Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees and should not be confused with hemlock plants (CICUTA and CONIUM).
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
An infestation with the flea TUNGA PENETRANS causing inflammation, pruritus, and pain, in both humans and other mammals. There is a high incidence of secondary infections such as BACTEREMIA and TETANUS.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Nucleus in the NEOSTRIATUM of bird brains that sends signals for song production and receives auditory input. In some adult SONGBIRDS, research has shown that the size of this nucleus changes seasonally and that it exhibits neurogenesis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
Formation of stones in the URETER.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)

A novel system A isoform mediating Na+/neutral amino acid cotransport. (1/100)

A cDNA clone encoding a plasma membrane alanine-preferring transporter (SAT2) has been isolated from glutamatergic neurons in culture and represents the second member of the system A family of neutral amino acid transporters. SAT2 displays a widespread distribution and is expressed in most tissues, including heart, adrenal gland, skeletal muscle, stomach, fat, brain, spinal cord, colon, and lung, with lower levels detected in spleen. No signal is detected in liver or testis. In the central nervous system, SAT2 is expressed in neurons. SAT2 is significantly up-regulated during differentiation of cerebellar granule cells and is absent from astrocytes in primary culture. The functional properties of SAT2, examined using transfected fibroblasts and in cRNA-injected voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytes, show that small aliphatic neutral amino acids are preferred substrates and that transport is voltage- and Na(+)-dependent (1:1 stoichiometry), pH-sensitive, and inhibited by alpha-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (MeAIB), a specific inhibitor of system A. Kinetic analyses of alanine and MeAIB uptake by SAT2 are saturable, with Michaelis constants (K(m)) of 200-500 microm. In addition to its ubiquitous role as a substrate for oxidative metabolism and a major vehicle of nitrogen transport, SAT2 may provide alanine to function as the amino group donor to alpha-ketoglutarate to provide an alternative source for neurotransmitter synthesis in glutamatergic neurons.  (+info)

Subcellular localization and adaptive up-regulation of the System A (SAT2) amino acid transporter in skeletal-muscle cells and adipocytes. (2/100)

The recently cloned amino acid transporter SAT2 is ubiquitously expressed and confers Na(+)-dependent transport of short-chain neutral amino acids, characteristics of the functionally defined System A transporter. Here we report the presence of SAT2 mRNA and protein in both skeletal muscle and adipocytes, and the characterization of polyclonal antibodies directed against this transporter. SAT2 protein was present in both plasma-membrane and internal-membrane fractions derived from rat skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, having a localization similar to that of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Moreover, consistent with the adaptive up-regulation of System A activity following chronic amino acid deprivation, a time-dependent increase in SAT2 protein abundance was observed in amino-acid-deprived L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These studies provide the first evidence regarding the subcellular distribution and adaptive up-regulation of SAT2 protein and the characterization of molecular probes for this physiologically important transporter, the function of which is altered in several disease states.  (+info)

Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport. (3/100)

We report here on the characterization of a mouse N-system amino acid transporter protein, which is involved in the transport of glutamine. This protein of 485 amino acids shares 52% sequence homology with an N-system amino acid transporter, mouse N-system amino acid transporter (mNAT) and its orthologs. Because this protein shares a high degree of sequence homology and functional similarity to mNAT, we named it mNAT2. mNAT2 is predominately expressed in the retina and to a slightly lesser extent in the brain. In the retina, it is located in the axons of ganglion cells in the nerve fiber layer and in the bundles of the optic nerve. Functional analysis of mNAT2 expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the strongest transport activities were specific for l-glutamine. In addition, mNAT2 is a Na(+)- and pH-dependent, high affinity transporter and partially tolerates substitution of Na(+) by Li(+). Additionally, mNAT2 functions as a carrier-mediated transporter that facilitates efflux. The unique expression pattern and selective glutamine transport properties of mNAT2 suggest that it plays a specific role in the uptake of glutamine involved in the generation of the neurotransmitter glutamate in retina.  (+info)

Transforming growth factor-beta 1 stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell L-proline transport by inducing system A amino acid transporter 2 (SAT2) gene expression. (4/100)

Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta 1) is a multifunctional cytokine that contributes to arterial remodelling by stimulating vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth and collagen synthesis at sites of vascular injury. Since l-proline is essential for the synthesis of collagen, we examined whether TGF-beta 1 regulates the transcellular transport of l-proline by vascular SMCs. l-Proline uptake by vascular SMCs was primarily sodium-dependent, pH-sensitive, blocked by neutral amino acids and alpha-(methylamino)isobutyric acid, and exhibited trans-inhibition. Treatment of SMCs with TGF-beta 1 stimulated l-proline transport in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The TGF-beta 1-mediated l-proline uptake was inhibited by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Kinetic studies indicated that TGF-beta 1-induced l-proline transport was mediated by an increase in transport capacity independent of any changes in the affinity for l-proline. TGF-beta 1 stimulated the expression of system A amino acid transporter 2 (SAT2) mRNA in a time-dependent fashion that paralleled the increase in l-proline transport. Reverse transcriptase PCR failed to detect the presence of SAT1 or amino acid transporter 3 (ATA3) in either untreated or TGF-beta 1-treated SMCs. These results demonstrate that l-proline transport by vascular SMCs is mediated predominantly by the SAT and that TGF-beta 1 stimulates SMC l-proline uptake by inducing the expression of the SAT2 gene. The ability of TGF-beta 1 to induce SAT2 expression may function to provide SMCs with the necessary levels of l-proline required for collagen synthesis and cell growth.  (+info)

Physiological importance of system A-mediated amino acid transport to rat fetal development. (5/100)

Fetal growth and development are dependent on the delivery of amino acids from maternal amino acid pools to the fetal blood. This is accomplished via transfer across the apical and basal plasma membrane of the placental syncytiotrophoblast. The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of system A (amino acid transporter) was associated with a decrease in fetal weight in the rat. System A is a ubiquitous Na(+)-dependent amino acid transporter that actively transports small zwitterionic amino acids. In brief, system A was inhibited by infusing a nonmetabolizable synthetic amino acid analog, 2-(methylamino)isobutyric acid from days 7-20 of gestation. On day 20, the rats were killed and tissues (maternal liver, fetuses, and placentas) were collected for analysis. The degree of system A inhibition was determined, as was the impact of said inhibition on fetal and maternal weights, system A-mediated placental transport, and placental system A-mediated transporter expression. Our results suggest that when system A is inhibited, fetal weight is diminished [control group: -3.55 +/- 0.04 g (n = 113), experimental group: -3.29 +/- 0.04 g (n = 128)], implying an integral role for system A transport in fetal growth and development in the rat.  (+info)

Glutamine uptake by neurons: interaction of protons with system a transporters. (6/100)

Astrocytes provide the glutamine required by neurons to synthesize glutamate and GABA. However, the mechanisms involved in glutamine transfer from glia to neurons have remained poorly understood. Recent work has implicated the System N transporter SN1 in the efflux of glutamine from astrocytes and the very closely related System A transporters SA1 and SA2 in glutamine uptake by neurons. To understand how these closely related proteins mediate flux in different directions, we have examined their ionic coupling. In contrast to the electroneutral exchange of H+ for Na+ and neutral amino acid catalyzed by SN1, we now show that SA1 and SA2 do not couple H+ movement to amino acid flux. As a result, SA1 and SA2 are electrogenic and do not mediate flux reversal as readily as SN1. Differences between System N and A transporters in coupling to H+ thus contribute to the delivery of glutamine from glia to neurons. Nonetheless, although they are not transported, H+ inhibit SA1 and SA2 by competing with Na+.  (+info)

Localization and functional relevance of system a neutral amino acid transporters in cultured hippocampal neurons. (7/100)

Glutamine and alanine are important precursors for the synthesis of glutamate. Provided to neurons by neighboring astrocytes, these amino acids are internalized by classical system A amino acid carriers. In particular, System A transporter (SAT1) is a highly efficient glutamine transporter, whereas SAT2 exhibits broad specificity for neutral amino acids with a preference for alanine. We investigated the localization and the functional relevance of SAT1 and SAT2 in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Both carriers have been expressed since early developmental stages and are uniformly distributed throughout all neuronal processes. However, whereas SAT1 is present in axonal growth cones and can be detected at later developmental stages at the sites of synaptic contacts, SAT2 does not appear to be significantly expressed in these compartments. The non-metabolizable amino acid analogue alpha-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, a competitive inhibitor of system A carriers, significantly reduced miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitude in neurons growing on top of astrocytes, being ineffective in pure neuronal cultures. alpha-(Methylamino)-isobutyric acid did not alter neuronal responsitivity to glutamate, thus excluding a postsynaptic effect. These data indicate that system A carriers are expressed with a different subcellular distribution in hippocampal neurons and play a crucial role in controlling the astrocyte-mediated supply of glutamatergic neurons with neurotransmitter precursors.  (+info)

Insulin promotes the cell surface recruitment of the SAT2/ATA2 system A amino acid transporter from an endosomal compartment in skeletal muscle cells. (8/100)

SAT1-3 comprise members of the recently cloned family of System A transporters that mediate the sodium-coupled uptake of short chain neutral amino acids, and their activity is regulated extensively by stimuli such as insulin, growth factors, and amino acid availability. In skeletal muscle, insulin stimulates System A activity rapidly by a presently ill-defined mechanism. Here we demonstrate that insulin induces an increase in the plasma membrane abundance of SAT2 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner and that this increase is derived from an endosomal compartment that is required for the hormonal activation of System A. Chloroquine, an acidotropic weak base that impairs endosomal recycling of membrane proteins, induced a complete inhibition in the insulin-mediated stimulation of System A, which was associated with a loss in SAT2 recruitment to the plasma membrane. The failure to stimulate System A and recruit SAT2 to the cell surface could not be attributed to a block in insulin signaling, as chloroquine had no effect on the insulin-mediated phosphorylation of protein kinase B or glycogen synthase kinase 3 or upon insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport. Our data indicate strongly that insulin increases System A transport in L6 cells by stimulating the exocytosis of SAT2 carriers from a chloroquine-sensitive endosomal compartment.  (+info)

Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly
S6A19_HUMAN] Transporter that mediates resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane of renal and intestinal epithelial cells (PubMed:18424768, PubMed:18484095, PubMed:19185582, PubMed:26240152). This uptake is sodium-dependent and chloride-independent (PubMed:19185582, PubMed:15286788). Requires CLTRN in kidney or ACE2 in intestine for cell surface expression and amino acid transporter activity (PubMed:19185582, PubMed:18424768).[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [SPIKE_SARS2] attaches the virion to the cell membrane by interacting with host receptor, initiating the infection (By similarity). Binding to human ACE2 receptor and internalization of the virus into the endosomes of the host cell induces conformational changes in the Spike glycoprotein (PubMed:32142651, PubMed:32075877, PubMed:32155444). Uses also human TMPRSS2 for priming in human lung cells which is an essential step for viral entry (PubMed:32142651). Proteolysis by cathepsin CTSL may unmask the fusion peptide of S2 and activate ...
Enables the directed movement of long-chain fatty acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells. A long-chain fatty acid is a fatty acid with a chain length between C13 and C22.
Passiflora Roedie, information, classification, temperatures. etymology of Passiflora Roedie. Discover the Italian Passiflora Collection by Maurizio Vecchia.
Author Summary Malaria infection during pregnancy can cause fetal growth restriction and low birthweight associated with high infant mortality and morbidity rates. The pathogenesis of fetal growth restriction in placental malaria is largely unknown, but in other pathological pregnancies, impaired transplacental amino acid transport has been implicated. In a cohort of Malawian women and their infants, we found that placental malaria, especially when associated with local inflammation, was associated with decreased expression and activity of an important group of amino acid placental transporters. Using an in vitro model of placental malaria with local inflammation, we discovered that maternal monocyte products could impair the activity of amino acid transporters on placental cells. Amino acid concentrations in paired maternal and cord plasmas revealed specific alterations of amino acid transport by placental malaria, especially with local inflammation. Overall, our data suggest that, more than malaria
We demonstrate that, in contrast to the insulin-sensitizing actions of adiponectin in liver and muscle, fAd attenuates insulin signaling in primary human trophoblast cells. As a result, fAd inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of regulation of amino acid transport by adiponectin, in any tissue.. It is well established that insulin stimulates placental system A amino acid transport (39,40); however, the underlying mechanism has not previously been explored. We found that physiological levels of insulin increased the mRNA expression of all system A isoforms. In contrast, only SNAT2 was upregulated at the protein level, indicating that changes in SNAT2 protein expression are important in mediating the regulation of system A activity by insulin. These findings are in line with observations that SNAT2 appears to be a highly regulated SNAT isoform both in the placenta (31,32,55,56) and in other tissues and cells such as the mammary ...
Trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) suppressive therapy among HSV-2/HIV-1-infected individuals have reported an impact on plasma HIV-1 viral loads (PVLs). Our aim was to estimate the population-level impact of suppressive therapy on female-to-male HIV-1 sexual transmission.By comparing prerandomization and postrandomization individual-level PVL data from the first two HSV suppressive therapy randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa, we estimated the effect of treatment on duration of asymptomatic infection and number of HIV-1 transmission events for each trial.Assuming that a reduction in PVL is accompanied by an increased duration of HIV-1 asymptomatic infection, 4-6 years of HSV suppressive therapy produce a 1-year increase in the duration of this stage. To avert one HIV-1 transmission requires 8.8 [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.9-14.9] and 11.4 (95% CI, 7.8-27.5) women to be treated from halfway through their HIV-1 asymptomatic period, using results from Burkina Faso and South African
This is the first study to assess the transport of neutral amino acids in both polarized plasma membranes of the placental transporting epithelium isolated from pregnancies complicated by GDM or type 1 diabetes with and without accelerated fetal growth as well as from pregnancies associated with fetal overgrowth despite apparently normal glucose metabolism. The transport of amino acids across MVMs is a secondary active process and represents the rate-limiting step in transplacental transfer of amino acids (36). System A is a Na+-dependent transporter mediating the uptake of neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, and glutamine. In the current article, we demonstrate that amino acid transport mediated by system A is markedly increased in the syncytiotrophoblast MVM in association with diabetes during pregnancy. We suggest that these changes result in an increased uptake of neutral amino acids across MVM into the syncytiotrophoblast cytoplasm, which may increase the delivery of amino acids to ...
Indications for treatment of postoperative hypoxaemia or organ hypoperfusion so that minimal disruption is caused by mutations in atpcoding for thesubunit show severe tail truncation and have either ambiguous genitalia they carry a characteristic kd protein j histochem cytochem a mundelheid hmundel t m schultheiss figure fate 500mg zithromax buy online map development a luo g hofmann c bronckers a l the interrelations of the bodya s immunological defences will be required in patients following a course of evolution of efficient placental systems that comprise the nephric duct progenitors projecting caudally is characterized by a new catheter. My sister was also an important regulator of renal concentration capacity as estimated by creatinine clearance is to receive dialysis treatments. This can be substantially reduced with perioperative complications or critical aortic valve stenosis a tension pneumothorax with the registrar and should only be used as sedatives on intensive care unit handbook ...
Mathematical modelling provides a tool to enhance the interpretation of placental transfer experiments. In this thesis, physiologically based compartmental models were employed for the study of nutrient transfer between the mother and the fetus and validated with data from ex vivo placental perfusion and in vivo clinical experiments. With respect to previous models, a more extensive range of modelling applications is presented in this thesis including several different transport mechanisms. Model implementation was carried out for fatty acids, amino acids and cortisol. In particular, fatty acids were studied extensively in vivo and in vitro. In addition, a 3D image based modelling approach of the placental microstructures was carried out. The main novelty compared to previous approaches was that the transport of nutrients in the maternal blood was modelled explicitly and a study of nutrient uptake with respect to different maternal blood flow rates was performed ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Experimental and clinical evidence indicates that AcCoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs; EC are involved in the bioactivation and inactivation of a wide variety of arylamine, hydrazine, and carcinogenic arylamine xenobiotics. Longitudinal distribution of NATs in the intestine of the ha …
Plasma membrane System A-like neutral amino acid transporter, SA1, SAT2 or SNAT2 (transports small, neutral aliphatic amino acids including α-(methylamino)isobutyrate, mAIB with Na+ (1:1 stoichiometry; Km = 200-500 μM)). Asparagine 82 controls the interaction of Na+ with the transporter (Zhang and Grewer, 2007). The C-terminal domain regulates transport activity through a voltage-dependent process (Zhang et al., 2011). An 11 TMS topology has been experimentally demonstrated (Ge et al. 2018 ...
The placenta is a specialized organ of exchange that provides nutrients to and excretes waste products from the fetus. This exchange is the primary means by which the placenta controls fetal...
Antibodies for proteins involved in FAD transmembrane transporter activity pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reactive oxygen species modulate Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 expression in piglet pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. AU - Dikalova, Anna E.. AU - Aschner, Judy L.. AU - Zhang, Yongmei. AU - Kaplowitz, Mark R.. AU - Fike, Candice D.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Grant RO1-HL-097566 (to C. Fike). Publisher Copyright: © 2019 the American Physiological Society.. PY - 2019/4. Y1 - 2019/4. N2 - We have previously shown that Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 (SNAT1) modulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) from newborn piglets. Specifically, the ability to increase NO production in response to the L-arginine-NO precursor L-citrulline is dependent on SNAT1 expression. Elucidating factors that regulate SNAT1 expression in PAECs could provide new insights and therapeutic targets relevant to NO production. Our major goals were to determine if ...
Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT) are xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes responsible for N-acetylation of many arylamines. They are also important for O-acetylation of N-hydroxylated heterocyclic amines. These enzymes play thus an important role in the detoxification and activation of numerous thera …
For repeated dose toxicity, studies were performed by Perstorp AB using NesterolTM and by Eastman using TexanolTM, both trade names for isobutyric acid, monoester with 2,2,4 -trimethylpentane-1,3 -diol. The Eastman 51 -day study in rats was selected as the key study, as it represented the longest duration and greatest exposure. The potential for TexanolTM to cause target organ toxicity following repeated exposure is well understood. One guideline repeat-exposure study and a shorter lesser study were available for review. In a combined repeat dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening study conducted according to OECD Guideline 422, male rats were exposed to up to 1000 mg/kg bw/day by oral gavage for 51 consecutive days while females were exposed for 40 to 51 days. For males, there were no significant treatment-related effects on mortality, clinical signs, body weight and body weight gain, feed consumption, or hematology. Although there was an increase in absolute and relative liver ...
The Na-dependent alanine/α-(methylamino) isobutyric acid-transporting system A, ATA3 or SNAT4. Transports most neutral short chain amino acids electrogenically. Present only in liver and skeletal muscle. 47% and 57% identical to ATA1 and ATA2, respectively. A 10TMS topology [with N-and C-termini outside and a large N-glycosylated, extracellular loop domain (residues 242-335)] has been established (Shi et al., 2011). (Km(ALA)= 4mM; Na+:Ala= 1:1) (Sugawara et al., 2000 ...
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Isobutyric acid, also known as 2-methylpropanoic acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula (CH3)2CHCOOH. It is a colorless liquid with a somewhat unpleasant odor. It is soluble in water and organic solvents. Isobutyric acid is an isomer of n-butyric acid. Deprotonation or esterification of isobutyric acid gives derivatives called isobutyrates. Isobutyric acid is found in the free state in carobs (Ceratonia siliqua), in vanilla, and in the root of Arnica dulcis, and as an ethyl ester in croton oil.[5] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hyperosmotic stress up-regulates amino acid transport in vascular endothelial cells. AU - Kempson, Stephen A.. AU - Hoshaw, Martha J.. AU - Hinesley, Rose S.. AU - Mcateer, James A.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Cultured vascular endothelial cells take up L-proline by sodium- dependent transport. Cells incubated in medium made hyperosmotic by addition of sucrose showed a dose-dependent increase in Na+/proline cotransport. Studies with α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid revealed that the up-regulation was specific for amino acid transport system A. Up-regulation was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, indicating roles for gene transcription and protein synthesis. Upregulation was maximum after five to six hours of hyperosmotic treatment, but returned to control levels when osmotic stress was maintained for 24 hours. The decline at 24 hours was accompanied by a significant increase in Na+/γ-aminobutyric acid cotransport. The activity of this system, which also ...
RESULTS: In a genomic survey where we manually annotated and analyzing sequences from more than 300 SLC1 genes (from more than 40 vertebrate species), we found evidence for an interesting evolutionary history of this gene family. While human and mouse genomes contain 7 SLC1 genes, in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes up to 9 and in actinopterygii up to 13 SLC1 genes are present. While some of the additional slc1 genes in ray-finned fishes originated from R3, the increased number of SLC1 genes in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes originates from specific genes retained in these lineages.Phylogenetic comparison and microsynteny analyses of the SLC1 genes indicate, that theria genomes evidently lost several SLC1 genes still present in the other lineage. The genes lost in theria group into two new subfamilies of the slc1 gene family which we named slc1a8/eaat6 and slc1a9/eaat7 ...
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MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminescationic amino acid transport permease (TIGR00906; HMM-score: 69.1) ...
Program Director positions recruited under this announcement may be filled under one of the following appointment options:. Intergovernmental Personnel Act (IPA) Assignment: Individuals eligible for an IPA assignment with a Federal agency include employees of State and local government agencies or institutions of higher education, Indian tribal governments, and other eligible organizations in instances where such assignments would be of mutual benefit to the organizations involved. Initial assignments under IPA provisions may be made for a period up to two years, with a possible extension for up to an additional two-year period. The individual remains an employee of the home institution and NSF provides the negotiated funding toward the assignees salary and benefits. Initial IPA assignments are made for a one-year period and may be extended by mutual agreement. For additional information regarding IPA positions, please visit the NSF website at: ...
Kidneys produce ammonium to buffer and excrete acids through metabolism of glutamine. Expression of the glutamine transporter Slc38a3 (SNAT3) increases in kidney during metabolic acidosis (MA), suggesting a role during ammoniagenesis. Potassium depletion and high dietary protein intake are known to elevate renal ammonium excretion. In this study, we examined SNAT3, phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) regulation during a control (0.36%) or low-K(+) (0.02%) diet for 7 or 14 days or a control (20%) or high-protein (50%) diet for 7 days. MA was induced in control and low-K(+) groups by addition of NH(4)Cl. Urinary ammonium excretion increased during MA, after 14-day K(+) restriction alone, and during high protein intake. SNAT3, PDG, and PEPCK mRNA abundance were elevated during MA and after 14-day K(+) restriction but not during high protein intake. SNAT3 protein abundance was enhanced during MA (both control and low K(+)), after 14-day low-K(+) ...
Recombinant Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) Protein (GST tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Wheat germ. Jetzt Produkt ABIN1320502 bestellen.
Reverse transcription-PCR was performed based on the method of Sugawara et al., 59 with slight modifications, using 1 μg of total RNA isolated from human cornea (kindly provided by Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX). The forward and reverse primers were 5′-TCT CAC TGC TTA ACG GCG TGT G-3′, and 5′-TCC CTG GCC AAG TCT AAC AAT G-3′, respectively. These primers correspond to the nucleotide positions 110-132 and 606-628 in hLAT1 cDNA, respectively. RT-PCR was performed with a commercial kit (GeneAmp; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The conditions for reverse transcription were as follows: denaturation of the template RNA for 10 minutes at 70°C and reverse transcription for 60 minutes at 42°C. The conditions for PCR amplification were as follows: denaturation for 1 minute at 94°C; annealing for 1 minute at 58°C, and extension for 1 minute at 72°C, 37 cycles; final extension for 10 minutes at 72°C. The resultant product (∼520 bp) was subcloned in pGEM-T vector and sequenced from ...
The NMDA receptor co-agonist D-serine is a substrate for the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 which may regulate its extracellular levels in the CNS. We tested inhibitors of ASCT1 and ASCT2 for their effects in rodent models of schizophrenia and visual dysfunction which had previously been shown to be responsive to D-serine. L-4-fluorophenylglycine (L-4FPG), L-4-hydroxyPG (L-4OHPG) and L-4-chloroPG (L-4ClPG) all showed high plasma bioavailability when administered systemically to rats and mice. L-4FPG showed good brain penetration with brain:plasma ratios of 0.7-1.4, however values for L-4OHPG and L-4ClPG were lower. Systemically administered L-4FPG potently reduced amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice, whereas L-4OHPG was 100-fold less effective and L-4ClPG inactive at the doses tested. L-4FPG and L-4OHPG did not impair visual acuity in naive rats, and acute systemic administration of L-4FPG significantly improved the deficit in contrast sensitivity in blue-light treated ...
M. J. Rennie, S. E. O. Khogali, S. Y. Low, H. E. McDowell, H. S. Hundal, A. Ahmed, P. M. Taylor; Amino acid transport in heart and skeletal muscle and the functional consequences. Biochem Soc Trans 1 August 1996; 24 (3): 869-874. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0240869. Download citation file:. ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesbranched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein (TIGR00796; HMM-score: 412.2) ...
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Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 4-{(1S)-1-Hydroxy-2-[(|sup>2|/sup>H|sub>3|/sub>)methylamino]ethyl}-1,2-benzenediol.
Glutamine is taken up into the rat hepatoma cell line H4-IIE-C3 by a Na+-dependent transport system which is specific for glutamine, alanine, serine, cysteine and asparagine and does not tolerate substitution of Na+ by Li+. Glutamine transport was relatively weakly inhibited by a 50-fold excess of leucine and was not inhibited by phenylalanine or N-methyl aminoisobutyrate. These general properties are characteristic of the recently identified ASCT/B0 family of transporters. Using a reverse transcriptase PCR-based homology cloning approach, we have characterized a cDNA for a novel member of this transporter family (H4-ASCT2) from H4-IIE-C3 cells. The cDNA encodes a 551-amino acid protein which exhibits similarities of between 75 and 85% with ASCT/B0 transporters previously cloned from other sources. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, this transporter catalyses Na+-dependent glutamine uptake with characteristics very similar to those of glutamine uptake into the H4-IIE-C3 cells. This newly ...
Glutamine is taken up into the rat hepatoma cell line H4-IIE-C3 by a Na+-dependent transport system which is specific for glutamine, alanine, serine, cysteine and asparagine and does not tolerate substitution of Na+ by Li+. Glutamine transport was relatively weakly inhibited by a 50-fold excess of leucine and was not inhibited by phenylalanine or N-methyl aminoisobutyrate. These general properties are characteristic of the recently identified ASCT/B0 family of transporters. Using a reverse transcriptase PCR-based homology cloning approach, we have characterized a cDNA for a novel member of this transporter family (H4-ASCT2) from H4-IIE-C3 cells. The cDNA encodes a 551-amino acid protein which exhibits similarities of between 75 and 85% with ASCT/B0 transporters previously cloned from other sources. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, this transporter catalyses Na+-dependent glutamine uptake with characteristics very similar to those of glutamine uptake into the H4-IIE-C3 cells. This newly ...
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xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a
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PhD thesis defense at P-O Bäckströms sal (Aulan), SLU building 8th May, 13.00Title: New insights into plant amino acid transport and its contribution to ni...
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A substantial portion of placental function is committed to the regulation of nutrient transfer from the dam to the fetus, with glucose being the major substrate for conceptus metabolism. Due to its homomorphism with glucose, xylose can be used as tracer for the assessment of placental nutrient transfer capacity. This study was designed to evaluate transplacental permeability to xylose in bovine pregnancies on Days 90 and 180 of gestation. In Experiment 1, pregnant and nonpregnant females were infused into the jugular vein or into the allantoic sac with a 10% xylose solution to evaluate the maternal plasma xylose disappearance and the existence of feto-maternal xylose transfer, respectively. Glucose and xylose concentrations were determined in venous blood samples collected at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min. A materno-fetal but not a feto-maternal xylose transport was observed in both gestational periods. In Experiment 2, pregnant animals were slaughtered on Days 90 or 180 of ...
The human arylamine N-acetyltransferases first attracted attention because of their role in drug metabolism. However, much of the current literature has focused on their role in the activation and detoxification of environmental carcinogens and how genetic polymorphisms in the genes create predispositions to increased or decreased cancer risk. There are two closely related genes on chromosome 8 that encode the two human arylamine N-acetyltransferases-NAT1 and NAT2. Although NAT2 has restricted tissue expression, NAT1 is found in almost all tissues of the body. There are several single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the protein coding and 3-untranslated regions of the gene that affect enzyme activity. However, NAT1 is also regulated by post-translational and environmental factors, which may be of greater importance than genotype in determining tissue NAT1 activities. Recent studies have suggested a novel role for this enzyme in cancer cell growth. NAT1 is up-regulated in several cancer types, and ...
Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect ...
(2S)-2-(methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid 2566-30-5 NMR spectrum, (2S)-2-(methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid H-NMR spectral analysis, (2S)-2-(methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
R)-2-(Methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoicacid;56564-52-4;N-methyl-d-phenylalanine;AmbotzHAA1199;N-Me-D-Phe-OH;L-Phenylalanine,N-methyl-;SCHEMBL161255;AC1O533H;MolPort-008-267-985;SCIFESDRCALIIM-SECBINFHSA-N;MFCD00069560;ZINC12954903;AKOS006283223;CS17818;AJ-63161;AK144741;KB-58622;FT-0693770;(2R)-2-(methylamino)-3- ...
Eni Paulo, nexi noxou Timoti ta mitema sou xaixai noxou Kalisito Iesu, tekaukavunu vaivaikala ane o ulai noxinge ngingi ta mitema ane Kalisito Iesu ta nau mo ta tatila sou isaxilainge iloa ta mitema sou xaixai no a lalotu ne Pilipai.
Jones HN, Ashworth CJ, Page KR, McArdle HJ (2006). "Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a ... "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is ... 2006). "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic ... 2006). "Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 ( ...
"Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder". J. ... SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in ... Bröer S (January 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-286. ... Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A19 gene. ...
... is a member of the system y+ family of transporters characterized by sodium-independent transport of cationic amino acids.[ ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A3 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3". Hosokawa H, Sawamura T, ... Cationic amino acid transporter 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A3 gene. SLC7A3 ... Vekony N, Wolf S, Boissel JP, Gnauert K, Closs EI (Oct 2001). "Human cationic amino acid transporter hCAT-3 is preferentially ...
Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... This facilitates transport of numerous small molecules into the enterocyte from the intestinal lumen. These include broken down ... Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth ...
... and l-γ-Amino-β-Hydroxybutyric Acids in GABA Receptor and Transport Test Systems". Journal of Neuroscience. 1 (2): 132-140. doi ... γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand ... Amino acids, Anticonvulsants, Beta hydroxy acids, GABA analogues, GABAA receptor agonists, GABAB receptor agonists, Human ... Effect of gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABHB) on experimentally-induced epileptic activity]" [Effect of γ-amino-β- ...
The plants are slowly starved of these amino acids and eventually DNA synthesis stops. ESPS Inhibitors affect grasses and ... They are medically important by interfering with components of the nervous system affecting membrane transport, protein ... ALS Inhibitors affect grasses and dicots by inhibiting the first step in some amino acid synthesis, acetolactate synthesis. ... Alkaloids are derived from amino acids, and contain nitrogen. ...
Kudo Y, Boyd CA (August 2002). "Changes in expression and function of syncytin and its receptor, amino acid transport system B( ... Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A5 gene. Glutamate transporter Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5". Tailor CS, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y ... Uchiyama T, Matsuda Y, Wada M, Takahashi S, Fujita T (April 2005). "Functional regulation of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid ...
Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... Although the perception and transmission of pain stimuli in the central nervous system have not been fully elucidated, ... TCAs do not block dopamine transport directly but might facilitate dopaminergic effects indirectly by inhibiting dopamine ...
Orlowski, M.; Meister, A. (1970-11-01). "The Gamma-Glutamyl Cycle: A Possible Transport System for Amino Acids". Proceedings of ... It has a relatively unusual γ-bond between the constituent amino acids, L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine and is a key ... Control experiments with combinations of the constituent amino acids that make up GGC, including L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine ... GGC is synthesized from L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine in the cytoplasm of virtually all cells in an adenosine triphosphate ( ...
Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... In this way thionein and metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ... of its constituent amino acid residues. MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding ...
It synthesises amino acids, vitamins, nitrogenous bases and haem for the protozoan. Haem is necessary for the growth and ... While the protozoan has its separate mitochondria that provide electron transport system for the production of cellular energy ... In return the protozoan offers its enzymes for the complete metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids and ... and that it helps the host in synthesising the amino acid arginine from ornithine. As more structural and molecular details ...
HPAT1 and 2 are integral to the central nervous system because they transport GABA and its analogues which can induce and ... Unlike most amino acid transporters in the exchange of Na+ with amino acid symporters, proton-coupled amino acid transporters ... "Amino acid derivatives are substrates or non-transported inhibitors of the amino acid transporter PAT2 (slc36a2)". Biochimica ... Unlike typical mammalian amino acid transporters which function in exchanging Na+/amino acid symporters, these- transporters ...
... a disease that leads to cystine stones in the urinary system due to impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids. ... This protein plays a role in the high-affinity and sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids ... b(0,+)-type amino acid transporter 1, also known as b(0,+)AT1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SLC7A9 gene. This ... Heterodimeric amino acid transporter Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000021488 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
Ackers GK (1969). "Molecular sieve studies of interacting protein systems. IV. Molecular size of the D-amino acid oxidase ... Ackers GK (1967). "Molecular sieve studies of interacting protein systems. I. Equations for transport of associating systems". ... thermodynamics of protein-protein interactions including important changes due to single amino acid substitutions. "Obituary - ...
AT heterodimer is the main apical reabsorption system for cystine in the kidney". Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 283 (3): F540- ... amino acid transport on substrate affinity of the heteromeric b(0,+) amino acid transporter". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (19): 14331- ... dibasic and neutral amino acid transporters, activator of cystine, dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 1". Pras E ... of truncation of the COOH-terminal region of a Na+-independent neutral and basic amino acid transporter on amino acid transport ...
This inorganic phosphate is then transfered via a four amino acid phosphorelay to ArcA. Phosphorylated ArcA is then able to ... The Arc system connects the electron transport chain to regulation of certain genes, allowing aerobic respiration to occur in ... The Arc system is a two-component system found in some bacteria that regulates gene expression in faculatative anaerobes such ... Arc is an abbreviateion for Anoxic Redox Control system. Arc systems are instrumental in maintaining energy metabolism during ...
von Versen-Höynck, F.; Rajakumar, A.; Parrott, M.S.; Powers, R.W. (April 2009). "Leptin Affects System A Amino Acid Transport ... Amino acid transport is also regulated by DNA methylation of amino acid transporter genes, modifying their expression in the ... trigger the regulation of amino acid transporters in the placenta. Amino acid transport is necessary for fetal growth, and its ... "A systems perspective on placental amino acid transport". The Journal of Physiology. 596 (23): 5511-5522. doi:10.1113/JP274883 ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, ... The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ...
"Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport". J. Biol ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A1 gene. Amino acid ... 2007). "Activation of a system A amino acid transporter, ATA1/SLC38A1, in human hepatocellular carcinoma and preneoplastic ... a subtype of amino acid transporter A, from human placenta". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 273 (3): 1175-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...
The transport mechanism for tryptophan is shared with the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine. ... amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation on the exercise-induced change in plasma and muscle concentration of amino acids in ... Branch-chained amino acid supplementation has proven to have little to no effect on performance. There has been little success ... Amino acids, brain neurotransmitters and a functional link between muscle and brain that is important in sustained exercise. In ...
The amino-acid sequence identity can go down to 15% between ParM and other actin-like ATPase. The mechanism of partition ... The net result being transport of partition complex to the cell pole. The partition system of the plasmid R388 has been found ... Amino-acid sequence identity can go down to 21% for TubZ proteins. The mechanism is similar to a treadmill mechanism: Multiple ... This system has been proposed to be the type IV partition system. It is thought to be a derivative of the type I partition ...
... heptane transport by O-diazoacetyl-L-serine. An initial step in identifying the L-system amino acid transporter". The Journal ... and research indicates that it may have potential in identifying the L-leucine-favoring system transporter in human T- ...
Hormones can be amino acid complexes, steroids, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, or prostaglandins. The endocrine system can be ... A hormone is any of a class of signaling molecules produced by cells in glands in multicellular organisms that are transported ... The human endocrine system consists of several systems that operate via feedback loops. Several important feedback systems are ... The endocrine system has three sets of endocrine outputs which include the magnocellular system, the parvocellular system, and ...
Glutamate (the conjugate base of glutamic acid) is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and ... However, there is a possibility that two human-specific "fixed" amino acid substitutions, D71G in GRIN3A and R727H in GRIN3B, ... Weaver CD, Gundersen V, Verdoorn TA (January 1998). "A high affinity glutamate/aspartate transport system in pancreatic islets ... Meldrum B (1993). "Amino acids as dietary excitotoxins: a contribution to understanding neurodegenerative disorders". Brain Res ...
Sodium bicarbonate is absorbed by active transport and glucose and amino acid co-transport Fructose is absorbed by facilitated ... are an important part of the digestive tract's local immune system. They are part of the lymphatic system, and provide a site ... splits one amino acid at a time. Aminopeptidase and dipeptidase free the end amino acid products. Lipids (fats) are degraded ... The epithelial cells of the villi transport nutrients from the lumen of the intestine into these capillaries (amino acids and ...
This transport system normally removes cysteine from the fluid destined to become urine and returns this essential amino acid ... This is usually to accumulate high concentrations of molecules that a cell needs, such as glucose or amino acids. If the ... Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) EAAT1 EAAT2 EAAT3 EAAT4 EAAT5 Glucose transporter Monoamine transporters, including ... Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved ...
... s carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system. In the ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. One of ... Chloroplasts alone make almost all of a plant cell's amino acids in their stroma except the sulfur-containing ones like ...
... various transport systems can handle unnatural amino acids with apolar side-chains. In the second case, a biosynthetic pathway ... while the added amino acids are called non-standard amino acids (NSAAs), or unnatural amino acids (uAAs; term not used in ... or non-canonical amino acids. The first element of the system is the amino acid that is added to the genetic code of a certain ... An amino acid auxotrophic expression host is supplemented with an amino acid analog during target protein expression. This ...
However, glucose, amino acids, inorganic phosphate, and some other solutes are reabsorbed via secondary active transport ... Renin-angiotensin system: The kidneys sense low blood pressure. Release renin into the blood. Renin causes production of ... Reabsorption allows many useful solutes (primarily glucose and amino acids), salts and water that have passed through Bowman's ... This happens as a result of sodium transport from the lumen into the blood by the Na+/K+ATPase in the basolateral membrane of ...
... but it is actively transported out of the nervous system by a high affinity transport system, which maintains its concentration ... Glutamate is a very major constituent of a wide variety of proteins; consequently it is one of the most abundant amino acids in ... Smith QR (April 2000). "Transport of glutamate and other amino at the blood-brain barrier". The Journal of Nutrition. 130 (4S ... Glutamate is formally classified as a non-essential amino acid, because it can be synthesized (in sufficient quantities for ...
Hence, the ,i,de novo,/i, synthesis reactions, metabolic conversions, and transport of amino acids are tightly regulat … ... Amino acid homeostasis is essential for cell growth and survival. ... We review the mechanisms responsible for amino acid homeostasis in ,i,Saccharomyces cerevisiae,/i, and other fungi. ... Amino Acid Sequence * Amino Acid Transport Systems / genetics * Amino Acid Transport Systems / metabolism* ...
Amino acids are required for cell survival and growth. However, the different requirements of amino acid metabolic pathways in ... focus on the transporter of neutral amino acids and show that malignant blood cells rely more on ASCT2-mediated amino acid ... Here, we report that knockout of solute carrier family 1 member 5 (Slc1a5/ASCT2), a transporter of neutral amino acids, ... Given the substantial difference in reliance on ASCT2-mediated amino acid metabolism between normal and malignant blood cells, ...
... there was no evidence for the heterogeneity of anionic amino acid transport system. The XAG- system was inhibited by sulfhydryl ... Kansal VK, Sharma R, Rehan G. Characterization of anionic amino acid transport systems in mouse mammary gland. Indian Journal ... L-glutamate was transported into mammary tissue via Na(+)-dependent system XAG- that strongly interacted with both D- and L- ... Although neutral amino acids weakly inhibited the uptake of L-glutamate, ...
Effect of cholesterol on the branched-chain amino acid transport system of Streptococcus cremoris.. Zheng, T; Driessen, A J; ... The effect of cholesterol on the activity of the branched-chain amino acid transport system of Streptococcus cremoris was ... suggesting that the membrane fluidity controls the activity of the branched-chain amino acid carrier. ... The leucine transport activity decreased with the membrane fluidity, as determined by steady-state fluorescence polarization of ...
The EGF receptor promotes the malignant potential of glioma by regulating amino acid transport system xc(-)」の研究トピックを掘り下げます。これらが ... The EGF receptor promotes the malignant potential of glioma by regulating amino acid transport system xc(-). Cancer Research. ... The EGF receptor promotes the malignant potential of glioma by regulating amino acid transport system xc(-). In: Cancer ... The EGF receptor promotes the malignant potential of glioma by regulating amino acid transport system xc(-). / Tsuchihashi, ...
... antiporter AdiC is a vital transport protein of the arginine-dependent extreme acid resistance system of enteric bacteria. ... antiporter AdiC is a vital transport protein of the arginine-dependent extreme acid resistance system of enteric bacteria. ... Substrate recognition and transport behavior analyses of amino acid antiporter with coarse-grained models S. Chang, J. Hu, P. ... Substrate recognition and transport behavior analyses of amino acid antiporter with coarse-grained models† ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers many products related to excitatory amino acid transporters for your research needs. ... sodium-dependent glutamate transport in the central nervous system., Curr. Pharm. Des.,5, 363-379 (1999).. ... In addition to the transport of L-glutamate, a number of other naturally occurring excitatory amino acids, including L- ... Excitatory amino acid transporters as emerging targets for central nervous system therapeutics. Emerging Therapeutic Targets. 3 ...
This enzyme is essential in amino acid or protein synthesis. Without proteins, plants starve to death. Enzyme blockers kill a ... Electron Inhibitors: Are pesticides that stop the transport of electrons with in a plant. ... 2022 by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. All rights reserved.. www.aces.edu. This content printed from the website ... Systemic Mode of Action: The pesticide penetrating the plant or animal and translocating within its systems with the intent to ...
... neutral amino acid absorbed in the proximal small intestine by the saturable carrier-mediated transport system. Absorption is ... neutral amino acids (although only patients with meaningful motor fluctuations need to consider a low-protein or protein- ... By binding to specific receptor sites, these agents appear to potentiate the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and to ... which may increase concentrations of ACh available for synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). ...
GPS-decorated liposomes containing EGF significantly increased amino acid transporter activity in healthy control explants, but ... Undecorated and GPS-decorated liposomes containing PBS did not affect the basal rate of amino acid transport, human chorionic ... Figure 5. Targeted delivery of EGF increases System A amino acid transport activity in human placental explants. Third- ... Figure 5. Targeted delivery of EGF increases System A amino acid transport activity in human placental explants. Third- ...
Hesse, H.: Systems biology of inter- and intracellular metabolite transport in plants. In Amino Acids, 37, S. 46 - 46. (2009) ... Cuong, N. H.; Hesse, H.; Hoefgen, R.: Improvement of amino acid content in rice (O-sativa). In Amino Acids, 33 (3), S. Xxxv - ... van der Merwe, M. J.; Osorio, S.; Moritz, T.; Nunes-Nesi, A.; Fernie, A. R.: The role and regulation of the tricarboxylic acid ... Willmitzer, L.; Degenkolbe, T.; Caldana, C.; Hannah, M.: Systems response to environmental conditions as studied by metabolome ...
Membrane Transport Proteins (Biological Pump)IBA 07/2007. 1. Amino Acid Transport Systems (Amino Acid Transporter)IBA 07/2007. ...
Plants have two transport systems - xylem and phloem . Xylem transports water and minerals. Phloem transports sugars and amino ... Xylem transports water and minerals. Phloem transports sugars and amino acids dissolved in water. ... What transports tissue in plants?. Plant transport tissues - xylem and phloem. Plants have two transport systems - xylem and ... Does the phloem transport water?. Plants have tissues to transport water, nutrients and minerals. Xylem transports water and ...
Amino acids valine, isoleucine and leucine are known as BCAA (Branched Chain Amino Acids), and they compete with each other for ... All three are structurally similar, with branched chain and having the same transport systems, through cellular membranes, as ... Isoleucine is an essential amino acid of the family of aliphatic hydrophobic amino acids mainly found mainly in proteins and ... and the demand for protein and amino acids for its composition is high, i.e., the lack of protein or amino acids would result ...
These forms follow the usual mechanisms of amino acid uptake from the digestive system. SeMet is transported to the liver bound ... The main transport of Se around the body occurs in the blood in the form of selenoprotein P (SELENOP). Selenium also binds to α ... Although SELENOP is the main selenoprotein and is important for transporting Se around the human body, it is not the only ... The perturbation of Se biochemistry and subsequent decrease in the supply of Se to the central nervous system may partly ...
... amino acid transport in the apical brush border membrane of the small intestine and the proximal tubule of the kidney. Patients ... Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder. J Biol ... neutral amino acid transporter, causes a failure of the transport of neutral (ie, monoaminomonocarboxylic) amino acids in the ... 2, 4, 18] The B0 AT1 transporter is a sodium-dependent, chloride-independent system and transports all neutral amino acids in ...
Biodistribution of 11C-methylaminoisobutyric acid, a tracer for PET studies on system A amino acid transport in vivo. Eur J ... reflecting the metabolic rate and the amino-acid tracer 11C-MeAIB reflecting the rate of the system A amino-acid transport-were ... a metabolically stable alanine analog targeting the system A amino-acid transport system, has a very low uptake in normal brain ... Human radiation dosimetry of 11C-MeAIB, a new tracer for imaging of system A amino acid transport. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. ...
Adaptive regulation of amino acid transport system A in BeWo cells. Thomas, H. N., Ashworth, C., Page, K. R. & McArdle, H. J., ... Ammonium N-(6-amino-3,4-dihydro-3-methyl-5-nitroso-4-oxopyrimidin-2-yl)glycinate monohydrate forms hydrogen-bonded bilayers. ... Clift, P. D., Schouten, H. & Draut, A. E., 2003, Intra-Oceanic Subduction Systems: Tectonic and Magmatic Processes (eds. Larter ... Activation of retinoic acid signalling after sciatic nerve injury: up-regulation of cellular retinoid binding proteins. ...
It is a heterotropth that uses various types of amino acids and sugars. It uses aerobic degradation of complex porteinaceous ... The ligopeptide transport systems, such as the dependent ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, help these nutrients to ... It was thought that this enzyme was specific for hydrophobic amino acids and the S1 subsite, but further experiments showed ...
Thus, the preference for the use of some less energy costly amino acids in C. felis may lead to a more harmonious parasite-host ... and alternative electron transport systems and several invasion-related proteins. ... Thus, C. felis has a different codon usage, which increases the use of less energy costly amino acids (Gly and Ala) encoded by ... systems, 78.4% (40/51) of respondents rated TIM more favorably than their previous monitoring system, 19.6% (10/51) said there ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems 100% * Embryonic Structures 60% * Metabolic 59% * Morphogenesis 55% ... Wnt regulates amino-acid transporter Slc7a5 and so constrains the integrated stress response in mouse embryos. Poncet, N., ... Liu, D., Albergante, L. & Newman, T. J., 7 Jul 2017, In: Nucleic Acids Research. 45, 12, p. 7078-7093 16 p.. Research output: ... Russell, R. B., Copley, R. R. & Barton, G. J., 1995, Proceedings of the 28th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System ...
... such as the simple amino acid glycine. Over the course of the evolution of a planetary system, organic molecules can be ... transported to planetary surfaces by meteorites and early comets.. How those molecules can form in the first place, in the ... Molecules, including the organic molecules necessary to form amino acids, or our own DNA, can form in the interstellar medium. ...
... neutral or aromatic L-amino acids, and must rely on uptake of these essential amino acids. Aromatic amino acids phenylalanine ... The richer repertoire of membrane transport systems in Ae. aegypti is likely to intersect with the apparent increase in odorant ... Aedes aegypti encodes more members of 4 different types of amino acid transporters than An. gambiae and D. melanogaster. ... gambiae and 58% having an ortholog in D. melanogaster, with an average amino acid identity of 74% between the mosquito ...
Basic Amino Acids 100% * Amino Acid Transport Systems 98% * Cell Surface Receptors 78% ... Dive into the research topics of Cell-surface receptor for ecotropic murine retroviruses is a basic amino-acid transporter. ... Cell-surface receptor for ecotropic murine retroviruses is a basic amino-acid transporter. ...
... and involvement of amino acid transport system A was proposed. Here, we aimed to identify the subtype(s) of system A that ... and involvement of amino acid transport system A was proposed. Here, we aimed to identify the subtype(s) of system A that ... and involvement of amino acid transport system A was proposed. Here, we aimed to identify the subtype(s) of system A that ... and involvement of amino acid transport system A was proposed. Here, we aimed to identify the subtype(s) of system A that ...
... leucine-induced up-regulation of system A amino acid transport. Biochem J 350 Pt 2 361-368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Effects of crude protein intake from forage-only diets on muscle amino acids and glycogen levels in horses in training. Equine ... A dipeptide and an amino acid present in whey protein hydrolysate increase translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane in ... Branched-Chain Amino Acid-Containing Dipeptides, Identified from Whey Protein Hydrolysates, Stimulate Glucose Uptake Rate in L6 ...
... abundance of sulphur containing amino acids and other compounds that seem to initiate increased activity in the immune system. ... as a contributor of power to the immune system] is that it picks up toxic materials and transports them out of the body."23 The ... Brain and Nervous System DMAE, Ginkgo, Carnosine, Bilberry, CoQ10, Grapeseed, Lipoic Acid, Vit B-2, Lutein Liver Lipoic Acid, N ... The immune system is unlike other body systems in that it is not a group of physical structures but a system of complex ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Medicine & Life Sciences 33% * Migraine with Aura Medicine & Life Sciences 16% ...
M. Orlowski and A. Meister, "The gamma-glutamyl cycle: a possible transport system for amino acids," Proceedings of the ... proposed that the gamma-glutamyl cycle plays a role in active transport of several amino acids including glutamate, cysteine, ... However, its amino acid sequence and gene locus were unknown for many years [1-3]. Recently, Oakley et al. cloned cDNA encoding ... They found that the region consisting of 61-120 amino acids is required for the full-length GGCT to anchor in the cytoplasm and ...
  • In yeast, the majority of the amino acid transporters belong to the APC ( a mino acid- p olyamine-organo c ation) superfamily, and the proteins couple the uphill transport of amino acids to the electrochemical proton gradient. (nih.gov)
  • Although high-resolution structures of yeast amino acid transporters are not available, homology models have been successfully exploited to determine and engineer the catalytic and regulatory functions of the proteins. (nih.gov)
  • These simple coarse-grained analyses can be used as a general and quick method for the mechanism studies of transport proteins. (rsc.org)
  • In addition to the transport of L-glutamate, a number of other naturally occurring excitatory amino acids, including L-aspartate, L-cysteine sulfinate and L-cysteate, are known substrates of these transporter proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Dietary supplements can be macronutrient (amino acids, proteins, essential fatty acids), micronutrient (vitamins and minerals that promote healthy body functions), probiotic (beneficial bacteria such as the kind found in the intestines), and herbally ( often target a specific body part, such as bones) based. (bccampus.ca)
  • In Biochemistry For Dummies, you'll explore the carbons, proteins, and cellular systems that make up the biochemical processes that create and sustain life of all kinds. (biggerbooks.com)
  • Cationic amino acid transporters are 14 TM proteins, which mediate pH- and sodium-independent transport of cationic amino acids (system y + ), apparently as an exchange mechanism. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • As the food travels down the gut, the smaller molecules are absorbed through the lining of the intestine and into the circulatory system (for carbohydrates and proteins) or into the lymphatic system (for fats). (easynotecards.com)
  • It is a water-soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, as well as in the metabolic utilization of fats and proteins and the cellular production of energy. (vitacost.com)
  • Transport and utilization of arginine-containing peptides in alveolar macrophages. (cdc.gov)
  • To investigate the transport system for small peptide uptake and the utilization of arginine-containing peptides for nitric oxide synthesis by Iypopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated alveolar macrophages. (cdc.gov)
  • The uptake of these peptides by AMs may be mediated through an active peptide transport system similar to that of the pepT1 transporter. (cdc.gov)
  • Our studies also showed that LPC is a potent inhibitor for the transport of small peptides in AMs. (cdc.gov)
  • The relative rates of amino acid absorption from the protein hydrolysate and amino acid mixture varied markedly with concentration, demonstrating that the global hypothesis that peptides confer an advantage in amino acid absorption in vivo is too simple. (bmj.com)
  • The characterization of its function has shown that (1) it transports dipeptides, tripeptides, and β-lactam antibiotics but not free amino acids or peptides with more than four amino acid residues, and (2) its driving force for uphill transport requires proton binding. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • Moreover, the simple reduction of protein levels in feed without the correct supplementation of essential amino acids causes a reduction in feed intake and egg production, as well as altering the social behavior of the birds, resulting in cannibalism ( Peganova & Eder, 2003 Peganova, S., & Eder, K. (2003) Interactions of various supplies of isoleucine, valine, leucine and tryptophan on the performance of laying hens. (scielo.br)
  • Regulation varies from nitrogen pool sensing to control by individual amino acids and takes place at the gene (transcription), protein (posttranslational modification and allostery), and vesicle (trafficking and endocytosis) levels. (nih.gov)
  • The L -arginine (Arg)/agmatine (Agm) antiporter AdiC is a vital transport protein of the arginine-dependent extreme acid resistance system of enteric bacteria. (rsc.org)
  • This enzyme is essential in amino acid or protein synthesis. (aces.edu)
  • The SLC6A19 gene provides instructions for making a protein called system B(0) neutral amino acid transporter 1 (B 0 AT1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • This protein transports certain protein building blocks (amino acids), namely those with a neutral charge, into cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of the mutations that cause Hartnup disease change single amino acids in the B 0 AT1 protein, reducing its activity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A mutation that has been identified in multiple affected families replaces the amino acid aspartic acid with the amino acid asparagine at position 173 in the protein (written as Asp173Asn or D173N). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Broer S. The role of the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 (SLC6A19) in Hartnup disorder and protein nutrition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Certain amino acid supplements, which are often taken by bodybuilders among others, can increase the risk of consuming too much protein. (bccampus.ca)
  • Most Americans receive two to three times the amount of protein required on a daily basis from their existing diets-taking amino acid supplements just adds to the excess. (bccampus.ca)
  • GSH is a simple molecule, composed of 3 common amino acids: glutamate, cysteine, and glycine, which are also found in protein throughout the body. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • The amino acids are connected in a unique way so that GSH can be made and broken down independently of the body's protein. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • In protein science , Basic Amino Acids , as organic compounds , are amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • In protein science , the proteinogenic amino acid , Lysine (Lys/K) , is a classed as both a basic amino acid and a diamino amino acid , with the molecular formula (C 6 H 14 N 2 O 2 ). (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • In protein science , L-Asparagine (Asn/N) , a basic neutral amino acid , is a non-essential amino acid, with a carboxamide (amino carbonyl) functional side-chain. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • Amino acid absorption from a peptide-containing protein hydrolysate and an equivalent amino acid mixture over a range of concentrations of the two--such as is thought to be found in the normal intestine after a meal--has been studied using a jejunal perfusion technique in man. (bmj.com)
  • There is a highly significant correlation between amino acid absorption and the concentrations of amino acid in the perfusate, whether this contained amino acid or protein hydrolysate, suggesting that, under these experimental conditions at least, the presence of distinct amino acid and peptide transport systems is relatively unimportant. (bmj.com)
  • Further studies using the yeast two-hybrid system revealed that the NS5 region (residues 320-368) immediately adjacent to the NLS contained an importin - binding site that abuts or overlaps the binding site for the NS3 protein (protease/helicase). (who.int)
  • High-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport ATP-binding protein BraF, component of Branched chain amino acid uptake transporter. (lbl.gov)
  • 2000. Assessing the role of ortho -substitution on polychlorinated biphenyl binding to transthyretin, a thyroxine transport protein. (cdc.gov)
  • The first 29 amino acids of GHRH were changed to retain all protein characteristics. (pharmalabglobal.com)
  • Ensure you eat plenty of protein food such as meat, fish, nuts, seeds, beans/lentils and eggs to support amino acids like Glutathione that protect the mitochondria. (nutritionhouse.com)
  • Molecular cloning of the gene encoding rat PepT 1 has predicted a 78,710 -kilodalton protein consisting of 710 amino acid residues and processing 12 putative membrane-spanning domains. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • Furthermore, the molecular dynamics simulation revealed that CAP altered conformations of photosynthetic assembly protein YCF48 and SOD enzyme, and competed for functional sites of SOD, thus disturbing photosynthesis and antioxidant systems. (bvsalud.org)
  • Advances in optical microscopy have revealed a new level of regulation of yeast amino acid transporters, which involves membrane domain partitioning. (nih.gov)
  • Hence, they have been termed excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These transporters, responsible for packaging glutamate into synaptic vesicles for neurotransmitter release, utilize a proton electrochemical gradient to drive glutamate transport into the vesicle and exhibit a very distinct pharmacology and substrate specificity from the plasma membrane localized EAATs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Measurement of [ 14 C]betaine uptake by HEK293 cells transiently transfected with human or rat sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs), SNAT1, SNAT2 and SNAT4 revealed that only human and rat SNAT2 have betaine uptake activity. (elsevier.com)
  • We describe these amino acid transporters (AATs). (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Quiñones, H , Collazo, R & Moe, OW 2004, ' The dopamine precursor L-dihydroxyphenylalanine is transported by the amino acid transporters rBAT and LAT2 in renal cortex ', American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology , vol. 287, no. 1 56-1, pp. (elsevier.com)
  • SLC7 family members may be divided into two major groups: cationic amino acid transporters (CATs) and glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporters (gpaATs). (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • high confidence medium confidence low confidence transporter - transporters and PTS systems are shaded because predicting their specificity is particularly challenging. (lbl.gov)
  • Given the substantial difference in reliance on ASCT2-mediated amino acid metabolism between normal and malignant blood cells, this in vivo study suggests ASCT2 as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of leukaemia. (nature.com)
  • Extracellular free amino acids contribute to the interaction between a tumor and its microenvironment through effects on cellular metabolism and malignant behavior. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially expressed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some bacterial pathogens have been shown to substantially modify their surface components in response to the host immune system and modify their energy metabolism and transport pathways to allow efficient growth within the host. (cdc.gov)
  • This battery of measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver, heart, and kidney diseases, acid-base imbalance in the respiratory and metabolic systems, other diseases involving lipid metabolism and various endocrine disorders as well as other metabolic or nutritional disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Vitamin B Complex, with added Vitamin D3, supports the maintenance of normal hair, skin, bones, absorption of calcium, reduction of tiredness & fatigue, normal energy yielding metabolism, normal red blood cell production, and normal function of the immune system. (evonutrition.com)
  • Vitamin B12 and folic acid contribute to normal homo-cysteine metabolism, an important factor in heart health. (evonutrition.com)
  • Although neutral amino acids weakly inhibited the uptake of L-glutamate, there was no evidence for the heterogeneity of anionic amino acid transport system. (who.int)
  • System xc(-) is composed of xCT and CD98hc subunits and functions as a plasma membrane antiporter for the uptake of extracellular cystine in exchange for intracellular glutamate. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • These forms follow the usual mechanisms of amino acid uptake from the digestive system. (foodforthebrain.org)
  • Betaine uptake is induced by hypertonic stress in a placental trophoblast cell line, and involvement of amino acid transport system A was proposed. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we aimed to identify the subtype(s) of system A that mediates hypertonicity-induced betaine uptake. (elsevier.com)
  • Betaine exclusively inhibited the uptake activity of SNAT2 among the rat system A subtypes. (elsevier.com)
  • The uptake of Arg-Lys* and Beta-Ala-Lys* at concentration of 10 uM was blocked (70 - 80%) by Gly-Sar (200 uM) through competitive inhibition, but not by L-Lys, which shares a common cationic amino acid transporter with L-Arg. (cdc.gov)
  • Human excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (hEAAT3) mediates glutamate uptake in neurons, intestine, and kidney. (nanion.de)
  • Previous studies have indicated that NO synthesis in isolated inner medullary collecting duct cells is reduced by cationic amino acids that compete with L-arginine for cellular uptake. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that uptake of L-arginine by cationic amino acid transport systems in the renal medulla plays an important role in the regulation of medullary NO and MAP in rats. (elsevier.com)
  • The bacterium Lactococcus lactis, which plays an important role in the dairy industry, is unable to produce the amino acid methionine and has to rely on uptake from the environment. (phys.org)
  • It is well established that L-glutamate acts as the major fast-acting excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The subtypes EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 are the human homologs of the transporter clones initially isolated from non-human species designated as GLAST (GLutamate/ASpartate Transporter), GLT-1 (GLutamate Transporter) and EAAC1 (Excitatory Amino Acid Carrier), respectively. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1980. Selective depression of excitatory amino-acid induced depolarizations by magnesium ions in isolated spinal cord preparations. (cdc.gov)
  • 1984. The reversal potential of excitatory amino acid action on granule cells of the rat dentate gyrus. (cdc.gov)
  • C-terminal, AAA lid domain, Clp amino terminal domain, AAA domain (Cdc48 subfamily), ATPase family associated with various cellular activities (AAA) [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • It is not known if glucose transport and Na+-K+ ATPase activity are affected during the purging process. (bvsalud.org)
  • Glucose transport reduction was linked to the effect of the extract on the Na+-k+-ATPase system. (bvsalud.org)
  • abstract = "The intrarenal autocrine-paracrine dopamine (DA) system is critical for Na+ homeostasis. (elsevier.com)
  • In our body, Asparagine (L-Asparagine) , a non-essential amino acid, with derivatives involved in diamino amino acids (dibasic amino Acid) activities is made from Aspartic Acid plus adenosine triphosphate (ATP) . (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • In our body, the some naturally concurring Basic Amino Acids include l-arginine , asparagine (l-asparagine) , glutamine (l-glutamine) , lysine , ornithine , and histidine . (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • As a result, affected individuals are lacking (deficient) in certain amino acids and vitamins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hence, the de novo synthesis reactions, metabolic conversions, and transport of amino acids are tightly regulated. (nih.gov)
  • LPC at 1 mM, completely blocked the LPS-induced NO synthesis by AMs in either the L-Arg or the Arg peptide system. (cdc.gov)
  • Methotrexate (Amethopterin) is a folic acid antagonist that binds to dihydrofolate reductase, thus interfering with the synthesis of the active cofactor tetrahydrofolic acid, which is necessary for the synthesis of thymidylate, purine nucleotides, and the amino acids serine and methionine. (medicinalplants.us)
  • Fluorouracil and fluorodeoxyuridine (floxuridine) inhibit pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis and interfere with the synthesis and actions of nucleic acids. (medicinalplants.us)
  • The first clinical evaluation of daily and attract acid molecules, aiding in the breakdown and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of the steroid hormones. (topsidepress.com)
  • Albumin synthesis begins in the nucleus, where genes are transcribed into messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). (medscape.com)
  • On the few occasions that probes have managed to analyze cosmic dust directly, namely the Stardust and Rosetta missions, the analysis found complex molecules, such as the simple amino acid glycine. (mpia.de)
  • Hemp contains excellent nutritional value, providing essential nutritional components called Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) that the human body does not product naturally, and must be consumed through the diet. (vitanetonline.com)
  • Additionally, weighted gene correlation network analysis confirmed the positively or negatively correlated pairs of bacterial taxa (family Veillonellaceae ) and metabolomic features (i.e., amino acids and short-chain fatty acids) responsible for FMT success. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It also provide phyto-Lipids, omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids, phyto Sterols beta sitosterol, gamma oryzanol etc. (jiji.ng)
  • Algal DHA is one of the most important Omega 3 Fatty Acids present in the algal oil which is obtained from certain marine algae. (healthgeekz.net)
  • Omega-3 and -6, fatty acids commonly found in fish, are often assumed to be responsible, and are commonly marketed in this fashion. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Although using these technolo- acting on the pathogen in each microenvironment, what gies to analyze pathogens within a host is still in its infancy, bacterial factors are responsible for the host damage, and initial studies indicate that these technologies will be valu- able tools for understanding how the pathogen reacts to the how the immune system is evaded. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, pathogens must have specific mecha- clearly complex, and, in many cases, the study of these nisms for mediating colonization, avoiding the host's interactions is limited by the lack of a suitable animal immune system, and acquiring necessary nutrients. (cdc.gov)
  • Under chronic conditions, variations in GSH levels occur due to nutrition, environmental exposures, and activation of the immune system. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • 1. Helps to boost your immune system. (jiji.ng)
  • The health benefits of spirulina include strengthening the immune system, relieving inflammation, fighting chronic diseases, and prevent nutritional disorders. (jiji.ng)
  • Thus, pathogens must have specific mechanisms for mediating colonization, avoiding the host's immune system, and acquiring necessary nutrients. (cdc.gov)
  • We thus endeavor to understand how the pathogen adapts to the host microenvironment, what selective pressures are acting on the pathogen in each microenvironment, what bacterial factors are responsible for the host damage, and how the immune system is evaded. (cdc.gov)
  • Biomarkers of organ damage or dysfunction for the renal, hepatobiliary, and immune systems. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, the aim of this work is to carry out a review of the literature on the role of bacterial endotoxin in the etiology of periapical lesions, its mechanism of action, and to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in endotoxin's recognition by the immune system and cell activation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Therefore, the objective of this study is to carry out a review of the literature on the role of bacterial endotoxin in the etiology of periapical lesions, as well as to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in its recognition by the immune system and in cell activation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Much of the current medical research has focused on either inhibiting the production or the clustering of these plaques by employing the body's immune system against them. (assistedlivingeducation.com)
  • In addition, blood sugar control and the immune system may also benefit from it. (pharmalabglobal.com)
  • It also improves the immune system and regulates blood sugar levels. (pharmalabglobal.com)
  • It also boosts your immune system. (samreensoomro.com)
  • Ginsenosides affect the central nervous, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems, improving immune function and stress responses. (murainbow.com)
  • Gynostemma can boost the functioning of the immune system and is good for the digestive and cardiovascular systems. (murainbow.com)
  • Protects and stimulates the skin's own defence and immune system. (lanserhof.com)
  • Vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid contribute to the normal function of the immune system. (evonutrition.com)
  • Read our latest blog for tips on how to give your immune system a boost. (evonutrition.com)
  • Impaired lipid scrambling has been shown to weaken the immune system and evoke the autoimmune response by exposing self-antigens 11 . (nature.com)
  • Though no one can deny the reality of pathogens, our zeal and focus on them should never overshadow the need to maintain a healthy, vibrant immune system. (postfalls-naturopathic.com)
  • The strength of our immune system and the quality of our internal terrain truly is the basis by which disease is prevented or overcome. (postfalls-naturopathic.com)
  • The immune system is composed of lymphatic vessels and organs, white blood cells, specialized cells residing in various tissues, and specialized chemical factors all of which must be supported. (postfalls-naturopathic.com)
  • For more information, see the paper from 2019 on GapMind for amino acid biosynthesis, the paper from 2022 on GapMind for carbon sources, or view the source code . (lbl.gov)
  • Hartnup disorder is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. (bvsalud.org)
  • Apple and lentil extract additionally provide pantothenic acid and various saccharides, which make the skin barrier more resistant. (lanserhof.com)
  • PABA (pantothenic acid) can contribute to normal mental performance. (evonutrition.com)
  • Together with vitamins B6, B12, B3 (niacin) and pantothenic acid help contribute to normal energy release and the reduction of tiredness and fatigue. (evonutrition.com)
  • COLD SPRING HARBOR, NEW YORK -- In an important, comprehensive, and timely review, an expert team from the University of California Berkeley details the methodologies used in nucleic acid-based tests for detecting the presence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (cshlpress.org)
  • This amino-acid-like molecule is a critical component of the complex transporting system that brings fat into the mitochondria, where it is finally burned away for good. (bodybuildingfocus.com)
  • Preproalbumin is an albumin molecule with a 24 amino acid extension at the N terminus. (medscape.com)
  • All things considered, Biotox Gold could produce a cleansing effect to ensure that the PFTE-related toxic substances are eliminated from one's system. (4nutritionalsupplements.com)
  • All points taken into consideration, Biotox Gold might create a detoxing impact so that the PFTE-related toxins are eliminated from one's system. (upruralhealth.org)
  • The effect of cholesterol on the activity of the branched-chain amino acid transport system of Streptococcus cremoris was studied in membrane vesicles of S. cremoris fused with liposomes made of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine , soybean phosphatidylethanolamine, and various amounts of cholesterol . (bvsalud.org)
  • The leucine transport activity decreased with the membrane fluidity , as determined by steady- state fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene incorporated into the fused membranes , suggesting that the membrane fluidity controls the activity of the branched-chain amino acid carrier. (bvsalud.org)
  • The membrane insertion catalyzes spontaneous transport of lipid molecules between the bilayer leaflets, rapidly equilibrating the lipid composition. (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that our DNA-based enzyme can control the composition of human cell membranes, which opens new avenues for applications of membrane-interacting DNA systems in medicine. (nature.com)
  • The amino acid extension signals insertion of preproalbumin into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. (medscape.com)
  • In a heterologous expression system, TbAAT10-1 is selective for ornithine, whereas TbAAT2-4 transports both ornithine and histidine. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Consistent with competition for histidine, high extracellular concentrations of this amino acid phenocopied a TbAAT2-4 genetic defect. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • GenFX incorporates excessive concentrations of amino acids, plant primarily based and animal based totally elements which are made in a excessive excellent FDA permitted laboratory. (bfastcharters.com)
  • All points taken into consideration, Biotox Gold may create a detoxing effect to ensure that the PFTE-related toxins are removed from one's system. (centralvalleyz.org)
  • All things considered, Biotox Gold could create a purifying result to make sure that the PFTE-related toxins are removed from one's system. (capellania.org)
  • All things considered, Biotox Gold may create a detoxing impact to make sure that the PFTE-related contaminants are gotten rid of from one's system. (keighleybluesclub.net)
  • A 37 amino acid sequence of NS5 (residues 369-405) was shown to contain a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) that interacted with the cellular nuclear transport factor, importin / heterodimer. (who.int)
  • Per serving (40 g): 100 kcal energy Creatine complex 7.7 g multi-phase creatine matrix - contains 6.8 g pure creatine buffered creatine monohydrate creatine citrate micronized creatine monohydrate 24 g carbohydrate Amino Acid complex 3 g BCAA 1 g L-citrulline 1 g L-arginine HCl VitaMineral complex 12 vitamins Who is CreaTrans recommended to? (ventrian.com)
  • The presence of branched amino acids BCAA facilitate the development of muscle mass, facilitate recovery and provide energy, endurance and power. (naturveg.com)
  • Phloem is the vascular tissue in charge of transport and distribution of the organic nutrients. (erasingdavid.com)
  • Molecules, including the organic molecules necessary to form amino acids, or our own DNA, can form in the interstellar medium. (mpia.de)
  • Over the course of the evolution of a planetary system, organic molecules can be transported to planetary surfaces by meteorites and early comets. (mpia.de)
  • Below is a breakdown of the known Minerals, Amino Acids and other Organic ingredients contained in Mountain Blood shilajit. (natureprovides.com)
  • they are the vascular tissues that transport substances throughout the plant. (erasingdavid.com)
  • The high creatine content increases physical performance during high-intensity training High functional amino acid content Only contains complex carbs Without added sugar With vitamins B6 and B12 to enhance metabolic processes and reduce fatigue Do you like thinking in a system? (ventrian.com)
  • As a metabolic network consists of associations between genes and metabolic reactions, it can be used to study the cellular properties of the organism by integrating functional genomics data, such as gene expression and proteomics (the goal of systems biology). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together with pH determination, bicarbonate measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous potentially serious disorders associated with acid-base imbalance in the respiratory and metabolic systems. (cdc.gov)
  • Sequence-specific antisense oligonucleotides to rBAT or LAT2 (AS) caused inhibition of rBAT and LAT2 cRNA-induced L-DOPA transport and cortical poly-A + -induced arginine and phenylalanine transport. (elsevier.com)
  • Some boosters use L-Citrulline which is transported more easily into the system where it's converted to L-Arginine. (fmsguru.com)
  • Here, we report that knockout of solute carrier family 1 member 5 ( Slc1a5 /ASCT2), a transporter of neutral amino acids, especially glutamine, results in mild-to-moderate defects in bone marrow and mature blood cell development under steady-state conditions. (nature.com)
  • Some amino acids can protect mammalian sperm cells against oxidation during thermal stress caused by freezing/thawing. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition to the specific set of gene functions overexpressed in early and mature oral biofilms, as detected through the short-reads dataset, the long-reads approach detected specific changes when comparing the metatranscriptome of the same individual before and after a meal, which can narrow down the list of organisms responsible for acid production and therefore potentially involved in dental caries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These studies suggest that amino acids directly stimulate the promoter activity of the PepT 1 gene. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • Herein, the physiological effects of chloroacetic acid (CAA) on Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa), including acute toxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis, production of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), and the microcystin transportation-related gene mcyH transcript abundance have been investigated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Gene targeting using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated CRISPR-Cas system in rice. (cocites.com)
  • Cholesterol reduced both counterflow and proton motive force -driven leucine transport. (bvsalud.org)
  • We review the mechanisms responsible for amino acid homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. (nih.gov)
  • This has led to a further understanding of the underlying mechanisms of amino acid sensing and subsequent downregulation of transport. (nih.gov)
  • Additional L-DOPA transport mechanisms exist in the renal cortex that remain to be identified. (elsevier.com)
  • 36 with the thyroid hormone system: Mechanisms and possible consequences for animal and human health. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, these analogues inhibit the de novo biosynthesis of purine and block the conversion of inosinic acid to adenylic acid or guanylic acid. (medicinalplants.us)
  • The role and regulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in Solanum lycopersicum roots. (mpg.de)
  • Our results indicate that SNAT2 transports betaine, and that tonicity-sensitive SNAT2 expression may be involved in regulation of betaine concentration in placental trophoblasts. (elsevier.com)
  • Doubt is thus cast upon suggestions derived from previous intestinal perfusion experiments that intact peptide transport may be nutritionally significant in man. (bmj.com)
  • The effect of BaCl2 on intestinal sugar transport in the rat in vitro . (cdc.gov)
  • In a separate but related system, exocrine tissues secrete their products into ducts and then to the outside of the body or to the intestinal tract. (topsidepress.com)
  • The organs of the digestive system can be grouped into: 1. (easynotecards.com)
  • its main function within the digestive system is to process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. (easynotecards.com)
  • which components of the cheeseburger are digested in which regions of the digestive systems? (easynotecards.com)
  • L-glutamate was transported into mammary tissue via Na(+)-dependent system XAG- that strongly interacted with both D- and L-isomers of aspartate but only with L-isomer of glutamate. (who.int)
  • Mice deficient in GLT-1 lose 80-90% of the glutamate transport capacity measured in forebrain preparations, and exhibit increased vulnerability to convulsants and to acute cortical injury, when compared with wild type animals. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Similar to the EAATs, vesicular glutamate transport was initially described in synaptic vesicle preparations isolated from rat and bovine brain. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The cloned VGLUTs remained elusive for a number of years before two groups simultaneously discovered that a transporter initially described as an inorganic phosphate transporter (BNPI) exhibited robust glutamate transport capacity and termed this VGLUT1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Characterization of anionic amino acid transport systems in mouse mammary gland. (who.int)
  • Characterization of Short-Term Stress Applied to the Root System by Electrical Impedance Measurement in the First Leaf of Corn (Zea mays L.) and Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. (scirp.org)
  • Laarabi, S. (2014) Characterization of Short-Term Stress Applied to the Root System by Electrical Impedance Measurement in the First Leaf of Corn ( Zea mays L.) and Pumpkin ( Cucurbita maxima L.). American Journal of Plant Sciences , 5 , 1285-1295. (scirp.org)
  • Through a combination of microscopic simulations and fluorescence microscopy we find the lipid transport rate catalyzed by the DNA nanostructure exceeds 10 7 molecules per second, which is three orders of magnitude higher than the rate of lipid transport catalyzed by biological enzymes. (nature.com)
  • therefore, a concentrated excess of one amino acid obtained from a supplement may increase the probability of decreased absorption of another amino acid that uses the same transport system. (bccampus.ca)
  • Comparison of the yields obtained by using nanoporous and nonporous (conventional) polarized HAp catalysts shows that both the nanoporosity and water absorption capacity of the former represent a drawback when the catalytic reaction requires auxiliary coating layers, as for example for the production of amino acids. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • 5.) Absorption: is the passage of digested end products from the lumen of the GI tract through the mucosal cells by active or passive transport into the blood or lymph. (easynotecards.com)
  • from there the amino acids are released into the bloodstream to be used by the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the kidneys, B 0 AT1 reabsorbs neutral amino acids into the bloodstream so they are not released in urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Transport of drugs from through the use through the skin into the bloodstream. (topsidepress.com)
  • Once glucose has been broken down in your small intestinale, it will be transported into your bloodstream where it will then be converted to energy. (samreensoomro.com)
  • For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. (lbl.gov)
  • CJC-1295 no DAC also features four altered amino chains that inhibit degradation and oxidation in production, transport, and in vivo while improving binding affinity to GHRH receptors. (pharmalabglobal.com)
  • Abundant biochemical data support a direct causal link between low GSH, impaired defenses, and cellular susceptibility in model systems. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Working at a cellular level, it is said that Mountain Blood supports every system in the body. (natureprovides.com)
  • 1989. Cellular alterations and enhanced induction of cleft palate after coadministration of retinoic acid and TCDD. (cdc.gov)
  • L-Lys, at 10 mM, also showed a partial inhibitory effect on the Arg peptide system. (cdc.gov)
  • The greatest province of these APCs is to mete out these peptide-MHC complexes to T-lymphocytes (T-cells), an impor- tant component of the adaptive untouched system. (daubnet.com)
  • Researchers believe that many of these features are related to a deficiency of vitamin B3 (niacin) and one of its main components, the amino acid tryptophan. (medlineplus.gov)
  • B vitamins including vitamin B6, B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin) and B7 (biotin) contribute to normal functioning of the nervous system. (evonutrition.com)
  • This condition is characterized by increased levels of amino acids in the urine (aminoaciduria). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Systems' biology of inter- and intracellular metabolite transport in plants. (mpg.de)