophan over other amino acids and tryptophan analogs. (elsevier.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of ethanol on system A amino acid transporter in BeWo cells. (elsevier.com)
  • We examined the role of the System L transporter in placental uptake of these substances, using the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo as a model experimental system. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The 4F2hc-LAT1 transporter might therefore serve a vital role in supplying the developing fetus and the placenta with both thyroid hormones and indispensable amino acids from the maternal circulation. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. (abcam.com)
  • Efficacy of system l amino acid transporter 1 inhibition as a therapeutic target in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (bireme.br)
  • System l amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is highly expressed in various types of human cancer, and contributes to cancer growth and survival. (bireme.br)
  • The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Translocation of glutamate transporter subtype excitatory amino acid carrier 1 protein in kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We examined the temporal expression of the sodium-dependent neuronal glutamate transporter, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), in KA-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning of an amino acid transporter with functional characteristics and tissue expression pattern identical to that of system A". J Biol Chem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-tumor effects of an antagonistic mAb against the ASCT2 amino acid transporter on KRAS-mutated human colorectal cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-tumor effects of mAb against L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) bound to human and monkey LAT1 with dual avidity modes. (nih.gov)
  • SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in the kidney and intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several factors influence transport across the placenta: uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows, area available for exchange, placental metabolism, and activity/expression of specific transporter proteins in the placental barrier. (hindawi.com)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • The blooming H. akashiwo cells expressed more proteins related to external nutrient acquisition, such as bicarbonate transporter SLC4, ammonium transporter, nitrite transporter, and alkaline phosphatase, while the blooming P. donghaiense cells highly expressed proteins related to extra- and intracellular organic nutrient utilization, such as amino acid transporter, 5′-nucleotidase, acid phosphatase, and tripeptidyl-peptidase. (asm.org)
  • Here, we document that the purified Hfq protein of the plant pathogen and natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens binds to the previously described sRNA AbcR1 and its target mRNA atu2422 , which codes for the substrate binding protein of an ABC transporter taking up proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). (asm.org)
  • Structural similarities between ALA and GABA led us to test the hypothesis that the H + -coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 (SLC36A1) will contribute to luminal ALA uptake. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The selectivity of the nontransported inhibitors 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid for, respectively, PAT1 and the H + -coupled di/tripeptide transporter PepT1 (SLC15A1) were examined. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sloan JL, Mager S. Cloning and functional expression of a human Na(+) and Cl(-)-dependent neutraland cationic amino acid transporter B(0+).J Biol Chem. (tcdb.org)
  • The open reading frame encodes a 642-amino acid protein named amino acid transporter B(0+). (tcdb.org)
  • Electrophysiology and radiolabeled amino acid uptake measurements were used to functionally characterize the transporter expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (tcdb.org)
  • Thus, hATB(0+) is the first cloned B(0+) amino acid transporter. (tcdb.org)
  • Many of the participating proteins have eukaryotic relatives and are successfully used as model systems for exploration of transporter structure and function. (deepdyve.com)
  • Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na + -dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • Three principal transport systems account for much of the amino acid uptake by mammalian cells ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although Na + -dependent, System ASC appears to mediate amino acid exchange rather than net uptake ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • System A catalyzes the Na + -dependent net uptake of many neutral amino acids, in particular alanine, serine, and glutamine ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • System A and other more specialized transport systems may thus provide the concentrations of cytoplasmic amino acids necessary to drive the uptake of other amino acids by exchange through Systems ASC and L. System A also exhibits several unusual properties, including the recognition of N -methylated amino acids, tolerance of Li + substitution for Na + , and sensitivity to inhibition by low extracellular pH ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have recently identified another member of this family as responsible for classical amino acid transport System N. Unlike the virtually ubiquitous Systems A, ASC, and L, System N appears more tissue-specific and mediates the uptake specifically of glutamine, histidine, and asparagine ( 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • The light subunit xCT dimerises with the heavy subunit 4F2hc and the role of the xCT-4F2hc heterodimer, also known as system Xc-, is to couple the release of one molecule of intracellular glutamate to the uptake of one molecule of extracellular cystine (2). (novusbio.com)
  • following uptake the cystine is converted to cysteine, an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. (novusbio.com)
  • In this study, we investigated whether the uptake of glucose, system A amino acid transport, and cellular protein synthesis are regulated by PKBalpha in L6 skeletal muscle cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our results indicate that constitutive activation of PKBalpha in skeletal muscle stimulates the uptake of glucose, system A amino acids, and protein synthesis and promotes the inactivation of GSK-3. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). (uzh.ch)
  • Several studies have shown that the cRNA of human, rabbit, or rat rBAT induces in Xenopus oocytes sodium-independent, high affinity uptake of L-cystine via a system b0,(+)-like amino acid exchanger. (uzh.ch)
  • These results demonstrate that rBAT is functionally related to the L-cystine uptake via system b0,(+)-like in the apical pole of the renal OK cell line. (uzh.ch)
  • Na+-dependent uptake of D-glucose by pars convoluta and pars recta membrane vesicles could be described by single, but different, transport systems, namely a low-affinity system with KA congruent to 3.5 mM and a high-affinity system with KA congruent to 0.30 mM respectively. (biochemj.org)
  • The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino acids. (umn.edu)
  • Adenosine caused a 2.5-fold increase in the sodium-dependent uptake of 2-aminoisobutyric acid in rat hepatocytes in primary culture following incubation for 3h. (elsevier.com)
  • yet, no currently known amino acid transport system displays high affinity and specificity sufficiently to permit efficient uptake of tryptophan at these low concentrations. (elsevier.com)
  • Uptake of [ 203 Hg]MeHg by astrocytes exhibited the kinetic criteria of a specific transport system when added to the media as the l-cysteine conjugate. (elsevier.com)
  • Cysteine-mediated uptake of MeHg was inhibited by the coadministration of l-methionine, and 2-aminobicyclo-[2,2,1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid. (elsevier.com)
  • 2-Methylaminoisobutyric acid was ineffective in inhibiting the uptake of the MeHg-cysteine conjugate. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate the presence in astrocytes of a neutral amino acid carrier transport System L, capable of selectively mediating cysteine-MeHg uptake. (elsevier.com)
  • Kimelberg, H. K. / Methylmercury uptake in rat primary astrocyte cultures : the role of the neutral amino acid transport system . (elsevier.com)
  • For l‐glutamic and l‐aspartic acids in cortex and spinal cord and glycine in spinal cord a stringent sodium requirement for high affinity uptake was demonstrated. (elsevier.com)
  • and (3) inhibition of the Na-K‐ATPase enzyme system with ouabain reduces the velocity of uptake to 60% of control values in contrast to alanine whose synaptosomal uptake is less dependent on this enzyme system. (elsevier.com)
  • A reduced activity of LAT1 remains the primary hypothesis possibly due to a modification of intracellular amino acid content which may reduce F-FDOPA uptake. (bireme.br)
  • A selective inhibitor of LAT, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), suppressed cellular uptake of l- C-leucine and cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. (bireme.br)
  • Uptake of PGB was mutually exclusive with leucine, GBP and 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, the substrates preferential for system L. The preloaded PGB in CHO cells was exchangeable with leucine, but at a lower exchange rate than that of leucine and GBP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that L-type transport is the major transport route for PGB and GBP uptake in mammalian cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Without comprehensive kinetic analysis, it is often difficult to specify a transport system responsible for uptake of an unknown substrate ( Christensen, 1990 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • whereas the transport carriers for PGB uptake have not been well characterized. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The early conclusion on system L-mediated PGB transport in the rat ileum was also complicated by lack of mutual inhibition between GBP and PGB in intestine and lack of carrier-mediated uptake of GBP and PGB in Caco-2 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In mammalian cells, the uptake of amino acids is mediated by specialized, energy-dependent and passive transporters with overlapping substrate specificities. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to K+, Na+ can also be coupled to amino acid uptake at lower pH, but the Na+/K+ ratio of the hemolymph is so low that K+ is probably the major coupling ion in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Kinetic data obtained by computer analysis showed that, in the absence of cycloleucine, cell uptake was heterogeneous for each amino acid. (portlandpress.com)
  • The influence of cycloleucine on the amino acid uptake was not specific either to the amino acid concerned or to a particular transport system, since the three neutral amino acid-transport systems, A, ASC and L, were involved in these experiments. (portlandpress.com)
  • Characteristics of the Uptake and Release of Glutamic Acid in Synaptosomes from Rat Cerebral Cortex. (springer.com)
  • The present disclosure teaches that glioma cells are dependent on system Xc for cystine uptake. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A method for treating a disease state dependent on uptake of cystine for the maintenance of said disease state in a subject in need of said treatment, said method comprising administering to said subject a therapeutically effective amount of a compound capable of inhibiting cystine uptake by inhibiting system Xc a cystine-glutamate exchanger. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 2 where said glioma depends on said system Xc for at least about 85% of cystine uptake. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Phloem-feeding insects benefit from having evolved rapid and efficient pathways for the uptake and metabolic conversion of glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and aspartic acid into essential amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptophan selectively inhibited PAT1-mediated amino acid uptake across the brush-border membrane of the human intestinal (Caco-2) epithelium whereas 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid selectively inhibited PepT1-mediated dipeptide uptake. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, the structure of ALA is also analogous to that of the neuroactive amino acid GABA, suggesting that ALA may also interact with a GABA uptake system. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although molecular cloning has recently identified the proteins that mediate Systems ASC and L ( 13 - 17 ), System A has eluded biochemical purification, genetic approaches, and expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes ( 10 , 18 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • Under these conditions, the expression of SNAT2 gene is induced and newly synthesized SNAT2 proteins are preferentially targeted to the cell membrane, leading to a significant increase of system A transport Vmax. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Placental amino acid ( 4 ) and GLUT activity ( 5 , 6 ) as well as the expression of fatty acid-binding proteins in the placenta ( 7 ) are increased in diabetes, suggesting that an upregulation of placental nutrient transport capacity may contribute to fetal overgrowth ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A detailed characterization of these proteins has provided new information on transport characteristics and mechanisms for coupling to different inorganic ions. (biologists.org)
  • Following attachment to the plant cell, the bacterial type IV secretion system (T4SS) is established by diverse Vir proteins to export the T-DNA strand into the host. (asm.org)
  • Major role of integral membrane proteins, carriers, or transporters in drug transport is highlighted. (hindawi.com)
  • The subunits are built from rRNA-molecules, constructed from nucleotides, and proteins, made from amino acids. (nobelprize.org)
  • Examples of proteins are oxygen-transporting haemoglobin, hormones such as insulin and the antibodies of the immune system. (nobelprize.org)
  • Proteins are built from 20 different kinds of amino acids which are linked together in long chains. (nobelprize.org)
  • or anabolic - the building up (synthesis) of compounds (such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we investigated PGB transport in rats, mammalian cell lines, and Xenopus laevis oocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Molecular characteristics of mammalian and insect amino acid transporters: implications for amino acid homeostasis. (biologists.org)
  • Both systems have a broad substrate range which excludes 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, an amino acid analog accepted by the mammalian Na(+)-coupled system A. In order to gain insights into the K(+)-coupling mechanism and into amino acid and K+ homeostasis in insects, current studies are designed to delineate the molecular characteristics of these insect transporters. (biologists.org)
  • Vitamin C transport systems of mammalian cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Because System A also catalyzes Na + -dependent amino acid transport sensitive to low pH, we considered that the protein(s) responsible might belong to the same family as VGAT and, in particular, SN1. (pnas.org)
  • We report here on the primary structure and functional characteristics of the protein responsible for the system A amino acid transport activity that is known to be expressed in most human tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, protein synthesis, and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in L6 muscle cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To demonstrate that the rBAT protein is functionally related to this transport activity, we have transfected OK cells with human rBAT antisense and sense sequences. (uzh.ch)
  • RT-qPCR analysis and the in vitro overexpression experiments indicated that USA300HOU_RS00550 (an Na/Pi cotransporter family protein) and USA300HOU_RS01625 (a branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein) contributed to Erava heteroresistance in S. aureus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • RESULTS In the absence of insulin, gAd stimulated AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation, SNAT2 protein expression, and system A activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid β- N -methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. (mdpi.com)
  • For instance, BMAA is a small non-protein amino acid that appears to be synthesized by the entire cyanobacterial phylum [ 5 , 6 ], suggesting that BMAA is a fundamental cellular metabolite in cyanobacteria. (mdpi.com)
  • Note: Tryptophan and Phenylalanine are amino acids commonly found in protein-rich foods such a meat, nuts, and legumes. (amazonaws.com)
  • The heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of a type II glycoprotein and a non‐glycosylated polytopic membrane protein. (embopress.org)
  • Seafood consumption is highly demanding due to the important source of protein it contains, as well as being rich in omega-3 fatty acids. (degruyter.com)
  • Identification and functional analysis of fructosyl amino acid-binding protein from Gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter sp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Characterization of the binding protein-dependent cellobiose and cellotriose transport system of the cellulose degrader Streptomyces reticuli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A protein chain can consist of anything from ten to tens of thousands of amino acids. (nobelprize.org)
  • Some antibiotics inhibit the monitoring mechanism of the molecular ruler (see illustration above), others hinder the formation of the connection between amino acids or block the tunnel through which the emerging protein chain leaves the ribosome. (nobelprize.org)
  • Induction of AGP1 by amino acids also requires Grr1p, the F-box protein of the SCF Grr1 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex also required for transduction of the glucose signal generated by the Snf3p and Rgt2p glucose sensors. (asm.org)
  • The essential role of Grr1p in this amino acid signaling pathway lends further support to the hypothesis that this protein participates in integrating nutrient availability with the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism 16. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Peptides, short amino acid chains that control many functions in the human body, represent a billion-dollar market, also in the pharmaceutical industry. (eurekalert.org)
  • Peptides are short chains of amino acids. (eurekalert.org)
  • Poly(A)+ RNA from OK cells induced by system b0,(+)-like transport activity in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
  • We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger activity induced by rBAT cRNA in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
  • In contrast, resting human T cells expressed only the conventional system L. We speculate that the high-affinity, tryptophan-specific transport system allows MDM to take up tryptophan efficiently under conditions of low substrate concentration, such as may occur during interaction between T cells and IDO-expressing APC. (elsevier.com)
  • RESULTS: Treatment of BeWo cells with ethanol reduced the activity of system A. The effect was dose and treatment time dependent. (elsevier.com)
  • Ethanol did not alter the messenger RNA levels for system A. CONCLUSION: Exposure of BeWo cells to ethanol significantly reduces the function of system A. This finding has potential implications that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of the fetal alcohol syndrome. (elsevier.com)
  • The antiporter system x(c)(-) imports the amino acid cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, into cells with a 1:1 counter-transport of glutamate. (nih.gov)
  • Mutants for these transport systems were obtained after incubation of Chlorella cells in the presence of acridine orange or ethidium bromide, followed by a selection procedure using the toxic amino acid analogs l-canavanine (for l-arginine), and l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (for l-proline). (fau.de)
  • These results demonstrate the pivotal role played by SNAT2 induction in the short-term hypertonic RVI and suggest that neutral amino acids behave as compatible osmolytes in hypertonically stressed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This effect appeared to be mediated by interleukin-6 release and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling because gAd failed to stimulate system A in cells in which STAT3 had been silenced using small interfering RNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cells use several transport systems to take up folates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This is known as the most abundant amino acid that is present in a person's muscle cells. (archive.org)
  • Ussing's definition of active transport made possible an understanding, at the cellular level, of the way in which ions and water are pumped into and out of living cells in order to regulate the ionic composition and water balance in cells, organs, and organisms. (britannica.com)
  • Apart from its cation selectivity, it appears to be related to the amino acid transport system B previously characterized in vertebrate epithelial cells. (biologists.org)
  • In the first, MSG moves through the incomplete (immature) blood-brain-barrier in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of the unborn and very young, and kills brain cells (neurons), causing permanent damage to the endocrine system that controls appetite. (truthinlabeling.org)
  • The alteration of fas receptor and ligand system in hepatocellular carcinomas: How do hepatoma cells escape from the host immune surveillance in vivo ? (wiley.com)
  • b o,+ AT‐reconstituted systems from HeLa or MDCK cells catalysed transport of arginine that was totally dependent on the presence of one of the b o,+ substrates inside the liposomes. (embopress.org)
  • No system b o,+ transport was detected in liposomes derived from cells expressing rBAT alone. (embopress.org)
  • In mammals, L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) enters cells via Na+-dependent transporters SVCT1 (solute carrier family 23 member 1, SLC23A1) and SVCT2 (solute carrier family 23 member 1, SLC23A2). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Blood brain barrier (BBB) is a vasculature of the central nervous system (CNS) that is formed by capillary endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • These are quite different from other capillaries found in the body as their endothelial wall possesses tight junctions which obstruct transport between cells. (hindawi.com)
  • More specifically, the endothelial cells also possess transporters which show permeability characteristics and allow transport of oxygen and CO 2 across the BBB, bu these selectively prevent other substances from crossing [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular processes, including the insulin-induced regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and glucose transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The stimulation in glucose transport was facilitated, in part, by the increased translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane and also through an increase in the cellular synthesis of GLUT3. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The transport properties for phenylalanine and glucose in luminal-membrane vesicles from outer cortex (pars convoluta) and outer medulla (pars recta) of rabbit kidney were studied by a spectrophotometric method. (biochemj.org)
  • Attempts to calculate the stoichiometry of the different Na+/D-glucose transport systems by using Hill-type plots revealed that the ratio of the Na+/hexose co-transport probably is 1:1 in the case of pars convoluta and 2:1 in membrane vesicles from pars recta. (biochemj.org)
  • In the presence of glucose as an energy source, NCAO inhibited tryptophan transport competitively (Ki=80 μM) during short time intervals (1-2 min), but adding 100 μM NCAO to a yeast cell suspension resulted in a time-dependent activation of tryptophan transport during the first 15 min of treatment. (umn.edu)
  • In this paper we will focus on recent studies of regulatory mechanisms that modulate placental transport of amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. (hindawi.com)
  • He discussed this in the context of diabetes in pregnancy leading to excess fuel exposure to the fetal-placental unit, not only from glucose but also from excess lipids and amino acids (AAs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • ATP-binding cassette transport system involved in regulation of morphological differentiation in response to glucose in Streptomyces griseus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we provide biochemical characterization of a novel transport system with nanomolar affinity and high selectivity for tryptophan. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevier.com)
  • Selection and characterization of chlorella mutants deficient in amino Acid transport : further evidence for three independent systems. (fau.de)
  • The characterization of the control mechanisms of amino acid biosynthesis has revealed insights into principles of genetic and biochemical regulation, such as transcriptional regulators and a new class of regulatory elements, the riboswitch. (springer.com)
  • Transport by System N also depends on Na + but shows a striking sensitivity to inhibition by low external pH. (pnas.org)
  • Saturation kinetics, substrate specificity and inhibition, and trans-stimulation were demonstrated in the presence of this SH-containing amino acid. (elsevier.com)
  • In vitro, glutamate-mediated system x(c)(-) inhibition leads to neuronal cell death, a paradigm called oxidative glutamate toxicity, which has successfully been used to identify neuroprotective compounds. (nih.gov)
  • However, the mutual inhibition alone is insufficient to conclude which specific transport system is involved in PGB transport in the ileum. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. (mdpi.com)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of system Xc causes a rapid depletion of intracellular glutathione, resulting in decreased cell growth. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth endoplasmic reticulum into lipoprotein chylomicra and exocytozed into lacteals . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipids I: Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids 17. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from four basic classes of molecule: amino acids, carbohydrates , nucleic acid and lipids (often called fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • l-Tryptophan, which is transported exclusively by the general transport system, was used as a substrate. (umn.edu)
  • Following the activation a time-dependent decay of tryptophan transport activity occurred. (umn.edu)
  • When a yeast cell suspension was treated with NCAO in the absence of an energy source, an 80% inactivation of tryptophan transport occurred in 90 min. (umn.edu)
  • Addition of a fivefold excess of L-lysine during NCAO treatment or prevented inactivation of tryptophan transport. (umn.edu)
  • For tryptophan to be catabolized by IDO, it must first enter the APC via transmembrane transport. (elsevier.com)
  • The amino-acids tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine seem to play an important role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. (nature.com)
  • Both neurotransmitters are synthesized from aromatic amino-acids, i.e. serotonin from tryptophan, and noradrenalin from tyrosine or its precursor phenylalanine. (nature.com)
  • Taken together, different classes of NVU-AATs constitute an integrated dynamic system controlling the homeostasis of AAs such as large neutral amino acids (LNAAs: L-tyrosine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-phenylalanine, L-histidine, L-valine, L-tryptophan, and L-methionine) in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF). (frontiersin.org)
  • It was trans-stimulated by amino acids with the same specificity as rBAT-induced transport activity in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
  • The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier in the rat. (elsevier.com)
  • Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate. (abcam.com)
  • Amino acids are taken up by different transport systems with overlapping substrate specificity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The inhibitory effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid were additive, demonstrating that both PAT1 and PepT1 contribute to intestinal transport of ALA. This is the first demonstration of overlap in substrate specificity between these distinct transporters for amino acids and dipeptides. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We show here that SSY1 is required for transcriptional induction, in response to multiple amino acids, of the AGP1 gene encoding a low-affinity, broad-specificity amino acid permease. (asm.org)
  • The chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis has been proposed as a model for the coupling of energy metabolism with amino acid transport in S. cerevisiae. (kzoo.edu)
  • In total, our examination of functions in these MAGs shows a diversity of nutrient acquisition and metabolism pathways present that may benefit the host, as well as genomic signatures of host association and immune system evasion. (nature.com)
  • Metabolismus of nitrogen compounds I - Amino acid metabolism. (vutbr.cz)
  • This is mainly because a standard methodology for extracting functional category information, such as individual metabolism, energy generation and transportation systems, has not yet been fully established. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Well-known examples include insulin, which comprises 51 amino acid building blocks and controls the metabolism of sugar, or cyclosporine, an eleven amino acid-peptide that has been proven to suppress organ rejection after transplants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism I: Glycolysis and the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle 13. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Endocrine Metabolism V: Reproductive System 33. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Na+-dependent transport of L-phenylalanine by outer-cortical membrane vesicles could be accounted for by one transport system (KA congruent to 1.5 mM). (biochemj.org)
  • Both the high-affinity and the low-affinity Na+-dependent L-phenylalanine transport system of pars recta membrane vesicles seem to operate with a 1:1 stoichiometry. (biochemj.org)
  • Involved in a phospholipid transport pathway that maintains lipid asymmetry in the outer membrane by retrograde trafficking of phospholipids from the outer membrane to the inner membrane. (uniprot.org)
  • Isolation of a mutant yeast strain with altered plasma membrane ATPase activity and the preparation of spheroplasts may serve as possible experimental systems for the study of this model in yeast. (kzoo.edu)
  • Hence, endocytotic or pinocytotic mechanisms, and shuttling of MeHg via sequential sulfhydryl membrane ligand exchange do not appear to operate in the transport of MeHg into the astrocyte. (elsevier.com)
  • Placental nutrient transport and membrane kinetics (how do nutrients such as amino acids get from the mother to the fetus and how does transport work as an integrated system). (southampton.ac.uk)
  • of energy, it is called active transport (see cell: The plasma membrane). (britannica.com)
  • Active transport systems move chemicals essential to cellular functions through the membrane into the cell. (britannica.com)
  • Studies with brush-border membrane vesicles have shown that there are several transport systems in the larval intestine with distinct amino acid and cation specificities. (biologists.org)
  • Inaugural Meeting of the Scottish Membrane Transport Group Discovery Quay, Dundee, Friday 28th April 1995 Second Notice and Call for Abstracts The meeting will take the form of a one day symposium with a total of 4 sessions. (bio.net)
  • and so may be involved in ALA transport across the intestinal epithelial brush-border membrane. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The neutral amino acid transport system of larval midgut has been studied most extensively. (biologists.org)
  • System ASC preferentially transports alanine, serine, and cysteine but also recognizes other aliphatic amino acids ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly energized, system A substrates, such as glutamine, glycine, proline and alanine, reach high transmembrane gradients and constitute major components of the intracellular amino acid pool. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Na-dependent alanine/α-(methylamino) isobutyric acid-transporting system A, ATA3 or SNAT4. (tcdb.org)
  • The remaining process had the same kinetic constants as the low-affinity system for alanine and leucine and a KD similar to the diffusion constant for proline. (portlandpress.com)
  • It comprised six molecules of the simplest amino acid, alanine. (eurekalert.org)
  • No potent inhibitors of l‐glutamic acid accumulation were found among several structural analogues or derivatives. (elsevier.com)
  • Developmental studies revealed GABA and l‐glutamic acid to have absolute sodium requirements for cortical synaptosomal accumulation from the 16th gestational day through adulthood, with glycine accumulation showing a decreasing sodium requirement as maturation proceeded over this period. (elsevier.com)
  • Plant roots incorporate inorganic nitrogen into the amino acids glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and aspartic acid, which together serve as the primary metabolites of nitrogen transport to other tissues. (biologists.org)
  • GC-MS assays also showed that, even with an excess of dietary labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine or aspartic acid, the overall content of these amino acids in aphid bodies was mostly the product of catabolism of dietary amino acids and subsequent re-synthesis within the aphids. (biologists.org)
  • Aspartic acid aminotransferase and asparagine synthase use glutamic acid and glutamine, respectively, as nitrogen donors to produce aspartic acid and asparagine. (biologists.org)
  • For less permeable substrates the placenta possesses both passive and active transport mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Changes in energy availability or ion gradients can profoundly influence net transfer of substrates transported by active mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Synthesis of syn- and anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluoromethyl-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FMACBC), potential PET ligands for tumor detection. (harvard.edu)
  • Moreover, through a complex array of exchange fluxes, involving other amino acid transporters, and of metabolic reactions, such as the synthesis of glutamate from glutamine, SNAT2 activity influences the cell content of most amino acids, thus determining the overall size and the composition of the intracellular amino acid pool. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Folates are involved in the synthesis of amino and nucleic acids and deliver one-carbon groups to S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) through the methionine homocysteine pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis , much amino acid synthesis, and the immune response in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, aphids and other phloem feeders typically rely on microbial symbionts for the synthesis of essential amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, these predominant dietary amino acids are not passed directly to Buchnera endosymbionts for synthesis of essential amino acids, but are rather are produced de novo , most likely by endogenous aphid enzymes. (biologists.org)
  • The cysteine is subsequently transported in to neurons, where it supports glutathione production. (novusbio.com)
  • Moreover, the roles of system x(c)(-) in regulating GSH levels, the redox state of the extracellular cystine/cysteine redox couple, and extracellular glutamate levels are discussed. (nih.gov)
  • MTs have the capacity to bind both physiological (such as zinc, copper, selenium) and xenobiotic (such as cadmium, mercury, silver, arsenic) heavy metals through the thiol group of its cysteine residues, which represent nearly 30% of its constituent amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their production is dependent on availability of the dietary minerals such as zinc, copper, and selenium, as well as the amino acids histidine and cysteine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three amino acids comprising glutathione are glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. (asnjournals.org)
  • System A has also provided a paradigm for short- and long-term regulation by physiological stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, amino acid transport System A has provided a paradigm for the short- and long-term regulation of transport activity ( 1 , 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • System A function also varies inversely with the concentration of extracellular amino acids as part of adaptive regulation and up-regulates with cell proliferation and hypertonic shock, suggesting additional homeostatic roles. (pnas.org)
  • We highlight the diverse roles of system x(c)(-) in the regulation of the immune response, in various aspects of cancer and in the eye and the CNS. (nih.gov)
  • Topics discussed are the amino acid biosynthetic pathways, their genetic and biochemical regulation, transport of amino acids and genomics of producing microorganisms. (springer.com)
  • The homeostatic regulation of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential for proper brain function. (frontiersin.org)
  • and chain lengthening or shortening of individual fatty acids. (springer.com)
  • a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accumulation by synaptosomal fractions from rat central nervous system tissue of transmitter candidate amino acids and non‐candidate amino acids was studied with respect to ionic requirements, metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and ontogeny. (elsevier.com)
  • The volume further deals with the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biotechnological production of amino acids for use as pharmaceuticals and, particularly, as food and feed additives. (springer.com)
  • Maternal diet and obesity impact fuels, hormones, and inflammation with powerful effects on fetal metabolic systems. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • or γ- 15 N). The metabolic fate of the dietary 15 N and 13 C was traced using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrogen was the major contributor to the observed amino acid isotopomers with one additional unit mass (M+1). (biologists.org)
  • The acquired form of 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) metabolic acidosis was first described in 1989 and its relationship to chronic acetaminophen ingestion was proposed the next year. (asnjournals.org)
  • Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. (hindawi.com)
  • The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which poisonous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect on system A activity was associated with a decrease in the maximal velocity of the transport system without affecting the substrate affinity. (elsevier.com)
  • Insulin increased AKT and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, system A activity, and SNAT2 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Taylor, Peter M. . / Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta . (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Ritchie, JWA & Taylor, PM 2001, ' Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta ', Biochemical Journal , vol. 356, no. 3, pp. 719-725. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Fetal growth is dependent on nutrient availability, which in turn is related to the capacity of the placenta to transport these nutrients. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, the placenta with its nutrient transport functions is increasingly seen as being the mediator of maternal nutrition effects on the lifelong health consequences for the child [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A wide range of nutrients (e.g., amino acids, phosphorus, and lactate) are transported across the placenta mediated by secondary active transport, utilizing energy provided by ion gradients such as sodium, chloride, and protons [ 14 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cyclic hexapeptide in its bioactive form with the integrin-binding tripeptide sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid: Green spheres represent carbon atoms, red oxygen atoms, blue nitrogen atoms and white hydrogen atoms. (eurekalert.org)
  • A sequence of the three amino acids arginine, glycine and aspartic acid is the key to the docking at these receptors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Taurine is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory semi-essential amino acid extensively involved in neurological activities, acting as neurotrophic factor, binding to GABA A/glycine receptors and blocking the excitotoxicity glutamate-induced pathway leading to be a neuroprotective effect and neuromodulation. (mdpi.com)
  • The fete-placental unit relies on a maternal supply of indispensable amino acids and iodothyronines for early development and normal growth. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • We hypothesized that adiponectin regulates placental amino acid transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As a result, fAd inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport, which may have important implications for placental nutrient transport and fetal growth in pregnancy complications associated with altered maternal adiponectin levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • however, the primary determinant of fetal growth is nutrient supply, which is dependent on placental nutrient transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Obesity in pregnancy ( 9 , 10 ) and gestational diabetes mellitus ( 11 ) are associated with low maternal circulating levels of adiponectin, but the impact of adiponectin on placental nutrient transport functions is unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The activity of a range of nutrient transporters has been reported to be decreased in placentas of growth restricted fetuses, whereas at least some studies indicate that placental nutrient transport is upregulated in fetal overgrowth. (hindawi.com)
  • These findings suggest that changes in placental nutrient transport may directly contribute to the development of abnormal fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
  • Fetal growth is largely determined by nutrient supply, which is dependent upon placental nutrient transport. (hindawi.com)
  • This suggests that changes in placental nutrient transport directly contribute to altered fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
  • Hill PMM, Young M. Net placental transfer of free amino acids against varying concentrations. (springer.com)
  • Disease severity and SAH-related complications were not associated with amino-acid concentrations. (nature.com)
  • Sialic acid supplementation ameliorates puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats. (nih.gov)
  • When taken in a form of capsule of tablet, L-glutamine can give protection to your muscles during rigorous workouts and can also enhance your immune system to make it more likely to increase muscle mass. (archive.org)
  • In contrast, non-malignant astrocytes and cortical neurons remain viable in the presence of Xc inhibitors and continue to take up cystine via alternate amino acid transporters. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • System L recognizes branched chain and aromatic amino acids ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • By contrast, in the outer-medullary preparation, L-phenylalanine transport occurred via two transport systems, namely a high-affinity system with K1A congruent to 0.33 mM and a low-affinity system with K2A congruent to 7 mM respectively. (biochemj.org)
  • The physiological importance of the arrangement of low-affinity and high-affinity transport systems along the kidney proximal tubule is discussed. (biochemj.org)
  • This heterogeneity disappeared in the presence of cycloleucine, since the high-affinity systems were no longer detectable. (portlandpress.com)
  • 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine PET/CT in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: relation to genotype and amino acid transport system L. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging , Springer Verlag (Germany), 2017, 44 (5), pp.812-821. (univ-cotedazur.fr)
  • Using similar approaches, we are investigating the molecular characteristics of K(+)-coupled amino acid transporters in the larval lepidopteran insect midgut. (biologists.org)
  • Dr Julian Dow Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow: Genetic analysis of epithelial transport in Drosophila. (bio.net)
  • however, the molecular basis for this transport system is still unknown. (tcdb.org)
  • Amino acid exporters were identified in MAGs identified as important for host fitness, and pathways for key vitamin biosynthesis and export were identified across MAGs. (nature.com)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides an attractive model system for studying adhesion in yeast because of its well-characterized genetics and gene expression systems and the conservation of signal transduction pathways among the yeasts. (asm.org)
  • Their function as exchangers presumably relies on the active accumulation of amino acids through other mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • As a first step in understanding the relationship between the astrocyte and the mechanisms of MeHg's neurotoxicity, studies were directed at how MeHg is transported into cultured astrocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Numerous solutes move across the NVU cell membranes with various transport mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Animals that feed on nutritionally unbalanced resources such as phloem sap, which typically has sub-optimal amounts of essential amino acids, have evolved mechanisms for acquiring or synthesizing these amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • Many of these prn mutations can be directly classified according to the gene product(s) affected on the basis of growth phenotype with respect to L-arginine and L-ornithine utilization, proline-dependent resistance to certain toxic amino acid analogues and effect on supplementation of proline auxotrophies. (cambridge.org)
  • These heterodimers facilitate the transport of amino acids across cell membranes. (novusbio.com)
  • frequently occurs by way of active transport within cell membranes, an excess of one nutrient (A) may inhibit absorption of a second nutrient (B), if they share the same absorption pathway. (britannica.com)
  • Present review paper highlights role of BBB in endothelial transport of various substances into the brain. (hindawi.com)
  • The function of system A was monitored by the transport of α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid. (elsevier.com)
  • In cultured human fibroblasts incubated under hypertonic conditions, the specific silencing of SNAT2 expression, obtained with anti-SNAT2 siRNAs, prevents the increase in system A transport activity, hinders the expansion of intracellular amino acid pool, and significantly delays cell volume recovery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We measured daily brain extracellular levels of these amino-acids using cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and high performance liquid chromatography in 26 consecutive subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients and associated them with the presence of depressive disorders. (nature.com)
  • For example, in the central nervous system, glutamate transporters are critically important in maintaining the extracellular glutamate concentration below neurotoxic levels, and defects of the human D2 gene have been shown to account for the formation of kidney stones in patients with cystinuria. (biologists.org)
  • However, there was differential incorporation, with the amine nitrogen of asparagine being incorporated into other amino acids more efficiently than the amide nitrogen. (biologists.org)
  • Hilger, D. 2007-04-06 00:00:00 Amino acid transport is a ubiquitous phenomenon and serves a variety of functions in prokaryotes, including supply of carbon and nitrogen for catabolic and anabolic processes, pH homeostasis, osmoprotection, virulence, detoxification, signal transduction and generation of electrochemical ion gradients. (deepdyve.com)
  • Higher isotopomers (M+2, M+3 and M+4) indicated the incorporation of varying numbers of 13 C atoms into essential amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • The BBB endothelium together with the astrocytes and neurons are the fundamental elements of the neurovascular unit (NVU) system. (frontiersin.org)
  • The availability of both a positive selection technique and an extensive nutritional screening system has enabled the identification of fourteen spontaneous deletion mutations, recognized as extending into the prn B gene, specifying the principal L-proline permease, and into at least one other prn gene. (cambridge.org)
  • L-proline was taken up by one saturable transport system plus a diffusion-like process. (portlandpress.com)
  • hATB(0+) was found to transport both neutral and cationic amino acids, with the highest affinity for hydrophobic amino acids and the lowest affinity for proline. (tcdb.org)
  • Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). (nih.gov)
  • It is composed of a light chain, xCT, and a heavy chain, 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc), and, thus, belongs to the family of heterodimeric amino acid transporters. (nih.gov)
  • When combined with insulin, gAd did not affect system A activity or SNAT expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, fAd abolished insulin-stimulated AKT Thr308 and IRS-1 Tyr612 phosphorylation, system A activity, and SNAT2 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ive been told by some people to add BCAA's and some insulin spiking amino acids to this shake. (exrx.net)
  • What circulatory systems are involved in nutrient absorption and transport? (studystack.com)
  • To circumvent these limitations, we have incorporated published in vivo data of rat brain into a robust computational model of NVU-LNAA homeostasis, allowing us to evaluate hypotheses concerning LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs across the blood brain barrier (BBB). (frontiersin.org)
  • This review also suggests requirement of new well-designed therapeutic strategies mainly potential techniques, appropriate drug formulations, and new transport systems for quick, easy, and safe delivery of drugs across blood brain barrier to save the life of tumor and virus infected patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" by people in Profiles. (wakehealth.edu)
  • 1] "Structure and function of ATA3, a new subtype of amino acid transport system A, primarily expressed in the liver and skeletal muscle. (tcdb.org)
  • Amino Acids Biosynthesis presents the current knowledge of fundamental as well as applied microbiology of amino acids. (springer.com)
  • including through amino acid biosynthesis (Richards et al. (biologists.org)
  • Amino Acid Transport System L" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • System-L amino acid transporters play a key role in pancreatic β-cell signalling and function. (nih.gov)
  • This work has furthermore advanced our understanding of the roles these transporters play in amino acid homeostasis and in various pathologies. (biologists.org)