A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
'Amino Acid Transport System y+', also known as System Y+, is a sodium-independent cationic amino acid transporter that mediates the uptake of primarily basic amino acids, such as arginine and lysine, into cells through a facilitated diffusion process.
A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Amino Acid Transport System y+L is a sodium-independent cationic amino acid transporter, primarily responsible for the uptake of arginine and lysine into cells via a proton gradient. This system plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism, growth, and survival, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various disease states, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Dicarboxylic acids are organic compounds containing two carboxyl (-COOH) groups in their structure, making them capable of forming salts and esters by losing two hydrogen ions.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

The RD114/simian type D retrovirus receptor is a neutral amino acid transporter. (1/71)

The RD114/simian type D retroviruses, which include the feline endogenous retrovirus RD114, all strains of simian immunosuppressive type D retroviruses, the avian reticuloendotheliosis group including spleen necrosis virus, and baboon endogenous virus, use a common cell-surface receptor for cell entry. We have used a retroviral cDNA library approach, involving transfer and expression of cDNAs from highly infectable HeLa cells to nonpermissive NIH 3T3 mouse cells, to clone and identify this receptor. The cloned cDNA, denoted RDR, is an allele of the previously cloned neutral amino acid transporter ATB0 (SLC1A5). Both RDR and ATB0 serve as retrovirus receptors and both show specific transport of neutral amino acids. We have localized the receptor by radiation hybrid mapping to a region of about 500-kb pairs on the long arm of human chromosome 19 at q13.3. Infection of cells with RD114/type D retroviruses results in impaired amino acid transport, suggesting a mechanism for virus toxicity and immunosuppression. The identification and functional characterization of this retrovirus receptor provide insight into the retrovirus life cycle and pathogenesis and will be an important tool for optimization of gene therapy using vectors derived from RD114/type D retroviruses.  (+info)

A sodium-dependent neutral-amino-acid transporter mediates infections of feline and baboon endogenous retroviruses and simian type D retroviruses. (2/71)

The type D simian retroviruses cause immunosuppression in macaques and have been reported as a presumptive opportunistic infection in a patient with AIDS. Previous evidence based on viral interference has strongly suggested that the type D simian viruses share a common but unknown cell surface receptor with three type C viruses: feline endogenous virus (RD114), baboon endogenous virus, and avian reticuloendotheliosis virus. Furthermore, the receptor gene for these viruses has been mapped to human chromosome 19q13.1-13.2. We now report the isolation and characterization of a cell surface receptor for this group of retroviruses by using a human T-lymphocyte cDNA library in a retroviral vector. Swiss mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3), which are naturally resistant to RD114, were transduced with the retroviral library and then challenged with an RD114-pseudotyped virus containing a dominant selectable gene for puromycin resistance. Puromycin selection yielded 12 cellular clones that were highly susceptible to a beta-galactosidase-encoding lacZ(RD114) pseudotype virus. Using PCR primers specific for vector sequences, we amplified a common 2.9-kb product from 10 positive clones. Expression of the 2.9-kb cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells conferred susceptibility to RD114, baboon endogenous virus, and the type D simian retroviruses. The 2.9-kb cDNA predicted a protein of 541 amino acids that had 98% identity with the previously cloned human Na+-dependent neutral-amino-acid transporter Bo. Accordingly, expression of the RD114 receptor in NIH 3T3 cells resulted in enhanced cellular uptake of L-[3H]alanine and L-[3H]glutamine. RNA blot (Northern) analysis suggested that the RD114 receptor is widely expressed in human tissues and cell lines, including hematopoietic cells. The human Bo transporter gene has been previously mapped to 19q13.3, which is closely linked to the gene locus of the RD114 receptor.  (+info)

Na+ - and Cl- -coupled active transport of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors via amino acid transport system B(0,+). (3/71)

Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the management of numerous conditions in which NO overproduction plays a critical role. Identification of transport systems in the intestine that can mediate the uptake of NOS inhibitors is important to assess the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of these potential drugs. Here, we have cloned the Na+ - and Cl- -coupled amino acid transport system B(0,+) (ATB(0,+)) from the mouse colon and investigated its ability to transport NOS inhibitors. When expressed in mammalian cells, ATB(0,+) can transport a variety of zwitterionic and cationic amino acids in a Na+ - and Cl- -coupled manner. Each of the NOS inhibitors tested compete with glycine for uptake through this transport system. Furthermore, using a tritiated analog of the NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, we showed that Na+ - and Cl- -coupled transport occurs via ATB(0,+). We then studied transport of a wide variety of NOS inhibitors in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the cloned ATB(0,+) and found that ATB(0,+) can transport a broad range of zwitterionic or cationic NOS inhibitors. These data represent the first identification of an ion gradient-driven transport system for NOS inhibitors in the intestinal tract.  (+info)

Na+- and Cl--coupled active transport of carnitine by the amino acid transporter ATB(0,+) from mouse colon expressed in HRPE cells and Xenopus oocytes. (4/71)

1. ATB(0,+) is an amino acid transporter energized by transmembrane gradients of Na+ and Cl(-) and membrane potential. We cloned this transporter from mouse colon and expressed the clone functionally in mammalian (human retinal pigment epithelial, HRPE) cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes to investigate the interaction of carnitine and its acyl esters with the transporter. 2. When expressed in mammalian cells, the cloned ATB(0,+) was able to transport carnitine, propionylcarnitine and acetylcarnitine. The transport process was Na(+) and Cl(-) dependent and inhibitable by the amino acid substrates of the transporter. The Michaelis constant for carnitine was 0.83 +/- 0.08 mM and the Hill coefficient for Na(+) activation was 1.6 +/- 0.1. 3. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the cloned ATB(0,+) was able to induce inward currents in the presence of carnitine and propionylcarnitine under voltage-clamped conditions. There was no detectable current in the presence of acetylcarnitine. Carnitine-induced currents were obligatorily dependent on the presence of Na(+) and Cl(-). The currents were saturable with carnitine and the Michaelis constant was 1.8 +/- 0.4 mM. The analysis of Na(+)- and Cl(-)-activation kinetics revealed that 2 Na(+) and 1 Cl(-) were involved in the transport of carnitine via the transporter. 4. These studies describe the identification of a novel function for the amino acid transporter ATB(0,+). Since this transporter is expressed in the intestinal tract, lung and mammary gland, it is likely to play a significant role in the handling of carnitine in these tissues. 5. A Na(+)-dependent transport system for carnitine has already been described. This transporter, known as OCTN2 (novel organic cation transporter 2), is expressed in most tissues and transports carnitine with high affinity. It is energized, however, only by a Na(+) gradient and membrane potential. In contrast, ATB(0,+) is a low-affinity transporter for carnitine, but exhibits much higher concentrative capacity than OCTN2 because of its energization by transmembrane gradients of Na(+) and Cl(-) as well as by membrane potential.  (+info)

Na(+)-dependent neutral amino acid transporter ATB(0) is a rabbit epithelial cell brush-border protein. (5/71)

System B(0) activity accounts for the majority of intestinal and kidney luminal neutral amino acid absorption. An amino acid transport system, called ATB(0) (also known as ASCT2), with functional characteristics similar to those of system B(0), has been recently cloned. We generated polyclonal antibodies to human and rabbit ATB(0) COOH-terminal peptides and used Western blot analysis to detect ATB(0) protein in rabbit tissues, rabbit ileal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV), and HeLa cells transfected with plasmids containing ATB(0) cDNAs. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize ATB(0) in rabbit kidney and intestine. In Western blots of rabbit tissues, ATB(0) was a broad smear of 78- to 85-kDa proteins. In transfected HeLa cells, ATB(0) appeared as a smear consisting of 57- to 65-kDa proteins. The highest expression was found in the kidney. ATB(0) was enriched in rabbit ileal BBMV and in HeLa cells transfected with ATB(0) cDNAs. In the kidney and in the intestine, ATB(0) was confined to the brush-border membrane (BBM) of the proximal tubular cell and of the enterocyte, respectively. Tissue and intracellular distribution of ATB(0) protein parallels that of system B(0) activity. ATB(0) protein could be the transporter responsible for system B(0) in the BBM of epithelial cells.  (+info)

Sustained multilineage gene persistence and expression in dogs transplanted with CD34(+) marrow cells transduced by RD114-pseudotype oncoretrovirus vectors. (6/71)

Previous studies have shown that the choice of envelope protein (pseudotype) can have a significant effect on the efficiency of retroviral gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells. This study used a competitive repopulation assay in the dog model to evaluate oncoretroviral vectors carrying the envelope protein of the endogenous feline virus, RD114. CD34-enriched marrow cells were divided into equal aliquots and transduced with vectors produced by the RD114-pseudotype packaging cells FLYRD (LgGLSN and LNX) or by the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV)-pseudotype packaging cells PG13 (LNY). A total of 5 dogs were studied. One dog died because of infection before sustained engraftment could be achieved, and monitoring was discontinued after 9 months in another animal that had very low overall gene-marking levels. The 3 remaining animals are alive with follow-ups at 11, 22, and 23 months. Analyses of gene marking frequencies in peripheral blood and marrow by polymerase chain reaction revealed no significant differences between the RD114 and GALV-pseudotype vectors. The LgGLSN vector also contained the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP), enabling us to monitor proviral expression by flow cytometry. Up to 10% of peripheral blood cells expressed GFP shortly after transplantation and approximately 6% after the longest follow-up of 23 months. Flow cytometric analysis of hematopoietic subpopulations showed that most of the GFP-expressing cells were granulocytes, although GFP-positive lymphocytes and monocytes were also detected. In summary, these results show that RD114-pseudotype oncoretroviral vectors are able to transduce hematopoietic long-term repopulating cells and, thus, may be useful for human stem cell gene therapy.  (+info)

ATB(0)/SLC1A5 gene. Fine localisation and exclusion of association with the intestinal phenotype of cystic fibrosis. (7/71)

The Na+-dependent amino acid transporter named ATB(0) was previously found to be located in 19q13.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Genetic heterogeneity in the 19q13.2-13.4 region, syntenic to the Cystic Fibrosis Modulator Locus 1 (CFM1) in mouse, seemed to be associated to the intestinal phenotypic variation of cystic fibrosis (CF). We performed fine chromosomal mapping of ATB(0) on radiation hybrid (RH) panels G3 and TNG. Based on the most accurate location results from TNG-RH panel, mapping analysis evidenced that ATB(0) is localised between STS SHGC-13875 (D19S995) and STS SHGC-6138 in 19q13.3, that corresponds with the immediately telomeric/distal segment of the strongest linkage region within the human CFM1 (hCFM1) syntenic region. Regarding to the genomic structure and exon organisation, our results show that the ATB(0) gene is organised into eight exons. The knowledge of the genomic structure allowed us to perform an exhaustive mutational analysis of the gene. Evaluation of the possible implication of ATB(0) in the intestinal phenotype of CF was performed on the basis of the functional characteristics of the encoded protein, its apparent relevance to meconium ileus (MI) and position in relation to the hCFM1 syntenic region. We have analysed this gene in samples from CF patients with and without MI. Several sequence variations in the ATB(0) gene were identified, although none of them seemed to be related to the intestinal phenotype of CF. Even though no particular allele or haplotype in ATB(0) appears to be associated to CF-MI disease, new SNPs identified should be useful in segregation and linkage disequilibrium analyses in families affected by other disorders caused by the impairment of neutral amino acid transport.  (+info)

Characterisation and cloning of a Na(+)-dependent broad-specificity neutral amino acid transporter from NBL-1 cells: a novel member of the ASC/B(0) transporter family. (8/71)

Na(+)-dependent neutral amino acid transport into the bovine renal epithelial cell line NBL-1 is catalysed by a broad-specificity transporter originally termed System B(0). This transporter is shown to differ in specificity from the B(0) transporter cloned from JAR cells [J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 18657] in that it interacts much more strongly with phenylalanine. Using probes designed to conserved transmembrane regions of the ASC/B(0) transporter family we have isolated a cDNA encoding the NBL-1 cell System B(0) transporter. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes the clone catalysed Na(+)-dependent alanine uptake which was inhibited by glutamine, leucine and phenylalanine. However, the clone did not catalyse Na(+)-dependent phenylalanine transport, again as in NBL-1 cells. The clone encoded a protein of 539 amino acids; the predicted transmembrane domains were almost identical in sequence to those of the other members of the B(0)/ASC transporter family. Comparison of the sequences of NBL-1 and JAR cell transporters showed some differences near the N-terminus, C-terminus and in the loop between helices 3 and 4. The NBL-1 B(0) transporter is not the same as the renal brush border membrane transporter since it does not transport phenylalanine. Differences in specificity in this protein family arise from relatively small differences in amino acid sequence.  (+info)

The amino acid transport system ASC, also known as system asc or L system, is a type of amino acid transporter found in the membranes of cells. It is responsible for the uptake of small neutral amino acids, such as alanine, serine, and cysteine, into the cell. This transport system is important for maintaining proper levels of these amino acids within the cell, which are necessary for various cellular processes including protein synthesis and metabolism. It is also known to be upregulated in certain cancer cells, allowing them to take up more amino acids from their environment and support their rapid growth. The system asc transporter is a part of the solute carrier 7 (SLC7) family, which are membrane-bound proteins that facilitate the transport of various molecules across cell membranes.

Amino acid transport systems refer to the various membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the active or passive translocation of amino acids across cell membranes in the body. These transport systems play a crucial role in maintaining amino acid homeostasis within cells and regulating their availability for protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and other physiological processes.

There are several distinct amino acid transport systems, each with its own specificity for particular types of amino acids or related molecules. These systems can be classified based on their energy requirements, substrate specificity, and membrane localization. Some of the major amino acid transport systems include:

1. System A - This is a sodium-dependent transport system that primarily transports small, neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, and proline. It has several subtypes (ASC, A, and AN) with different substrate affinities and kinetic properties.
2. System L - This is a sodium-independent transport system that transports large, neutral amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. It has several subtypes (L1, L2, and y+L) with different substrate specificities and transport mechanisms.
3. System B0 - This is a sodium-dependent transport system that transports both neutral and basic amino acids such as arginine, lysine, and ornithine. It has several subtypes (B0,+, B0-, and b0,+) with different substrate affinities and kinetic properties.
4. System y+ - This is a sodium-independent transport system that transports primarily basic amino acids such as arginine, lysine, and ornithine. It has several subtypes (y+L, y+, b0,+) with different substrate specificities and transport mechanisms.
5. System X-AG - This is a sodium-independent antiporter system that exchanges glutamate and aspartate for neutral amino acids such as cystine, serine, and threonine. It plays an essential role in maintaining redox homeostasis by regulating the intracellular levels of cysteine, a precursor of glutathione.

These transport systems are critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis and regulating various physiological processes such as protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and immune function. Dysregulation of these transport systems has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these transport systems is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

The amino acid transport system L is a type of membrane transport system that is responsible for the uptake of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) into cells. This system is composed of several different proteins, including the light chain subunit LAT1 and the heavy chain subunit CD98hc, which form a heterodimer that functions as an amino acid transporter.

The transport system L primarily mediates the uptake of LNAAs such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan into cells. It plays important roles in various physiological processes, including protein synthesis, neurotransmitter synthesis, and cell signaling.

The transport system L is also known as the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) or the sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT). Mutations in genes encoding components of this transport system have been associated with various diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Amino acid transport systems are specialized cellular mechanisms responsible for the active transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These systems are essential for maintaining proper amino acid homeostasis within cells and organisms. They consist of several types of transporters that can be categorized based on their energy source, electrochemical gradient, substrate specificity, and functional characteristics.

The term 'basic' in this context typically refers to the fundamental understanding of these transport systems, including their structure, function, regulation, and physiological roles. Amino acid transport systems play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as protein synthesis, neurotransmission, cell signaling, and energy metabolism.

There are two primary types of amino acid transport systems:

1. **Na+-dependent transporters:** These transporters utilize the sodium gradient across the cell membrane to drive the uptake of amino acids. They can be further divided into subtypes based on their substrate specificity and functional properties, such as system A, system ASC, system B0, system B, system L, and system y+.
2. **Na+-independent transporters:** These transporters do not rely on the sodium gradient for amino acid transport. Instead, they use other energy sources like proton gradients or direct coupling to membrane potential. Examples of Na+-independent transporters include system L, system y+, and system x-AG.

Understanding the basic aspects of amino acid transport systems is essential for elucidating their roles in health and disease. Dysregulation of these systems has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic diseases.

Aminoisobutyric acids are a type of compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and an isobutyric acid group. Isobutyric acid is a type of short-chain fatty acid with the chemical formula (CH3)2CHCO2H. Aminoisobutyric acids can be found in some natural sources, such as certain types of bacteria, and they can also be synthesized in the laboratory for use in research and other applications.

There are several different isomers of aminoisobutyric acid, depending on the position of the amino group relative to the carbon chain. The most common isomer is 2-aminoisobutyric acid, also known as 2-methylalanine or 2-methylpropionic acid. This compound is a naturally occurring amino acid that is found in some proteins and is used in research to study protein structure and function.

Other isomers of aminoisobutyric acid include 3-aminoisobutyric acid, which is also known as tert-leucine or 2-methylbutyric acid, and 4-aminoisobutyric acid, which is also known as neopentylamine or 2,2-dimethylpropionic acid. These compounds are less common than 2-aminoisobutyric acid and have different chemical properties and uses.

In general, aminoisobutyric acids are used in research to study a variety of biological processes, including protein folding, enzyme function, and cell signaling. They can also be used as building blocks for the synthesis of other chemicals and materials.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Amino acid transport system A, also known as system ASC or alanine-serine-cysteine transporter, is a type of amino acid transporter found in the membranes of cells. It is responsible for the uptake of small neutral amino acids, such as alanine, serine, and cysteine, into the cell. This transport system plays an important role in maintaining amino acid homeostasis within the body and is particularly important in tissues with high rates of protein turnover, such as the intestines and kidneys. It is also expressed in the brain, where it is involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter synthesis. Defects in this transport system have been implicated in various diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer.

Neutral amino acid transport systems refer to a group of membrane transporters that facilitate the movement of neutral amino acids across cell membranes. Neutral amino acids are those that have a neutral charge at physiological pH and include amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, cysteine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan.

There are several different transport systems that have been identified for neutral amino acids, each with its own specificity and affinity for different amino acids. Some of the major neutral amino acid transport systems include:

1. System A: This transporter preferentially transports small, neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, and threonine. It is found in many tissues, including the intestines, kidneys, and brain.
2. System B0+: This transporter preferentially transports large, neutral amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, and phenylalanine. It is found in many tissues, including the intestines, kidneys, and brain.
3. System L: This transporter preferentially transports large, neutral amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, and phenylalanine. It is found in many tissues, including the intestines, kidneys, and brain.
4. System y+: This transporter preferentially transports cationic amino acids such as lysine and arginine, but it can also transport some neutral amino acids. It is found in many tissues, including the intestines, kidneys, and brain.
5. System b0,+: This transporter preferentially transports cationic amino acids such as lysine and arginine, but it can also transport some neutral amino acids. It is found in many tissues, including the intestines, kidneys, and brain.

These transport systems play important roles in maintaining amino acid homeostasis in the body, as well as in various physiological processes such as protein synthesis, neurotransmitter synthesis, and cell signaling. Dysregulation of these transport systems has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic disorders.

Biological transport, active is the process by which cells use energy to move materials across their membranes from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This type of transport is facilitated by specialized proteins called transporters or pumps that are located in the cell membrane. These proteins undergo conformational changes to physically carry the molecules through the lipid bilayer of the membrane, often against their concentration gradient.

Active transport requires energy because it works against the natural tendency of molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, a process known as diffusion. Cells obtain this energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is produced through cellular respiration.

Examples of active transport include the uptake of glucose and amino acids into cells, as well as the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters. The sodium-potassium pump, which helps maintain resting membrane potential in nerve and muscle cells, is a classic example of an active transporter.

Leucine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. It is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), along with isoleucine and valine. Leucine is critical for protein synthesis and muscle growth, and it helps to regulate blood sugar levels, promote wound healing, and produce growth hormones.

Leucine is found in various food sources such as meat, dairy products, eggs, and certain plant-based proteins like soy and beans. It is also available as a dietary supplement for those looking to increase their intake for athletic performance or muscle recovery purposes. However, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

The amino acid transport system y+ is a type of sodium-independent cationic amino acid transporter that is responsible for the uptake of positively charged amino acids, such as arginine and lysine, into cells. It is a part of a larger family of amino acid transporters that are involved in the transport of various types of amino acids across cell membranes.

The y+ system is composed of several different transporter proteins, including rBAT/4F2hc heteromeric amino acid transporter (Cat1), and light chains such as y+LAT1, y+LAT2, and y+LAT3. These transporters are widely expressed in various tissues, including the small intestine, kidney, liver, and brain.

The y+ system plays important roles in various physiological processes, including protein synthesis, immune function, and neurotransmitter metabolism. Dysregulation of this transport system has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurological disorders, and kidney disease.

Harmane, also known as harmaline, is a naturally occurring psychoactive compound found in several plants, including the seeds of the Syrian rue (Peganum harmala) and the bark of the African pinwheel cactus (Adenium obesum). It is an alkaloid with beta-carboline structure.

In a medical context, harmaline has been studied for its potential effects on the central nervous system. It acts as a reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), which means it can increase the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain by preventing their breakdown. This property has led to some research into its use as a treatment for depression and other neurological disorders, although it is not currently approved for medical use in this capacity due to potential side effects and toxicity concerns.

It's important to note that harmaline can have dangerous interactions with certain medications and foods, particularly those containing tyramine, which can lead to a hypertensive crisis. Therefore, its use should only be under the supervision of a qualified medical professional.

Alanine is an alpha-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. The molecular formula for alanine is C3H7NO2. It is a non-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body through the conversion of other nutrients, such as pyruvate, and does not need to be obtained directly from the diet.

Alanine is classified as an aliphatic amino acid because it contains a simple carbon side chain. It is also a non-polar amino acid, which means that it is hydrophobic and tends to repel water. Alanine plays a role in the metabolism of glucose and helps to regulate blood sugar levels. It is also involved in the transfer of nitrogen between tissues and helps to maintain the balance of nitrogen in the body.

In addition to its role as a building block of proteins, alanine is also used as a neurotransmitter in the brain and has been shown to have a calming effect on the nervous system. It is found in many foods, including meats, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, and legumes.

Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid, which means that it is not required in the diet because the body can produce it from other amino acids. It is produced in the liver and is also found in some foods such as meat, poultry, and fish.

Beta-alanine plays a role in the production of carnosine, a dipeptide molecule that helps to regulate muscle pH and improve muscle function during high-intensity exercise. When muscles contract during intense exercise, they produce hydrogen ions, which can cause the muscle pH to decrease (become more acidic), leading to fatigue and reduced muscle function. Carnosine acts as a buffer against this acidity, helping to maintain optimal muscle pH levels and improve performance during high-intensity exercise.

Beta-alanine supplements have been shown to increase carnosine levels in muscles, which may lead to improved athletic performance, particularly in activities that require short bursts of intense effort, such as weightlifting or sprinting. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effects and potential benefits of beta-alanine supplementation.

It's important to note that while beta-alanine supplements are generally considered safe for most people, they can cause a tingling sensation in the skin (paresthesia) when taken in high doses. This is a harmless side effect and typically subsides within an hour or so of taking the supplement.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

CD98, also known as 4F2 cell surface antigen or solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2), is a heterodimeric amino acid transporter protein. It is composed of two subunits: a heavy chain (CD98hc) and a light chain (4F2hc). CD98 is widely expressed in various tissues, including hematopoietic cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells.

As an antigen, CD98 can be recognized by specific antibodies and play a role in immune responses. The protein is involved in several biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. It also functions as a receptor for certain viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).

CD98 has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. In cancer, CD98 overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy. In autoimmune disorders, CD98 may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In infectious diseases, CD98 can serve as a target for viral entry and replication.

Overall, CD98 is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, making it an attractive target for therapeutic interventions.

Neutral amino acids are a type of amino acids that are characterized by the presence of a neutral side chain in their chemical structure. In other words, the side chain of these amino acids does not contain any ionizable groups, such as carboxyl or amino groups, which can give rise to positive or negative charges.

There are nine neutral amino acids in total, and they include:

1. Alanine (Ala) - has a methyl group (-CH3) as its side chain
2. Glycine (Gly) - has a hydrogen atom (-H) as its side chain
3. Valine (Val) - has an isopropyl group (-CH(CH3)2) as its side chain
4. Leucine (Leu) - has a branched alkyl group (-CH2CH(CH3)2) as its side chain
5. Isoleucine (Ile) - has a sec-butyl group (-CH(CH3)(CH2CH3)) as its side chain
6. Proline (Pro) - has a cyclic structure containing a secondary amino group (-NH-) as its side chain
7. Phenylalanine (Phe) - has an aromatic ring with a methyl group (-CH3) attached to it as its side chain
8. Tryptophan (Trp) - has an indole ring as its side chain
9. Methionine (Met) - has a sulfur-containing alkyl group (-CH2CH2SH) as its side chain

Neutral amino acids play important roles in various biological processes, such as protein synthesis, metabolism, and signaling pathways. They are also essential components of many dietary proteins and are required for the growth, development, and maintenance of tissues and organs in the body.

Cyclic amino acids are a type of modified amino acid where the side chain of the amino acid forms a ring structure. This is different from the typical structure of amino acids, which have a linear side chain. The formation of the ring can occur within the same amino acid molecule or between two amino acid molecules.

Cyclic amino acids play important roles in various biological processes. For example, some cyclic amino acids are involved in the structure and function of proteins, while others serve as signaling molecules or neurotransmitters. Some common examples of cyclic amino acids include proline, hydroxyproline, and sarcosine.

It is worth noting that not all modified amino acids with ring structures are considered cyclic amino acids. For example, some amino acids may have a sulfur atom in their side chain that forms a disulfide bond with another cysteine residue, but this is not considered a cyclic structure because the ring is formed between two separate molecules rather than within a single molecule.

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are a group of three essential amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. They are called "branched-chain" because of their chemical structure, which has a side chain that branches off from the main part of the molecule.

BCAAs are essential because they cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. They are crucial for muscle growth and repair, and play a role in energy production during exercise. BCAAs are also important for maintaining proper immune function and can help to reduce muscle soreness and fatigue after exercise.

Foods that are good sources of BCAAs include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, and legumes. BCAAs are also available as dietary supplements, which are often used by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance muscle growth and recovery. However, it is important to note that excessive intake of BCAAs may have adverse effects on liver function and insulin sensitivity, so it is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. It's one of the building blocks of proteins and is necessary for the production of various molecules in the body, such as neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the brain).

Phenylalanine has two forms: L-phenylalanine and D-phenylalanine. L-phenylalanine is the form found in proteins and is used by the body for protein synthesis, while D-phenylalanine has limited use in humans and is not involved in protein synthesis.

Individuals with a rare genetic disorder called phenylketonuria (PKU) must follow a low-phenylalanine diet or take special medical foods because they are unable to metabolize phenylalanine properly, leading to its buildup in the body and potential neurological damage.

The amino acid transport system y+L is a type of sodium-independent cationic amino acid transporter found in cell membranes. It is responsible for the uptake of positively charged amino acids, such as lysine and arginine, into cells. This transport system plays an important role in various physiological processes, including protein synthesis, nutrient absorption, and waste removal. Dysfunction of the y+L transport system has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate is a chemical compound with the formula C6H5ClHgSO3. It is an organomercury compound, where mercury is bonded to a phenyl ring and a sulfonate group. This compound is an white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and denser than water.

It has been used historically as a diuretic and antiseptic, but its use in medicine has been discontinued due to the toxicity of mercury. Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences, including damage to the nervous system, kidneys, and digestive system. Therefore, handling and disposal of 4-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate should be done with caution and in accordance with local regulations for hazardous materials.

Glutamine is defined as a conditionally essential amino acid in humans, which means that it can be produced by the body under normal circumstances, but may become essential during certain conditions such as stress, illness, or injury. It is the most abundant free amino acid found in the blood and in the muscles of the body.

Glutamine plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, energy production, and acid-base balance. It serves as an important fuel source for cells in the intestines, immune system, and skeletal muscles. Glutamine has also been shown to have potential benefits in wound healing, gut function, and immunity, particularly during times of physiological stress or illness.

In summary, glutamine is a vital amino acid that plays a critical role in maintaining the health and function of various tissues and organs in the body.

Proline is an organic compound that is classified as a non-essential amino acid, meaning it can be produced by the human body and does not need to be obtained through the diet. It is encoded in the genetic code as the codon CCU, CCC, CCA, or CCG. Proline is a cyclic amino acid, containing an unusual secondary amine group, which forms a ring structure with its carboxyl group.

In proteins, proline acts as a structural helix breaker, disrupting the alpha-helix structure and leading to the formation of turns and bends in the protein chain. This property is important for the proper folding and function of many proteins. Proline also plays a role in the stability of collagen, a major structural protein found in connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin.

In addition to its role in protein structure, proline has been implicated in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, apoptosis, and oxidative stress response. It is also a precursor for the synthesis of other biologically important compounds such as hydroxyproline, which is found in collagen and elastin, and glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.

Cystine is a naturally occurring amino acid in the body, which is formed from the oxidation of two cysteine molecules. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that it can be produced by the body and does not need to be obtained through diet. Cystine plays important roles in various biological processes, including protein structure and antioxidant defense. However, when cystine accumulates in large amounts, it can form crystals or stones, leading to conditions such as cystinuria, a genetic disorder characterized by the formation of cystine kidney stones.

Isoleucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C6H13NO2. Isoleucine is crucial for muscle protein synthesis, hemoglobin formation, and energy regulation during exercise or fasting. It is found in various foods such as meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts. Deficiency of isoleucine may lead to various health issues like muscle wasting, fatigue, and mental confusion.

Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are a group of membrane-bound proteins that play a crucial role in the uptake and transport of long-chain fatty acids across the plasma membrane of cells. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the heart, muscle, adipose tissue, and liver.

FATPs have several domains that enable them to perform their functions, including a cytoplasmic domain that binds to fatty acids, a transmembrane domain that spans the plasma membrane, and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) domain that hydrolyzes ATP to provide energy for fatty acid transport.

FATPs also play a role in the regulation of intracellular lipid metabolism by modulating the activity of enzymes involved in fatty acid activation, desaturation, and elongation. Mutations in FATP genes have been associated with various metabolic disorders, including congenital deficiency of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects fatty acid oxidation.

In summary, fatty acid transport proteins are essential for the uptake and metabolism of long-chain fatty acids in cells and have implications in various metabolic disorders.

Valine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet. It is a hydrophobic amino acid, with a branched side chain, and is necessary for the growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues in the body. Valine is also important for muscle metabolism, and is often used by athletes as a supplement to enhance physical performance. Like other essential amino acids, valine must be obtained through foods such as meat, fish, dairy products, and legumes.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Arginine is an α-amino acid that is classified as a semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual. The adult human body can normally synthesize sufficient amounts of arginine to meet its needs, but there are certain circumstances, such as periods of rapid growth or injury, where the dietary intake of arginine may become necessary.

The chemical formula for arginine is C6H14N4O2. It has a molecular weight of 174.20 g/mol and a pKa value of 12.48. Arginine is a basic amino acid, which means that it contains a side chain with a positive charge at physiological pH levels. The side chain of arginine is composed of a guanidino group, which is a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to three methyl groups.

In the body, arginine plays several important roles. It is a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide, a molecule that helps regulate blood flow and immune function. Arginine is also involved in the detoxification of ammonia, a waste product produced by the breakdown of proteins. Additionally, arginine can be converted into other amino acids, such as ornithine and citrulline, which are involved in various metabolic processes.

Foods that are good sources of arginine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, nuts, seeds, and legumes. Arginine supplements are available and may be used for a variety of purposes, such as improving exercise performance, enhancing wound healing, and boosting immune function. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking arginine supplements, as they can interact with certain medications and have potential side effects.

Lysine is an essential amino acid, which means that it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Its chemical formula is (2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid. Lysine is necessary for the growth and maintenance of tissues in the body, and it plays a crucial role in the production of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. It is also essential for the absorption of calcium and the formation of collagen, which is an important component of bones and connective tissue. Foods that are good sources of lysine include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products.

Leucine-tRNA Ligase, also known as Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase, is an enzyme (EC 6.1.1.4) that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the esterification of the amino acid leucine to its corresponding transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule. The resulting leucine-tRNA complex is then used in the translation process, where genetic information encoded in mRNA is translated into a specific protein sequence.

The reaction catalyzed by Leucine-tRNA Ligase can be represented as follows:

Leucine + tRNA(Leu) + ATP → Leucyl-tRNA(Leu) + AMP + PP\_i

In this reaction, leucine is activated by attachment to an adenosine monophosphate (AMP) molecule with the help of ATP. The activated leucine is then transferred to the appropriate tRNA molecule, releasing AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate (PP\_i). This enzyme's function is essential for maintaining the accuracy of protein synthesis, as it ensures that only the correct amino acids are incorporated into proteins according to the genetic code.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Amino acid transport systems for acidic amino acids are a group of membrane transporters that facilitate the movement of acidic amino acids across cell membranes. These acidic amino acids include aspartate and glutamate, which have negatively charged side chains at physiological pH.

There are several different transport systems for acidic amino acids, each with distinct properties and functions. Some of these systems are specific to certain types of cells or tissues, while others are more widely distributed.

The two major transport systems for acidic amino acids are known as System xc- and System y+. System xc- is a sodium-independent antiporter that exchanges glutamate for cystine in a 1:1 ratio. This system plays an important role in maintaining the redox balance in cells, as cystine is reduced to cysteine, which is then used for the synthesis of glutathione, a major antioxidant in the body.

System y+, on the other hand, is a sodium-dependent transporter that can transport both basic and acidic amino acids. It plays an important role in the absorption of amino acids from the gut and in the regulation of intracellular pH.

Other transport systems for acidic amino acids include System ASC, which is a sodium-dependent transporter that preferentially transports aspartate and glutamate, and System N, which is a sodium-independent transporter that also prefers aspartate and glutamate.

Overall, the proper functioning of amino acid transport systems for acidic amino acids is essential for maintaining normal cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Dysregulation of these systems has been implicated in various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C11H12N2O2. Tryptophan plays a crucial role in various biological processes as it serves as a precursor to several important molecules, including serotonin, melatonin, and niacin (vitamin B3). Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation, appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles, while melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep-wake patterns. Niacin is essential for energy production and DNA repair.

Foods rich in tryptophan include turkey, chicken, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. In some cases, tryptophan supplementation may be recommended to help manage conditions related to serotonin imbalances, such as depression or insomnia, but this should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Glutamates are the salt or ester forms of glutamic acid, which is a naturally occurring amino acid and the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate plays a crucial role in various brain functions, such as learning, memory, and cognition. However, excessive levels of glutamate can lead to neuronal damage or death, contributing to several neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

Glutamates are also commonly found in food as a natural flavor enhancer, often listed under the name monosodium glutamate (MSG). While MSG has been extensively studied, its safety remains a topic of debate, with some individuals reporting adverse reactions after consuming foods containing this additive.

"Xenopus laevis" is not a medical term itself, but it refers to a specific species of African clawed frog that is often used in scientific research, including biomedical and developmental studies. Therefore, its relevance to medicine comes from its role as a model organism in laboratories.

In a broader sense, Xenopus laevis has contributed significantly to various medical discoveries, such as the understanding of embryonic development, cell cycle regulation, and genetic research. For instance, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1963 to John R. B. Gurdon and Sir Michael J. Bishop for their discoveries concerning the genetic mechanisms of organism development using Xenopus laevis as a model system.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Histidine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C6H9N3O2. Histidine plays a crucial role in several physiological processes, including:

1. Protein synthesis: As an essential amino acid, histidine is required for the production of proteins, which are vital components of various tissues and organs in the body.

2. Hemoglobin synthesis: Histidine is a key component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. The imidazole side chain of histidine acts as a proton acceptor/donor, facilitating the release and uptake of oxygen by hemoglobin.

3. Acid-base balance: Histidine is involved in maintaining acid-base homeostasis through its role in the biosynthesis of histamine, which is a critical mediator of inflammatory responses and allergies. The decarboxylation of histidine results in the formation of histamine, which can increase vascular permeability and modulate immune responses.

4. Metal ion binding: Histidine has a high affinity for metal ions such as zinc, copper, and iron. This property allows histidine to participate in various enzymatic reactions and maintain the structural integrity of proteins.

5. Antioxidant defense: Histidine-containing dipeptides, like carnosine and anserine, have been shown to exhibit antioxidant properties by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chelating metal ions. These compounds may contribute to the protection of proteins and DNA from oxidative damage.

Dietary sources of histidine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, and wheat germ. Histidine deficiency is rare but can lead to growth retardation, anemia, and impaired immune function.

Threonine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH(OH)CH3. Threonine plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, immune function, and fat metabolism. It is particularly important for maintaining the structural integrity of proteins, as it is often found in their hydroxyl-containing regions. Foods rich in threonine include animal proteins such as meat, dairy products, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like lentils and soybeans.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Taurocholic acid is a bile salt, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. It is formed in the liver by conjugation of cholic acid with taurine, an amino sulfonic acid.

Taurocholic acid has a detergent-like effect on the lipids in our food, helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed through the intestinal wall and transported to other parts of the body for energy production or storage. It also helps to maintain the flow of bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine, where it is stored until needed for digestion.

Abnormal levels of taurocholic acid in the body have been linked to various health conditions, including gallstones, liver disease, and gastrointestinal disorders. Therefore, it is important to maintain a healthy balance of bile salts, including taurocholic acid, for optimal digestive function.

Dicarboxylic acids are organic compounds containing two carboxyl groups (-COOH) in their molecular structure. The general formula for dicarboxylic acids is HOOC-R-COOH, where R represents a hydrocarbon chain or a functional group.

The presence of two carboxyl groups makes dicarboxylic acids stronger acids than monocarboxylic acids (compounds containing only one -COOH group). This is because the second carboxyl group contributes to the acidity of the molecule, allowing it to donate two protons in solution.

Examples of dicarboxylic acids include oxalic acid (HOOC-COOH), malonic acid (CH2(COOH)2), succinic acid (HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH), glutaric acid (HOOC-(CH2)3-COOH), and adipic acid (HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH). These acids have various industrial applications, such as in the production of polymers, dyes, and pharmaceuticals.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Ethylmaleimide is a chemical compound that is commonly used in research and scientific studies. Its chemical formula is C7H10N2S. It is known to modify proteins by forming covalent bonds with them, which can alter their function or structure. This property makes it a useful tool in the study of protein function and interactions.

In a medical context, Ethylmaleimide is not used as a therapeutic agent due to its reactivity and potential toxicity. However, it has been used in research to investigate various physiological processes, including the regulation of ion channels and the modulation of enzyme activity. It is important to note that the use of Ethylmaleimide in medical research should be carried out with appropriate precautions and safety measures due to its potential hazards.

Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 (LAT1) is a type of transmembrane protein responsible for the transport of large neutral amino acids across the cell membrane. It is also known as SLC7A5, which is its official gene name according to the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). LAT1 forms a heterodimer with another protein called 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) or SLC3A2, and this complex is located on the plasma membrane.

LAT1 transports large neutral amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and methionine, as well as several drugs and toxins. It has a high affinity for these amino acids and plays an essential role in their uptake into cells. LAT1 is widely expressed in various tissues, including the brain, placenta, skeletal muscle, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas.

In the brain, LAT1 is responsible for the transport of large neutral amino acids across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is crucial for maintaining brain function. Dysregulation of LAT1 has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 - amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500.200 - amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.543.585. ...
Family 3.B.1 The Na+-transporting Carboxylic Acid Decarboxylase (NaT-DC) Family 3.C.1 The Na+ Transporting ... L-Asc) Family 4.B.1 The Nicotinamide Ribonucleoside (NR) Uptake Permease (PnuC) Family 4.C.1 The Proposed Fatty Acid ... Family 2.A.78 The Branched Chain Amino Acid Exporter (LIV-E) Family 2.A.79 The Threonine/Serine Exporter (ThrE) Family 2.A.80 ... approved classification system for membrane transport proteins, including ion channels. The upper level of classification and a ...
In plants, the parent amino acid L-tryptophan is produced endogenously where in animals L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid ... Similar active transport, and accumulation processes likely occur in human brain and may concentrate DMT in brain by several- ... Repeated and one-time administration of DMT produces marked changes in the cardiovascular system, with an increase in systolic ... In the study, researchers used three dimensions of the APZ questionnaire to examine ASC. The first dimension, oceanic ...
... and amino acids as feed. Some of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in Omega-3 fatty acids may be ... Aquaculture Stewardship Council, (ASC) (2017). ASC Salmon Standard (V1.1) (PDF). ASC. "Salmon Aquaculture Dialogue: Benthic ... More advanced systems use a percussive-stun harvest system that kills the fish instantly and humanely with a blow to the head ... Modern harvesting methods are shifting towards using wet-well ships to transport live salmon to the processing plant. This ...
... mainly on the observation that hydrophilic amino acids are overrepresented in epitope regions than hydrophobic amino acids; ... During pregnancy, a particular type of antibody, called IgG, is transported from mother to baby directly through the placenta, ... the adaptor protein ASC, and the effector molecule pro-caspase-1) that form in response to cytosolic PAMPs and DAMPs, whose ... The immune system interacts intimately with other systems, such as the endocrine and the nervous systems. The immune system ...
... amino acid decarboxylase (i) aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (i) Australian Antarctic Data Centre AAFC (i) U.S. Army Air ... Advanced Automation System American Astronomical Society ("double-A-S") AASPEM - (i) advanced air-to-air system performance ... ATI Technologies) Air Transport International - American cargo airline Atisbo - a Local Government Area in Nigeria named for ... American Standard Code for Information Interchange ASC+T - (i) Anti Slip Control + Traction ASD (i) (U.S.) Assistant Secretary ...
Organic molecules, such as amino acids, have previously been found in meteorite and comet samples, indicating that some ... Propulsion system: Based on a hydrazine monopropellant system developed for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, carrying 1,230 kg ... The capsule landed by parachute at the Utah Test and Training Range in September 2023 and was transported to the Johnson Space ... "Canada's role in OSIRIS-REx". asc-csa.gc.ca. 4 March 2013. Archived from the original on 3 September 2019. Retrieved 2 October ...
Cytotoxic T-cells recognise small peptides (8-10 amino acids) complexed to MHC class I molecules. These peptides are derived ... The innate system works with the adaptive immune system to mount a response against the DNA encoded protein. CpG-S sequences ... Antibody-secreting cells (ASC) migrate to the bone marrow and spleen for long-term antibody production, and generally localise ... Anderson RG, Kamen BA, Rothberg KG, Lacey SW (January 1992). "Potocytosis: sequestration and transport of small molecules by ...
Benison, K; Bowen, B (2006). "Acid saline lake systems give clues about past environments and the search for life on Mars". ... Bada, J.; Glavin, D. P.; McDonald, G. D.; Becker, L. (1998). "A Search for Endogenous Amino Acids in Martian Meteorite AL84001 ... "CSA - News Release". Asc-csa.gc.ca. July 2, 2009. Archived from the original on July 5, 2011. "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: ... Their shape and orientation suggests long-distance transport from above the rim of the crater, where a channel named Peace ...
The other systems for large neutral AAs (Na+-LNAA), alanine (System A), small neutral (System ASC), basic (System N) and acidic ... Amino acids are transported by systems L and y+ from blood to ECs and then into the brain. These two systems are located at ... Transport of Taurine Across the BBB. Taurine (2-amino-ethanesulfonic acid) is a sulfur-containing β-amino acid which is quite ... Cationic Amino Acid Transporter: System y+. The concentration of cationic amino acids (CAA; lysine, arginine, and ornithine) in ...
... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 - amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
Cloning and functional characterization of a system ASC-like Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. J. Biol. Chem. ... However,there is also evidence that in two species of mussel, α-amino acids had no effect on epidermal taurine transport(Wright ... inhibited taurine uptake to a smaller extent than these β-amino acids. All the other agents of α-amino acids and glycinebetaine ... The second distinct functional property is the competition of variousα-amino acids and glycinebetaine to taurine transport(Fig ...
The amino acid glycine has long been known to protect cells against plasma membrane rupture induced by a diverse set of ... ASC-expressing RAW264.7 mouse macrophages (RAW-ASC; raw-asc, InvivoGen, San Diego, CA, USA) are engineered to stably express ... R&D Systems, 315 BP-010), 20 ng/mL SCF (R&D Systems, 255-SC-050), and 50 ng/mL VEGF (R&D Systems, 293-VE-050). Cell suspension ... such as the gasdermin D pores formed during pyroptosis that are known to allow transport of small proteins and ions across ...
Extracellular D-Ser concentration is modulated by ASCT neutral amino acid transporters. L-Theanine (L-Tea), a neutral amino ... However, no acute inhibition of D-Ser transport by S-Ket was observed. Its long-term effect on the transport was also examined ... Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids of the plasma membrane and are highly enriched in the nervous system where they play a ... Astrócitos/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo , Sistema ASC de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo ...
... amino acids, vitamins, etc.). Three methods are used for Pyropia breeding; selection (Park and Hwang 2014), hybridization (Kim ... G) Fixing pole system of Pyropia. (H & I) Floating system of Pyropia. Cultivation nets are submerged under sea surface (H) and ... One seaweed company in Korea obtained the worlds first ASC-MSC (Aquaculture Stewardship Council-Marine Stewardship Council) ... to markets serves to meet consumer demand for fresh products while reducing the carbon emissions associated with transporting ...
Wolosker, H. & Mori, H., Nov 2012, In: Amino Acids. 43, 5, p. 1895-1904 10 p.. Technion - Israel Institute of Technology ... Asc-1 Transporter Regulation of Synaptic Activity via the Tonic Release of D-Serine in the Forebrain. Sason, H., Billard, JM., ... Impairment of serine transport across the blood-brain barrier by deletion of Slc38a5 causes developmental delay and motor ... D-serine signaling and NMDAR-mediated synaptic plasticity are regulated by system A-type of glutamine/ D-serine dual ...
MEFV is composed of 10 exons that encode a 781-amino acid protein called pyrin, or marenostrin, which is expressed primarily in ... 2, 5] MEFV mutation leads to formation of pyrin-marenostrin complex, which interacts with ASC and disrupts the cryopyrin-ASC ... A recently recognised chronic inflammatory disease of early onset characterised by the triad of rash, central nervous system ... Isoprenes are involved in various cellular functions, including electron transport, protein glycosylation and synthesis, and ...
Perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA), and 4:2 Fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (4.2 ... ASC). First, ASC were detected by ELISpot assays that measure cells secreting antibodies specific for signature antigens. ... Homicides of American Indians/Alaska Natives - National Violent Death Reporting System, United States, 2003-2018 Petrosky E , ... Antigens are stained using horseradish peroxidase / amino ethyl carbazole and counterstained with hematoxylin for the ...
Interestingly, only one amino acid residue is different out of the 601 amino acids in these two proteins (isoleucine vs. valine ... ORF3a interacts with TRAF3, which in turn activates ASC ubiquitination, and as a result, leads to activation of caspase 1 and ... is known to inhibit nuclear transport, and has been shown to inhibit the replication of SARS CoV-2 [78]. Other drugs have been ... Using a yeast two-hybrid system, ORF6 was shown to interact with NSP8, the nonstructural protein related to promoting RNA ...
... which is due to the sympathetic nervous systems stimulation. A small amount of insulin is needed to transport glucose to the ... accelerates metabolism and absorption of amino acids. You can also talk about the faster breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, ... Insulin transports carbohydrates for energy, while proteins and fats are used for muscle growth. Too much insulin contributes ... If you take insulin, you have to reckon with faster absorption of fatty acids, which means that fat cells grow. Excess insulin ...
... which could be due to muscimols ability to cross the blood-brain barrier through an active transport system, and the vast ... Jensen TS, Baron R, Haanpää M, Kalso E, Loeser JD, Rice ASC, et al. A new definition of neuropathic pain. Pain 2011; 152: 2204- ... Hama A, Sagen J. Combinations of intrathecal gamma-amino-butyrate receptor agonists and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor ... Toxicity of muscimol and ibotenic acid containing mushrooms reported to a regional poison control center from 2002-2016. Clin ...
In this work, the mass transport during coagulation is studied in depth using a model system and trends are confirmed with ... Polystyrene core-shell and janus particles were formulated using polymethylmethacrylate, poly(lactic acid), poly(lactic acid-co ... asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22organisationId%22%3A%22874779%22%7D%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&af=%5B%5D. ... have been synthesized using quantitative coupling between a small set of amino-functionalized poly(alkylene oxide) copolymers ( ...
Human ASC1(Asc Type Amino Acid Transporter 1) ELISA Kit. *Human AST(Aspartate Aminotransferase) ELISA Kit ... Self-Immobilized Putrescine Oxidase Biocatalyst System Engineered with a Metallic Quick Links. *Cattle bLg(Beta-Lactoglobulin) ... Rat ATP1b3(ATPase, Na+/K+ Transporting Beta 3 Polypeptide) ELISA Kit. *Rat CART(Cocaine And Amphetamine Regulated Transcript) ... Rat ATP1b3(ATPase, Na+/K+ Transporting Beta 3 Polypeptide) ELISA Kit. *Rat CART(Cocaine And Amphetamine Regulated Transcript) ...
Fatty acid elongation beyond 16 carbons (palmitic acid) can occur to generate very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), a process ... As a model system, we used primary cultured brown adipocytes.. Adrenergic stimulation of glucose uptake occurs via β3-AR in ... Norepinephrine increases glucose transport in brown adipocytes via {beta3}-adrenoceptors through a cAMP, PKA, and PI3- ... asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22organisationId%22%3A%22639%22%7D%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&af=%5B%5D. ...
asc function. ascii file. ascii character string. asm - association for systems management ...
β-Amyloid Clustering around ASC Fibrils Boosts Its Toxicity in Microglia. *A Novel and Accurate Full-Length HTT Mouse Model for ... Applications of Calcium Imaging Technology in Nervous System Research. *Applications of Optogenetics in Rodents and Non-human ... Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues near the amino ... N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Promote Astrocyte Differentiation and Neurotrophin Production Independent of cAMP in Patient- ...
Human ASC1(Asc Type Amino Acid Transporter 1) ELISA Kit. *Human AST(Aspartate Aminotransferase) ELISA Kit ... Rat ATP1b3(ATPase, Na+/K+ Transporting Beta 3 Polypeptide) ELISA Kit. *Rat CART(Cocaine And Amphetamine Regulated Transcript) ... elisa kits for covid 19 elisa kits manufacturer elisa kits manufacturer in india elisa kits nigeria elisa kits r&d systems ... The enzyme-substrate reaction is terminated by the addition of sulphuric acid solution and the color change is measured ...
Amino Acid Transport System ASC / genetics* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Association study of polymorphisms in the excitatory amino acid transporter 2 gene (SLC1A2) with schizophrenia. Deng X, Shibata ... Association study of polymorphisms in the neutral amino acid transporter genes SLC1A4, SLC1A5 and the glycine transporter genes ... Association study of polymorphisms in the neutral amino acid transporter genes SLC1A4, SLC1A5 and the glycine transporter genes ...
MeSH Terms: Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism; Amino Acid Transport System ASC/biosynthesis; Amino Acid Transport Systems, ...
System ASC and sodium-independent neutral amino acid transport in muscle of uremic rats.. Maroni BJ; Karapanos G; Mitch WE. Am ... Troglitazone increases system A amino acid transport in 3T3-L1 cells.. Su TZ; Wang M; Oxender DL; Saltiel AR. Endocrinology; ... 2. Amino acid transport systems modulate human tumor cell growth and invasion: a working hypothesis.. Singh RK; Siegal GP. Med ... 9. Inhibition of system A amino acid transport and hepatocyte proliferation following partial hepatectomy in the rat.. Freeman ...
Amino Acid Transport System ASC / genetics Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Amino acid metabolism in primary bone sarcomas. Jiménez JA, Lawlor ER, Lyssiotis CA. Jiménez JA, et al. Front Oncol. 2022 Oct 5 ... Cancer cell metabolism: the essential role of the nonessential amino acid, glutamine. EMBO J. 2017;36:1302-1315. - PMC - PubMed ...
Neutral amino acid transporters include system A, which is a member of the SGLT family of proteins, and system ASC[24,25]. Our ... and neutral amino acids. These transporters include EAAC1 for transport of the acidic amino acids glutamate and aspartate; D2H/ ... A number of different amino acid transport systems have been identified, and it is likely that there are others as yet ... Amino acids, like glucose, are nearly totally resorbed in the proximal tubule in normal subjects[20]. ...
Amino Acid Transport System ASC Proteins Amino Acid Transporter ASC System ASC Transporter System ASC Transporter Proteins ... Amino Acid Transport Systems [D12.776.157.530.200] * Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral [D12.776.157.530.200.500] * Amino ... Amino Acid Transport Systems [D12.776.543.585.200] * Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral [D12.776.543.585.200.500] * Amino ... Amino Acid Transport System ASC Preferred Term Term UI T437114. Date02/26/2001. LexicalTag ACX. ThesaurusID NLM (2002). ...
Amino Acid Transport System ASC Proteins Amino Acid Transporter ASC System ASC Transporter System ASC Transporter Proteins ... Amino Acid Transport Systems [D12.776.157.530.200] * Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral [D12.776.157.530.200.500] * Amino ... Amino Acid Transport Systems [D12.776.543.585.200] * Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral [D12.776.543.585.200.500] * Amino ... Amino Acid Transport System ASC Preferred Term Term UI T437114. Date02/26/2001. LexicalTag ACX. ThesaurusID NLM (2002). ...
... dependent alanine uptake by blLPM vesicles or the activity of amino acid transport systems, A and ASC. Because ethanol is known ... acids, 2-amino-3-phosphono-propionic acid (APPA) and 2-amino-4-phosphono-butanoic acid (APBA), diminished the amplitude of ... These amino acids might attenuate several causes of fatigue, since they are important energy substrates, transport ammonia ... To examine more closely papillary amino acid transport, we measured transepithelial fluxes of L-[(14)C]alanine and [(14)C] ...
HN - 2002; for AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER A use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (NM) 2000-2001 MH - Amino Acid Transport System ASC UI ... Acidic Amino Acid Transport Systems BX - Amino Acid Transport Systems, Anionic BX - Anionic Amino Acid Transport Systems MH - ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Cationic BX - Basic Amino Acid Transport Systems BX - Cationic Amino Acid Transport Systems MH - ... for AMINO ACID PERMEASE use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (NM) 1981-2001; for AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT ...
N0000169801 Amino Acid Transport System A N0000169803 Amino Acid Transport System ASC N0000169802 Amino Acid Transport System L ... N0000169810 Amino Acid Transport System X-AG N0000169806 Amino Acid Transport System y+ N0000169805 Amino Acid Transport System ... L N0000169799 Amino Acid Transport Systems N0000169809 Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic N0000169804 Amino Acid Transport ... Systems, Basic N0000169800 Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral N0000006806 Amino Acids N0000011372 Amino Acids, Acidic ...
Huo T, Chang B, Zhang Y, Chen Z, Li W and Jiang H (2012) Alteration of amino acid neurotransmitters in brain tissues of ... and DMA after subtracting AsC and AsB from the total. In most cases, AsC and AsB were nondetectable. ... Arsenic that is naturally present in soil can be mobilized and transported, leading to increased concentrations of As in ... urinary As concentrations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using the Analyst 600 graphite furnace system ( ...
Methylenecyclcopropylglycine (MCPG) and hypoglycin A (HGA) are naturally occurring amino acids found in various soapberry ( ... Systems thinking and simulation modeling (systems science) provide a set of approaches and techniques to aid decision makers in ... She was taken to the local emergency department and then transported to a larger hospital in Anchorage where she was admitted ... We examined how the absence of caspase-1 and caspase-11, the adapter protein Asc, and other inflammasome components affects ...
At the same time, L-carnitine plays a crucial role in energy production by transporting fatty acids into your cells ... From essential vitamins and minerals to amino acids and antioxidants, these supplements can offer a nutritional safety net. ... Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system, increasing alertness and energy levels, while green tea extract has been shown ... Ingredients commonly found in fat burners include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), L-carnitine, and omega-3 fatty acids. CLA is ...
Pregabalin is a substrate for system L transporter which is responsible for the transport of large amino acids across the blood ... You can also call on Ascend Laboratories, LLC at 1-877-ASC-RX01 (877-272-7901). ... Body system Preferred term. 75 mg/day [N=77] % 150 mg/day [N=212] % 300 mg/day [N=321] % 600 mg/day [N=369] % All PGB* [N=979] ... System Organ Class Preferred term. 150 mg/d [N=132] % 300 mg/d [N=502] % 450 mg/d [N=505] % 600 mg/d [N=378] % All PGB* [N=1517 ...
Amino Acid Transport System ASC [D12.776.157.530.200.500.200] Amino Acid Transport System ASC ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral Entry term(s). Neutral Amino Acid Transport Proteins Neutral Amino Acid Transport Systems ... Zwitterionic Amino Acid Transport Proteins Zwitterionic Amino Acid Transport Systems Zwitterionic Amino Acid Transporters ... Na+-Independent Neutral Amino Acid Transporter. Neutral Amino Acid Transport Proteins. Neutral Amino Acid Transport Systems. ...
... sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids (system B(0,+)-like activity). Thought to be ... Nlrp6 Rattus norvegicus May mediate activation of CASP1 via ASC and promote activation of NF-kappa-B (By similarity). ... Could act as a detoxifying agent which removes D-amino acids accumulated during aging. Acts on a variety of D-amino acids with ... Competes with BAAT (Bile acid CoA: amino acid N-acyltransferase) for bile acid-CoA (chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA) substrate. Shows a ...
The colorized area displays the long, winding chain of amino acids within the protein as helices in shades of green, blue and ... Fortunately, they and their ASC colleagues already had assembled a vast trove of data. Over the last decade, the ASC had ... PfCRT is a transport protein embedded in the surface membrane of what passes for the gut of P. falciparum. Because the gene ... The Gatlin lab is continuing to use their X. laevis system to ask fundamental questions about microtubule assembly. For many ...
Two important amino acids in M2e epitope, Threonine at position five and the Glutamic acid at position six, were identified to ... Clearfil Protect Bond or an acid-etching adhesive system, Single Bond. The bonded interface was exposed to an artificial ... The results of neutron and gamma transport calculations performed for the model have shown that the facility will be able to ... Previously, we demonstrated that RXR functions as an allosteric activator of LXR binding to ASC-2 coactivator rather than as a ...
Keywords: گلوتامین سنتتاز; CNS; central nervous system; DM; diabetes mellitus; EAAC1; excitatory amino acid carrier 1; GLUT; ... Keywords: گلوتامین سنتتاز; ANIT; alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate; APAP; acetaminophen; ASC; activated stellate cells; ASH; ... Seasonal nitrogen cycling in temperate trees: Transport and regulatory mechanisms are key missing links ... Keywords: گلوتامین سنتتاز; AM; arbuscular mycorrhizal; AAP; amino acid permeases; AAT; amino acid transporter; AMT; ammonium ...
amino acid transport. 6 Select filter option. cellular amino acid metabolic process. 6 Select filter option. neutral amino acid ... hematopoietic system phenotype. 4 Select filter option. mortality/aging. 4 Select filter option. nervous system phenotype. 4 ... SLC7A10Asc-type amino acid transporter 1. help help. Gene Details. Gene Symbol: SLC7A10 ... Transport of inorganic cations/anions and amino acids/oligopeptides. 10 Select filter option. Transport of small molecules. 10 ...
amino acid transport. 6 Select filter option. cellular amino acid metabolic process. 6 Select filter option. neutral amino acid ... hematopoietic system phenotype. 4 Select filter option. mortality/aging. 4 Select filter option. nervous system phenotype. 4 ... SLC7A10Asc-type amino acid transporter 1. help help. Gene Details. Gene Symbol: SLC7A10 ... Transport of inorganic cations/anions and amino acids/oligopeptides. 10 Select filter option. Transport of small molecules. 10 ...
C. regius preys on amphinomid worms and employs a small, 13 amino acid α-conotoxin known as RgIA. RgIA was shown to potently ... 2017b). Physiological functions of the cholinergic system in immune cells. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 134, 1-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jphs. ... AAT, α1-antitrypsin; ACh, acetylcholine; ASC, apoptosis-associated speck like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain; ... Drug Metabolism and Transport. *Drugs Outcomes Research and Policies. *ELSI in Science and Genetics ...
Human ASC1(Asc Type Amino Acid Transporter 1) ELISA Kit. *Human AST(Aspartate Aminotransferase) ELISA Kit ... Self-Immobilized Putrescine Oxidase Biocatalyst System Engineered with a Metallic Quick Links. *Cattle bLg(Beta-Lactoglobulin) ... Human ATP7b(ATPase, Cu++ Transporting Beta Polypeptide) ELISA Kit To Order : [email protected]. Human ATPase, Cu++ Transporting ... Human ATPase, Cu++ Transporting Beta Polypeptide (ATP7b) ELISA Kit. SEG386Hu-10x96wellstestplate Cloud-Clone 10x96-wells test ...
... amino acids (e.g. phenylalanine). A systematic review of probiotics for people with CF revealed low-quality evidence suggestive ... Publication Date Asc Publication Date Desc Item Created Date Asc Item Created Date Desc ... GSH is also transported by MRP1 as a low-affinity endogenous substrate. Some small molecules (MRP1 modulators), upon binding ... This provides a useful first step for developing a clinical multimodality global scoring system that integrates the most ...
Identification of a New Fatty Acid Synthesis-Transport Machinery at the Peroxisomal Membrane​. Hillebrand, M.; Gersting, S. W ... TRR 274: Checkpoints of Central Nervous System Recovery 4 * SFB 1002 , A10: Peroxisomen als modulatorische Einheiten im ... Targeting elements in the amino-terminal part direct the human 70-kDa peroxisomal integral membrane protein (PMP70) to ... ASC DESC Title. ASC DESC Embed JavaScript. Link. My Publication Export Activate Export Mode ...
  • In a broad sense, there are at least five different systems of facilitative transporters and all of them are found in the luminal membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • The position of these Na + -independent transporters ensures AA availability in the brain and also its bidirectional transport across the endothelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • It should be noted that manifestation of additional amino acid service providers and membrane transporters (System ASC, the Na,K-ATPase and the GLUT4 glucose transporter), are not likewise affected suggesting the adaptive increase in SNAT2 forms portion of a coordinated cell response to nutrient stress. (researchatlanta.org)
  • We applied this platform to identify the transporters of amino acids in leukaemia cells and found that amino acid transport involves high bidirectional flux dependent on the microenvironment composition. (biomed.news)
  • Rag-GTPases sense amino acid availability to modulate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway and suppress transcription factor EB (TFEB) and transcription factor enhancer 3 (TFE3), members of the microphthalmia (MiT/TFE) family of HLH-leucine zipper transcription factors. (biomed.news)
  • However, how Rag-GTPases coordinate amino acid sensing, mTORC1 activation, and TFEB/TFE3 activity in humoral immunity remains undefined. (biomed.news)
  • The SLC6 gene family comprises membrane proteins that transport neurotransmitters, amino acids, or osmolytes. (rhea-db.org)
  • Tyrosine is a critical amino acid for synthesising dopamine and noradrenaline neurotransmitters. (crossthelimits.co.uk)
  • The term blood-brain barrier (BBB) was used to describe the unique characteristics of the microvasculature of the central nervous system (CNS). (frontiersin.org)
  • It's been widely known that the amino acid Glycine can work as a cytoprotectant and inhibit cell death-associated plasma membrane rupture. (elifesciences.org)
  • The amino acid glycine has long been known to protect cells against plasma membrane rupture induced by a diverse set of injurious stimuli. (elifesciences.org)
  • [14] The material, returned in September 2023, is expected to enable scientists to learn more about the formation and evolution of the Solar System , its initial stages of planet formation, and the source of organic compounds that led to the formation of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic molecules, such as amino acids , have previously been found in meteorite and comet samples, indicating that some ingredients necessary for life can be naturally synthesized in outer space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sustained periods of extracellular amino acid deprivation result in up-regulation of SNAT2 manifestation/function Bergenin (Cuscutin) by a mechanism partly sensitive to inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis (8, 9). (researchatlanta.org)
  • It is thought that under amino acid deficient conditions SNAT2 may adopt a structurally more stable construction, whereas SNAT2 occupancy by any one single amino acid substrate is definitely sensed as reflecting a state of amino acid sufficiency and one that signals a reduction in SNAT2 transcription and connected destabilization/loss of SNAT2 protein (13). (researchatlanta.org)
  • As a result, SNAT2 is thought to function as an amino acid sensor or transceptor with the capacity to transmission to nutrient responsive pathways that effect upon gene manifestation and protein turnover. (researchatlanta.org)
  • In healthy individuals, cryopyrin and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) interact via the oligomerization of ASC to induce both apoptosis and activate nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B. (medscape.com)
  • In aquatic invertebrates such as molluscs, not equipped with advanced mechanisms for regulating their internal environment, osmotic adaptation at a cellular level using an `osmolyte system' plays an essential role. (silverchair.com)
  • Although several studies possess explored the processes by which SNAT2 is definitely up-regulated Bergenin (Cuscutin) in response to amino acid deprivation, our knowledge of. (researchatlanta.org)
  • Several layers of regulation monitor the efficiency of mRNA translation, including the translation rate, amino acid composition, and mRNA secondary structures. (embopress.org)
  • This is a substance that affects the entire nervous system. (crossthelimits.co.uk)
  • They play a significant role in the nervous system and ensure its proper functioning. (crossthelimits.co.uk)
  • The beneficial effect of L-theanine probably lies in the fact that it raises the level of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which inhibits the nervous system. (crossthelimits.co.uk)
  • Plant biostimulants have received considerable attention lately, and are increasingly being integrated into agriculture and production systems as plant growth and yield regulators/promoters as well as pre-stress conditioners [ 10 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Precisely how an increase in SNAT2 transcription is definitely induced by amino acid deficiency remains unclear, although genetic interventions and use of pharmacological inhibitors have implicated the GCN2/ATF4 pathway (7) and users of the MAP kinase family (ERK and JNK), the second option through nutrient signaling loci Bergenin (Cuscutin) that Rabbit polyclonal to SCFD1 remain unidentified (11, 12). (researchatlanta.org)
  • L-DOPA, also called levodopa, is an amino acid, a tyrosine derivative, found in the seeds of some plant species. (crossthelimits.co.uk)
  • On the other hand, there are several Na + -dependent transport systems that transport AAs against its concentration gradient together with the movement of Na + ions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Collectively, our findings indicate that improved availability of unsaturated fatty acids can compromise the stress-induced induction/adaptation in SNAT2 manifestation and function by advertising its degradation the ubiquitin-proteasome system. (researchatlanta.org)
  • We report the first functional characterization of the human SLC6A15 gene, which codes for a sodium-coupled branched-chain amino-acid transporter 1 (SBAT1). (rhea-db.org)
  • of Nedd4.2, an E3-ligase implicated in SNAT2 ubiquitination, but shRNA-directed Nedd4.2 gene silencing could not curb fatty acid-induced loss of SNAT2 adaptation. (researchatlanta.org)
  • Indeed, the transcriptional up-regulation of SNAT2 in response to amino acid withdrawal relies upon a tripartite amino acid response element in the 1st intron of the gene (10). (researchatlanta.org)
  • [ 2 , 5 ] MEFV mutation leads to formation of pyrin-marenostrin complex, which interacts with ASC and disrupts the cryopyrin-ASC interaction and specifically inhibits apoptosis and NF-kappa B activation. (medscape.com)
  • A key conserved cellular trait is the ability of SNAT2 to be up-regulated in response to extracellular amino acid limitation. (researchatlanta.org)
  • In summary, the polarized distribution of these transport systems between the luminal and abluminal membranes, and the fact that more than one transporter may carry the same substrate, ensures supply and excretion of AAs in and out of the brain, thereby controlling its homeostasis and proper function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Such up-regulation is definitely a property shared by a group of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport (asparagine synthase) and is normally referred to as adaptive rules (6, 7). (researchatlanta.org)
  • This system with the two main parts and their groups makes it possible to combine two (or more) distinct searches into one search result, while being flexible in removing results from the final list. (diva-portal.org)
  • The active ingredient in the formula is a plant amino acid that is a component of only a few plant species. (crossthelimits.co.uk)
  • The luminal transport of glucose in the proximal convoluted tubule involves two sodium coupled transport proteins. (medscape.com)
  • Probe Set ID Ref Seq Protein ID Signal Strength Name Gene Symbol Species Function Swiss-Prot ID Amino Acid Sequence 1367452_at NP_598278 7.9 small ubiquitin-related modifier 2 precursor Sumo2 Rattus norvegicus " Ubiquitin-like protein that can be covalently attached to proteins as a monomer or as a lysine-linked polymer. (nih.gov)
  • This post-translational modification on lysine residues of proteins plays a crucial role in a number of cellular processes such as nuclear transport, DNA replication and repair, mitosis and signal transduction. (nih.gov)
  • Coatomer complex is required for budding from Golgi membranes, and is essential for the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins. (nih.gov)
  • These proteins are 60-80 amino acids in length, contain four disulfide bonds, and when injected produce paralysis in marine and terrestrial vertebrata. (frontiersin.org)
  • We report here association studies of schizophrenia with SLC1A4, SLC1A5 encoding neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1, ASCT2, and SLC6A5, SLC6A9 encoding glycine transporters GLYT2, GLYT1, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Neutral amino acid transport in embryonal carcinoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Neutral amino acid transport into rat skeletal muscle: competition, adaptive regulation, and effects of insulin. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Neutral amino acid transport in human synovial cells: substrate specificity of adaptative regulation and transinhibition. (nih.gov)
  • 20. System ASC and sodium-independent neutral amino acid transport in muscle of uremic rats. (nih.gov)
  • A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL). (bvsalud.org)
  • Arsenic is methylated to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) via one-carbon metabolism, a biochemical pathway that is dependent on folate. (nih.gov)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human ATPase, Cu++ Transporting Beta Polypeptide (ATP7b) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (lotuskringpoeldijk.nl)
  • 6. Simultaneous regulation of amino acid influx and efflux by system A in the hepatoma cell HTC. (nih.gov)
  • Some small molecules (MRP1 'modulators'), upon binding to MRP1, greatly enhance this innate GSH transport whilst simultaneously blocking the efflux of chemotherapeutics. (edu.au)
  • These amino acids might attenuate several causes of fatigue, since they are important energy substrates, transport ammonia avoiding the accumulation of this toxic metabolite and attenuate muscle damage and oxidative stress. (bvsalud.org)
  • mutation carriers who showed increased urinary concentrations in the urine of 14 of 16 amino acids when compared with age-matched, family control subjects. (medscape.com)
  • 19. Electrophysiological investigation of the amino acid carrier selectivity in epithelial cells from Xenopus embryo. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Delineation of sodium-stimulated amino acid transport pathways in rabbit kidney brush border vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Beta-adrenergic stimulation of Ca2+ fluxes, endocytosis, hexose transport, and amino acid transport in mouse kidney cortex is mediated by polyamine synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • From essential vitamins and minerals to amino acids and antioxidants, these supplements can offer a nutritional safety net. (crossthelimits.co.uk)
  • Contrary to expectations, DIP administration increased central fatigue parameters, such as plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA), hypothalamic content of serotonin and serotonin/dopamine ratio. (bvsalud.org)
  • CDC analyzed SCD among caregivers aged 45 years through a cross-sectional analysis of data from 22 states in the 2015-2019 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). (cdc.gov)
  • introduce new users to the MEDLARS system, its content, its searching capability, and basic commands. (nih.gov)
  • The transient CD45-mediated activation nucleus interferon provides the DNA of H+ residues into the formation, which occurs ornithine acids, signaling in the character of RNP concerted of the public available Fibroblast Gap. (evakoch.com)
  • 2, 5] MEFV mutation leads to formation of pyrin-marenostrin complex, which interacts with ASC and disrupts the cryopyrin-ASC interaction and specifically inhibits apoptosis and NF-kappa B activation. (medscape.com)
  • 11. Troglitazone increases system A amino acid transport in 3T3-L1 cells. (nih.gov)
  • To gain a more detailed view of microtubules in action, researchers designed an experimental system that utilizes an extract of cells from the African clawed frog ( Xenopus laevis ). (nih.gov)
  • subunits and domain in New Zealand: Following the signals for womens degradation: A blood obtained in enzyme of the transports for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in origin at the University of Canterbury. (evakoch.com)
  • Given the therapeutic potential for MRP1 modulators, their MRP1 binding site and mechanism of action as GSH transport modulators was investigated to provide a basis for future structure-guided design of more potent and selective modulators. (edu.au)
  • CLOSE INITIAL ONLINE TRAINING The goal of this course is to provide an overview of the MEDLARS system and the basic ELHILL searching capabilities. (nih.gov)
  • The Gatlin lab is continuing to use their X. laevis system to ask fundamental questions about microtubule assembly. (nih.gov)