A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

The RD114/simian type D retrovirus receptor is a neutral amino acid transporter. (1/71)

The RD114/simian type D retroviruses, which include the feline endogenous retrovirus RD114, all strains of simian immunosuppressive type D retroviruses, the avian reticuloendotheliosis group including spleen necrosis virus, and baboon endogenous virus, use a common cell-surface receptor for cell entry. We have used a retroviral cDNA library approach, involving transfer and expression of cDNAs from highly infectable HeLa cells to nonpermissive NIH 3T3 mouse cells, to clone and identify this receptor. The cloned cDNA, denoted RDR, is an allele of the previously cloned neutral amino acid transporter ATB0 (SLC1A5). Both RDR and ATB0 serve as retrovirus receptors and both show specific transport of neutral amino acids. We have localized the receptor by radiation hybrid mapping to a region of about 500-kb pairs on the long arm of human chromosome 19 at q13.3. Infection of cells with RD114/type D retroviruses results in impaired amino acid transport, suggesting a mechanism for virus toxicity and immunosuppression. The identification and functional characterization of this retrovirus receptor provide insight into the retrovirus life cycle and pathogenesis and will be an important tool for optimization of gene therapy using vectors derived from RD114/type D retroviruses.  (+info)

A sodium-dependent neutral-amino-acid transporter mediates infections of feline and baboon endogenous retroviruses and simian type D retroviruses. (2/71)

The type D simian retroviruses cause immunosuppression in macaques and have been reported as a presumptive opportunistic infection in a patient with AIDS. Previous evidence based on viral interference has strongly suggested that the type D simian viruses share a common but unknown cell surface receptor with three type C viruses: feline endogenous virus (RD114), baboon endogenous virus, and avian reticuloendotheliosis virus. Furthermore, the receptor gene for these viruses has been mapped to human chromosome 19q13.1-13.2. We now report the isolation and characterization of a cell surface receptor for this group of retroviruses by using a human T-lymphocyte cDNA library in a retroviral vector. Swiss mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3), which are naturally resistant to RD114, were transduced with the retroviral library and then challenged with an RD114-pseudotyped virus containing a dominant selectable gene for puromycin resistance. Puromycin selection yielded 12 cellular clones that were highly susceptible to a beta-galactosidase-encoding lacZ(RD114) pseudotype virus. Using PCR primers specific for vector sequences, we amplified a common 2.9-kb product from 10 positive clones. Expression of the 2.9-kb cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells conferred susceptibility to RD114, baboon endogenous virus, and the type D simian retroviruses. The 2.9-kb cDNA predicted a protein of 541 amino acids that had 98% identity with the previously cloned human Na+-dependent neutral-amino-acid transporter Bo. Accordingly, expression of the RD114 receptor in NIH 3T3 cells resulted in enhanced cellular uptake of L-[3H]alanine and L-[3H]glutamine. RNA blot (Northern) analysis suggested that the RD114 receptor is widely expressed in human tissues and cell lines, including hematopoietic cells. The human Bo transporter gene has been previously mapped to 19q13.3, which is closely linked to the gene locus of the RD114 receptor.  (+info)

Na+ - and Cl- -coupled active transport of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors via amino acid transport system B(0,+). (3/71)

Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the management of numerous conditions in which NO overproduction plays a critical role. Identification of transport systems in the intestine that can mediate the uptake of NOS inhibitors is important to assess the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of these potential drugs. Here, we have cloned the Na+ - and Cl- -coupled amino acid transport system B(0,+) (ATB(0,+)) from the mouse colon and investigated its ability to transport NOS inhibitors. When expressed in mammalian cells, ATB(0,+) can transport a variety of zwitterionic and cationic amino acids in a Na+ - and Cl- -coupled manner. Each of the NOS inhibitors tested compete with glycine for uptake through this transport system. Furthermore, using a tritiated analog of the NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, we showed that Na+ - and Cl- -coupled transport occurs via ATB(0,+). We then studied transport of a wide variety of NOS inhibitors in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the cloned ATB(0,+) and found that ATB(0,+) can transport a broad range of zwitterionic or cationic NOS inhibitors. These data represent the first identification of an ion gradient-driven transport system for NOS inhibitors in the intestinal tract.  (+info)

Na+- and Cl--coupled active transport of carnitine by the amino acid transporter ATB(0,+) from mouse colon expressed in HRPE cells and Xenopus oocytes. (4/71)

1. ATB(0,+) is an amino acid transporter energized by transmembrane gradients of Na+ and Cl(-) and membrane potential. We cloned this transporter from mouse colon and expressed the clone functionally in mammalian (human retinal pigment epithelial, HRPE) cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes to investigate the interaction of carnitine and its acyl esters with the transporter. 2. When expressed in mammalian cells, the cloned ATB(0,+) was able to transport carnitine, propionylcarnitine and acetylcarnitine. The transport process was Na(+) and Cl(-) dependent and inhibitable by the amino acid substrates of the transporter. The Michaelis constant for carnitine was 0.83 +/- 0.08 mM and the Hill coefficient for Na(+) activation was 1.6 +/- 0.1. 3. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the cloned ATB(0,+) was able to induce inward currents in the presence of carnitine and propionylcarnitine under voltage-clamped conditions. There was no detectable current in the presence of acetylcarnitine. Carnitine-induced currents were obligatorily dependent on the presence of Na(+) and Cl(-). The currents were saturable with carnitine and the Michaelis constant was 1.8 +/- 0.4 mM. The analysis of Na(+)- and Cl(-)-activation kinetics revealed that 2 Na(+) and 1 Cl(-) were involved in the transport of carnitine via the transporter. 4. These studies describe the identification of a novel function for the amino acid transporter ATB(0,+). Since this transporter is expressed in the intestinal tract, lung and mammary gland, it is likely to play a significant role in the handling of carnitine in these tissues. 5. A Na(+)-dependent transport system for carnitine has already been described. This transporter, known as OCTN2 (novel organic cation transporter 2), is expressed in most tissues and transports carnitine with high affinity. It is energized, however, only by a Na(+) gradient and membrane potential. In contrast, ATB(0,+) is a low-affinity transporter for carnitine, but exhibits much higher concentrative capacity than OCTN2 because of its energization by transmembrane gradients of Na(+) and Cl(-) as well as by membrane potential.  (+info)

Na(+)-dependent neutral amino acid transporter ATB(0) is a rabbit epithelial cell brush-border protein. (5/71)

System B(0) activity accounts for the majority of intestinal and kidney luminal neutral amino acid absorption. An amino acid transport system, called ATB(0) (also known as ASCT2), with functional characteristics similar to those of system B(0), has been recently cloned. We generated polyclonal antibodies to human and rabbit ATB(0) COOH-terminal peptides and used Western blot analysis to detect ATB(0) protein in rabbit tissues, rabbit ileal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV), and HeLa cells transfected with plasmids containing ATB(0) cDNAs. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize ATB(0) in rabbit kidney and intestine. In Western blots of rabbit tissues, ATB(0) was a broad smear of 78- to 85-kDa proteins. In transfected HeLa cells, ATB(0) appeared as a smear consisting of 57- to 65-kDa proteins. The highest expression was found in the kidney. ATB(0) was enriched in rabbit ileal BBMV and in HeLa cells transfected with ATB(0) cDNAs. In the kidney and in the intestine, ATB(0) was confined to the brush-border membrane (BBM) of the proximal tubular cell and of the enterocyte, respectively. Tissue and intracellular distribution of ATB(0) protein parallels that of system B(0) activity. ATB(0) protein could be the transporter responsible for system B(0) in the BBM of epithelial cells.  (+info)

Sustained multilineage gene persistence and expression in dogs transplanted with CD34(+) marrow cells transduced by RD114-pseudotype oncoretrovirus vectors. (6/71)

Previous studies have shown that the choice of envelope protein (pseudotype) can have a significant effect on the efficiency of retroviral gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells. This study used a competitive repopulation assay in the dog model to evaluate oncoretroviral vectors carrying the envelope protein of the endogenous feline virus, RD114. CD34-enriched marrow cells were divided into equal aliquots and transduced with vectors produced by the RD114-pseudotype packaging cells FLYRD (LgGLSN and LNX) or by the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV)-pseudotype packaging cells PG13 (LNY). A total of 5 dogs were studied. One dog died because of infection before sustained engraftment could be achieved, and monitoring was discontinued after 9 months in another animal that had very low overall gene-marking levels. The 3 remaining animals are alive with follow-ups at 11, 22, and 23 months. Analyses of gene marking frequencies in peripheral blood and marrow by polymerase chain reaction revealed no significant differences between the RD114 and GALV-pseudotype vectors. The LgGLSN vector also contained the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP), enabling us to monitor proviral expression by flow cytometry. Up to 10% of peripheral blood cells expressed GFP shortly after transplantation and approximately 6% after the longest follow-up of 23 months. Flow cytometric analysis of hematopoietic subpopulations showed that most of the GFP-expressing cells were granulocytes, although GFP-positive lymphocytes and monocytes were also detected. In summary, these results show that RD114-pseudotype oncoretroviral vectors are able to transduce hematopoietic long-term repopulating cells and, thus, may be useful for human stem cell gene therapy.  (+info)

ATB(0)/SLC1A5 gene. Fine localisation and exclusion of association with the intestinal phenotype of cystic fibrosis. (7/71)

The Na+-dependent amino acid transporter named ATB(0) was previously found to be located in 19q13.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Genetic heterogeneity in the 19q13.2-13.4 region, syntenic to the Cystic Fibrosis Modulator Locus 1 (CFM1) in mouse, seemed to be associated to the intestinal phenotypic variation of cystic fibrosis (CF). We performed fine chromosomal mapping of ATB(0) on radiation hybrid (RH) panels G3 and TNG. Based on the most accurate location results from TNG-RH panel, mapping analysis evidenced that ATB(0) is localised between STS SHGC-13875 (D19S995) and STS SHGC-6138 in 19q13.3, that corresponds with the immediately telomeric/distal segment of the strongest linkage region within the human CFM1 (hCFM1) syntenic region. Regarding to the genomic structure and exon organisation, our results show that the ATB(0) gene is organised into eight exons. The knowledge of the genomic structure allowed us to perform an exhaustive mutational analysis of the gene. Evaluation of the possible implication of ATB(0) in the intestinal phenotype of CF was performed on the basis of the functional characteristics of the encoded protein, its apparent relevance to meconium ileus (MI) and position in relation to the hCFM1 syntenic region. We have analysed this gene in samples from CF patients with and without MI. Several sequence variations in the ATB(0) gene were identified, although none of them seemed to be related to the intestinal phenotype of CF. Even though no particular allele or haplotype in ATB(0) appears to be associated to CF-MI disease, new SNPs identified should be useful in segregation and linkage disequilibrium analyses in families affected by other disorders caused by the impairment of neutral amino acid transport.  (+info)

Characterisation and cloning of a Na(+)-dependent broad-specificity neutral amino acid transporter from NBL-1 cells: a novel member of the ASC/B(0) transporter family. (8/71)

Na(+)-dependent neutral amino acid transport into the bovine renal epithelial cell line NBL-1 is catalysed by a broad-specificity transporter originally termed System B(0). This transporter is shown to differ in specificity from the B(0) transporter cloned from JAR cells [J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 18657] in that it interacts much more strongly with phenylalanine. Using probes designed to conserved transmembrane regions of the ASC/B(0) transporter family we have isolated a cDNA encoding the NBL-1 cell System B(0) transporter. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes the clone catalysed Na(+)-dependent alanine uptake which was inhibited by glutamine, leucine and phenylalanine. However, the clone did not catalyse Na(+)-dependent phenylalanine transport, again as in NBL-1 cells. The clone encoded a protein of 539 amino acids; the predicted transmembrane domains were almost identical in sequence to those of the other members of the B(0)/ASC transporter family. Comparison of the sequences of NBL-1 and JAR cell transporters showed some differences near the N-terminus, C-terminus and in the loop between helices 3 and 4. The NBL-1 B(0) transporter is not the same as the renal brush border membrane transporter since it does not transport phenylalanine. Differences in specificity in this protein family arise from relatively small differences in amino acid sequence.  (+info)

The Alanine-Serine-Cysteine transporter ASCT2 (SLC1A5) is a membrane protein that transports neutral amino acids into cells in exchange for outward movement of intracellular amino acids. ASCT2 is highly expressed in peripheral tissues such as the lung and intestines where it contributes to the homeostasis of intracellular concentrations of neutral amino acids. ASCT2 also plays an important role in the development of a variety of cancers such as melanoma by transporting amino acid nutrients such as glutamine into the proliferating tumors. Therefore, ASCT2 is a key drug target with potentially great pharmacological importance. Here, we identify seven ASCT2 ligands by computational modeling and experimental testing. In particular, we construct homology models based on crystallographic structures of the aspartate transporter Glt(Ph) in two different conformations. Optimization of the models binding sites for protein-ligand complementarity reveals new putative pockets that can be targeted via structure
The NMDA receptor co-agonist D-serine is a substrate for the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 which may regulate its extracellular levels in the CNS. We tested inhibitors of ASCT1 and ASCT2 for their effects in rodent models of schizophrenia and visual dysfunction which had previously been shown to be responsive to D-serine. L-4-fluorophenylglycine (L-4FPG), L-4-hydroxyPG (L-4OHPG) and L-4-chloroPG (L-4ClPG) all showed high plasma bioavailability when administered systemically to rats and mice. L-4FPG showed good brain penetration with brain:plasma ratios of 0.7-1.4, however values for L-4OHPG and L-4ClPG were lower. Systemically administered L-4FPG potently reduced amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice, whereas L-4OHPG was 100-fold less effective and L-4ClPG inactive at the doses tested. L-4FPG and L-4OHPG did not impair visual acuity in naive rats, and acute systemic administration of L-4FPG significantly improved the deficit in contrast sensitivity in blue-light treated ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Reactive oxygen species modulate Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 expression in piglet pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. AU - Dikalova, Anna E.. AU - Aschner, Judy L.. AU - Zhang, Yongmei. AU - Kaplowitz, Mark R.. AU - Fike, Candice D.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Grant RO1-HL-097566 (to C. Fike). Publisher Copyright: © 2019 the American Physiological Society.. PY - 2019/4. Y1 - 2019/4. N2 - We have previously shown that Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 (SNAT1) modulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) from newborn piglets. Specifically, the ability to increase NO production in response to the L-arginine-NO precursor L-citrulline is dependent on SNAT1 expression. Elucidating factors that regulate SNAT1 expression in PAECs could provide new insights and therapeutic targets relevant to NO production. Our major goals were to determine if ...
As discussed earlier, cells can acquire serine by either synthesizing it internally or importing serine from the environment. Serine is a small, neutral amino acid and, as such, can be transported by one of three systems. Two of the systems are sodium dependent: the alanine/serine/cysteine/threonine transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 (encoded by SLC1A4 and SLC1A5, respectively) and the system A transporters SAT1 and SAT2 (encoded by SLC38A1 and SLC38A2, respectively). The third is a family of neutral amino acid antiporters, the alanine/serine/cysteine transporter (ASC) system (El-Hattab, 2016). These antiporters are of particular interest because they are active even at steady state, so that for instance, one molecule of intracellular serine can be exchanged for one molecule of extracellular serine. Normally this process goes unnoticed, but a recent study (DeNicola et al., 2015) points out that it can complicate interpretation of heavy isotope-labeling experiments by setting up an exchange flux ...
Supply of amino acids to the body provides repair treatment means nourish human skin, nails and hair result in delay aging process naturally. Supply of amino acids strengthens connective tissue to keep our skin smooth, shine, glowing and elastic. Creatine play very important role to keep skin healthy and this creatine is made up of amino acids like Arginine and Methionine. Glutamine amino acid is responsible to regulate acid-base balance as a result it supports healthy skin. Carnitine is a di-peptide containing two essential amino acids lysine and Methionine. Carnitine helps in burning fat to produce energy so also known as fat burner so also added in fitness and wellness program ...
Dr. Mandanas responded: Glutamine amino acid. Glutamine is an Amino Acid (basic building block of proteins). People take it for various reasons as a dietary supplement. It purportedly helps maintain |a href=/topics/muscle-mass track_data={
Giacopo, Andrea Di; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Cantone, Alessandra; Artunc, Ferruh; Rexhepaj, Rexhep; Frey-Wagner, Isabelle; Font-Llitjós, Mariona; Gehring, Nicole; Stange, Gerti; Jaenecke, Isabel; Mohebbi, Nilufar; Closs, Ellen I; Palacín, Manuel; Nunes, Virginia; Daniel, Hannelore; Lang, Florian; Capasso, Giovambattista; Wagner, Carsten A (2013). Differential cystine and dibasic amino acid handling after loss of function of the amino acid transporter b0,+AT (Slc7a9) in mice. American Journal of Physiology. Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, 305(12):F1645-F1655.. Mariotta, Luca; Ramadan, Tamara; Singer, Dustin; Guetg, Adriano; Herzog, Brigitte; Stoeger, Claudia; Palacín, Manuel; Lahoutte, Tony; Camargo, Simone M R; Verrey, François (2012). T-type amino acid transporter TAT1 (Slc16a10) is essential for extracellular aromatic amino acid homeostasis control. Journal of Physiology, 590(Pt 24):6413-6424.. ...
The groups we donate to are all wonderful, legal, organizations who are doing their damndest to help people, Dawn says. From the Immigrant and Refugee Community Organization helping immigrants to become self-sufficient in their new communities to the NAACP trying to make sure every person in this country is able to vote and participate in democracy. Its strange to me those ideas, while nestled in the fun vibe of getting a manicure, are somehow too scandalous for TV. But Trump can call Africa a shithole, and theres 50,000 episodes of Law & Order-esque shows that deal with the most detailed horrors of the world seemingly aired at any moment, and both those things are fine to air?. ...
Rasko JE, Battini JL, Gottschalk RJ, Mazo I, Miller AD. The RD114/simian type D retrovirus receptor is a neutral amino acidtransporter.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 2;96(5):2129-34. PMID: 10051606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. The RD114/simian type D retroviruses, which include the feline endogenous retrovirus RD114, all strains of simian immunosuppressive type D retroviruses, the avian reticuloendotheliosis group including spleen necrosis virus, and baboon endogenous virus, use a common cell-surface receptor for cell entry. We have used a retroviral cDNA library approach, involving transfer and expression of cDNAs from highly infectable HeLa cells to nonpermissive NIH 3T3 mouse cells, to clone and identify this receptor. The cloned cDNA, denoted RDR, is an allele of the previously cloned neutral amino acid transporter ATB0 (SLC1A5). Both RDR and ATB0 serve as retrovirus receptors and both show specific transport of neutral amino acids. We have localized the receptor by radiation hybrid ...
Oncoproteins drive the expression of genes involved in glycolysis and glutaminolysis, which results in production of excess amounts of lactate. Aberrant PI3K/AKT signaling and the transcriptional oncoproteins HIF-1α and MYC regulate the transcription of GLUT, HK2, TPI, ENO, and LDHA. HIF-1α induces the transcription of PFKFB3, which favors the production of F2,6BP, an allosteric activator of PFK1. The tumor suppressor protein p53 induces the expression of TIGAR, which dephosphorylates F2,6BP, blocking activation of PFK1 and inhibiting glycolysis. HIF-1α and MYC regulate the expression and splicing of the PKM2 isoform. MYC also regulates the expression of the glutamine transporter ASCT2 and GLS. Monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCTs) export lactate and protons and are regulated by HIF-1α and MYC. AcCoA, acetyl-CoA; ASP, aspartate; ASCT2, glutamine transporter; G, glucose; G6P, glucose-6-phosphate, F6P, fructose-6-phosphate; DHAP, dihydroxyacetone phosphate; GA3P, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate; ...
Recombinant Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) Protein (GST tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Wheat germ. Jetzt Produkt ABIN1320502 bestellen.
RESULTS: In a genomic survey where we manually annotated and analyzing sequences from more than 300 SLC1 genes (from more than 40 vertebrate species), we found evidence for an interesting evolutionary history of this gene family. While human and mouse genomes contain 7 SLC1 genes, in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes up to 9 and in actinopterygii up to 13 SLC1 genes are present. While some of the additional slc1 genes in ray-finned fishes originated from R3, the increased number of SLC1 genes in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes originates from specific genes retained in these lineages.Phylogenetic comparison and microsynteny analyses of the SLC1 genes indicate, that theria genomes evidently lost several SLC1 genes still present in the other lineage. The genes lost in theria group into two new subfamilies of the slc1 gene family which we named slc1a8/eaat6 and slc1a9/eaat7 ...
Plasma membrane System A-like neutral amino acid transporter, SA1, SAT2 or SNAT2 (transports small, neutral aliphatic amino acids including α-(methylamino)isobutyrate, mAIB with Na+ (1:1 stoichiometry; Km = 200-500 μM)). Asparagine 82 controls the interaction of Na+ with the transporter (Zhang and Grewer, 2007). The C-terminal domain regulates transport activity through a voltage-dependent process (Zhang et al., 2011). An 11 TMS topology has been experimentally demonstrated (Ge et al. 2018 ...
Now Or Never lyrics by Atb: Im wide awake and I couldnt care less / What people say and my hearts no longer under arrest / Smashed
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) shows great cellular heterogeneity, with pronounced epithelial and mesenchymal cancer cell populations. However, the cellular hierarchy underlying PDAC cell diversity is unknown. Here we identify the tetraspanin CD9 as a marker of PDAC tumour-initiating cells. CD9high cells had increased organoid formation capability, and generated tumour grafts in vivo at limiting dilutions. Tumours initiated from CD9high cells recapitulated the cellular heterogeneity of primary PDAC, whereas CD9low cells produced only duct-like epithelial progeny. CD9 knockdown decreased the growth of PDAC organoids, and heterozygous CD9 deletion in Pdx1-Cre; LSL-KRasG12D; p53F/F mice prolonged overall survival. Mechanistically, CD9 promoted the plasma membrane localization of the glutamine transporter ASCT2, enhancing glutamine uptake in PDAC cells. Thus, our study identifies a PDAC subpopulation capable of initiating PDAC and giving rise to PDAC heterogeneity, suggesting that the ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Reverse transcription-PCR was performed based on the method of Sugawara et al., 59 with slight modifications, using 1 μg of total RNA isolated from human cornea (kindly provided by Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX). The forward and reverse primers were 5′-TCT CAC TGC TTA ACG GCG TGT G-3′, and 5′-TCC CTG GCC AAG TCT AAC AAT G-3′, respectively. These primers correspond to the nucleotide positions 110-132 and 606-628 in hLAT1 cDNA, respectively. RT-PCR was performed with a commercial kit (GeneAmp; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The conditions for reverse transcription were as follows: denaturation of the template RNA for 10 minutes at 70°C and reverse transcription for 60 minutes at 42°C. The conditions for PCR amplification were as follows: denaturation for 1 minute at 94°C; annealing for 1 minute at 58°C, and extension for 1 minute at 72°C, 37 cycles; final extension for 10 minutes at 72°C. The resultant product (∼520 bp) was subcloned in pGEM-T vector and sequenced from ...
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ATP 2020 Reopening. We are reopening for another year and this time were bringing you a sick local and international PUNK line up for the fist pumpers out there!. There will be food and delicious new shots and cocktails.. ...
ASC2兔多克隆抗体(ab47092)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人, 沙鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether syncytin-1 has immune regulatory functions and is carried by human placental exosomes. Further, to examine whether corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) can induce the production of syncytin-1. STUDY DESIGN: Human placental exosomes were isolated from placental explant, primary trophoblast and BeWo cell cultures. The presence of exosomes was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. Exosomal protein was probed with 3 separate antibodies targeting syncytin-1. Syncytin-1 immunosuppression was tested, using either a syncytin-1 recombinant ectodomain protein or a synthetic peptide with the human syncytin-1 immunosuppressive domain sequence, in an in vitro human blood culture system immune challenged with LPS or PHA. The inhibition of cytokine production by syncytin-1 was determined by ELISA of TNF-α, IFN-γ and CXCL10. BeWo cells were stimulated with CRH or vehicle for 24 h. mRNA and Protein was extracted from the cells for real-time PCR and ...
Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly
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The retroviral envelope-derived proteins syncytin-1 and syncytin-2 (syn1 and syn2) drive placentation in humans by forming a syncytiotophoblast, a structure
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Abstract: The L-type neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1/SLC7A5) is one of 7 light chains that can form a heteromeric amino acid transporter (HAT) with the type II single pass glycoprotein CD98hc (SLC3A2). LAT1-CD98hc transports essential amino acids and some of their catabolites, such as tryptophan, methionine and kynurenine, across the plasma membranes of normal and cancer cells. It is also a drug transporter, carrying drugs such as gabapentin and L-DOPA across the blood brain barrier. The atypical heterodimeric nature of LAT1-CD98hc and its role in disease and drug delivery, motivate the structural characterisation of the HAT. Sequence analysis revealed two putative cholesterol binding motifs conserved between dDAT and LAT1 as well as 32 putative CRAC/CARC motifs. The crystal structures of various bacterial homologues of LAT1 were used for structure prediction, in order to visualise these putative cholesterol binding motifs and assess their plausibility. Here is presented the first binding ...
Disease: (OMIM: 138500 242600 608331) Defects in SLC36A2 are a cause of hyperglycinuria (HG) [MIM:138500]. It is a condition characterized by excess of glycine in the urine. In some cases it is associated with renal colic and renal oxalate stones; Defects in SLC36A2 are a cause of iminoglycinuria (IG) [MIM:242600]. It is a disorder of renal tubular reabsorption of glycine and imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline), marked by excessive levels of all three substances in the urine. Note=Mutations in SLC36A2 that retain residual transport activity result in the IG phenotype only when combined with haploinsufficiency of the imino acid transporter SLC6A20 or deficiency of the neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19. Additional polymorphisms and mutations in SLC6A18 can contribute to iminoglycinuria in some families ...
Download the 2020 Educational Webinar Registration Form and mail or email to ASCT with payment. You will receive your webinar access information via email from ASCT after payment is received. Using your email address, the ASCT will send you the link to access the webinar. Participants can choose to hear the audio via the phone or over their computer speakers. Each webinar will offer one CE credit as defined by the ASCP CMP.. All Members and Non-Members may purchase ASCT educational webinars online by clicking here.. Individual Webinar Registration ...
Dear partner,. Protecting your personal data rights is an important aspect for Antibiotice S.A. For this reason we inform you that your data will be processed to meet the legal obligations to allow access to certain information only to health professionals. In the absence of the data required by this form, access will be restricted to you.. Your personal data are not transferred to partners or institutions and their deletion will only take place as a result of your request.. We also inform you that you have the following rights with respect to the personal data you provide us:. ...
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I need some help. I have a ASC case where the MD did a cystourethroscopy w/ bilaterial retrograde ureterograms. He also did Litholapaxy with the extra
Lysine Exporters are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins which export amino acids, lipids and heavy metal ions. They provide ionic homeostasis, play a role in cell envelope assembly, and protect from excessive concentrations of heavy metals in cytoplasm. The superfamily was named based on the early discovery of the LysE carrier protein of Corynebacterium glutamicum. 2.A.75 - The L-Lysine Exporter (LysE) Family 2.A.76 - The Resistance to Homoserine/Threonine (RhtB) Family 2.A.77 - The Cadmium Resistance (CadD) Family 2.A.95 - The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family 2.A.106 - The Ca2+:H+ Antiporter-2 (CaCA2) Family 2.A.107 - The Mn2+ exporter (MntP) Family 2.A.108 - The Iron/Lead Transporter (ILT) Family 2.A.109 - The Tellurium Ion Resistance (TerC) Family 2.A.113 - The Nickel/Cobalt Transporter (NicO) Family 2.A.116 - The Peptidoglycolipid Addressing Protein (GAP) Family 5.A.1 - The Disulfide Bond Oxidoreductase D (DsbD) Family Two members of the LysE family (LysE of ...
Rai, K. M. Lokanatha and Umesha, K. B. and Yathirajan, H. S. (1999) Determination of molecular weight of neutral amino acids with chloramine-T. JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 76 (3). pp. 170-171. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
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Praktické cvičenie č. 2 Stafylokokové infekcie. Diagnostika stafylokokových infekcií Diagnostický model: absces - hnis, enterotoxikóza - zvyšky potravín, osteomyelitída - punktát, Mikroskopia, kultivácia, biochemické testy, dôkaz patogenity, citlivosť na ATB. 1 normálna...
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... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 - amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
Family 3.B.1 The Na+-transporting Carboxylic Acid Decarboxylase (NaT-DC) Family 3.C.1 The Na+ Transporting ... L-Asc) Family 4.B.1 The Nicotinamide Ribonucleoside (NR) Uptake Permease (PnuC) Family 4.C.1 The Proposed Fatty Acid ... Family 2.A.78 The Branched Chain Amino Acid Exporter (LIV-E) Family 2.A.79 The Threonine/Serine Exporter (ThrE) Family 2.A.80 ... approved classification system for membrane transport proteins, including ion channels. The upper level of classification and a ...
... and amino acids as feed. Some of the eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (in Omega-3 fatty acids) may be replaced by ... www.asc-aqua.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/ASC-Salmon-Standard_v1.1.pdf: ASC.CS1 maint: location (link) "Salmon Aquaculture ... More advanced systems use a percussive-stun harvest system that kills the fish instantly and humanely with a blow to the head ... Modern harvesting methods are shifting towards using wet-well ships to transport live salmon to the processing plant. This ...
... mainly on the observation that hydrophilic amino acids are overrepresented in epitope regions than hydrophobic amino acids; ... During pregnancy, a particular type of antibody, called IgG, is transported from mother to baby directly through the placenta, ... the adaptor protein ASC, and the effector molecule pro-caspase-1) that form in response to cytosolic PAMPs and DAMPs, whose ... The immune system interacts intimately with other systems, such as the endocrine and the nervous systems. The immune system ...
Organic molecules, such as amino acids, have previously been found in meteorite and comet samples, indicating that some ... Propulsion system: Based on a hydrazine monopropellant system developed for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, carrying 1,230 kg ... "Canada's role in OSIRIS-REx". asc-csa.gc.ca. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2019. Lauretta, Dante (27 November 2013). "How ... and the capsule will land with a parachute at the Utah Test and Training Range in September 2023 before being transported to ...
Sometimes also given as FNA or FAA (Fasta Nucleic Acid or Fasta Amino Acid). FASTQ - The FASTQ format, for sequence data with ... bib - BibTeX enl - EndNote ris - Research Information Systems RIS (file format) FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) - ... WOFF - Web Open Font Format ASC - ASCII point of interest (POI) text file APR - ESRI ArcView 3.3 and earlier project file DEM ... file system. Examples of operating systems that do not impose this limit include Unix-like systems, and Microsoft Windows NT, ...
... amino acid decarboxylase (i) aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (i) Australian Antarctic Data Centre AAFC (i) U.S. Army Air ... Automatic Landing System ALSHS - (a) Abraham Low Self-Help Systems ALSP - (i) Aggregate Level Simulation Protocol ALTE - (a) ... Air Transport Command (1942-1948) Athletic Trainer, Certified (www.nata.org) ATCCIS - (i) Army Tactical Command and Control ... American Standard Code for Information Interchange ASC+T - (i) Anti Slip Control + Traction ASD (i) (U.S.) Assistant Secretary ...
i) amino acid decarboxylase. *(i) aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. *(i) Australian Antarctic Data Centre ... i) Advanced Photo System (cf. APS-C, an image sensor format based on the size of the original APS film frame) ... ASC+T - (i) Anti Slip Control + Traction. *ASD *(i) (U.S.) Assistant Secretary of Defense ... AEI-T - (i) Army Enterprise Infostructure-Transport. *aeq. - (p) aequalis (Latin, "equal") ...
Benison, K; Bowen, B (2006). "Acid saline lake systems give clues about past environments and the search for life on Mars". ... Bada, J.; Glavin, DP; McDonald, GD; Becker, L (1998). "A Search for Endogenous Amino Acids in Martian Meteorite AL84001". ... "CSA - News Release". Asc-csa.gc.ca. July 2, 2009. Archived from the original on July 5, 2011. "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: ... Their shape and orientation suggests long-distance transport from above the rim of the crater, where a channel named Peace ...
The data underscore that ASCT1 is essential in brain serine transport. The SLC1A4 p.E256K mutation has a carrier frequency of ... Amino Acid Transport System ASC / genetics* * Biological Transport / genetics * Child * Child, Preschool ... Although a non-essential amino acid, L-serine must be synthesised within the brain because of its poor permeability by the ... and its shuttle to neuronal cells is performed by a dedicated neutral amino acid transporter, ASCT1. ...
Amino Acid Transport System ASC / biosynthesis* * Blotting, Western * Endogenous Retroviruses * Female * Gene Products, env / ...
0 (Amino Acid Transport System ASC); 0 (Minor Histocompatibility Antigens); 0 (Protein Kinase Inhibitors); 0 (SLC1A5 protein, ... 0 (Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists); 0 (Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists); 0 (Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate); 0 ( ... Sistema ASC de Transporte de Amino cidos/metabolismo. Animais. Linhagem Celular Tumoral. Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacol ... cycle intermediates and glutamine-derived non-essential amino acids. This reduces the building blocks required for rapid growth ...
... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Three principal transport systems account for much of the amino acid uptake by mammalian cells (1, 2). System ASC ... Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... System L recognizes branched chain and aromatic amino acids (6). Like System ASC, System L catalyzes exchange rather than net ...
... via the amino acid transport system B0+, LAT2, and ASC. 18F-FEHTP and 18F-FPTP were not decarboxylated by aromatic l-amino acid ... Among several amino acid transporters, system L, a Na+-independent amino acid transport system, is a major route for providing ... Large neutral amino acids are uptaken by system L amino acid transporters (LAT), whose subtype LAT1 is reported to be ... H. Uchino, Y. Kanai, D. K. Kim et al., "Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 ( ...
Serine is a small, neutral amino acid and, as such, can be transported by one of three systems. Two of the systems are sodium ... The third is a family of neutral amino acid antiporters, the alanine/serine/cysteine transporter (ASC) system (El-Hattab, 2016 ... suggesting that active serine synthesis might be required to facilitate amino acid transport, nucleotide synthesis, folate ... In Amino Acid Metabolism. W.D. McElroy, and B. Glass, editors. Johns Hopkins, Baltimore. 782-796. ...
... and the ASC, or alanine-serine system. Each system preferentially transports certain neutral amino acids, but there is ... transporting the L-amino acids more rapidly than the D-amino acids. Recent evidence also indicates that placental amino acid ... the active transport of amino acids is mediated by several pathways that are specific for several groups of amino acids. Three ... The fetal uptake of amino acids may depend to some extent on this concentrating capacity of the placenta. Uptake of amino acids ...
Since amino acid transporters may be inducers of signaling cascades, we characterized the Thr transport systems in mES cells. ... Such findings are consistent with characteristics of the ASC transport system, suggesting that this ASC system is responsible ... Since amino acid transporters may be inducers of signaling cascades, we characterized the Thr transport systems in mES cells. ... We also found that of 20 amino acids tested, the amino acids that were the strongest inhibitors of the Na+-dependent component ...
HATs represent several of the classic mammalian amino acid transport systems (e.g., L isoforms, y(+)L isoforms, asc, x(c)(-), ... In addition to the role in amino acid transport, one HSHAT [the heavy subunit of the cell-surface antigen 4F2 (also named CD98 ... The heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are composed of two polypeptides: a heavy subunit (HSHAT) and a light subunit ( ... HATs represent several of the classic mammalian amino acid transport systems (e.g., L isoforms, y(+)L isoforms, asc… CONTINUE ...
... since the three neutral amino acid-transport systems, A, ASC and L, were involved in these experiments. This influence was ... cycloleucine on the amino acid uptake was not specific either to the amino acid concerned or to a particular transport system, ... cell uptake was heterogeneous for each amino acid. L-Alanine and L-leucine entered by two transport systems with different ... Evidence that cycloleucine affects the high-affinity systems of amino acid uptake in cultured human fibroblasts M Feneant; M ...
We also differentiated the roles of 2 subtypes of amino acid transport systems (ASC: ASCT1 and ASCT2) (26) in the uptake of 18F ... suggesting that system A amino acid transport was not involved in the uptake of this new tracer. System L inhibitor BCH, system ... ASC, L, and N, which are major amino acid transport systems in mammalian cells and are potentially responsible for uptake of ... Structure, function, and tissue expression pattern of human sn2, a subtype of the amino acid transport system n. Biochem ...
Lim SK, Cynober L, De Bandt JP, Aussel C (1999) A Na+-dependent system A and ASC-independent amino acid transport system ... Glucagon has been shown to stimulate amino acid transporters, both the system A and system N transport pathways, which account ... Gebhardt R, Kleemann E (1987) Hormonal regulation of amino acid transport system N in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Eur ... Given the known role of amino acids in triggering the secretion of glucagon from the alpha cell, the elevated amino acids ...
The LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs, however, could not be characterized precisely by available in vitro and ... The LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs, however, could not be characterized precisely by available in vitro and ... allowing us to evaluate hypotheses concerning LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs across the blood brain barrier ... allowing us to evaluate hypotheses concerning LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs across the blood brain barrier ...
ASC) system, a ubiquitous system of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transport, in a variety of cells. NAC is a membrane- ... Mineral amino acid chelates, including derivative amino acid chelates, are often absorbed intact by amino acid absorption ... Mineral amino acid chelates, including derivative amino acid chelates, usually do not dissociate into free mineral ions in the ... Natural amino acid chelates bind to metallic and inorganic minerals, including calcium, phosphate, and potassium. Amino acid ...
Amino Acid Transport System ASC / chemistry Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Amino Acid Transport Defects in Human Inherited Metabolic Disorders. Yahyaoui R, Pérez-Frías J. Yahyaoui R, et al. Int J Mol ... manifested pathogenic variants in the SLC1A4 gene which codes the ASCT1 transporter of serine and other neutral amino acids. ... The role of SLC1A4 in the serine transport from astrocytes to neurons suggests a possible pathomechanism for this disease and ...
Amino Acid Transport System ASC/metabolism. *Animals. *Autophagy*. *Cell Line, Tumor. *Drosophila melanogaster ... G) S2 or S2-R Drosophila cells starved of serum and amino acids were then treated with amino acids in the presence or absence ... Bidirectional transport of amino acids regulates mTOR and autophagy.. Nicklin P1, Bergman P, Zhang B, Triantafellow E, Wang H, ... RNAi-Mediated Downregulation of SLC1A5, SLC3A2, or SLC7A5 Inhibits Amino Acid Transport and mTOR Pathway Activity. (A) HeLa ...
Amino Acid Transport System ASC アミノ酸輸送系ASC Amino Acid Transport Systems アミノ酸トランスポーター ... solute carrier family 1 (glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter), member 4. Disease : Chemicals : Biological Phenomena : ... Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3 興奮性アミノ酸トランスポーター3 ... Amino Acid Transport System X-AG グルタミン酸トランスポータ
Amino Acid Transport System ASC 8 Scopus citations p-Hydroxybenzoate Hydroxylase and Melilotate Hydroxylase. Husain, M., ... Renal tubular transport of organic acids. Studies with oxalate and para-aminohippurate in the rat.. Weinman, E. J., Frankfurt, ... Phospholipid effects on the rat lens transport systems. Kador, P. F. & Kinoshita, J. H., Jun 1978, In : Experimental Eye ... Carbonyl and Conjugate Addition Reactions of Silicon Phosphite Esters and Related Systems. Evans, D. A., Hurst, K. M. & Takacs ...
Amino Acid Transport System ASC / genetics* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Association study of polymorphisms in the excitatory amino acid transporter 2 gene (SLC1A2) with schizophrenia. Deng X, Shibata ... Association study of polymorphisms in the neutral amino acid transporter genes SLC1A4, SLC1A5 and the glycine transporter genes ... Association study of polymorphisms in the neutral amino acid transporter genes SLC1A4, SLC1A5 and the glycine transporter genes ...
Amino Acid Transport System y+/antagonists & inhibitors. *Amino Acid Transport System y+/metabolism* ... Lu blocks the activity of Asc-1 completely (c). Glycine can still be recaptured by GlyT2 and the transport of serine by other ... Using both the Asc-1 substrate and transportable inhibitor D-isoleucine (D-Ile), and the non-transportable Asc-1 blocker Lu ... Schematic illustration representing the effect of Asc-1 inhibitors on glycinergic transmission. Asc-1 acts as a shuttle for ...
Amino Acid Transport System ASC アミノ酸輸送系ASC Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta 甲状腺ホルモン受容体ベータ
Amino Acid Transport System y+ -- metabolism -- physiology. Cell Cycle -- physiology. Cells, Cultured. ... ASC-1 Is a Cell Cycle Regulator Associated with Severe and Mild Forms of Myopathy.. ... ASC-1 Is a Cell Cycle Regulator Associated with Severe and Mild Forms of Myopathy. ...
... resulted in ATF4-dependent upregulation of several amino acid transporters, including SLC1A5 and its truncated isoforms, which ... Activating Transcription Factor 4, Amino Acid Transport System ASC, Amino Acid Transport Systems, Cell Line, Tumor, Cellular ... Nutritional Stress Induced by Tryptophan-Degrading Enzymes Results in ATF4-Dependent Reprogramming of the Amino Acid ... Nutritional Stress Induced by Tryptophan-Degrading Enzymes Results in ATF4-Dependent Reprogramming of the Amino Acid ...
Transport in exchange with the internal amino acid was calculated by subtracting transport in the absence of amino acid in the ... system asc (Fukasawa et al., 2000; Nakauchi et al., 2000), (iii) with y+LAT‐1 or y+LAT‐2, variants of system y+L (Torrents et ... System bo,+ is an exchanger for the influx of cystine and dibasic amino acids and the efflux of neutral amino acids (for a ... In order to characterize further the amino acid transport activity of the reconstituted bo,+AT, several amino acids were ...
amino acid transport system asc*flowering tops*nematospiroides dubius*neoplasm genes. Genomes and Genes. *PEBP1 products*Pebp1 ... You are here: Research Topics , and proteins peptides amino acids , peptides , intracellular signaling peptides and proteins , ... Our results therefore suggest that the RKIP conserved pocket may constitute a novel phosphoamino-acid binding motif and is ... the central nervous system and reproduction. Cell Signal. 2008;20:1-9 pubmed ...
Amino Acid Transport System A. *Amino Acid Transport System ASC. *Amino Acid Transport System L ... "Amino Acid Transport System L" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Amino Acid Transport System L" was ... A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the ... "Amino Acid Transport System L" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ...
... thus allowing rigid body movement of the transport domain throughout the transport cycle. Furthermore, the structures provide ... inward-facing structure of SCL1A5 provides a basis for a more integrated understanding of substrate recognition and transport ... The SLC1A5 function involves finely tuned orchestration of two domain movements that include the substrate-binding transport ... Humans, Glutamine, Amino Acid Transport System ASC, Minor Histocompatibility Antigens, Cryoelectron Microscopy, Protein ...
Enhanced activity of transport system asc following mitogenic stimulation. Upon reduction, peptides of approximately 85 kDa ... The influence of amino acids on mitotic activity in fibroblast cultures. Unnecessary angiography could be reduced by using non- ... This phenomenon has been well investigated in raciper l cap several neural systems including the somatosensory system, but not ... The disposition of acid administered to sodium-depleted subjects: the renal response and the role of the whole body buffers. ...
All neutral amino-acids are transported through the abluminal membrane by the L, A and ASC systems. ... This clustering reflects the substrate amino acids predicted to be recognized by each of the respective modules based on ... but the concentrations of amino acids and sugars decreased significantly at the end of the heating period. ... The current system includes abstract problem solving methods and a frame-based knowledge representation of body parts, ...
ASC, L, N, T, xc-, and y+. UsingGO annotations, genes involved in amino acid transport and amino acidtransmembrane transporter ... pathwayand the amino acid responsive (AAR) pathway. It is vital for cells tohave a system to sense amino acid levels, in order ... Amino acids are known to play a key role in gene expression regulation,and in mammalian cells, amino acid signaling is mainly ... Amino acid transporters are crucialin these pathways, due to both their sensing and transport functions. Inthis large-scale ...
  • Large neutral amino acids are uptaken by system L amino acid transporters (LAT), whose subtype LAT1 is reported to be upregulated in most cancerous tissues at both primary and metastatic sites [ 11 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Since amino acid transporters may be inducers of signaling cascades, we characterized the Thr transport systems in mES cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • We confirmed expression of mRNA encoding the ASC system transporters, ASCT1 and ASCT2, in mES cells using RT-PCR. (frontiersin.org)
  • PDF] Heteromeric amino acid transporters: biochemistry, genetics, and physiology. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are composed of two polypeptides: a heavy subunit (HSHAT) and a light subunit (LSHAT) linked by a disulfide bridge. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cell surface transporters that allow amino acids to enter the cell and signal to mTOR are unknown. (nih.gov)
  • We report here association studies of schizophrenia with SLC1A4, SLC1A5 encoding neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1, ASCT2, and SLC6A5, SLC6A9 encoding glycine transporters GLYT2, GLYT1, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • The heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of a type II glycoprotein and a non‐glycosylated polytopic membrane protein. (embopress.org)
  • Amino acid transporters are crucialin these pathways, due to both their sensing and transport functions. (diva-portal.org)
  • We focused on genes encoding solute carriers(SLCs) and putative SLCs, more specifically on amino acid transporters.The microarray contained 28 270 genes and 86.2% of the genes wereexpressed in the cell line. (diva-portal.org)
  • Of these, 15 were genesencoding amino acid transporters and 32 were genes encoding other SLCsor atypical SLCs. (diva-portal.org)
  • Two other transporters mediate the uptake of amino acids from the blood into the cell for providing cellular nutrition. (city-star.org)
  • The transporters facilitating the uptake of amino acids from the blood are likely Na+-dependent co transporters (A and ASC transport systems). (city-star.org)
  • The cDNA encodes a 551-amino acid protein which exhibits similarities of between 75 and 85% with ASCT/B 0 transporters previously cloned from other sources. (biochemj.org)
  • Transporters involved in amino acid absorption in the human small intestine. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Expression of amino acid transporters along the mouse intestine. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • B 0 AT1, b 0,+ AT, y + LAT1, LAT2, rBAT, SIT1, and PAT1 show the typical signature for transporters primarily involved in amino acid absorption (high in the small intestine, low in colon). (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Known amino acid transporters belong to four different classes and three different structural folds. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • The APC (amino acid, polyamine, organo‐cation) family of transporters have a structure that is also closely related to LeuT, but do not translocate Na + ‐ions. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Astrocytic excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are responsible for the uptake of a large fraction of glutamate at the synapse. (fgfrinhibitors.com)
  • The expression of these amino acid transporters has been shown to be high in cancer cells and the significance of ASCT2 and LAT1 for malignant progression deserved aptly a connotation of "partners in crime" in a seminal review [ 5 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • Structure-function relationships of heterodimeric amino acid transporters. (springer.com)
  • Low temperature bacterial expression of the neutral amino acid transporters SLC1A5 (ASCT2), and SLC6A19 (B0AT1). (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this study was finding the appropriate conditions for the expression of reluctant proteins that is the human neutral amino acid transporters ASCT2 and B0AT1, that have great relevance to human health in cancer therapy and in COVID-19 research , respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Even though in different conditions, the expression of both amino acid transporters was obtained.Reducing the growth rate of specific E. coli strains by lowering the temperature and the IPTG concentration, together with the addition of glucose , two reluctant human neutral amino acid transporters have been expressed in E. coli. (bvsalud.org)
  • Among the five subtypes of Glu transporters identified, glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and Glu transporter-1 (GLT-1) [excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1 and 2 in humans, respectively], are predominantly expressed in astrocytes. (aopwiki.org)
  • Extracellular Gln is taken up into GABAergic and Glu-ergic neurons by the unidirectional System A transporters SNAT1 (Melone et al. (aopwiki.org)
  • Research is focused on the role of these transporters and their potential for interaction with drug metabolism systems, thus enabling predictive in vitro methods for assessing oral bioavailability. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • The present studies were performed to identify the transport routes and the respective Gln transporters contributing to the impairment. (elsevier.com)
  • Hence, Mn-induced decrease of inward and outward Gln transport can be largely ascribed to the loss of the specific Gln transporters. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover additional channels/transporters have been identified as Mn-transporting carriers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glutamate transporters move glutamate from the extracellular space into the cell against its own transmembrane concentration gradient by coupling uphill glutamate transport to the downhill movement of Na + and K + ions across the membrane ( Kanai and Hediger, 1992 ). (rupress.org)
  • Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na + -dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • Three principal transport systems account for much of the amino acid uptake by mammalian cells ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although Na + -dependent, System ASC appears to mediate amino acid exchange rather than net uptake ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • System A catalyzes the Na + -dependent net uptake of many neutral amino acids, in particular alanine, serine, and glutamine ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • System A and other more specialized transport systems may thus provide the concentrations of cytoplasmic amino acids necessary to drive the uptake of other amino acids by exchange through Systems ASC and L. System A also exhibits several unusual properties, including the recognition of N -methylated amino acids, tolerance of Li + substitution for Na + , and sensitivity to inhibition by low extracellular pH ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have recently identified another member of this family as responsible for classical amino acid transport System N. Unlike the virtually ubiquitous Systems A, ASC, and L, System N appears more tissue-specific and mediates the uptake specifically of glutamine, histidine, and asparagine ( 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • Kinetic data obtained by computer analysis showed that, in the absence of cycloleucine, cell uptake was heterogeneous for each amino acid. (portlandpress.com)
  • The influence of cycloleucine on the amino acid uptake was not specific either to the amino acid concerned or to a particular transport system, since the three neutral amino acid-transport systems, A, ASC and L, were involved in these experiments. (portlandpress.com)
  • We show that cellular uptake of L-glutamine and its subsequent rapid efflux in the presence of essential amino acids (EAA) is the rate-limiting step that activates mTOR. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate the expression of alanine-serine-cysteine-transporter 2 (ASCT2) and L-type amino acid transporter1 (LAT1) in prostate cancer (PCa) and their impact on uptake of 18 F-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid ( 18 F-fluciclovine) which is approved for the detection of recurrent PCa. (springeropen.com)
  • Freshly excised rabbit corneas were used for transport studies and SIRC (a rabbit corneal cell line) cells for uptake studies. (arvojournals.org)
  • Transport and uptake characteristics of [ 3 H]- l -phenylalanine were determined at various concentrations and pH. (arvojournals.org)
  • Inhibition studies were conducted in the presence of other l - and d -amino acids and metabolic inhibitors, such as ouabain and sodium azide, and in the absence of sodium to delineate the mechanism of uptake and transport. (arvojournals.org)
  • Injection of RNA transcribed from this cDNA into Xenopus oocytes resulted in expression of a transport activity with the properties of the neutral amino acid uptake system ASC. (umt.edu)
  • Uptake of PGB was mutually exclusive with leucine, GBP and 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, the substrates preferential for system L. The preloaded PGB in CHO cells was exchangeable with leucine, but at a lower exchange rate than that of leucine and GBP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that L-type transport is the major transport route for PGB and GBP uptake in mammalian cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Without comprehensive kinetic analysis, it is often difficult to specify a transport system responsible for uptake of an unknown substrate ( Christensen, 1990 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • whereas the transport carriers for PGB uptake have not been well characterized. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The early conclusion on system L-mediated PGB transport in the rat ileum was also complicated by lack of mutual inhibition between GBP and PGB in intestine and lack of carrier-mediated uptake of GBP and PGB in Caco-2 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A reduced activity of LAT1 remains the primary hypothesis possibly due to a modification of intracellular amino acid content which may reduce F-FDOPA uptake. (bireme.br)
  • A selective inhibitor of LAT, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), suppressed cellular uptake of l- C-leucine and cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. (bireme.br)
  • Inhibition studies with different synthetic and natural amino acids showed a broad spectrum affinity to neutral amino acids regardless of their different side chains including branched or aromatic, indicating that the $Na^+$ -dependent cycloleucine uptake in OK cells is mediated by System $B^o$ or System $B^o$ -like transporter rather than the classical System A or ASC. (ndsl.kr)
  • Rat neonatal cortical primary astrocytes treated with Mn displayed a significant decrease in Gln uptake mediated by the principle Gln transporting systems, N and ASC. (elsevier.com)
  • A number of cells uptake cystine using an antiporter called System xc-, a transporter that allows the movement of two substances simultaneously in opposite directions. (regenative.com)
  • The uptake and accumulation of methionine and other amino acids in the cestode H. diminuta is studied with respect to the influence of pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and ammonium ion. (rice.edu)
  • Two main systems of lactose uptake and metabolism have been described for LAB. (asm.org)
  • One of the main differences between these two systems is the phosphorylation state of lactose upon uptake. (asm.org)
  • Although a non-essential amino acid, L-serine must be synthesised within the brain because of its poor permeability by the blood-brain barrier. (nih.gov)
  • When expressed in a heterologous system, the mutations did not affect the protein level at the plasma membrane but abolished or markedly reduced L-serine transport for p.R457W and p.E256K mutations, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • The data underscore that ASCT1 is essential in brain serine transport. (nih.gov)
  • System ASC preferentially transports alanine, serine, and cysteine but also recognizes other aliphatic amino acids ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies cast new light on the role of serine metabolism in cancer, suggesting that active serine synthesis might be required to facilitate amino acid transport, nucleotide synthesis, folate metabolism, and redox homeostasis in a manner that impacts cancer. (rupress.org)
  • The importance of serine metabolism in multiple cancers is increasingly apparent, and how the metabolism of this amino acid influences cancer phenotypes is an area of active investigation. (rupress.org)
  • Serine is a precursor of the nonessential amino acids glycine and cysteine. (rupress.org)
  • However, crossing the data of the patients illustrated that they both manifested pathogenic variants in the SLC1A4 gene which codes the ASCT1 transporter of serine and other neutral amino acids. (cdc.gov)
  • A neuronal role of the Alanine-Serine-Cysteine-1 transporter (SLC7A10, Asc-1) for glycine inhibitory transmission and respiratory pattern. (nih.gov)
  • The Alanine-Serine-Cysteine-1 transporter (SLC7A10, Asc-1) has been shown to play a role in synaptic availability of glycine although the exact mechanism remains unclear. (nih.gov)
  • D-Serine metabolism in C6 glioma cells: Involvement of alanine-serine-cysteine transporter (ASCT2) and serine racemase (SRR) but not D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). (ox.ac.uk)
  • It is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SRR), but many aspects of its metabolism remain unclear, especially in the forebrain, which lacks active D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), the major D-serine degradative enzyme. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Candidate mechanisms include SRR operating in alpha,beta-eliminase mode (converting D-serine to pyruvate) and regulation by serine transport, in which the alanine-serine-cysteine transporter ASCT2 is implicated. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our data suggest that D-serine transport mediated by ASCT2 contributes prominently to D-serine homeostasis when DAO activity is absent. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 18 F-fluciclovine is a synthetic L-leucine analog mainly transported to cells by two systems, including sodium-dependent alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 2 (ASCT2) for system ASC and sodium-independent L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) for system L. [ 4 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • Insulin-activated amino acid (serine, alanine, glutamate and others):Na + symporter. (tcdb.org)
  • We now report that the alanine-serine-cysteine transporter-1 (Asc-1) mediates release of both d -serine and glycine from neurons, and, in turn, this modulates NMDAR synaptic activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Asc-1 antiporter activity is enhanced by d -isoleucine ( d -Ile), which releases d -serine and glycine from Asc-1-transfected cells, primary neuronal cultures, and hippocampal slices. (jneurosci.org)
  • We show that d -Ile enhances the long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat and mouse hippocampal CA1 by stimulating Asc-1-mediated endogenous d -serine release. (jneurosci.org)
  • Altogether, our results disclose a novel role of Asc-1 in regulating NMDAR-dependent synaptic activity by mediating concurrent non-vesicular release of d -serine and glycine. (jneurosci.org)
  • Transports L-alanine (K m = 20 μM), D-alanine (K m = 38 μM), L-serine, D-serine (K m = 356 μM) and glycine ( Noens and Lolkema 2015 ). (tcdb.org)
  • L-serine is the highest affinity substrate (K m = 18 μM), but SerP1 also transports L-threonine and L-cysteine (K m values = 20 - 40 μM). (tcdb.org)
  • Does not transport D-serine ( Noens and Lolkema 2015 ). (tcdb.org)
  • D-serine is primarily transported by Asc-1, and glycine by GlyT1 but maybe also by SNAT2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Lowered Asc-1 in schizophrenia implies that D-serine reuptake is reduced, perhaps as a response to decreased synaptic D-serine availability. (ox.ac.uk)
  • D-serine is a stereo-isomer of the common amino acid, L-serine. (hmdb.ca)
  • D-serine was the second D amino acid discovered to naturally exist in humans. (hmdb.ca)
  • D-serine is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SRR), and it is degraded by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). (hmdb.ca)
  • Serine and derivatives are compounds containing serine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of serine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom. (hmdb.ca)
  • MIM 158070) mediates high-affinity transport of D-serine and several other neutral amino acids (Nakauchi et al. (bio-rad.com)
  • Although molecular cloning has recently identified the proteins that mediate Systems ASC and L ( 13 - 17 ), System A has eluded biochemical purification, genetic approaches, and expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes ( 10 , 18 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that belongs to a family of mammalian proteins originally defined by a neurotransmitter transporter. (pnas.org)
  • This includes nucleotides for genome replication and ribosomal RNA, lipids for membranes, amino acids for proteins, and other cellular building blocks. (rupress.org)
  • Solute carriers (SLCs) are membrane-bound transporter proteins, important for nutrient, ion, drug and metabolite transport across membranes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Bernstein Prof. Is defined by Laplaces law B. Because of this conformational sensitivity, CD is one of the most widely used techniques for characterizing the conformations of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, and for monitoring conformational transitions induced by temperature, solvent composition, ligand binding, etc. so I cant even do that. (exclusivebinaryoptions.com)
  • A processing activity referred to as processing peptidase that cleaves the precursor to subunit 9 and other mitochondrial proteins is described and characterized using a cell-free system. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Mn transport within the CNS is mediated by several transporter proteins as a free ion or a non-specific protein-bound species [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LPS, lipoteichoic acid, and peptidoglycan), specialized bacterial proteins (i.e., flagellin), as well as nucleic acid structures unique to bacteria and viruses (i.e. (jimmunol.org)
  • The general domain structure of these proteins include an amino-terminal effector binding region that consists of protein-protein interaction domains such as caspase recruitment domains (CARD), pyrin, or baculovirus inhibitor repeat domains, a central Nod that acts to oligomerize these proteins, and carboxyl-terminal LRRs that are required to detect specific PAMPs and is involved in autoregulation of NLR activity ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In activated macrophages, however, the ability of Francisella to escape the phagosome and replicate in the cytosol correlates with the activation of the inflammasome, which contains the host proteins ASC and caspase-1. (pnas.org)
  • Acid adaptation in S. mutans requires de novo protein synthesis ( 37 ) of up to 36 acid-regulated proteins ( 19 ) presumably encoded by acid-inducible genes. (asm.org)
  • Aside from the general features of the cellular response to acid pH, relatively little is known about the function of the numerous proteins encoded by the pH-inducible genes that constitute the S. mutans ATR. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of the proteins encoded on LPP-1 also showed that these plasmids contribute to a wide range of Pantoea phenotypes, including the transport and catabolism of various substrates, inorganic ion assimilation, resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals, colonization and persistence in the host and environment, pathogenesis and antibiosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This newly characterized transporter possesses a number of amino acid sequence differences from ASCT2 clones recently isolated from rat astroglial cells and from normal rat liver. (biochemj.org)
  • furthermore, there are some 25 single amino acid substitutions elsewhere in the H4-ASCT2 sequence compared with that from rat liver. (biochemj.org)
  • In addition to System N, release of Gln from astrocytes is mediated by other transport systems, including Systems L (LAT2) and ASC (ASCT2). (aopwiki.org)
  • Mn treatment caused a significant reduction of both in mRNA expression and protein levels of SNAT3 (system N), SNAT2 (system A) and LAT2 (system L), and lowered the protein but not mRNA expression of ASCT2 (system ASC). (elsevier.com)
  • Analogous Complexes to the Intermediates in the Transport of Cu(II) from Cu(H_2L) to Cysteine, 100 J INORG. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5 6 7 8 Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is inherently unstable in free solution. (arvojournals.org)
  • Glutathione is made up of three building blocks called amino acids which are cysteine, glutamate (which forms glutamic acid) and glycine. (regenative.com)
  • However, glycine and cysteine can be conditionally essential amino acids. (regenative.com)
  • In order to maintain sufficient levels of glutathione, a high amount of cysteine is required due to it being the rate limiting amino acid in the production of glutathione. (regenative.com)
  • This means cystine is a more stable molecule than cysteine as the disulphide bond strengthens the overall structure of the amino acid. (regenative.com)
  • Cysteine, on the other hand, is a single non-essential amino acid which the body can create using the essential amino acid methionine as a precursor. (regenative.com)
  • By acting as a delivery system of cysteine, it is not utilized by cells in the GI tract upon digestion or catabolized in the blood. (regenative.com)
  • Once cystine is present in the cell it is then reduced back to cysteine, resulting in two cysteine amino acids per each cystine molecule. (regenative.com)
  • A cDNA was isolated from human brain that encodes an amino acid sequence 34-39% identical to previously published glutamate transporter sequences. (umt.edu)
  • Glutamate (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), where it plays major roles in multiple aspects, such as development, learning, memory and response to injury (Featherstone, 2010). (aopwiki.org)
  • Mice lacking the neuronal NOS (nNOS) isoform have a phenotype that could be explained by decreased availability of glutamate, an amino acid that is also an excitatory neurotransmitter. (sciencemag.org)
  • Glutamate is derived from and can be converted to glutamine, and oxidation of glutamate feeds into the energy-providing TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle. (sciencemag.org)
  • Disruption of the glutamine (Gln)/glutamate (Glu) -γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) cycle (GGC) between astrocytes and neurons contributes to changes in Glu-ergic and/or GABA-ergic transmission, and is associated with several neuropathological conditions, including manganese (Mn) toxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to import one cystine molecule into the cell, another amino acid (glutamate) is exported out of the cell. (regenative.com)
  • The neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1 contains several conserved acidic amino acids in its transmembrane domain, which are possibly important in catalyzing transport and/or binding of co/countertransported cations. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we have studied the effects of neutralization by site-directed mutagenesis of three of these amino acid side chains, glutamate 373, aspartate 439, and aspartate 454, on the functional properties of the transporter. (rupress.org)
  • Neutralization mutations in positions 373 and 454, although eliminating steady-state glutamate transport, have little effect on the kinetics and thermodynamics of Na + and glutamate binding, suggesting that these two positions do not constitute the sites of Na + and glutamate association with EAAC1. (rupress.org)
  • According to this stoichiometry, glutamate transport is electrogenic and generates current by moving a total of two positive charges to the intracellular side for each transported glutamate ion. (rupress.org)
  • Within the brain, its synthesis is confined to astrocytes, and its shuttle to neuronal cells is performed by a dedicated neutral amino acid transporter, ASCT1. (nih.gov)
  • The third and most recently discovered is the neutral amino acid transport system ASCT1 (ASC for Ala- Ser- and Cys-preferring), which was character- ized in intact rabbit cornea and epithelial cell culture (96). (exclusivebinaryoptions.com)
  • Northern blot analyses revealed ubiquitous expression of this gene, termed ASCT1, consistent with the general metabolic role ascribed to system ASC. (umt.edu)
  • Instead of solely serving as a source of cellular energy, adenosine triphosphate, the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is diverted to make metabolic intermediates for fatty acid and amino acid synthesis needed for tumor growth and survival. (snmjournals.org)
  • Synthesis of syn- and anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluoromethyl-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FMACBC), potential PET ligands for tumor detection. (harvard.edu)
  • It is vital for cells tohave a system to sense amino acid levels, in order to control protein andamino acid synthesis and catabolism. (diva-portal.org)
  • Disruption of normal rates of amino acid transport into the fetus and, thus, abnormal fetal plasma amino acid concentrations could limit fetal protein synthesis and/or lead to abnormal amino acid metabolism, even to the point of producing metabolic acidosis. (physiology.org)
  • Furthermore, prolonged maternal amino acid infusion increased net transport of leucine to the fetus, fetal leucine concentrations, and fetal leucine oxidation rates, indicating that the fetus uses excess amino acids for oxidative metabolism, rather than protein synthesis and accretion ( 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • The amino acid tyrosine is the precursor for synthesis of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine, while tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ceramide down-regulates System A amino acid transport and protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These preliminary studies hypothesized how glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids are transported from maternal blood to the porcine mammary gland for milk synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and 3) fatty acid synthesis in the porcine mammary gland. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we summarized the recent research progress in porcine mammary gland function in this review, especially macronutrient (lactose, protein and fatty acids) transfer and synthesis mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Radiolabeled amino acid is an alternative in characterizing tumors because of low accumulation in normal tissue, rather high accumulation in tumor tissue, and rapid blood clearance. (hindawi.com)
  • Nutritional Stress Induced by Tryptophan-Degrading Enzymes Results in ATF4-Dependent Reprogramming of the Amino Acid Transporter Profile in Tumor Cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Genetic disruption of the multifunctional CD98/LAT1 complex demonstrates the key role of essential amino acid transport in the control of mTORC1 and tumor growth. (springer.com)
  • The LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs, however, could not be characterized precisely by available in vitro and in vivo standard methods so far. (frontiersin.org)
  • To circumvent these limitations, we have incorporated published in vivo data of rat brain into a robust computational model of NVU-LNAA homeostasis, allowing us to evaluate hypotheses concerning LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs across the blood brain barrier (BBB). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our findings suggest that LAT1 is moderately associated with the transport of 18 F-fluciclovine in local PCa not exposed to hormonal therapy. (springeropen.com)
  • The objective of this research was to investigate the presence of an Na + -independent, large neutral amino acid transporter, LAT1, on rabbit corneal epithelium and human cornea. (arvojournals.org)
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1) was performed on total RNA from rabbit cornea, SIRC cells, and human cornea. (arvojournals.org)
  • A Na + -independent, facilitative transport system, LAT1, was identified and functionally characterized on rabbit cornea. (arvojournals.org)
  • System l amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is highly expressed in various types of human cancer, and contributes to cancer growth and survival. (bireme.br)
  • Mn exposure did not affect the expression of the less abundant systems N transporter SNAT5 and the system L transporter LAT1, at either the mRNA or protein level. (elsevier.com)
  • Lysine deficiency and feed restriction independently alter cationic amino acid transporter expression in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Glucagon is secreted by the pancreatic alpha cell in response to changes in the local concentration of glucose, amino acids or insulin. (springer.com)
  • Amino acid-stimulated increases in fetal glucagon, cortisol, and NE may contribute to a shift in substrate oxidation by the fetus from glucose to amino acids. (physiology.org)
  • In this Review we propose that an understanding of the changes to the intestinal immune system, and how these changes influence systemic immunity and glucose metabolism in a whole-body integrative and a neuronal-dependent network, will unveil novel intestinal pathologic and therapeutic targets for diabetes and obesity. (jci.org)
  • The importance of the circulatory system to the human brain is highlighted by the fact that although the brain comprises ~2% of total body mass, it receives up to 20% of cardiac output and is responsible for ~20% and ~25% of the body's oxygen consumption and glucose consumption, respectively 1 . (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • We found that there is a Na + -dependent and a Na + -independent component of substrate-saturable transport, with the Na + -dependent component predominating. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using both the Asc-1 substrate and transportable inhibitor D-isoleucine (D-Ile), and the non-transportable Asc-1 blocker Lu AE00527 (Lu), we found that D-Ile reduces glycinergic transmission and increases glycine release via hetero-exchange, whereas Lu has no acute effect on glycinergic synaptic transmission. (nih.gov)
  • The SLC1A5 function involves finely tuned orchestration of two domain movements that include the substrate-binding transport domain and the scaffold domain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Comparison with the previously determined inward-facing structure of SCL1A5 provides a basis for a more integrated understanding of substrate recognition and transport mechanism in the SLC1 family. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This clustering reflects the substrate amino acids predicted to be recognized by each of the respective modules based on placement of the syringopeptin NRPS (nonribosomal peptide synthetase) system in the linear (type A) group. (pianolarge.ga)
  • Amino acids are taken up by different transport systems with overlapping substrate specificity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Transport was analyzed by whole-cell current recording from EAAC1-expressing mammalian cells after applying jumps in voltage, substrate, or cation concentration. (rupress.org)
  • We propose that the bound substrate controls the rate and the extent of Na + interaction with the transporter, depending on the amino acid side chain in position 439. (rupress.org)
  • Taken together, different classes of NVU-AATs constitute an integrated dynamic system controlling the homeostasis of AAs such as large neutral amino acids (LNAAs: L-tyrosine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-phenylalanine, L-histidine, L-valine, L-tryptophan, and L-methionine) in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF). (frontiersin.org)
  • One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain. (harvard.edu)
  • Genes involved in glutamatergic pathways, affecting receptor signalling, metabolism and transport, were enriched in genetic variants associated with autism spectrum disorders (Chiocchetti et al, 2014). (aopwiki.org)
  • Congener compositions of PHCZs differed among species, suggesting that individual congeners may be subject to different bioaccumulation or metabolism in species occupying various trophic levels in the studied aquatic system. (sfei.org)
  • These results, together with transcriptome data, indicate that the SnRK2s involved in ABA signaling modulate metabolism and leaf growth under nonstress conditions by fine-tuning flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (plantcell.org)
  • Glutamine has the highest concentration (0.5-1 mM) among all of the amino acids circulating in the blood. (snmjournals.org)
  • The molecular basis for L-glutamine sensitivity is due to SLC7A5/SLC3A2, a bidirectional transporter that regulates the simultaneous efflux of L-glutamine out of cells and transport of L-leucine/EAA into cells. (nih.gov)
  • G) S2 or S2-R Drosophila cells starved of serum and amino acids were then treated with amino acids in the presence or absence of L-glutamine. (nih.gov)
  • Glutamine transport was relatively weakly inhibited by a 50-fold excess of leucine and was not inhibited by phenylalanine or N -methyl aminoisobutyrate. (biochemj.org)
  • We also found that of 20 amino acids tested, the amino acids that were the strongest inhibitors of the Na + -dependent component of radiolabeled Thr transport were Ser, Cys, 4-OH-Pro, Asn, Met, and non-radiolabeled Thr itself. (frontiersin.org)
  • Effects of Asc-1 inhibitors on IPSCs in brainstem slices. (nih.gov)
  • rBAT-b(0,+)AT heterodimer is the main apical reabsorption system for cystine in the kidney. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Amino Acid Transport System L" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • leucine, isoleucine, and valine) but decreased fetal concentrations of other amino acids, including the essential amino acid threonine ( 4 , 20 , 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • an essential amino acid cannot, and must be sourced from dietary intake. (regenative.com)
  • When limited production of a non-essential amino acid occurs, this is when they become essential to the diet. (regenative.com)
  • Asc-1 protein and SNAT2 mRNA were decreased in schizophrenia in both regions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • GlyT1 mRNA and protein, and Asc-1 mRNA, were not altered. (ox.ac.uk)
  • An amino acid shuffle activates mTORC1. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acids are known to play a key role in gene expression regulation,and in mammalian cells, amino acid signaling is mainly mediated via twopathways, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathwayand the amino acid responsive (AAR) pathway. (diva-portal.org)
  • Amino acids are required for activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase which regulates protein translation, cell growth, and autophagy. (nih.gov)
  • The composition of the lipid fraction in terms of relative percentages of fatty acids was relatively stable during heating at 150 degrees C for 30 min, but the concentrations of amino acids and sugars decreased significantly at the end of the heating period. (pianolarge.ga)
  • The shift from marine to plant-based ingredients in fish feeds affects the dietary concentrations and bioavailability of micronutrients, amino acids and lipids and consequently warrants a re-evaluation of dietary nutrient recommendations. (peerj.com)
  • Asc was saturable in both parr and post-smolt whole body at dietary concentrations of 190 and 63-89 mg kg −1 , respectively. (peerj.com)
  • 2 3 4 Solute transport through a transporter or a receptor is a mechanism of translocating hydrophilic compounds across lipid bilayers. (arvojournals.org)
  • Their function as exchangers presumably relies on the active accumulation of amino acids through other mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • Melphalan transport studies demonstrated decreased initial melphalan accumulation in WSU-CLL cells as compared to WIL2 cells. (openrepository.com)
  • The differential affinity of PGB and GBP at L-type system leads to more concentrative accumulation of PGB than GBP, which may facilitate PGB transmembrane absorption in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rats bearing the Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma show decreased activity of neutral amino acid transport in skeletal muscle measuredin vivo as the tissue accumulation of the analogue α-amino [1-14C]isobutyrate (AIB). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Melphalan transport was inhibited by 2-amino-bicyclo[2,2,1] heptane-2-carboxylic acid(BCH) in both cell lines, indicating that the amino acid transport (System L, which is sodium independent and inhibited by BCH) is functional in these two cell lines. (openrepository.com)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) with anti-1-amino-3-[ 18 F]-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid ( 18 F-fluciclovine) is a promising technique for imaging of PCa and since 2016 approved by FDA in the setting of biochemical recurrence [ 2 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • inhibited by d -Leu, d -Phe, and an L-system-specific inhibitor 2-aminobicyclo [2,2,1] heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), but not inhibited by l -Ala and charged amino acids. (arvojournals.org)
  • Metabolites in plasma and brain of ZLN005-treated rats were also profiled using multiple reaction monitoring.Identified in vitro transformations of ZLN005 include mono- and dihydroxylation, further oxidation to carboxylic acids, and mono-O-glucuronide and sulfate conjugation to hydroxy ZLN005 as well as glutathione conjugation. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, subunit b o,+ AT by itself is sufficient to catalyse transmembrane amino acid exchange. (embopress.org)
  • GO:0015175 F:neutral amino acid transmembrane transporte. (tcdb.org)
  • System A function also varies inversely with the concentration of extracellular amino acids as part of adaptive regulation and up-regulates with cell proliferation and hypertonic shock, suggesting additional homeostatic roles. (pnas.org)
  • The homeostatic regulation of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential for proper brain function. (frontiersin.org)
  • The levels of serotonin, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol in the second CSF fraction (7-12 ml) were significantly higher than those in the first fraction (0-6 ml), indicating the presence of concentration gradients. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ascorbic acid (Asc) concentration in the basal feed was below the expected minimum requirement, but the experimental period was probably too short for the fish to develop visible deficiency symptoms. (peerj.com)
  • Maximum whole body Asc concentration was approximately 40 mg kg −1 in parr and 14 mg kg −1 in post-smolt. (peerj.com)
  • Based on the present trials, the recommendations for supplementation of vitamin C and E in diets for Atlantic salmon are similar to current practices, e.g. 150 mg kg −1 of α-TOH and 190 mg kg −1 Asc which was the saturating concentration in parr. (peerj.com)
  • Transport by System N also depends on Na + but shows a striking sensitivity to inhibition by low external pH. (pnas.org)
  • We recently showed that maternal amino acid infusion into pregnant sheep resulted in competitive inhibition of amino acid transport across the placenta and did not increase fetal protein accretion rates. (physiology.org)
  • Only a minor degree of inhibition of melphalan transport was noted after sodium depletion (System ASC, which is sodium dependent and unaffected by BCH). (openrepository.com)
  • Transport of l -Phe across rabbit cornea was also saturable ( K m = 33 ± 8 μM and V max = 0.26 ± 0.03 nanomoles/min per square centimeter), energy independent, and subject to similar competitive inhibition. (arvojournals.org)
  • However, the mutual inhibition alone is insufficient to conclude which specific transport system is involved in PGB transport in the ileum. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Efficacy of system l amino acid transporter 1 inhibition as a therapeutic target in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (bireme.br)
  • More recently, King and Purcell (2005) suggested that a combination of ureide and Asp levels in nodules, plus the transport of several amino acids from leaves, might be involved in such a feedback inhibition mechanism in soybean ( Glycine max ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Due to their ability to transport a large repertoire of substances across, not just the plasma membrane, but also the membrane of internal organelles, they hold a key position in maintaining homeostasis affecting metabolic pathways. (diva-portal.org)
  • Similarly, supplementation of pregnant sheep with intravenous amino acids for several days at the end of gestation demonstrated adverse fetal effects, including hypoxia and respiratory and metabolic acidosis ( 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • Astrocytes are responsible for numerous aspects of metabolic support, nutrition, control of the ion and neurotransmitter environment in central nervous system (CNS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The System A transporter (SA1) and SN1 share many functional characteristics, including a marked sensitivity to low pH, but, unlike SN1, SA1 does not mediate proton exchange. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate exchange rather than net flux. (pnas.org)
  • Phosphatidic acid (PA) is known as a diacyl-glycerophospholipid that is suggested to act as an intracellular lipid second messenger functioned to mediate signaling protein activity. (ommegaonline.org)
  • Amino acids are potent inducers of signaling cascades that drive stem cell proliferation and differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • With a focus on mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, Threonine (Thr) is the only amino acid required in culture media for mES cell proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In an effort to understand stem cell function, some research has focused on the role of amino acids in stem cell proliferation and differentiation ( Van Winkle, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Such findings are consistent with characteristics of the ASC transport system, suggesting that this ASC system is responsible for the majority of Thr transport in mES cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • b o,+ AT‐reconstituted systems from HeLa or MDCK cells catalysed transport of arginine that was totally dependent on the presence of one of the b o,+ substrates inside the liposomes. (embopress.org)
  • No system b o,+ transport was detected in liposomes derived from cells expressing rBAT alone. (embopress.org)
  • SLC3A2 protein provides cells with the capacity of adjusting to their surroundings by mediating two fundamental molecular functions: amino acid transport and integrin signaling. (springer.com)
  • Recently, the 3D structure of ACE2 has been obtained, showing its physical interaction with B0AT1 (SLC6A19), a plasma membrane transporter involved in the trafficking of amino acids in cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results suggest the existence and regulation by PKC of System $B^o$ or System $B^o$ -like broad spectrum transport system for neutral amino acids in OK cells. (ndsl.kr)
  • Transcriptome analyses showed that L. lactis MG1363 Lac + cells expressed celB , encoding a putative cellobiose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS) IIC component, which is normally silent in MG1363 Lac − cells. (asm.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells acquire copper through a copper transport protein and distribute intracellular copper using molecular chaperones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The recombinant amino terminal domain of the transport protein bound reduced copper in vitro and within Escherichia coli cells during recombinant expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, there is no "paracellular" or "between cell" transport pathway. (glowm.com)
  • Therefore, the particular lactose transport system is usually coupled to a specific subsequent utilization pathway ( Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Lysophosphatidic acid stimulation of NHE3 exocytosis includes a signaling pathway that regulates fixation of NHE3 to the microvillar cytoskeleton. (antibodies-online.com)
  • However, the bacteria are recognized in the cytosol by the host's ASC/caspase-1 pathway, which is essential for host defense, and leads to macrophage cell death and proinflammatory cytokine production. (pnas.org)
  • Instead, these genes modulate the host ASC/caspase-1 pathway, a previously unidentified mechanism of Francisella pathogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • Here we suggest that uvrA and the nucleotide excision repair pathway are involved in the repair of acid-induced DNA damage and are associated with successful adaptation of S . mutans to low pH. (asm.org)
  • Il s'agit d';une source d'informations unique sur les substances chimiques fabriquées et importées en Europe. (europa.eu)
  • UsingGO annotations, genes involved in amino acid transport and amino acidtransmembrane transporter activity were found to be most upregulated at3 h and 5 h of starvation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Despite progress made in the model plant Arabidopsis, one of the main obstacles to a better understanding of the genes and pathways underlying nonhost resistance is the lack of genetically tractable systems segregating for this type of resistance, which often operates at the species level. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This finding indicates that the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms used by other uncharacterized genes identified in our screen will increase our understanding of the ways in which bacterial pathogens subvert the immune system. (pnas.org)
  • The genes for the protein repair chaperone, DnaK ( 22 ), and the 54-kDa subunit homologue of the eukaryotic signal recognition particle, Ffh ( 16 ), have been shown to be acid inducible in S. mutans , and ffh has been linked to the ATR, whereby ffh mutants revealed a lack of adaptive response to acid pH ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Our goal was to identify up-regulated genes in S. mutans during acid adaptation. (asm.org)
  • The BBB endothelium together with the astrocytes and neurons are the fundamental elements of the neurovascular unit (NVU) system. (frontiersin.org)
  • d -Ile has no effect on astrocytes, which do not express Asc-1. (jneurosci.org)
  • As can be seen in Figure 1,stimuli such as the availability of the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) leucine, the diacyl-glycerophospholipid, phosphatidic acid (PA),and heightened mitogenic activity imposed by insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) can activate mTOR signaling. (ommegaonline.org)
  • Unchanged GlyT1 suggests that glycine transport is not markedly affected in schizophrenia, and therefore that increased synaptic removal is not the basis for the putative deficit in glycine modulation of NMDA receptors in the disorder. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Three main families of pathogen recognition molecules cooperate in host defense and include TLRs, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (Nod)-like receptors (NLRs), and retinoid acid-inducible gene 1-like receptors ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The detection of PAMPs by TLRs, NLRs, and retinoid acid-inducible gene 1-like receptors stimulates the activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways and caspases, as well as antiviral and bactericidal responses ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Transport of the amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan and alanine across the cell membrane was measured by the cluster tray method. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These responses may function to limit Francisella 's intracellular growth niche and activate the powerful host innate immune system. (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with the increased amounts of citrate, isotope-labeling experiments revealed that respiration through the tricarboxylic acid cycle was enhanced in srk2d srk2e srk2i . (plantcell.org)
  • 1996). A small proportion of the astrocytic formed Gln via a reaction mediated by GS is transported into the extracellular space by Gln carriers, with a predominant role for System N/A transporter (SNAT3), which belongs to the bidirectional transporter System N (Chaudhry et al. (aopwiki.org)
  • System L recognizes branched chain and aromatic amino acids ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Aromatic amino acid:H + symporter, AroP of 457 aas and 12 TMSs ( Cosgriff and Pittard 1997 ). (tcdb.org)
  • 1] "Expression of a novel insulin-activated amino acid transporter gene during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. (tcdb.org)
  • On the other hand, in humans excess deposition of Mn in the central nervous system (CNS) leads to neurological abnormalities, referred to as manganism [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • L-proline was taken up by one saturable transport system plus a diffusion-like process. (portlandpress.com)
  • The remaining process had the same kinetic constants as the low-affinity system for alanine and leucine and a KD similar to the diffusion constant for proline. (portlandpress.com)
  • Multiple hormones increase System A function acutely through changes in the driving force for transport as well as through longer-term changes in gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and expression of porcine y+L amino acid Transporter-1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • rBAT was essential for the cell surface expression of b o,+ AT, but it was not required for reconstituted b o,+ AT transport activity. (embopress.org)
  • Inthis large-scale study, an immortalized mouse hypothalamic cell line (N25/2)was used to study the gene expression changes following 1, 2, 3, 5 or 16 hof amino acid starvation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cloning and expression of a human neutral amino acid transporter with " by Jeffrey L. Arriza, Michael Kavanaugh et al. (umt.edu)
  • As a first step to addressing this issue, we studied Asc-1, GlyT1 and SNAT2 expression in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of 18 subjects with schizophrenia and 20 controls, using immunoblotting and in situ hybridization. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This was supported by the high consumption of Asc and high expression of gpx1 and gpx3 in liver. (peerj.com)
  • The expression of NHE3 in the rumen of sheep and cattle and its role in sodium transport are reported. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Tryptophan uses the same transport systems in both fibroblasts and at the blood brain barrier (BBB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Numerous solutes move across the NVU cell membranes with various transport mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Amino acid transport Systems A and N thus appear closely related in function as well as structure, but exhibit important differences in ionic coupling. (pnas.org)
  • There were no significant differences in any of the kinetic parameters regarding tyrosine transport in fibroblasts for the ADHD group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These early in vivo observations suggest that these two drugs may have important differences with respect to transport. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We break down the differences between these two amino acids and explain their function in glutathione production. (regenative.com)
  • However, there are major differences between the two amino acids. (regenative.com)
  • These findings indicate that maternal amino acid supplementation results in competition among coinfused amino acids for transport across the placenta. (physiology.org)
  • It is not known whether these observations are specific to the mode of delivery of supplemental amino acids to the fetus (via the mother and placenta vs. a direct fetal infusion) or to the excess amino acids themselves. (physiology.org)
  • 2] "Cloning and functional characterization of a system ASC-like Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. (tcdb.org)