Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Amino Acid Transport System y+beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amino Acid Transport System y+LMembrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Leucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Dicarboxylic AcidsRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Amino Acids, DiaminoCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cystinuria: An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Hartnup Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.MethylglucosidesIleum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Pseudomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Amino Acid Transport Disorders, Inborn: Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)PhloretinSerine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).TritiumKidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.MethylglycosidesGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.MethylgalactosidesXenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

A novel system A isoform mediating Na+/neutral amino acid cotransport. (1/100)

A cDNA clone encoding a plasma membrane alanine-preferring transporter (SAT2) has been isolated from glutamatergic neurons in culture and represents the second member of the system A family of neutral amino acid transporters. SAT2 displays a widespread distribution and is expressed in most tissues, including heart, adrenal gland, skeletal muscle, stomach, fat, brain, spinal cord, colon, and lung, with lower levels detected in spleen. No signal is detected in liver or testis. In the central nervous system, SAT2 is expressed in neurons. SAT2 is significantly up-regulated during differentiation of cerebellar granule cells and is absent from astrocytes in primary culture. The functional properties of SAT2, examined using transfected fibroblasts and in cRNA-injected voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytes, show that small aliphatic neutral amino acids are preferred substrates and that transport is voltage- and Na(+)-dependent (1:1 stoichiometry), pH-sensitive, and inhibited by alpha-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (MeAIB), a specific inhibitor of system A. Kinetic analyses of alanine and MeAIB uptake by SAT2 are saturable, with Michaelis constants (K(m)) of 200-500 microm. In addition to its ubiquitous role as a substrate for oxidative metabolism and a major vehicle of nitrogen transport, SAT2 may provide alanine to function as the amino group donor to alpha-ketoglutarate to provide an alternative source for neurotransmitter synthesis in glutamatergic neurons.  (+info)

Subcellular localization and adaptive up-regulation of the System A (SAT2) amino acid transporter in skeletal-muscle cells and adipocytes. (2/100)

The recently cloned amino acid transporter SAT2 is ubiquitously expressed and confers Na(+)-dependent transport of short-chain neutral amino acids, characteristics of the functionally defined System A transporter. Here we report the presence of SAT2 mRNA and protein in both skeletal muscle and adipocytes, and the characterization of polyclonal antibodies directed against this transporter. SAT2 protein was present in both plasma-membrane and internal-membrane fractions derived from rat skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, having a localization similar to that of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Moreover, consistent with the adaptive up-regulation of System A activity following chronic amino acid deprivation, a time-dependent increase in SAT2 protein abundance was observed in amino-acid-deprived L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These studies provide the first evidence regarding the subcellular distribution and adaptive up-regulation of SAT2 protein and the characterization of molecular probes for this physiologically important transporter, the function of which is altered in several disease states.  (+info)

Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport. (3/100)

We report here on the characterization of a mouse N-system amino acid transporter protein, which is involved in the transport of glutamine. This protein of 485 amino acids shares 52% sequence homology with an N-system amino acid transporter, mouse N-system amino acid transporter (mNAT) and its orthologs. Because this protein shares a high degree of sequence homology and functional similarity to mNAT, we named it mNAT2. mNAT2 is predominately expressed in the retina and to a slightly lesser extent in the brain. In the retina, it is located in the axons of ganglion cells in the nerve fiber layer and in the bundles of the optic nerve. Functional analysis of mNAT2 expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the strongest transport activities were specific for l-glutamine. In addition, mNAT2 is a Na(+)- and pH-dependent, high affinity transporter and partially tolerates substitution of Na(+) by Li(+). Additionally, mNAT2 functions as a carrier-mediated transporter that facilitates efflux. The unique expression pattern and selective glutamine transport properties of mNAT2 suggest that it plays a specific role in the uptake of glutamine involved in the generation of the neurotransmitter glutamate in retina.  (+info)

Transforming growth factor-beta 1 stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell L-proline transport by inducing system A amino acid transporter 2 (SAT2) gene expression. (4/100)

Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta 1) is a multifunctional cytokine that contributes to arterial remodelling by stimulating vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth and collagen synthesis at sites of vascular injury. Since l-proline is essential for the synthesis of collagen, we examined whether TGF-beta 1 regulates the transcellular transport of l-proline by vascular SMCs. l-Proline uptake by vascular SMCs was primarily sodium-dependent, pH-sensitive, blocked by neutral amino acids and alpha-(methylamino)isobutyric acid, and exhibited trans-inhibition. Treatment of SMCs with TGF-beta 1 stimulated l-proline transport in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The TGF-beta 1-mediated l-proline uptake was inhibited by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Kinetic studies indicated that TGF-beta 1-induced l-proline transport was mediated by an increase in transport capacity independent of any changes in the affinity for l-proline. TGF-beta 1 stimulated the expression of system A amino acid transporter 2 (SAT2) mRNA in a time-dependent fashion that paralleled the increase in l-proline transport. Reverse transcriptase PCR failed to detect the presence of SAT1 or amino acid transporter 3 (ATA3) in either untreated or TGF-beta 1-treated SMCs. These results demonstrate that l-proline transport by vascular SMCs is mediated predominantly by the SAT and that TGF-beta 1 stimulates SMC l-proline uptake by inducing the expression of the SAT2 gene. The ability of TGF-beta 1 to induce SAT2 expression may function to provide SMCs with the necessary levels of l-proline required for collagen synthesis and cell growth.  (+info)

Physiological importance of system A-mediated amino acid transport to rat fetal development. (5/100)

Fetal growth and development are dependent on the delivery of amino acids from maternal amino acid pools to the fetal blood. This is accomplished via transfer across the apical and basal plasma membrane of the placental syncytiotrophoblast. The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of system A (amino acid transporter) was associated with a decrease in fetal weight in the rat. System A is a ubiquitous Na(+)-dependent amino acid transporter that actively transports small zwitterionic amino acids. In brief, system A was inhibited by infusing a nonmetabolizable synthetic amino acid analog, 2-(methylamino)isobutyric acid from days 7-20 of gestation. On day 20, the rats were killed and tissues (maternal liver, fetuses, and placentas) were collected for analysis. The degree of system A inhibition was determined, as was the impact of said inhibition on fetal and maternal weights, system A-mediated placental transport, and placental system A-mediated transporter expression. Our results suggest that when system A is inhibited, fetal weight is diminished [control group: -3.55 +/- 0.04 g (n = 113), experimental group: -3.29 +/- 0.04 g (n = 128)], implying an integral role for system A transport in fetal growth and development in the rat.  (+info)

Glutamine uptake by neurons: interaction of protons with system a transporters. (6/100)

Astrocytes provide the glutamine required by neurons to synthesize glutamate and GABA. However, the mechanisms involved in glutamine transfer from glia to neurons have remained poorly understood. Recent work has implicated the System N transporter SN1 in the efflux of glutamine from astrocytes and the very closely related System A transporters SA1 and SA2 in glutamine uptake by neurons. To understand how these closely related proteins mediate flux in different directions, we have examined their ionic coupling. In contrast to the electroneutral exchange of H+ for Na+ and neutral amino acid catalyzed by SN1, we now show that SA1 and SA2 do not couple H+ movement to amino acid flux. As a result, SA1 and SA2 are electrogenic and do not mediate flux reversal as readily as SN1. Differences between System N and A transporters in coupling to H+ thus contribute to the delivery of glutamine from glia to neurons. Nonetheless, although they are not transported, H+ inhibit SA1 and SA2 by competing with Na+.  (+info)

Localization and functional relevance of system a neutral amino acid transporters in cultured hippocampal neurons. (7/100)

Glutamine and alanine are important precursors for the synthesis of glutamate. Provided to neurons by neighboring astrocytes, these amino acids are internalized by classical system A amino acid carriers. In particular, System A transporter (SAT1) is a highly efficient glutamine transporter, whereas SAT2 exhibits broad specificity for neutral amino acids with a preference for alanine. We investigated the localization and the functional relevance of SAT1 and SAT2 in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Both carriers have been expressed since early developmental stages and are uniformly distributed throughout all neuronal processes. However, whereas SAT1 is present in axonal growth cones and can be detected at later developmental stages at the sites of synaptic contacts, SAT2 does not appear to be significantly expressed in these compartments. The non-metabolizable amino acid analogue alpha-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, a competitive inhibitor of system A carriers, significantly reduced miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitude in neurons growing on top of astrocytes, being ineffective in pure neuronal cultures. alpha-(Methylamino)-isobutyric acid did not alter neuronal responsitivity to glutamate, thus excluding a postsynaptic effect. These data indicate that system A carriers are expressed with a different subcellular distribution in hippocampal neurons and play a crucial role in controlling the astrocyte-mediated supply of glutamatergic neurons with neurotransmitter precursors.  (+info)

Insulin promotes the cell surface recruitment of the SAT2/ATA2 system A amino acid transporter from an endosomal compartment in skeletal muscle cells. (8/100)

SAT1-3 comprise members of the recently cloned family of System A transporters that mediate the sodium-coupled uptake of short chain neutral amino acids, and their activity is regulated extensively by stimuli such as insulin, growth factors, and amino acid availability. In skeletal muscle, insulin stimulates System A activity rapidly by a presently ill-defined mechanism. Here we demonstrate that insulin induces an increase in the plasma membrane abundance of SAT2 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner and that this increase is derived from an endosomal compartment that is required for the hormonal activation of System A. Chloroquine, an acidotropic weak base that impairs endosomal recycling of membrane proteins, induced a complete inhibition in the insulin-mediated stimulation of System A, which was associated with a loss in SAT2 recruitment to the plasma membrane. The failure to stimulate System A and recruit SAT2 to the cell surface could not be attributed to a block in insulin signaling, as chloroquine had no effect on the insulin-mediated phosphorylation of protein kinase B or glycogen synthase kinase 3 or upon insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport. Our data indicate strongly that insulin increases System A transport in L6 cells by stimulating the exocytosis of SAT2 carriers from a chloroquine-sensitive endosomal compartment.  (+info)

*SLC1A1

... amino-acid transporter 3 is a member of the high-affinity glutamate transporters which plays an essential role in transporting ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A1 solute carrier family 1 (neuronal/epithelial high affinity glutamate transporter, system Xag), member 1". ... SLC1A1, also known as excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A1 gene. ... Excitatory amino acid transporter Glutamate transporter Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000106688 - ...

*AAAP family

"Coupled and uncoupled proton movement by amino acid transport system N". EMBO Journal. 20 (24): 7041-51. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... Since Systems A are electrogenic which Systems N are not, the amino acid:cation stoichiometries may differ. Fischer, WN; Loo, ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids". Plant Journal. 29 ( ... Six AAAPs in A. thaliana are well characterized and transport neutral and charged amino acids with varying specificities and ...

*SLC7A11

... is a member of a heterodimeric Na+-independent anionic amino acid transport system highly specific for cystine and ... the amino acid transport activity system xc-". Pflugers Archiv. 442 (2): 286-96. doi:10.1007/s004240100537. PMID 11417227. ... the light chain of amino acid transport system xc-". Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2 (4): 665-71. doi:10.1089/ars.2000.2.4- ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A11 solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11". Lutgen V, Resch J, ...

*SLC6A19

"Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder". J. ... SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in ... Solute carrier family 6 member 19 also known as the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 or system B(0) ... Bröer S (January 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-286. ...

*SLC38A2

Jones HN, Ashworth CJ, Page KR, McArdle HJ (2006). "Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a ... "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is ... 2006). "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic ... 2006). "Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 ( ...

*SLC1A5

Kudo Y, Boyd CA (August 2002). "Changes in expression and function of syncytin and its receptor, amino acid transport system B( ... Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A5 gene. Glutamate transporter Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5". Tailor CS, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y ... Uchiyama T, Matsuda Y, Wada M, Takahashi S, Fujita T (April 2005). "Functional regulation of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid ...

*Gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid

... and l-γ-Amino-β-Hydroxybutyric Acids in GABA Receptor and Transport Test Systems" (pdf). Journal of Neuroscience. 1 (2): 132- ... γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand ... Effect of gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABHB) on experimentally-induced epileptic activity]" [Effect of γ-amino-β- ... García-Flores E, Farías R (1997). "γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid as add-on therapy in adult patients with severe focal epilepsy ...

*Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... 150 mg/day), it acts on serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, whereas at high doses (>300 mg/day), it also affects ... Although the perception and transmission of pain stimuli in the central nervous system have not been fully elucidated, ...

*GcvB RNA

... encodes a small non-coding RNA involved in the regulation of a number of amino acid transport systems as well as amino acid ... GcvB RNA also is involved in regulating a variety of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis such as ilvC, gdhA, thrL and ... "The gcvB gene encodes a small untranslated RNA involved in expression of the dipeptide and oligopeptide transport systems in ... "The gcvB gene encodes a small untranslated RNA involved in expression of the dipeptide and oligopeptide transport systems in ...

*SLC3A2

Amino Acid Transport System L at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates ... "Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of the glycoprotein-associated amino acid ... "Entrez Gene: SLC3A2 solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 2". Kucharzik T, ... Verrey F, Closs EI, Wagner CA, Palacin M, Endou H, Kanai Y (2004). "CATs and HATs: the SLC7 family of amino acid transporters ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)

... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 -- amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 -- amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 -- amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 -- amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...

*Photorhabdus luminescens

... encodes a small non-coding RNA involved in the regulation of a number of amino acid transport systems as well as amino acid ...

*CD98

Amino Acid Transport System L at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Verrey F, Closs EI, Wagner CA, Palacin M, Endou H, Kanai Y (2004). "CATs and HATs: the SLC7 family of amino acid transporters ... CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ... Boado RJ, Li JY, Nagaya M, Zhang C, Pardridge WM (1999). "Selective expression of the large neutral amino acid transporter at ...

*Expanded genetic code

... but often the various transport systems can handle unnatural amino acids with apolar side-chains. In the second case, a ... while the added amino acids are called non-standard amino acids (NSAAs), or unnatural amino acids (uAAs; term not used in ... or non-canonical amino acids. The first element of the system is the amino acid that is added to the genetic code of a certain ... An amino acid auxotrophic expression host is supplemented with an amino acid analog during target protein expression. This ...

*Membrane transport protein

This transport system normally removes cysteine from the fluid destined to become urine and returns this essential amino acid ... such as glucose or amino acids. When the lipid bilayer is impermeable to the molecule needing transport, active transport is ... Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) EAAT1 EAAT2 EAAT3 EAAT4 EAAT5 Glucose transporter Monoamine transporters, including ... Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes passively, carrier proteins can transport ions and ...

*Blood-brain barrier

... as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. ... "Lipoic acid affects cellular migration into the central nervous system and stabilizes blood-brain barrier integrity". J. ... No difference in brain uptake of glucose, amino acids, organic acids, purines, nucleosides, or choline was observed between ... Other methods used to get through the BBB may entail the use of endogenous transport systems, including carrier-mediated ...

*Phytotoxin

The plants are slowly starved of these amino acids and eventually DNA synthesis stops. ESPS Inhibitors affect grasses and ... They are medically important by interfering with components of the nervous system affecting membrane transport, protein ... ALS Inhibitors affect grasses and dicots by inhibiting the first step in some amino acid synthesis, acetolactate synthesis. ... Alkaloids are derived from amino acids, and contain nitrogen. ...

*Serotonin

... because the transport system which brings tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier is also selective for the other amino acids ... High plasma levels of other large neutral amino acids compete for transport and prevent the elevated plasma tryptophan from ... In animals including humans, serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan by a short metabolic pathway consisting ... aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (DDC) and the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate. The TPH-mediated reaction is the rate-limiting ...

*Enterocyte

Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth ... Microvilli on the apical surface increase surface area for the digestion and transport of molecules from the intestinal lumen. ...

*Angomonas deanei

The bacteria synthesise amino acids, vitamins, and haem for the protozoan. In return the protozoan offers its enzymes for the ... The bacteria are known to provide essential nutrients to the host, and provide electron transport system for the production of ... the genomic cooperation between bacterium and host in the synthesis of essential amino acids is heavily influenced by multiple ... complete metabolic pathways for the biosysnthesis of amino acids, lipids and nucleotides, that are absent in the bacterium. ...

*Iminoglycinuria

... part of the system of Na-K-Cl cotransporters) couple with the amino or imino acids on the molecular level and transport them ... instead of the amino group found in amino acids. Proline is considered and usually referred to as an amino acid, but unlike ... The neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19 (affecting glycine, proline, and other neutral amino acids like cysteine and ... "Neutral amino acid transport mediated by ortholog of imino acid transporter SIT1/SLC6A20 in opossum kidney cells" (Free full ...

*Metallothionein

Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... In this way the thionein-metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ... of its constituent amino acid residues. MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding ...

*KPNA3

... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, ... The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ...

*SLC7A9

... a disease that leads to cystine stones in the urinary system due to impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids. ... This protein plays a role in the high-affinity and sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids ... Solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 9 also known as SLC7A9 is a protein which in ... Heterodimeric amino acid transporter Solute carrier family "SLC7A9". Feliubadaló L, Font M, Purroy J, Rousaud F, Estivill X, ...

*SLC7A3

... is a member of the system y+ family of transporters characterized by sodium-independent transport of cationic amino acids.[ ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A3 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3". Hosokawa H, Sawamura T, ... Cationic amino acid transporter 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A3 gene. SLC7A3 ... Ito K, Groudine M (1997). "A new member of the cationic amino acid transporter family is preferentially expressed in adult ...

*Susan K. Gilmour

She has begun evaluating new approaches to disrupting the transport system through which polyamines can be imported into cancer ... Amino Acids. 2014 Mar;46(3):543-52. Epub 2013 Jul 25. http://www.limr.org/doc/Page.asp?PageID=DOC004139 http://www. ... with an inhibitor of the polyamine transport system not only blocks tumor growth but also promotes anticancer immune responses ...

*SLC38A1

"Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport". J. Biol ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A1 gene. Amino acid ... 2007). "Activation of a system A amino acid transporter, ATA1/SLC38A1, in human hepatocellular carcinoma and preneoplastic ... a subtype of amino acid transporter A, from human placenta". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 273 (3): 1175-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...
The neutral amino acid transport activity, System A, is enhanced by amino acid limitation of mammalian cells. Of the three gene products that encode System A activity, the one that exhibits this regulation is SNAT2 (sodium-coupled neutral amino acid
Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly
SNAT1 is a system N/A type amino acid transporter that primarily expresses in neurons and mediates the transport of L-Glutamine. Glutamine (Gln) is an important amino acid involved in multiple cellular functions and also is a precursor for neurotransmitters, glutamate and GABA. In this study, we demonstrated that SNAT1 is an N-glycoprotein expressed in neurons. We identified three glycosylation sites at asparagine residues 251, 257 and 310 in SNAT1 protein, and that the first two are the primary sites. The biotinylation and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that the glycosylation-impaired mutants as well as deglycosylated SNAT1 were equally capable of expressing on the cell surface. However, L-Gln and MeAIB transport was significantly compromised in N-glycosylation impaired mutants and deglycosylated SNAT1 as compared to the wild-type control. Together, these results suggest that SNAT1 is an N-glycosylated protein with three de novo glycosylation sites and N-glycosylation of SNAT1 may ...
Enables the directed movement of long-chain fatty acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells. A long-chain fatty acid is a fatty acid with a chain length between C13 and C22.
Author Summary Malaria infection during pregnancy can cause fetal growth restriction and low birthweight associated with high infant mortality and morbidity rates. The pathogenesis of fetal growth restriction in placental malaria is largely unknown, but in other pathological pregnancies, impaired transplacental amino acid transport has been implicated. In a cohort of Malawian women and their infants, we found that placental malaria, especially when associated with local inflammation, was associated with decreased expression and activity of an important group of amino acid placental transporters. Using an in vitro model of placental malaria with local inflammation, we discovered that maternal monocyte products could impair the activity of amino acid transporters on placental cells. Amino acid concentrations in paired maternal and cord plasmas revealed specific alterations of amino acid transport by placental malaria, especially with local inflammation. Overall, our data suggest that, more than malaria
We demonstrate that, in contrast to the insulin-sensitizing actions of adiponectin in liver and muscle, fAd attenuates insulin signaling in primary human trophoblast cells. As a result, fAd inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of regulation of amino acid transport by adiponectin, in any tissue.. It is well established that insulin stimulates placental system A amino acid transport (39,40); however, the underlying mechanism has not previously been explored. We found that physiological levels of insulin increased the mRNA expression of all system A isoforms. In contrast, only SNAT2 was upregulated at the protein level, indicating that changes in SNAT2 protein expression are important in mediating the regulation of system A activity by insulin. These findings are in line with observations that SNAT2 appears to be a highly regulated SNAT isoform both in the placenta (31,32,55,56) and in other tissues and cells such as the mammary ...
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Buy α-(Methylamino)isobutyric acid (CAS 2566-34-9), a water soluble glutamine Transporters inhibitor. Join researchers using high quality…
Indications for treatment of postoperative hypoxaemia or organ hypoperfusion so that minimal disruption is caused by mutations in atpcoding for thesubunit show severe tail truncation and have either ambiguous genitalia they carry a characteristic kd protein j histochem cytochem a mundelheid hmundel t m schultheiss figure fate 500mg zithromax buy online map development a luo g hofmann c bronckers a l the interrelations of the bodya s immunological defences will be required in patients following a course of evolution of efficient placental systems that comprise the nephric duct progenitors projecting caudally is characterized by a new catheter. My sister was also an important regulator of renal concentration capacity as estimated by creatinine clearance is to receive dialysis treatments. This can be substantially reduced with perioperative complications or critical aortic valve stenosis a tension pneumothorax with the registrar and should only be used as sedatives on intensive care unit handbook ...
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Plasma membrane System A-like neutral amino acid transporter, SA1, SAT2 or SNAT2 (transports small, neutral aliphatic amino acids including α-(methylamino)isobutyrate, mAIB with Na+ (1:1 stoichiometry; Km = 200-500 μM)). Asparagine 82 controls the interaction of Na+ with the transporter (Zhang and Grewer, 2007). The C-terminal domain regulates transport activity through a voltage-dependent process (Zhang et al., 2011). An 11 TMS topology has been experimentally demonstrated (Ge et al. 2018 ...
The placenta is a specialized organ of exchange that provides nutrients to and excretes waste products from the fetus. This exchange is the primary means by which the placenta controls fetal...
The Na-dependent alanine/α-(methylamino) isobutyric acid-transporting system A, ATA3 or SNAT4. Transports most neutral short chain amino acids electrogenically. Present only in liver and skeletal muscle. 47% and 57% identical to ATA1 and ATA2, respectively. A 10TMS topology [with N-and C-termini outside and a large N-glycosylated, extracellular loop domain (residues 242-335)] has been established (Shi et al., 2011). (Km(ALA)= 4mM; Na+:Ala= 1:1) (Sugawara et al., 2000 ...
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RESULTS: In a genomic survey where we manually annotated and analyzing sequences from more than 300 SLC1 genes (from more than 40 vertebrate species), we found evidence for an interesting evolutionary history of this gene family. While human and mouse genomes contain 7 SLC1 genes, in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes up to 9 and in actinopterygii up to 13 SLC1 genes are present. While some of the additional slc1 genes in ray-finned fishes originated from R3, the increased number of SLC1 genes in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes originates from specific genes retained in these lineages.Phylogenetic comparison and microsynteny analyses of the SLC1 genes indicate, that theria genomes evidently lost several SLC1 genes still present in the other lineage. The genes lost in theria group into two new subfamilies of the slc1 gene family which we named slc1a8/eaat6 and slc1a9/eaat7 ...
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The Hartnup disorder page provides a brief description of the genetics and clinical features of this disease that results from defects in the neutral amino acid transporter encoded by the SLC16A19 gene.
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MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminescationic amino acid transport permease (TIGR00906; HMM-score: 69.1) ...
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Reverse transcription-PCR was performed based on the method of Sugawara et al., 59 with slight modifications, using 1 μg of total RNA isolated from human cornea (kindly provided by Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX). The forward and reverse primers were 5′-TCT CAC TGC TTA ACG GCG TGT G-3′, and 5′-TCC CTG GCC AAG TCT AAC AAT G-3′, respectively. These primers correspond to the nucleotide positions 110-132 and 606-628 in hLAT1 cDNA, respectively. RT-PCR was performed with a commercial kit (GeneAmp; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The conditions for reverse transcription were as follows: denaturation of the template RNA for 10 minutes at 70°C and reverse transcription for 60 minutes at 42°C. The conditions for PCR amplification were as follows: denaturation for 1 minute at 94°C; annealing for 1 minute at 58°C, and extension for 1 minute at 72°C, 37 cycles; final extension for 10 minutes at 72°C. The resultant product (∼520 bp) was subcloned in pGEM-T vector and sequenced from ...
Neutral amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family are expressed at the apical membrane of kidney and/or small intestine, where they (re-)absorb amino acids into the body. In this review we present the results concerning the dependence of their apical expression with their association to partner proteins. We will in particular focus on the situation of B0AT1 and B0AT3, that associate with members of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), namely Tmem27 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), in a tissue specific manner. The role of this association in relation to the formation of a functional unit related to Na+ or amino acid transport will be assessed. We will conclude with some remarks concerning the relevance of this association to Hartnup disorder, where some mutations have been shown to differentially interact with the partner proteins. ...
The NMDA receptor co-agonist D-serine is a substrate for the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 which may regulate its extracellular levels in the CNS. We tested inhibitors of ASCT1 and ASCT2 for their effects in rodent models of schizophrenia and visual dysfunction which had previously been shown to be responsive to D-serine. L-4-fluorophenylglycine (L-4FPG), L-4-hydroxyPG (L-4OHPG) and L-4-chloroPG (L-4ClPG) all showed high plasma bioavailability when administered systemically to rats and mice. L-4FPG showed good brain penetration with brain:plasma ratios of 0.7-1.4, however values for L-4OHPG and L-4ClPG were lower. Systemically administered L-4FPG potently reduced amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice, whereas L-4OHPG was 100-fold less effective and L-4ClPG inactive at the doses tested. L-4FPG and L-4OHPG did not impair visual acuity in naive rats, and acute systemic administration of L-4FPG significantly improved the deficit in contrast sensitivity in blue-light treated ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesbranched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein (TIGR00796; HMM-score: 412.2) ...
Glutamine is taken up into the rat hepatoma cell line H4-IIE-C3 by a Na+-dependent transport system which is specific for glutamine, alanine, serine, cysteine and asparagine and does not tolerate substitution of Na+ by Li+. Glutamine transport was relatively weakly inhibited by a 50-fold excess of leucine and was not inhibited by phenylalanine or N-methyl aminoisobutyrate. These general properties are characteristic of the recently identified ASCT/B0 family of transporters. Using a reverse transcriptase PCR-based homology cloning approach, we have characterized a cDNA for a novel member of this transporter family (H4-ASCT2) from H4-IIE-C3 cells. The cDNA encodes a 551-amino acid protein which exhibits similarities of between 75 and 85% with ASCT/B0 transporters previously cloned from other sources. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, this transporter catalyses Na+-dependent glutamine uptake with characteristics very similar to those of glutamine uptake into the H4-IIE-C3 cells. This newly ...
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xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a
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The human arylamine N-acetyltransferases first attracted attention because of their role in drug metabolism. However, much of the current literature has focused on their role in the activation and detoxification of environmental carcinogens and how genetic polymorphisms in the genes create predispositions to increased or decreased cancer risk. There are two closely related genes on chromosome 8 that encode the two human arylamine N-acetyltransferases-NAT1 and NAT2. Although NAT2 has restricted tissue expression, NAT1 is found in almost all tissues of the body. There are several single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the protein coding and 3-untranslated regions of the gene that affect enzyme activity. However, NAT1 is also regulated by post-translational and environmental factors, which may be of greater importance than genotype in determining tissue NAT1 activities. Recent studies have suggested a novel role for this enzyme in cancer cell growth. NAT1 is up-regulated in several cancer types, and ...
Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect ...
(2S)-2-(methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid 2566-30-5 NMR spectrum, (2S)-2-(methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid H-NMR spectral analysis, (2S)-2-(methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
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In brain cells, glutamine transporters are vital to monitor and control the levels of glutamate and GABA. There are 11 members of the SLC38 family of amino acid transporters of which eight have been functionally characterized. Here, we report the first histological and functional characterization of the previously orphan member, SLC38A10. We used pairwise global sequence alignments to determine the sequence identity between the SLC38 family members. SLC38A10 was found to share 20-25% transmembrane sequence identity with several family members, and was predicted to have 11 transmembrane helices. SLC38A10 immunostaining was abundant in mouse brain using a custom-made anti-SLC38A10 antibody and colocalization of SLC38A10 immunoreactivity with markers for neurons and astrocytes was detected. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes overexpressing SLC38A10, we show that SLC38A10 mediates bidirectional transport of L-glutamine, L-alanine, L-glutamate, and D-aspartate, and efflux of L-serine. This profile mostly ...
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In article ,31C894FB.1855 at odyssee.net,, dellaire at ODYSSEE.NET says... , ,I was wondering if the cDNA is out for the acetyl transferase gene for ,mammals.. mouse or human. I know the yeast homolog is cloned but the ,cDNA is not available yet I dont think (at least not through NCBI or ,Entrez). ,Has anyone worked with the yeast acetyl transferase? Youll have to be a bit more specific than acetyltransferase as there are quite a few of them. My own interest is/was arylamine N-acetyltransferases involved in xenobiotic metabolism and the sequences of the two human forms (and variants) and rabbit forms have been available for some time. What do you want acetylated? Bernard Bernard Murray, Ph.D. bernard at elsie.nci.nih.gov (National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda MD, USA) If I knew what was going on Id really be indignant. -Crow T. Robot, MST3k (City Limits ...
Rai, K. M. Lokanatha and Umesha, K. B. and Yathirajan, H. S. (1999) Determination of molecular weight of neutral amino acids with chloramine-T. JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 76 (3). pp. 170-171. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
A primary interest of our lab is to understand how nerve cells make and recycle neurotransmitters, the small molecules that they use to communicate with each other. In better defining these processes we hope to achieve our long-term goal of identifying novel sites for treatment of diseases such as epilepsy and Parkinson Disease. In our studies on neurotransmitter metabolism we have focused our efforts on transporters, a functional class of proteins that move neurotransmitters and other small molecules across membranes in cells. Transporters have many characteristics that make them excellent pharmacological targets, and not surprisingly some of the most effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders are directed at transporters. We are specifically focusing on two groups of transporters vesicular neurotransmitter transporters that package neurotransmitters into vesicles for release, and glutamine transporters that shuttle glutamine, a precursor for two major neurotransmitters glutamate and ...
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Bile acid efflux mediated by the rat liver canalicular bile acid transport/ecto-ATPase protein requires serine 503...Bile acid efflux mediated by the rat liver canalicular bile acid transport/ecto-ATPase protein requires serine 503...

... proving that Ser503 and Tyr488 are the only amino acids phosphorylated in this system under control conditions. Bile acid ... proving that Ser503 and Tyr488 are the only amino acids phosphorylated in this system under control conditions. Bile acid ... proving that Ser503 and Tyr488 are the only amino acids phosphorylated in this system under control conditions. Bile acid ... proving that Ser503 and Tyr488 are the only amino acids phosphorylated in this system under control conditions. Bile acid ...
more infohttps://indiana.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/bile-acid-efflux-mediated-by-the-rat-liver-canalicular-bile-acid-

Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism | PNASAmino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism | PNAS

Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ... Transport mediated by SA1 is also electrogenic. Amino acid transport Systems A and N thus appear closely related in function as ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/97/14/7715

Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutralAmino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral

What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean in finance? ... Definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ... redirected from Amino acid transport systems, neutral). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia. ...
more infohttps://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Amino+acid+transport+systems%2C+neutral

The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a renal proximal tubular...The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular"...

The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular ... like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(18): ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ...
more infohttp://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/1364/

AID 456218 - Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by...AID 456218 - Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by...

Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by liquid ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/456218

Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems |...Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems |...

Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems. U ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/220/1/15

Amino acid transport systems, neutral | definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionaryAmino acid transport systems, neutral | definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary

Amino acid transport systems, neutral explanation free. What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid ... transport systems, neutral medical term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean? ... Looking for online definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the Medical Dictionary? ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral , definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary https:// ...
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Involvement of transporter recruitment as well as gene expression in the substrate-induced adaptive regulation of amino acid...Involvement of transporter recruitment as well as gene expression in the substrate-induced adaptive regulation of amino acid...

We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a process in ... N2 - We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ... AB - We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ... abstract = "We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ...
more infohttps://augusta.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/involvement-of-transporter-recruitment-as-well-as-gene-expression

xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System | Antibody News: Novus BiologicalsxCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System | Antibody News: Novus Biologicals

... is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a ... xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System. Fri, 09/06/2013 - 13:53 ... Home » xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System ... an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The cysteine is subsequently transported ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/antibody-news/antibodies/xct-amino-acid-transport-and-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system

Recombinant Human xCT protein (ab112403) | AbcamRecombinant Human xCT protein (ab112403) | Abcam

Amino acid transport system xc xCT antibody. *Amino acid transport system xc- ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. ... Solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter light chain, xc- system), member 11 ... Solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11 ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/Recombinant-Human-xCT-protein-ab112403.html

Metab, Misc + CDB Flashcards by Carla Marie Lee | BrainscapeMetab, Misc + CDB Flashcards by Carla Marie Lee | Brainscape

Sodium-dependent amino acid transport system in renal tubules and intestines 41 ... Branched-chain amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, valine (LIV) [Think MAPLE tree, tree of LIVe, has BRANCHes] ... Which among the branched chain amino acids has a higher plasma level than the rest of the accumulating substances ... D/O of amino acid metabolism that looks like tetanus (muscular rigidity + opisthotonus) ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/metab-misc-cdb-4026518/packs/5949532

The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation.The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation.

... accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process ... Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, ... Amino Acid Transport System A / physiology*. Amino Acids, Neutral / metabolism*. Biological Transport. Cell Membrane / ... 0/Amino Acid Transport System A; 0/Amino Acids, Neutral; 0/Hypertonic Solutions; 0/RNA, Small Interfering; 0/SLC38A2 protein, ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/role-neutral-amino-acid-transporter/16734764.html

Inhibition of L-type amino acid transporter modulates the expression of cell cycle regulatory factors in KB oral cancer cells.Inhibition of L-type amino acid transporter modulates the expression of cell cycle regulatory factors in KB oral cancer cells.

... heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), an inhibitor of L-type amino acid transporters, on the cell growth suppression in KB human ... 0/Amino Acid Transport Systems; 0/Cell Cycle Proteins From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... Amino Acid Transport Systems / antagonists & inhibitors*. Blotting, Western. Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology*. Cell Line, ... 20606299 - Inhibition of l-type amino acid transporter modulates the expression of cell cycle regu.... 8136159 - Cell cycle- ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Inhibition-L-Type-Amino-Acid/20606299.html

Sequence Similarity 









- 4FB4: The Structure of an ABC-Transporter Family Protein from Rhodopseudomonas palustris in...Sequence Similarity - 4FB4: The Structure of an ABC-Transporter Family Protein from Rhodopseudomonas palustris in...

branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein Aromatic compound transport protein 1076 ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 4 3UKJ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 7 4EYQ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein UNP residues 27-385 1076 ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/sequenceCluster.do?structureId=4FB4&entity=1&seqid=40

Frontiers | Aliskiren Administration during Early Postnatal Life Sex-Specifically Alleviates Hypertension Programmed by...Frontiers | Aliskiren Administration during Early Postnatal Life Sex-Specifically Alleviates Hypertension Programmed by...

... technology and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented ... technology and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented ... Pinto, V., Pinho, M.J., and Soares-da-Silva, P. (2013). Renal amino acid transport systems and essential hypertension. FASEB J. ... Slc6a19 gene encodes an amino acid transporter B0AT1. Slc4a4 gene encodes a sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) involved in ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2016.00299/full

rbsC - Ribose ABC transporter permease - Paenibacillus polymyxa (strain E681) - rbsC gene & proteinrbsC - Ribose ABC transporter permease - Paenibacillus polymyxa (strain E681) - rbsC gene & protein

Branched-chain amino acid transport system / permease component family protein. Brevibacillus laterosporus GI-9 ... TransportSAAS annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without manual ... Belongs to the binding-protein-dependent transport system permease family.SAAS annotation. Automatic assertion according to ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/E0R9T9

Veis 1087 - Inner-membrane translocator - Verminephrobacter eiseniae (strain EF01-2) - Veis 1087 gene & proteinVeis 1087 - Inner-membrane translocator - Verminephrobacter eiseniae (strain EF01-2) - Veis 1087 gene & protein

Branched-chain amino acid transport system / permease component family protein. BURCE. 345. ... TransportSAAS annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without manual ... Belongs to the binding-protein-dependent transport system permease family.SAAS annotation. Automatic assertion according to ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A1WGV6

Mediation of Highly Concentrative Uptake of Pregabalin by L-Type Amino Acid Transport in Chinese Hamster Ovary and Caco-2 Cells...Mediation of Highly Concentrative Uptake of Pregabalin by L-Type Amino Acid Transport in Chinese Hamster Ovary and Caco-2 Cells...

L-type amino acid transport system is an ubiquitous Na+-independent transport system for large, neutral amino acids across ... and system b0,+ is one of the Na+-independent amino acid transport systems in intestine (Costa et al., 2000). System b0,+ is ... Su TZ, Lunney E, Campbell G, and Oxender DL (1995) Transport of gabapentin, a gamma-amino acid drug, by system l alpha-amino ... 4; Table 1). This result strongly suggests that PGB and leucine share the same L-type amino acid transport system transport ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/313/3/1406.long

Series Parallel Diagram Single Cell Analysis Of Kynurenine And System L Amino Acid Transport In T Cells Nature Communications ~...Series Parallel Diagram Single Cell Analysis Of Kynurenine And System L Amino Acid Transport In T Cells Nature Communications ~...

series parallel diagram single cell analysis of kynurenine and system l amino acid transport in t cells nature communications. ... Piezo Controllers Drivers For Nanopositioning Systems Series Parallel Diagram Position Control Electronics Optimizes System ...
more infohttps://tracologie.info/series-parallel-diagram

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Amino Acid Transport Systems); 0 (Amino Acids, Aromatic); 0 (AroP protein, E coli); 0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Escherichia coli ... methylotrophus AS1 mutants auxotrophic for aromatic amino acids. Thus, introduction of foreign amino acid transporter genes ... 919 amino acids [aa]), which puts MmeI also in subtype IIC of the restriction-modification systems. Based on a molecular model ... To improve the amino acid production by metabolic engineering, eliminating the pathway bottleneck is known to be very effective ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=standard.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=B03.440.400.425.525.520.500

Transporter expression and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA)  | Open-iTransporter expression and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) | Open-i

Amino Acid Transport System y+/metabolism*. *Amino Acid Transport Systems/metabolism*. *Antigens, CD98 Light Chains/metabolism* ... Bottom Line: Among aromatic amino acid transporters, ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 were found to transport BPA with Km values of ... Bottom Line: Among aromatic amino acid transporters, ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 were found to transport BPA with Km values of ... Amino Acid Transport System y+/metabolism*. *Amino Acid Transport Systems/metabolism*. *Antigens, CD98 Light Chains/metabolism* ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4376436_cas0106-0279-f5&req=4

Placental Metabolism and Regulation of Nutrient Transfer to the Fetus | Springer for Research & DevelopmentPlacental Metabolism and Regulation of Nutrient Transfer to the Fetus | Springer for Research & Development

Placental amino acid uptake. III. Transport systems for neutral amino acids. Am J Physiol. 1976;230:706-710.PubMedGoogle ... Transport of amino acids in the placenta. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985;822:169-201.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... and amino acids; protein synthesis; amino acid interconversion; glycero-lipid synthesis; and chain lengthening or shortening of ... Umbilical uptake of amino acids in the unstressed fetal lamb. J Clin Invest. 1976;58:1428-1434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4613-9240-8_3

PDF] Heteromeric amino acid transporters: biochemistry, genetics, and physiology. | Semantic ScholarPDF] Heteromeric amino acid transporters: biochemistry, genetics, and physiology. | Semantic Scholar

HATs represent several of the classic mammalian amino acid transport systems (e.g., L isoforms, y(+)L isoforms, asc, x(c)(-), ... In addition to the role in amino acid transport, one HSHAT [the heavy subunit of the cell-surface antigen 4F2 (also named CD98 ... The heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are composed of two polypeptides: a heavy subunit (HSHAT) and a light subunit ( ... Obligatory amino acid exchange via systems bo,+-like and y+L-like. A tertiary active transport mechanism for renal reabsorption ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Heteromeric-amino-acid-transporters%3A-biochemistry%2C-Chillar%C3%B3n-Roca/9d7fb82ef12d96940f9f0250932186321cae1e95

Frontiers | Threonine appears to be essential for proliferation of human as well as mouse embryonic stem cells | Cell and...Frontiers | Threonine appears to be essential for proliferation of human as well as mouse embryonic stem cells | Cell and...

Other essential and nonessential amino acids need not be added to the medium for mES cell proliferation. Furthermore, the ... cell proliferation depends exclusively on the nutritionally essential amino acid, L-threonine, in the medium. ... Care 17, 80-85.Abstract: Of the amino acids, threonine alone is essential for mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell proliferation ... Keywords: threonine, embryonic stem cells, cell proliferation, humans, amino acid transport systems ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2014.00018/full

Essential Amino Acids
     Summary Report | CureHunterEssential Amino Acids Summary Report | CureHunter

Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are ... Glycine (Aminoacetic Acid) 9. Amino Acid Transport Systems (Amino Acid Transporter) 10. Insulin (Novolin) ... Essential Amino Acids. Subscribe to New Research on Essential Amino Acids Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Amino Acids: 10808*Essential Amino Acids: 403*Arginine: 7940 ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD000601-Essential-Amino-Acids.do
  • Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecule: amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids (often called fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr Julian Dow Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow: Genetic analysis of epithelial transport in Drosophila. (bio.net)
  • SNAT1 mediated L-citrulline transport modulates eNOS coupling and thus regulates NO production in hypoxic PAECs from newborn piglets. (gwu.edu)
  • The dual-component system, which consists of an integrative plasmid with a mini-Mu and an easily eliminated helper plasmid encoding inducible transposition factors, is described in detail as a tool for the integration/amplification of recombinant DNAs. (bireme.br)
  • The differential affinity of PGB and GBP at L-type system leads to more concentrative accumulation of PGB than GBP, which may facilitate PGB transmembrane absorption in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Wessler I, Kirkpatrick C J, Racke K. The cholinergic 'pitfall': acetylcholine, a universal cell molecule in biological systems, including humans. (springer.com)
  • Wessler I, Kirkpatrick C J, Racke K. Non-neuronal acetylcholine, a locally acting molecule, widely distributed in biological systems: expression and function in humans. (springer.com)
  • a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transport properties for phenylalanine and glucose in luminal-membrane vesicles from outer cortex (pars convoluta) and outer medulla (pars recta) of rabbit kidney were studied by a spectrophotometric method. (biochemj.org)
  • Attempts to calculate the stoichiometry of the different Na+/D-glucose transport systems by using Hill-type plots revealed that the ratio of the Na+/hexose co-transport probably is 1:1 in the case of pars convoluta and 2:1 in membrane vesicles from pars recta. (biochemj.org)
  • These functionally defined systems were originally characterized by kinetic and competition studies ( Christensen, 1990 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Without comprehensive kinetic analysis, it is often difficult to specify a transport system responsible for uptake of an unknown substrate ( Christensen, 1990 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)