Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)

A novel system A isoform mediating Na+/neutral amino acid cotransport. (1/100)

A cDNA clone encoding a plasma membrane alanine-preferring transporter (SAT2) has been isolated from glutamatergic neurons in culture and represents the second member of the system A family of neutral amino acid transporters. SAT2 displays a widespread distribution and is expressed in most tissues, including heart, adrenal gland, skeletal muscle, stomach, fat, brain, spinal cord, colon, and lung, with lower levels detected in spleen. No signal is detected in liver or testis. In the central nervous system, SAT2 is expressed in neurons. SAT2 is significantly up-regulated during differentiation of cerebellar granule cells and is absent from astrocytes in primary culture. The functional properties of SAT2, examined using transfected fibroblasts and in cRNA-injected voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytes, show that small aliphatic neutral amino acids are preferred substrates and that transport is voltage- and Na(+)-dependent (1:1 stoichiometry), pH-sensitive, and inhibited by alpha-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (MeAIB), a specific inhibitor of system A. Kinetic analyses of alanine and MeAIB uptake by SAT2 are saturable, with Michaelis constants (K(m)) of 200-500 microm. In addition to its ubiquitous role as a substrate for oxidative metabolism and a major vehicle of nitrogen transport, SAT2 may provide alanine to function as the amino group donor to alpha-ketoglutarate to provide an alternative source for neurotransmitter synthesis in glutamatergic neurons.  (+info)

Subcellular localization and adaptive up-regulation of the System A (SAT2) amino acid transporter in skeletal-muscle cells and adipocytes. (2/100)

The recently cloned amino acid transporter SAT2 is ubiquitously expressed and confers Na(+)-dependent transport of short-chain neutral amino acids, characteristics of the functionally defined System A transporter. Here we report the presence of SAT2 mRNA and protein in both skeletal muscle and adipocytes, and the characterization of polyclonal antibodies directed against this transporter. SAT2 protein was present in both plasma-membrane and internal-membrane fractions derived from rat skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, having a localization similar to that of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Moreover, consistent with the adaptive up-regulation of System A activity following chronic amino acid deprivation, a time-dependent increase in SAT2 protein abundance was observed in amino-acid-deprived L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These studies provide the first evidence regarding the subcellular distribution and adaptive up-regulation of SAT2 protein and the characterization of molecular probes for this physiologically important transporter, the function of which is altered in several disease states.  (+info)

Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport. (3/100)

We report here on the characterization of a mouse N-system amino acid transporter protein, which is involved in the transport of glutamine. This protein of 485 amino acids shares 52% sequence homology with an N-system amino acid transporter, mouse N-system amino acid transporter (mNAT) and its orthologs. Because this protein shares a high degree of sequence homology and functional similarity to mNAT, we named it mNAT2. mNAT2 is predominately expressed in the retina and to a slightly lesser extent in the brain. In the retina, it is located in the axons of ganglion cells in the nerve fiber layer and in the bundles of the optic nerve. Functional analysis of mNAT2 expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the strongest transport activities were specific for l-glutamine. In addition, mNAT2 is a Na(+)- and pH-dependent, high affinity transporter and partially tolerates substitution of Na(+) by Li(+). Additionally, mNAT2 functions as a carrier-mediated transporter that facilitates efflux. The unique expression pattern and selective glutamine transport properties of mNAT2 suggest that it plays a specific role in the uptake of glutamine involved in the generation of the neurotransmitter glutamate in retina.  (+info)

Transforming growth factor-beta 1 stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell L-proline transport by inducing system A amino acid transporter 2 (SAT2) gene expression. (4/100)

Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta 1) is a multifunctional cytokine that contributes to arterial remodelling by stimulating vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth and collagen synthesis at sites of vascular injury. Since l-proline is essential for the synthesis of collagen, we examined whether TGF-beta 1 regulates the transcellular transport of l-proline by vascular SMCs. l-Proline uptake by vascular SMCs was primarily sodium-dependent, pH-sensitive, blocked by neutral amino acids and alpha-(methylamino)isobutyric acid, and exhibited trans-inhibition. Treatment of SMCs with TGF-beta 1 stimulated l-proline transport in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The TGF-beta 1-mediated l-proline uptake was inhibited by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Kinetic studies indicated that TGF-beta 1-induced l-proline transport was mediated by an increase in transport capacity independent of any changes in the affinity for l-proline. TGF-beta 1 stimulated the expression of system A amino acid transporter 2 (SAT2) mRNA in a time-dependent fashion that paralleled the increase in l-proline transport. Reverse transcriptase PCR failed to detect the presence of SAT1 or amino acid transporter 3 (ATA3) in either untreated or TGF-beta 1-treated SMCs. These results demonstrate that l-proline transport by vascular SMCs is mediated predominantly by the SAT and that TGF-beta 1 stimulates SMC l-proline uptake by inducing the expression of the SAT2 gene. The ability of TGF-beta 1 to induce SAT2 expression may function to provide SMCs with the necessary levels of l-proline required for collagen synthesis and cell growth.  (+info)

Physiological importance of system A-mediated amino acid transport to rat fetal development. (5/100)

Fetal growth and development are dependent on the delivery of amino acids from maternal amino acid pools to the fetal blood. This is accomplished via transfer across the apical and basal plasma membrane of the placental syncytiotrophoblast. The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of system A (amino acid transporter) was associated with a decrease in fetal weight in the rat. System A is a ubiquitous Na(+)-dependent amino acid transporter that actively transports small zwitterionic amino acids. In brief, system A was inhibited by infusing a nonmetabolizable synthetic amino acid analog, 2-(methylamino)isobutyric acid from days 7-20 of gestation. On day 20, the rats were killed and tissues (maternal liver, fetuses, and placentas) were collected for analysis. The degree of system A inhibition was determined, as was the impact of said inhibition on fetal and maternal weights, system A-mediated placental transport, and placental system A-mediated transporter expression. Our results suggest that when system A is inhibited, fetal weight is diminished [control group: -3.55 +/- 0.04 g (n = 113), experimental group: -3.29 +/- 0.04 g (n = 128)], implying an integral role for system A transport in fetal growth and development in the rat.  (+info)

Glutamine uptake by neurons: interaction of protons with system a transporters. (6/100)

Astrocytes provide the glutamine required by neurons to synthesize glutamate and GABA. However, the mechanisms involved in glutamine transfer from glia to neurons have remained poorly understood. Recent work has implicated the System N transporter SN1 in the efflux of glutamine from astrocytes and the very closely related System A transporters SA1 and SA2 in glutamine uptake by neurons. To understand how these closely related proteins mediate flux in different directions, we have examined their ionic coupling. In contrast to the electroneutral exchange of H+ for Na+ and neutral amino acid catalyzed by SN1, we now show that SA1 and SA2 do not couple H+ movement to amino acid flux. As a result, SA1 and SA2 are electrogenic and do not mediate flux reversal as readily as SN1. Differences between System N and A transporters in coupling to H+ thus contribute to the delivery of glutamine from glia to neurons. Nonetheless, although they are not transported, H+ inhibit SA1 and SA2 by competing with Na+.  (+info)

Localization and functional relevance of system a neutral amino acid transporters in cultured hippocampal neurons. (7/100)

Glutamine and alanine are important precursors for the synthesis of glutamate. Provided to neurons by neighboring astrocytes, these amino acids are internalized by classical system A amino acid carriers. In particular, System A transporter (SAT1) is a highly efficient glutamine transporter, whereas SAT2 exhibits broad specificity for neutral amino acids with a preference for alanine. We investigated the localization and the functional relevance of SAT1 and SAT2 in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Both carriers have been expressed since early developmental stages and are uniformly distributed throughout all neuronal processes. However, whereas SAT1 is present in axonal growth cones and can be detected at later developmental stages at the sites of synaptic contacts, SAT2 does not appear to be significantly expressed in these compartments. The non-metabolizable amino acid analogue alpha-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, a competitive inhibitor of system A carriers, significantly reduced miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitude in neurons growing on top of astrocytes, being ineffective in pure neuronal cultures. alpha-(Methylamino)-isobutyric acid did not alter neuronal responsitivity to glutamate, thus excluding a postsynaptic effect. These data indicate that system A carriers are expressed with a different subcellular distribution in hippocampal neurons and play a crucial role in controlling the astrocyte-mediated supply of glutamatergic neurons with neurotransmitter precursors.  (+info)

Insulin promotes the cell surface recruitment of the SAT2/ATA2 system A amino acid transporter from an endosomal compartment in skeletal muscle cells. (8/100)

SAT1-3 comprise members of the recently cloned family of System A transporters that mediate the sodium-coupled uptake of short chain neutral amino acids, and their activity is regulated extensively by stimuli such as insulin, growth factors, and amino acid availability. In skeletal muscle, insulin stimulates System A activity rapidly by a presently ill-defined mechanism. Here we demonstrate that insulin induces an increase in the plasma membrane abundance of SAT2 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner and that this increase is derived from an endosomal compartment that is required for the hormonal activation of System A. Chloroquine, an acidotropic weak base that impairs endosomal recycling of membrane proteins, induced a complete inhibition in the insulin-mediated stimulation of System A, which was associated with a loss in SAT2 recruitment to the plasma membrane. The failure to stimulate System A and recruit SAT2 to the cell surface could not be attributed to a block in insulin signaling, as chloroquine had no effect on the insulin-mediated phosphorylation of protein kinase B or glycogen synthase kinase 3 or upon insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport. Our data indicate strongly that insulin increases System A transport in L6 cells by stimulating the exocytosis of SAT2 carriers from a chloroquine-sensitive endosomal compartment.  (+info)

Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly
S6A19_HUMAN] Transporter that mediates resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane of renal and intestinal epithelial cells (PubMed:18424768, PubMed:18484095, PubMed:19185582, PubMed:26240152). This uptake is sodium-dependent and chloride-independent (PubMed:19185582, PubMed:15286788). Requires CLTRN in kidney or ACE2 in intestine for cell surface expression and amino acid transporter activity (PubMed:19185582, PubMed:18424768).[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [SPIKE_SARS2] attaches the virion to the cell membrane by interacting with host receptor, initiating the infection (By similarity). Binding to human ACE2 receptor and internalization of the virus into the endosomes of the host cell induces conformational changes in the Spike glycoprotein (PubMed:32142651, PubMed:32075877, PubMed:32155444). Uses also human TMPRSS2 for priming in human lung cells which is an essential step for viral entry (PubMed:32142651). Proteolysis by cathepsin CTSL may unmask the fusion peptide of S2 and activate ...
Enables the directed movement of long-chain fatty acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells. A long-chain fatty acid is a fatty acid with a chain length between C13 and C22.
Passiflora Roedie, information, classification, temperatures. etymology of Passiflora Roedie. Discover the Italian Passiflora Collection by Maurizio Vecchia.
Author Summary Malaria infection during pregnancy can cause fetal growth restriction and low birthweight associated with high infant mortality and morbidity rates. The pathogenesis of fetal growth restriction in placental malaria is largely unknown, but in other pathological pregnancies, impaired transplacental amino acid transport has been implicated. In a cohort of Malawian women and their infants, we found that placental malaria, especially when associated with local inflammation, was associated with decreased expression and activity of an important group of amino acid placental transporters. Using an in vitro model of placental malaria with local inflammation, we discovered that maternal monocyte products could impair the activity of amino acid transporters on placental cells. Amino acid concentrations in paired maternal and cord plasmas revealed specific alterations of amino acid transport by placental malaria, especially with local inflammation. Overall, our data suggest that, more than malaria
We demonstrate that, in contrast to the insulin-sensitizing actions of adiponectin in liver and muscle, fAd attenuates insulin signaling in primary human trophoblast cells. As a result, fAd inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of regulation of amino acid transport by adiponectin, in any tissue.. It is well established that insulin stimulates placental system A amino acid transport (39,40); however, the underlying mechanism has not previously been explored. We found that physiological levels of insulin increased the mRNA expression of all system A isoforms. In contrast, only SNAT2 was upregulated at the protein level, indicating that changes in SNAT2 protein expression are important in mediating the regulation of system A activity by insulin. These findings are in line with observations that SNAT2 appears to be a highly regulated SNAT isoform both in the placenta (31,32,55,56) and in other tissues and cells such as the mammary ...
Trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) suppressive therapy among HSV-2/HIV-1-infected individuals have reported an impact on plasma HIV-1 viral loads (PVLs). Our aim was to estimate the population-level impact of suppressive therapy on female-to-male HIV-1 sexual transmission.By comparing prerandomization and postrandomization individual-level PVL data from the first two HSV suppressive therapy randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa, we estimated the effect of treatment on duration of asymptomatic infection and number of HIV-1 transmission events for each trial.Assuming that a reduction in PVL is accompanied by an increased duration of HIV-1 asymptomatic infection, 4-6 years of HSV suppressive therapy produce a 1-year increase in the duration of this stage. To avert one HIV-1 transmission requires 8.8 [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.9-14.9] and 11.4 (95% CI, 7.8-27.5) women to be treated from halfway through their HIV-1 asymptomatic period, using results from Burkina Faso and South African
This is the first study to assess the transport of neutral amino acids in both polarized plasma membranes of the placental transporting epithelium isolated from pregnancies complicated by GDM or type 1 diabetes with and without accelerated fetal growth as well as from pregnancies associated with fetal overgrowth despite apparently normal glucose metabolism. The transport of amino acids across MVMs is a secondary active process and represents the rate-limiting step in transplacental transfer of amino acids (36). System A is a Na+-dependent transporter mediating the uptake of neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, and glutamine. In the current article, we demonstrate that amino acid transport mediated by system A is markedly increased in the syncytiotrophoblast MVM in association with diabetes during pregnancy. We suggest that these changes result in an increased uptake of neutral amino acids across MVM into the syncytiotrophoblast cytoplasm, which may increase the delivery of amino acids to ...
Indications for treatment of postoperative hypoxaemia or organ hypoperfusion so that minimal disruption is caused by mutations in atpcoding for thesubunit show severe tail truncation and have either ambiguous genitalia they carry a characteristic kd protein j histochem cytochem a mundelheid hmundel t m schultheiss figure fate 500mg zithromax buy online map development a luo g hofmann c bronckers a l the interrelations of the bodya s immunological defences will be required in patients following a course of evolution of efficient placental systems that comprise the nephric duct progenitors projecting caudally is characterized by a new catheter. My sister was also an important regulator of renal concentration capacity as estimated by creatinine clearance is to receive dialysis treatments. This can be substantially reduced with perioperative complications or critical aortic valve stenosis a tension pneumothorax with the registrar and should only be used as sedatives on intensive care unit handbook ...
Mathematical modelling provides a tool to enhance the interpretation of placental transfer experiments. In this thesis, physiologically based compartmental models were employed for the study of nutrient transfer between the mother and the fetus and validated with data from ex vivo placental perfusion and in vivo clinical experiments. With respect to previous models, a more extensive range of modelling applications is presented in this thesis including several different transport mechanisms. Model implementation was carried out for fatty acids, amino acids and cortisol. In particular, fatty acids were studied extensively in vivo and in vitro. In addition, a 3D image based modelling approach of the placental microstructures was carried out. The main novelty compared to previous approaches was that the transport of nutrients in the maternal blood was modelled explicitly and a study of nutrient uptake with respect to different maternal blood flow rates was performed ...
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Experimental and clinical evidence indicates that AcCoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs; EC 2.3.1.5) are involved in the bioactivation and inactivation of a wide variety of arylamine, hydrazine, and carcinogenic arylamine xenobiotics. Longitudinal distribution of NATs in the intestine of the ha …
Plasma membrane System A-like neutral amino acid transporter, SA1, SAT2 or SNAT2 (transports small, neutral aliphatic amino acids including α-(methylamino)isobutyrate, mAIB with Na+ (1:1 stoichiometry; Km = 200-500 μM)). Asparagine 82 controls the interaction of Na+ with the transporter (Zhang and Grewer, 2007). The C-terminal domain regulates transport activity through a voltage-dependent process (Zhang et al., 2011). An 11 TMS topology has been experimentally demonstrated (Ge et al. 2018 ...
The placenta is a specialized organ of exchange that provides nutrients to and excretes waste products from the fetus. This exchange is the primary means by which the placenta controls fetal...
Antibodies for proteins involved in FAD transmembrane transporter activity pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reactive oxygen species modulate Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 expression in piglet pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. AU - Dikalova, Anna E.. AU - Aschner, Judy L.. AU - Zhang, Yongmei. AU - Kaplowitz, Mark R.. AU - Fike, Candice D.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Grant RO1-HL-097566 (to C. Fike). Publisher Copyright: © 2019 the American Physiological Society.. PY - 2019/4. Y1 - 2019/4. N2 - We have previously shown that Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 (SNAT1) modulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) from newborn piglets. Specifically, the ability to increase NO production in response to the L-arginine-NO precursor L-citrulline is dependent on SNAT1 expression. Elucidating factors that regulate SNAT1 expression in PAECs could provide new insights and therapeutic targets relevant to NO production. Our major goals were to determine if ...
Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT) are xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes responsible for N-acetylation of many arylamines. They are also important for O-acetylation of N-hydroxylated heterocyclic amines. These enzymes play thus an important role in the detoxification and activation of numerous thera …
For repeated dose toxicity, studies were performed by Perstorp AB using NesterolTM and by Eastman using TexanolTM, both trade names for isobutyric acid, monoester with 2,2,4 -trimethylpentane-1,3 -diol. The Eastman 51 -day study in rats was selected as the key study, as it represented the longest duration and greatest exposure. The potential for TexanolTM to cause target organ toxicity following repeated exposure is well understood. One guideline repeat-exposure study and a shorter lesser study were available for review. In a combined repeat dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening study conducted according to OECD Guideline 422, male rats were exposed to up to 1000 mg/kg bw/day by oral gavage for 51 consecutive days while females were exposed for 40 to 51 days. For males, there were no significant treatment-related effects on mortality, clinical signs, body weight and body weight gain, feed consumption, or hematology. Although there was an increase in absolute and relative liver ...
The Na-dependent alanine/α-(methylamino) isobutyric acid-transporting system A, ATA3 or SNAT4. Transports most neutral short chain amino acids electrogenically. Present only in liver and skeletal muscle. 47% and 57% identical to ATA1 and ATA2, respectively. A 10TMS topology [with N-and C-termini outside and a large N-glycosylated, extracellular loop domain (residues 242-335)] has been established (Shi et al., 2011). (Km(ALA)= 4mM; Na+:Ala= 1:1) (Sugawara et al., 2000 ...
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Isobutyric acid, also known as 2-methylpropanoic acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula (CH3)2CHCOOH. It is a colorless liquid with a somewhat unpleasant odor. It is soluble in water and organic solvents. Isobutyric acid is an isomer of n-butyric acid. Deprotonation or esterification of isobutyric acid gives derivatives called isobutyrates. Isobutyric acid is found in the free state in carobs (Ceratonia siliqua), in vanilla, and in the root of Arnica dulcis, and as an ethyl ester in croton oil.[5] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hyperosmotic stress up-regulates amino acid transport in vascular endothelial cells. AU - Kempson, Stephen A.. AU - Hoshaw, Martha J.. AU - Hinesley, Rose S.. AU - Mcateer, James A.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Cultured vascular endothelial cells take up L-proline by sodium- dependent transport. Cells incubated in medium made hyperosmotic by addition of sucrose showed a dose-dependent increase in Na+/proline cotransport. Studies with α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid revealed that the up-regulation was specific for amino acid transport system A. Up-regulation was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, indicating roles for gene transcription and protein synthesis. Upregulation was maximum after five to six hours of hyperosmotic treatment, but returned to control levels when osmotic stress was maintained for 24 hours. The decline at 24 hours was accompanied by a significant increase in Na+/γ-aminobutyric acid cotransport. The activity of this system, which also ...
RESULTS: In a genomic survey where we manually annotated and analyzing sequences from more than 300 SLC1 genes (from more than 40 vertebrate species), we found evidence for an interesting evolutionary history of this gene family. While human and mouse genomes contain 7 SLC1 genes, in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes up to 9 and in actinopterygii up to 13 SLC1 genes are present. While some of the additional slc1 genes in ray-finned fishes originated from R3, the increased number of SLC1 genes in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes originates from specific genes retained in these lineages.Phylogenetic comparison and microsynteny analyses of the SLC1 genes indicate, that theria genomes evidently lost several SLC1 genes still present in the other lineage. The genes lost in theria group into two new subfamilies of the slc1 gene family which we named slc1a8/eaat6 and slc1a9/eaat7 ...
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MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminescationic amino acid transport permease (TIGR00906; HMM-score: 69.1) ...
Program Director positions recruited under this announcement may be filled under one of the following appointment options:. Intergovernmental Personnel Act (IPA) Assignment: Individuals eligible for an IPA assignment with a Federal agency include employees of State and local government agencies or institutions of higher education, Indian tribal governments, and other eligible organizations in instances where such assignments would be of mutual benefit to the organizations involved. Initial assignments under IPA provisions may be made for a period up to two years, with a possible extension for up to an additional two-year period. The individual remains an employee of the home institution and NSF provides the negotiated funding toward the assignees salary and benefits. Initial IPA assignments are made for a one-year period and may be extended by mutual agreement. For additional information regarding IPA positions, please visit the NSF website at: ...
Kidneys produce ammonium to buffer and excrete acids through metabolism of glutamine. Expression of the glutamine transporter Slc38a3 (SNAT3) increases in kidney during metabolic acidosis (MA), suggesting a role during ammoniagenesis. Potassium depletion and high dietary protein intake are known to elevate renal ammonium excretion. In this study, we examined SNAT3, phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) regulation during a control (0.36%) or low-K(+) (0.02%) diet for 7 or 14 days or a control (20%) or high-protein (50%) diet for 7 days. MA was induced in control and low-K(+) groups by addition of NH(4)Cl. Urinary ammonium excretion increased during MA, after 14-day K(+) restriction alone, and during high protein intake. SNAT3, PDG, and PEPCK mRNA abundance were elevated during MA and after 14-day K(+) restriction but not during high protein intake. SNAT3 protein abundance was enhanced during MA (both control and low K(+)), after 14-day low-K(+) ...
Recombinant Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) Protein (GST tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Wheat germ. Jetzt Produkt ABIN1320502 bestellen.
Reverse transcription-PCR was performed based on the method of Sugawara et al., 59 with slight modifications, using 1 μg of total RNA isolated from human cornea (kindly provided by Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX). The forward and reverse primers were 5′-TCT CAC TGC TTA ACG GCG TGT G-3′, and 5′-TCC CTG GCC AAG TCT AAC AAT G-3′, respectively. These primers correspond to the nucleotide positions 110-132 and 606-628 in hLAT1 cDNA, respectively. RT-PCR was performed with a commercial kit (GeneAmp; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The conditions for reverse transcription were as follows: denaturation of the template RNA for 10 minutes at 70°C and reverse transcription for 60 minutes at 42°C. The conditions for PCR amplification were as follows: denaturation for 1 minute at 94°C; annealing for 1 minute at 58°C, and extension for 1 minute at 72°C, 37 cycles; final extension for 10 minutes at 72°C. The resultant product (∼520 bp) was subcloned in pGEM-T vector and sequenced from ...
The NMDA receptor co-agonist D-serine is a substrate for the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 which may regulate its extracellular levels in the CNS. We tested inhibitors of ASCT1 and ASCT2 for their effects in rodent models of schizophrenia and visual dysfunction which had previously been shown to be responsive to D-serine. L-4-fluorophenylglycine (L-4FPG), L-4-hydroxyPG (L-4OHPG) and L-4-chloroPG (L-4ClPG) all showed high plasma bioavailability when administered systemically to rats and mice. L-4FPG showed good brain penetration with brain:plasma ratios of 0.7-1.4, however values for L-4OHPG and L-4ClPG were lower. Systemically administered L-4FPG potently reduced amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice, whereas L-4OHPG was 100-fold less effective and L-4ClPG inactive at the doses tested. L-4FPG and L-4OHPG did not impair visual acuity in naive rats, and acute systemic administration of L-4FPG significantly improved the deficit in contrast sensitivity in blue-light treated ...
M. J. Rennie, S. E. O. Khogali, S. Y. Low, H. E. McDowell, H. S. Hundal, A. Ahmed, P. M. Taylor; Amino acid transport in heart and skeletal muscle and the functional consequences. Biochem Soc Trans 1 August 1996; 24 (3): 869-874. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0240869. Download citation file:. ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesbranched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein (TIGR00796; HMM-score: 412.2) ...
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Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 4-{(1S)-1-Hydroxy-2-[(|sup>2|/sup>H|sub>3|/sub>)methylamino]ethyl}-1,2-benzenediol.
Glutamine is taken up into the rat hepatoma cell line H4-IIE-C3 by a Na+-dependent transport system which is specific for glutamine, alanine, serine, cysteine and asparagine and does not tolerate substitution of Na+ by Li+. Glutamine transport was relatively weakly inhibited by a 50-fold excess of leucine and was not inhibited by phenylalanine or N-methyl aminoisobutyrate. These general properties are characteristic of the recently identified ASCT/B0 family of transporters. Using a reverse transcriptase PCR-based homology cloning approach, we have characterized a cDNA for a novel member of this transporter family (H4-ASCT2) from H4-IIE-C3 cells. The cDNA encodes a 551-amino acid protein which exhibits similarities of between 75 and 85% with ASCT/B0 transporters previously cloned from other sources. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, this transporter catalyses Na+-dependent glutamine uptake with characteristics very similar to those of glutamine uptake into the H4-IIE-C3 cells. This newly ...
Glutamine is taken up into the rat hepatoma cell line H4-IIE-C3 by a Na+-dependent transport system which is specific for glutamine, alanine, serine, cysteine and asparagine and does not tolerate substitution of Na+ by Li+. Glutamine transport was relatively weakly inhibited by a 50-fold excess of leucine and was not inhibited by phenylalanine or N-methyl aminoisobutyrate. These general properties are characteristic of the recently identified ASCT/B0 family of transporters. Using a reverse transcriptase PCR-based homology cloning approach, we have characterized a cDNA for a novel member of this transporter family (H4-ASCT2) from H4-IIE-C3 cells. The cDNA encodes a 551-amino acid protein which exhibits similarities of between 75 and 85% with ASCT/B0 transporters previously cloned from other sources. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, this transporter catalyses Na+-dependent glutamine uptake with characteristics very similar to those of glutamine uptake into the H4-IIE-C3 cells. This newly ...
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xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a
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PhD thesis defense at P-O Bäckströms sal (Aulan), SLU building 8th May, 13.00Title: New insights into plant amino acid transport and its contribution to ni...
A substantial portion of placental function is committed to the regulation of nutrient transfer from the dam to the fetus, with glucose being the major substrate for conceptus metabolism. Due to its homomorphism with glucose, xylose can be used as tracer for the assessment of placental nutrient transfer capacity. This study was designed to evaluate transplacental permeability to xylose in bovine pregnancies on Days 90 and 180 of gestation. In Experiment 1, pregnant and nonpregnant females were infused into the jugular vein or into the allantoic sac with a 10% xylose solution to evaluate the maternal plasma xylose disappearance and the existence of feto-maternal xylose transfer, respectively. Glucose and xylose concentrations were determined in venous blood samples collected at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min. A materno-fetal but not a feto-maternal xylose transport was observed in both gestational periods. In Experiment 2, pregnant animals were slaughtered on Days 90 or 180 of ...
The human arylamine N-acetyltransferases first attracted attention because of their role in drug metabolism. However, much of the current literature has focused on their role in the activation and detoxification of environmental carcinogens and how genetic polymorphisms in the genes create predispositions to increased or decreased cancer risk. There are two closely related genes on chromosome 8 that encode the two human arylamine N-acetyltransferases-NAT1 and NAT2. Although NAT2 has restricted tissue expression, NAT1 is found in almost all tissues of the body. There are several single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the protein coding and 3-untranslated regions of the gene that affect enzyme activity. However, NAT1 is also regulated by post-translational and environmental factors, which may be of greater importance than genotype in determining tissue NAT1 activities. Recent studies have suggested a novel role for this enzyme in cancer cell growth. NAT1 is up-regulated in several cancer types, and ...
Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect ...
(2S)-2-(methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid 2566-30-5 NMR spectrum, (2S)-2-(methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid H-NMR spectral analysis, (2S)-2-(methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
R)-2-(Methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoicacid;56564-52-4;N-methyl-d-phenylalanine;AmbotzHAA1199;N-Me-D-Phe-OH;L-Phenylalanine,N-methyl-;SCHEMBL161255;AC1O533H;MolPort-008-267-985;SCIFESDRCALIIM-SECBINFHSA-N;MFCD00069560;ZINC12954903;AKOS006283223;CS17818;AJ-63161;AK144741;KB-58622;FT-0693770;(2R)-2-(methylamino)-3- ...
Eni Paulo, nexi noxou Timoti ta mitema sou xaixai noxou Kalisito Iesu, tekaukavunu vaivaikala ane o ulai noxinge ngingi ta mitema ane Kalisito Iesu ta nau mo ta tatila sou isaxilainge iloa ta mitema sou xaixai no a lalotu ne Pilipai.
Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... This facilitates transport of numerous small molecules into the enterocyte from the intestinal lumen. These include broken down ... Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth ...
Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... Histology image: 11706loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Digestive System: Alimentary Canal - jejunum, ... This typically occurs through active transport.. *Water uptake. This follows the osmotic gradient established by Na+/K+ ATPase ...
Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... In this way the thionein-metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ... of its constituent amino acid residues. MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding ...
Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... Although the perception and transmission of pain stimuli in the central nervous system have not been fully elucidated, ... TCAs do not block dopamine transport directly but might facilitate dopaminergic effects indirectly by inhibiting dopamine ...
Orlowski, M.; Meister, A. (1970-11-01). "The Gamma-Glutamyl Cycle: A Possible Transport System for Amino Acids". Proceedings of ... It has a relatively unusual γ-bond between the constituent amino acids, L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine and is a key ... Control experiments with combinations of the constituent amino acids that make up GGC, including L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine ... GGC is synthesized from L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine in the cytoplasm of virtually all cells in an adenosine triphosphate ( ...
Amino acid synthesis. Chloroplasts alone make almost all of a plant cell's amino acids in their stroma[158] except the sulfur- ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system.[156] ... Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell[145][147]-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. ...
Ackers GK (1969). "Molecular sieve studies of interacting protein systems. IV. Molecular size of the D-amino acid oxidase ... Ackers GK (1967). "Molecular sieve studies of interacting protein systems. I. Equations for transport of associating systems". ... thermodynamics of protein-protein interactions including important changes due to single amino acid substitutions. "Obituary - ...
"Coupled and uncoupled proton movement by amino acid transport system N." EMBO Journal. 20 (24): 7041-51. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... Since Systems A are electrogenic which Systems N are not, the amino acid:cation stoichiometries may differ. Fischer, WN; Loo, ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids". Plant Journal. 29 ( ... Six AAAPs in A. thaliana are well characterized and transport neutral and charged amino acids with varying specificities and ...
P. aeruginosa contain 13 RND transport systems, including one HME-RND and the remaining HAE-RNDs. Among the best identified are ... RND proteins are large and can include more than 1000 amino acid residues. They are generally composed of two homologous ... Most of the RND superfamily transport systems are made of large polypeptide chains. RND proteins exist primarily in gram- ... The RND protein dictates the substrate for the completed transport systems including: metal ions, xenobiotics or drugs. ...
In this system, the anionic form of cystine is transported in exchange for glutamate. Cystine is quickly reduced to cysteine.[ ... Cystine is the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid cysteine and has the formula (SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H)2. It is a white solid that ... This transport system, which is highly specific for cystine and glutamate, increases the concentration of cystine inside the ... The presence of cystine in urine is often indicative of amino acid reabsorption defects. Cystinuria has been reported to occur ...
The bacteria synthesise amino acids, vitamins, and haem for the protozoan. In return the protozoan offers its enzymes for the ... The bacteria are known to provide essential nutrients to the host, and provide electron transport system for the production of ... the genomic cooperation between bacterium and host in the synthesis of essential amino acids is heavily influenced by multiple ... complete metabolic pathways for the biosysnthesis of amino acids, lipids and nucleotides, that are absent in the bacterium. ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, ... The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ...
"Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport". J. Biol ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A1 gene. Amino acid ... 2007). "Activation of a system A amino acid transporter, ATA1/SLC38A1, in human hepatocellular carcinoma and preneoplastic ... a subtype of amino acid transporter A, from human placenta". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 273 (3): 1175-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...
Hormones can be amino acid complexes, steroids, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, or prostaglandins. The endocrine system can be ... of signaling molecules produced by cars in glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to ... The endocrine system has three sets of endocrine outputs which include the magnocellular system, the parvocellular system, and ... The human endocrine system consists of several systems that operate via feedback loops. Several important feedback systems are ...
... s carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system. In the ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. One of ... Chloroplasts alone make almost all of a plant cell's amino acids in their stroma except the sulfur-containing ones like ...
The transport mechanism for tryptophan is shared with the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine. ... amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation on the exercise-induced change in plasma and muscle concentration of amino acids in ... Branch-chained amino acid supplementation has proven to have little to no effect on performance. There has been little success ... Amino acids, brain neurotransmitters and a functional link between muscle and brain that is important in sustained exercise. In ...
The amino-acid sequence identity can go down to 15% between ParM and other actin-like ATPase. The mechanism of partition ... The net result being transport of partition complex to the cell pole. The partition system of the plasmid R388 has been found ... Amino-acid sequence identity can go down to 21% for TubZ proteins. The mechanism is similar to a treadmill mechanism: Multiple ... This system has been proposed to be the type IV partition system. It is thought to be a derivative of the type I partition ...
... heptane transport by O-diazoacetyl-L-serine. An initial step in identifying the L-system amino acid transporter". The Journal ... and research indicates that it may have potential in identifying the L-leucine-favoring system transporter in human T- ...
... amino acids, certain hormones, and even messenger RNAs are transported in the phloem through sieve tube elements. Phloem is ... Recent evidence indicates that mobile proteins and RNA are part of the plant's long-distance communication signaling system. ... These sugars are transported to non-photosynthetic parts of the plant, such as the roots, or into storage structures, such as ... This transport process is called translocation. In trees, the phloem is the innermost layer of the bark, hence the name, ...
... various transport systems can handle unnatural amino acids with apolar side-chains. In the second case, a biosynthetic pathway ... while the added amino acids are called non-standard amino acids (NSAAs), or unnatural amino acids (uAAs; term not used in ... or non-canonical amino acids. The first element of the system is the amino acid that is added to the genetic code of a certain ... An amino acid auxotrophic expression host is supplemented with an amino acid analog during target protein expression. This ...
This transport system normally removes cysteine from the fluid destined to become urine and returns this essential amino acid ... This is usually to accumulate high concentrations of molecules that a cell needs, such as glucose or amino acids. If the ... Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) EAAT1 EAAT2 EAAT3 EAAT4 EAAT5 Glucose transporter Monoamine transporters, including ... Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved ...
Sodium bicarbonate is absorbed by active transport and glucose and amino acid co-transport Fructose is absorbed by facilitated ... are an important part of the digestive tract's local immune system. They are part of the lymphatic system, and provide a site ... splits one amino acid at a time. Aminopeptidase and dipeptidase free the end amino acid products. Lipids (fats) are degraded ... The epithelial cells of the villi transport nutrients from the lumen of the intestine into these capillaries (amino acids and ...
... from the drugs binding site by the site chains of the two aromatic amino acids of the extracellular gate of the transport ... Therefore, the crystal structure of LeuT and its transport mechanism have been proven to be a good model system for the study ... The halogens on the SSRIs chemical structure all bind to the same HBP within LeuT and interact with similar amino acids, but ... Although detailed transport mechanism of the NSS proteins is not fully understood, it is clear that in order for transport to ...
Wastes such as urea and amino acids are thought to diffuse through the walls, while ions such as sodium and potassium are ... Pre-urine is formed in the tubules, when nitrogenous waste and electrolytes are transported through the tubule walls. ... Uric acid is left to mix with feces, which are then excreted. Complex cycling systems of Malpighian tubules have been described ... The Malpighian tubule system is a type of excretory and osmoregulatory system found in some insects, myriapods, arachnids and ...
... part of the system of Na-K-Cl cotransporters) couple with the amino or imino acids on the molecular level and transport them ... instead of the amino group found in amino acids. Proline is considered and usually referred to as an amino acid, but unlike ... The neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19 (affecting glycine, proline, and other neutral amino acids like cysteine and ... "Neutral amino acid transport mediated by ortholog of imino acid transporter SIT1/SLC6A20 in opossum kidney cells". American ...
However, glucose, amino acids, inorganic phosphate, and some other solutes are reabsorbed via secondary active transport ... Renin-angiotensin system: The kidneys sense low blood pressure. Release renin into the blood. Renin causes production of ... Reabsorption allows many useful solutes (primarily glucose and amino acids), salts and water that have passed through Bowman's ... This happens as a result of sodium transport from the lumen into the blood by the Na+/K+ATPase in the basolateral membrane of ...
The introduction of a charged amino-acid residue or a proline residue within the hydrophobic core of the signal peptide is ... It is a complex regulatory and transport system involving many proteins and protein complexes. MBP has an approximate molecular ... The malE gene codes for a precursor polypeptide (396 amino acid residues) which yields the mature MBP (370 residues) upon ... Boos W, Shuman H (March 1998). "Maltose/maltodextrin system of Escherichia coli: transport, metabolism, and regulation". ...
... but it is actively transported out of the nervous system by a high affinity transport system, which maintains its concentration ... Glutamate is a major constituent of a wide variety of proteins; consequently it is one of the most abundant amino acids in the ... Smith QR (April 2000). "Transport of glutamate and other amino at the blood-brain barrier". The Journal of Nutrition. 130 (4S ... Glutamate is formally classified as a non-essential amino acid, because it can be synthesized (in sufficient quantities for ...
... is a dodecadepsipeptide, that is, it is made of twelve alternating amino acids and esters to form a macrocyclic ... This difference is important for maintaining the selectivity of valinomycin for the transport of potassium ions (and not sodium ... ions) in biological systems. It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section ... It consists of enantiomers D- and L-valine (Val), D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, and L-lactic acid. Structures are alternately ...
... encodes a small non-coding RNA involved in the regulation of a number of amino acid transport systems as well as amino acid ... GcvB RNA also is involved in regulating a variety of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis such as ilvC, gdhA, thrL and ... "The gcvB gene encodes a small untranslated RNA involved in expression of the dipeptide and oligopeptide transport systems in ... "The gcvB gene encodes a small untranslated RNA involved in expression of the dipeptide and oligopeptide transport systems in ...
... are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion into the biliary system ... Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. Thus ... Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. All four of these bile acids ... Primary bile acidsEdit. Bile acid synthesis occurs in liver cells, which synthesize primary bile acids (cholic acid and ...
... rich in hydroxylated amino acids such as serine, threonine, and proline, and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... the new chloroplast host had to develop a unique protein targeting system to avoid having chloroplast proteins being sent to ... Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence.[42] They can be from 20-150 amino acids ...
Circulatory system. Octopuses have a closed circulatory system, where the blood remains inside blood vessels. Octopuses have ... Japanese erotic art, shunga, includes ukiyo-e woodblock prints such as Katsushika Hokusai's 1814 print Tako to ama (The Dream ... Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic acid sequence ... Octopus blood contains the copper-rich protein haemocyanin to transport oxygen. This makes the blood very viscous and it ...
I used be a researcher use the fruit fly as a model system to study mechanisms of intracellular transport (I then moved onto ... Truth be told, it's the size (in amino acids) of a protein I once studied. Yes, a bit geeky. ... other systems to study problems in cell biology, but now work in a hospital). I am a guy. And the 649 is a number to ...
"Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-1-4496-6139-7. .. ... Megafauna play a significant role in the lateral transport of mineral nutrients in an ecosystem, tending to translocate them ... Amato, Katherine R.; Meyer, Andreas L. S.; Wich, Serge; Sussman, Robert W.; Pan, Ruliang; Kone, Inza; Li, Baoguo (January 18, ... which possess calcium carbonate shells or exoskeletons experience physiological pressure as the carbonate reacts with acid. For ...
Baulieu EE (1997). "Neurosteroids: of the nervous system, by the nervous system, for the nervous system". Recent Progress in ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... pyrimidinone and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole derivatives". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 23 (3): 480-7. doi:10.1016/j.bmc. ...
Coordinate system * sw:Coordinate system. COPD * sw:COPD. Copper * sw:Copper. Cotton * sw:Cotton. Cricket * sw:Cricket. ... Acid * sw:Asidi. Adam Smith * sw:Adam Smith. Addiction * sw:Uraibu. Adolf Hitler * sw:Adolf Hitler. Afghanistan * sw: ... Transport * sw:Usafiri. Treaty of Versailles * sw:Mkataba wa Versailles. Tree * sw:Mti. Trigonometry * sw:Trigonometry. ... Kama viungo vya Kiswahili bado ni vyekundu, ni alama ya kwamba ama jina halikusahihishwa bado, au hakuna makala bado. Mpangilio ...
Inclusion of the amino acid L-tryptophan, a precursor of 5HT, in the feed of rainbow trout made the trout less aggressive and ... CRH is transported to the anterior pituitary through the portal blood vessel system of the hypophyseal stalk and vasopressin is ... including the metabolic system, cardiovascular system, immune system, reproductive system and central nervous system. The HPA ... Immune system[edit]. There is bi-directional communication and feedback between the HPA axis and immune system. A number of ...
... essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.[4] The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, ... Needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, builds bone, supports synthesis and function of blood cells Dairy ... then transporting the acquired nutrients to local ecosystems.[56][57] ... amino acids, organic acids, etc.) improves the bioavailability of the supplemented mineral.[36] ...
... primer-dependent RNA synthesis utilizes a small 22-25 amino acid long viral protein linked to the genome (VPg) to initiate ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ... Picornaviruses are classed under Baltimore's viral classification system as group IV viruses as they contain a single stranded ... Binding causes a conformational change in the viral capsid proteins, and myristic acid are released. These acids form a pore in ...
... such as the polyphenols and amino acids, but is a suspension when all of the insoluble components are considered, such as the ... 1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.. ... Compressed tea (such as Pu-erh) is produced for convenience in transport, storage, and ageing. It can usually be stored longer ... Williamson, G; Dionisi, F; Renouf, M (2011). "Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... The resulting densified fuel is easier to transport and feed into thermal generation systems, such as boilers. ... EU to phase out palm oil from transport fuel by 2030 *^ a b The Royal Society (January 2008). Sustainable biofuels: prospects ... "Technology Roadmap, Biofuels for Transport" (PDF). 2011.. *^ Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno; Martin, Michael ( ...
P450-containing systems. *Cytochrome b6f complex. *Electron transport chain. *Fatty acid synthetase complex ... HADHB encodes a 51.2 kDa protein that is composed of 474 amino acids; 124 peptides have been observed through mass spectrometry ... fatty acid metabolic process. • metabolism. • cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling. • fatty acid beta-oxidation. ... transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups. • enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. • long-chain-3- ...
... is a small 69 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 4263-4331) that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a ... particularly the muscles and nervous system. In most cases, the signs and symptoms of this disorder appear during childhood or ... May 2003). "A homoplasmic mitochondrial transfer ribonucleic acid mutation as a cause of maternally inherited hypertrophic ...
for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[۸۱] ... "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active ... "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[۲۹] ... "for their discoveries concerning نیتریک اکسید as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[۷۵] ...
This drug article relating to the genito-urinary system is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ... 2-[(1R)-3-(Di(propan-2-yl)amino)-1-phenylpropyl]-4-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl] 2-methylpropanoate ... Urea analogues: Acetohydroxamic acid. *Salicylhydroxamic acid. *Other: Collagen. *Dimethyl sulfoxide. *Magnesium hydroxide ...
The microbes are also responsible for metabolising the carbohydrates and amino acids present in the tea leaves.[15][16][17] ... Spent tea: Whole leaves and leaf bud systems should be easily seen and picked out of the wet spent tea, with a limited amount ... tuocha cakes may have had holes punched through the center so they could be tied together on a rope for easy transport. ... Wet pile fermented pu'er has higher levels of caffeine and much higher levels of gallic acid compared with traditionally aged ...
... results in an amino acid switch: valine to methionine exchange at codon 66, Val66Met, which is in the prodomain of BDNF.[39][38 ... BDNF acts on certain neurons of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, helping to support survival of ... Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M (June 2007). "BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to dendrites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA ... as the amino acid change occurs on the portion of the prodomain where sortilin binds; and sortilin is essential for normal ...
Goodman AB (July 2005). "Microarray results suggest altered transport and lowered synthesis of retinoic acid in schizophrenia ... 6-(N-ethyl-N-(5-isobutoxy-4-isopropyl-2-(E)-styrylphenyl)amino)nicotinic acid ... Reproductive system and breast disorders *Sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and decreased libido ... Isotretinoin, also known as 13-cis-retinoic acid and sold under the brand name Accutane among others, is a medication primarily ...
... as all ingested SOD is broken down into amino acids before being absorbed. However, ingestion of SOD bound to wheat proteins ... In biological systems, this means that its main reactions are with itself (dismutation) or with another biological radical such ... when it absorbs an excited electron released from compounds of the electron transport chain. Superoxide is known to denature ... and their active sites contain the same type and arrangement of amino acid side-chains. They are usually dimers, but ...
... and encodes a 666 amino acid protein that is expressed in the liver. It has been suggested that PCSK9 causes FH mainly by ... Class II: LDLR is not properly transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus for expression on the cell ... This process results in the removal of LDL from the circulatory system. Synthesis of cholesterol by the liver is suppressed in ... and the protein gene product contains 839 amino acids in mature form. A single abnormal copy (heterozygote) of FH causes ...
... uptake transporters for amino acids, bile acids, carboxylic acids, etc. Research Applications[edit]. When looking at Caco-2 ... Following stints at SmithKline Beecham and Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Hidalgo went on to co-found a company, Absorption Systems, in ... Artursson P (1990). "Epithelial transport of drug in cell culture. I: A model for studying the passive diffusion of drugs over ... 2005). "Construction of a functional transporter analysis system using MDR1 knockdown Caco-2 cells". Pharm Res. 22 (8): 1287-93 ...
In addition to these amino acids, some B vitamins including biotin, folic acid, nicotinamide, riboflavin, thiamine, ... The only domesticated species of honey bee are A. mellifera and A. cerana, and they are often maintained, fed, and transported ... is the listed common name in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System, the Entomological Society of America Common Names of ... Of these amino acids, honey bees require highest concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, and valine, however elevated ...
Cosmic rays are a form of high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System[1] and even from distant galaxies. ... 2011). Australian Transport Safety Bureau. *^ https://cars.usnews.com/cars-trucks/daily-news/100317-cosmic-rays-may-be-causing- ... In 2008, data corruption in a flight control system caused an Airbus A330 airliner to twice plunge hundreds of feet, resulting ... Primary cosmic rays primarily originate from outside the Solar System and sometimes even the Milky Way. When they interact with ...
In ALS, there are decreased levels of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), which is the main transporter that removes ... Sontheimer, Harald (2015). Diseases of the Nervous System. Academic Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-12-800403-6. . Archived from the ... Three genes implicated in ALS that are important for maintaining the cytoskeleton[35] and for axonal transport[10] include ... "G93A" means that the 93rd amino acid residue in the SOD1 protein has been changed from glycine to alanine. ...
However, these may increase with severe kidney problems.[20] Pentamidine can remain in the system for as long as 8 months after ... Some cases of anemia, possibly related to folic acid deficiency, have been described.[18] ... "The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.. ... the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[6] It is available as a generic medication.[1] In regions of ...
Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ... Water in food systems[edit]. Main article: Water. A major component of food is water, which can encompass anywhere from 50% in ... Food chemistry concepts are often drawn from rheology, theories of transport phenomena, physical and chemical thermodynamics, ... fatty acids (including essential fatty acids), fatty-acid derived phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and terpenoids, ...
Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... Transport[edit]. SVCTs appear to be the predominant system for vitamin C transport in the body,[102] the notable exception ... Mineral Nutrients and Amino Acids May or Must be Added.[87] Voluntary and mandatory fortification was described for various ... Ascorbic acid is absorbed in the body by both active transport and simple diffusion. Sodium-Dependent Active Transport-Sodium- ...
amino acid. A class of organic compounds containing an amine group and a carboxylic acid group which function as the ... of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system ... In humans, a set of nine amino acids, two fatty acids, thirteen vitamins, and fifteen minerals are considered essential ... A form of active transport and bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules out of the cell by expelling them through an ...
... amino acid chains) and polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens ... Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after cells in the immune system come into ... These algorithms consider factors such as the likelihood of proteasomal processing, transport into the endoplasmic reticulum, ... Lipids and nucleic acids are antigenic only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides.[citation needed] Non-microbial non ...
Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ... Transport mediated by SA1 is also electrogenic. Amino acid transport Systems A and N thus appear closely related in function as ...
ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology.. About ASM , Contact Us , Press Room. ASM is a member of. ...
"Amino Acid Transport System L" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Amino Acid Transport System L" was ... A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the ... "Amino Acid Transport System L" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Amino Acid Transport System L" by people in Profiles. ...
This transporter, designated ATA2 for amino acid transporter A2, was cloned from the human hepatoma ce … ... We report here on the primary structure and functional characteristics of the protein responsible for the system A amino acid ... transport activity that is known to be expressed in most human tissues. ... a subtype of amino acid transport system A Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jul 31;1467(1):1-6. doi: 10.1016/s0005-2736(00)00252-2. ...
... is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a ... xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System. Fri, 09/06/2013 - 13:53 ... Home » xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System ... an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The cysteine is subsequently transported ...
In this study, we investigated whether the uptake of glucose, system A amino acid transport, and cellular protein synthesis are ... Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, ... Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, ... Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, ...
Branched-chain amino acid transport system ATP-binding proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another ... tr,A0R7E1,A0R7E1_MYCS2 Branched-chain amino acid transport system ATP-binding protein OS=Mycolicibacterium smegmatis (strain ... It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.,p>,a href=/help/np_bind ... Branched-chain amino acid transport system ATP-binding protein. MYCSE. 259. Branched-chain amino acid transporter ATP-binding ...
What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean in finance? ... Definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ... redirected from Amino acid transport systems, neutral). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. neutral. ...
Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by liquid ...
The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular ... like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(18): ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ...
Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems. U ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ...
The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... "The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ...
Involved in a phospholipid transport pathway that maintains lipid asymmetry in the outer membrane by retrograde trafficking of ... Intermembrane phospholipid transport system lipoprotein MlaAAdd BLAST. 234. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s) ... "An ABC transport system that maintains lipid asymmetry in the gram-negative outer membrane.". Malinverni J.C., Silhavy T.J.. ... "An ABC transport system that maintains lipid asymmetry in the gram-negative outer membrane.". Malinverni J.C., Silhavy T.J.. ...
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC). ... "Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" was ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic*Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic. *Acidic Amino Acid Transport Proteins ... "Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ...
Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Journal of biochemistry. 1991 Jul;110(1):9-11. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. In: Journal of biochemistry. 1991 ; Vol. 110, No. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Hiroyuki Fukui, Hiroyuki ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. / Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, ...
... tryptophan-selective amino acid transport system in human macrophages. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Amino Acid ... Seymour, RL, Ganapathy, V, Mellor, AL & Munn, DH 2006, A high-affinity, tryptophan-selective amino acid transport system in ... A high-affinity, tryptophan-selective amino acid transport system in human macrophages. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 2006 Dec; ... A high-affinity, tryptophan-selective amino acid transport system in human macrophages. / Seymour, Robert L.; Ganapathy, ...
... ... chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis has been proposed as a model for the coupling of energy metabolism with amino acid transport ... Although this model has been extensively studied in procaryotic systems, it has not been well characterized in eucaryotic ... systems. Isolation of a mutant yeast strain with altered plasma membrane ATPase activity and the preparation of spheroplasts ...
Jones, C. R., Srinivas, S. R., Devoe, L. D., Ganapathy, V., & Prasad, P. D. (2002). Inhibition of system A amino acid transport ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. American journal of obstetrics ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. / Jones, Chandra R.; Srinivas, ... Jones, CR, Srinivas, SR, Devoe, LD, Ganapathy, V & Prasad, PD 2002, Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ...
Amino acid transport systems, neutral explanation free. What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid ... transport systems, neutral medical term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean? ... Looking for online definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the Medical Dictionary? ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral , definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary https:// ...
MMP1224 MMP1224 ABC-type amino acid transport/signal transduction systems periplasmic component-related (NCBI). Methanococcus ... ABC-type amino acid transport/signal transduction systems periplasmic component-related (NCBI) Methanococcus maripaludis strain ... ET) COG834 , ABC-type amino acid transport/signal transduction systems, periplasmic component/domain ...
Cystinuria is an autosomal-recessive defect in reabsorptive transport of cystine and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, ... Amino acid transport system. Localization in proximal converted tubule. S3. S1, S2 ... Cloning and chromosomal localization of a human kidney cDNA involved in cystine, dibasic, and neutral amino acid transport. J ... Amino acid metabolism in cystinuria. Q J Med New Series. 1974. 214:507-12. ...
Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta. Biochemical Journal. 2001 Jun 15;356( ... Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta. / Ritchie, James W. A. ; Taylor, ... Ritchie, JWA & Taylor, PM 2001, Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta, ... Ritchie, J. W. A., & Taylor, P. M. (2001). Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in ...
series parallel diagram single cell analysis of kynurenine and system l amino acid transport in t cells nature communications. ... Piezo Controllers Drivers For Nanopositioning Systems Series Parallel Diagram Position Control Electronics Optimizes System ...
... the role of the neutral amino acid transport system. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Neutral Amino Acid Transport ... The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid ... The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid ... The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid ...
Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N. ... Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N. Together they form a unique ...
... imports the amino acid cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, into cells with a 1:1 counter-transport of glutamate. It is ... belongs to the family of heterodimeric amino acid transporte … ... Amino Acid Transport Systems / metabolism * Amino Acid ... we show that system x(c)(-) is a rather evolutionarily new amino acid transport system. In addition, we summarize the current ... The antiporter system x(c)(-) imports the amino acid cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, into cells with a 1:1 counter- ...
AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS : THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ...
Double mutants deficient in transport of both these amino acids still possess the general amino acid transport system, a third ... system which was described previously. Evidence for additional amino acid transport systems in Chlorella is discussed. ... Six amino acids are transported at high rates across the plasmalemma of Chlorella vulgaris only after the induction of two ... List of Publication » Selection and characterization of chlorella mutants deficient in amino Acid transport : further evidence ...
ABC-type polar amino acid transport system, ATPase component. *catalytic activity. *pyrophosphatase activity ... Binding-protein-dependent transport system inner membrane component (BPD_transp_1). Binding-protein-dependent transport system ... Crystal structure of an amino acid ABC transporter complex with arginines. Present annotations:. *Domain Annotation: SCOP ... ATPase-coupled organic acid transmembrane transporter activity. *ATPase-coupled carboxylic acid transmembrane transporter ...
branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein Aromatic compound transport protein 1076 ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 4 3UKJ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 7 4EYQ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein UNP residues 27-385 1076 ...
  • We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that shows close similarity to the recently identified System N transporter (SN1). (pnas.org)
  • The System A transporter (SA1) and SN1 share many functional characteristics, including a marked sensitivity to low pH, but, unlike SN1, SA1 does not mediate proton exchange. (pnas.org)
  • We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that belongs to a family of mammalian proteins originally defined by a neurotransmitter transporter. (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with this sensitivity, we found that the System N transporter (SN1) mediates proton exchange as well as Na + cotransport ( 26 ). (pnas.org)
  • A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. (harvard.edu)
  • One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain. (harvard.edu)
  • This transporter, designated ATA2 for amino acid transporter A2, was cloned from the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. (nih.gov)
  • When expressed in mammalian cells, hATA2 mediates Na+-dependent transport of alpha-(methylamino)isobutyric acid, a specific model substrate for system A. The transporter is specific for neutral amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. (novusbio.com)
  • Both wtPKBalpha and mPKBalpha expression led to a significant increase in the basal uptake of glucose and methyl-aminoisobutyric acid (a substrate for the system A amino acid transporter), at least to a level seen in control cells treated with insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC). (wakehealth.edu)
  • Competition studies showed that the high-affinity system did not correspond to any known transporter activity and displayed a marked selectivity for tryptophan over other amino acids and tryptophan analogs. (elsevier.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of ethanol on system A amino acid transporter in BeWo cells. (elsevier.com)
  • We examined the role of the System L transporter in placental uptake of these substances, using the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo as a model experimental system. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The 4F2hc-LAT1 transporter might therefore serve a vital role in supplying the developing fetus and the placenta with both thyroid hormones and indispensable amino acids from the maternal circulation. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. (abcam.com)
  • Efficacy of system l amino acid transporter 1 inhibition as a therapeutic target in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (bireme.br)
  • System l amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is highly expressed in various types of human cancer, and contributes to cancer growth and survival. (bireme.br)
  • The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Translocation of glutamate transporter subtype excitatory amino acid carrier 1 protein in kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We examined the temporal expression of the sodium-dependent neuronal glutamate transporter, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), in KA-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Anti-tumor effects of an antagonistic mAb against the ASCT2 amino acid transporter on KRAS-mutated human colorectal cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-tumor effects of mAb against L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) bound to human and monkey LAT1 with dual avidity modes. (nih.gov)
  • Several factors influence transport across the placenta: uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows, area available for exchange, placental metabolism, and activity/expression of specific transporter proteins in the placental barrier. (hindawi.com)
  • Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning of an amino acid transporter with functional characteristics and tissue expression pattern identical to that of system A". J Biol Chem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • The blooming H. akashiwo cells expressed more proteins related to external nutrient acquisition, such as bicarbonate transporter SLC4, ammonium transporter, nitrite transporter, and alkaline phosphatase, while the blooming P. donghaiense cells highly expressed proteins related to extra- and intracellular organic nutrient utilization, such as amino acid transporter, 5′-nucleotidase, acid phosphatase, and tripeptidyl-peptidase. (asm.org)
  • Here, we document that the purified Hfq protein of the plant pathogen and natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens binds to the previously described sRNA AbcR1 and its target mRNA atu2422 , which codes for the substrate binding protein of an ABC transporter taking up proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). (asm.org)
  • Structural similarities between ALA and GABA led us to test the hypothesis that the H + -coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 (SLC36A1) will contribute to luminal ALA uptake. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The selectivity of the nontransported inhibitors 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid for, respectively, PAT1 and the H + -coupled di/tripeptide transporter PepT1 (SLC15A1) were examined. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sloan JL, Mager S. Cloning and functional expression of a human Na(+) and Cl(-)-dependent neutraland cationic amino acid transporter B(0+).J Biol Chem. (tcdb.org)
  • The open reading frame encodes a 642-amino acid protein named amino acid transporter B(0+). (tcdb.org)
  • Electrophysiology and radiolabeled amino acid uptake measurements were used to functionally characterize the transporter expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (tcdb.org)
  • Thus, hATB(0+) is the first cloned B(0+) amino acid transporter. (tcdb.org)
  • Many of the participating proteins have eukaryotic relatives and are successfully used as model systems for exploration of transporter structure and function. (deepdyve.com)
  • Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na + -dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • Three principal transport systems account for much of the amino acid uptake by mammalian cells ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although Na + -dependent, System ASC appears to mediate amino acid exchange rather than net uptake ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • System A catalyzes the Na + -dependent net uptake of many neutral amino acids, in particular alanine, serine, and glutamine ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • System A and other more specialized transport systems may thus provide the concentrations of cytoplasmic amino acids necessary to drive the uptake of other amino acids by exchange through Systems ASC and L. System A also exhibits several unusual properties, including the recognition of N -methylated amino acids, tolerance of Li + substitution for Na + , and sensitivity to inhibition by low extracellular pH ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have recently identified another member of this family as responsible for classical amino acid transport System N. Unlike the virtually ubiquitous Systems A, ASC, and L, System N appears more tissue-specific and mediates the uptake specifically of glutamine, histidine, and asparagine ( 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • The light subunit xCT dimerises with the heavy subunit 4F2hc and the role of the xCT-4F2hc heterodimer, also known as system Xc-, is to couple the release of one molecule of intracellular glutamate to the uptake of one molecule of extracellular cystine (2). (novusbio.com)
  • following uptake the cystine is converted to cysteine, an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. (novusbio.com)
  • In this study, we investigated whether the uptake of glucose, system A amino acid transport, and cellular protein synthesis are regulated by PKBalpha in L6 skeletal muscle cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our results indicate that constitutive activation of PKBalpha in skeletal muscle stimulates the uptake of glucose, system A amino acids, and protein synthesis and promotes the inactivation of GSK-3. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). (uzh.ch)
  • Several studies have shown that the cRNA of human, rabbit, or rat rBAT induces in Xenopus oocytes sodium-independent, high affinity uptake of L-cystine via a system b0,(+)-like amino acid exchanger. (uzh.ch)
  • These results demonstrate that rBAT is functionally related to the L-cystine uptake via system b0,(+)-like in the apical pole of the renal OK cell line. (uzh.ch)
  • Na+-dependent uptake of D-glucose by pars convoluta and pars recta membrane vesicles could be described by single, but different, transport systems, namely a low-affinity system with KA congruent to 3.5 mM and a high-affinity system with KA congruent to 0.30 mM respectively. (biochemj.org)
  • The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino acids. (umn.edu)
  • Adenosine caused a 2.5-fold increase in the sodium-dependent uptake of 2-aminoisobutyric acid in rat hepatocytes in primary culture following incubation for 3h. (elsevier.com)
  • yet, no currently known amino acid transport system displays high affinity and specificity sufficiently to permit efficient uptake of tryptophan at these low concentrations. (elsevier.com)
  • Uptake of [ 203 Hg]MeHg by astrocytes exhibited the kinetic criteria of a specific transport system when added to the media as the l-cysteine conjugate. (elsevier.com)
  • Cysteine-mediated uptake of MeHg was inhibited by the coadministration of l-methionine, and 2-aminobicyclo-[2,2,1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid. (elsevier.com)
  • 2-Methylaminoisobutyric acid was ineffective in inhibiting the uptake of the MeHg-cysteine conjugate. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate the presence in astrocytes of a neutral amino acid carrier transport System L, capable of selectively mediating cysteine-MeHg uptake. (elsevier.com)
  • Kimelberg, H. K. / Methylmercury uptake in rat primary astrocyte cultures : the role of the neutral amino acid transport system . (elsevier.com)
  • For l‐glutamic and l‐aspartic acids in cortex and spinal cord and glycine in spinal cord a stringent sodium requirement for high affinity uptake was demonstrated. (elsevier.com)
  • and (3) inhibition of the Na-K‐ATPase enzyme system with ouabain reduces the velocity of uptake to 60% of control values in contrast to alanine whose synaptosomal uptake is less dependent on this enzyme system. (elsevier.com)
  • A reduced activity of LAT1 remains the primary hypothesis possibly due to a modification of intracellular amino acid content which may reduce F-FDOPA uptake. (bireme.br)
  • A selective inhibitor of LAT, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), suppressed cellular uptake of l- C-leucine and cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. (bireme.br)
  • Uptake of PGB was mutually exclusive with leucine, GBP and 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, the substrates preferential for system L. The preloaded PGB in CHO cells was exchangeable with leucine, but at a lower exchange rate than that of leucine and GBP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that L-type transport is the major transport route for PGB and GBP uptake in mammalian cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Without comprehensive kinetic analysis, it is often difficult to specify a transport system responsible for uptake of an unknown substrate ( Christensen, 1990 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • whereas the transport carriers for PGB uptake have not been well characterized. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The early conclusion on system L-mediated PGB transport in the rat ileum was also complicated by lack of mutual inhibition between GBP and PGB in intestine and lack of carrier-mediated uptake of GBP and PGB in Caco-2 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In mammalian cells, the uptake of amino acids is mediated by specialized, energy-dependent and passive transporters with overlapping substrate specificities. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to K+, Na+ can also be coupled to amino acid uptake at lower pH, but the Na+/K+ ratio of the hemolymph is so low that K+ is probably the major coupling ion in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Kinetic data obtained by computer analysis showed that, in the absence of cycloleucine, cell uptake was heterogeneous for each amino acid. (portlandpress.com)
  • The influence of cycloleucine on the amino acid uptake was not specific either to the amino acid concerned or to a particular transport system, since the three neutral amino acid-transport systems, A, ASC and L, were involved in these experiments. (portlandpress.com)
  • Characteristics of the Uptake and Release of Glutamic Acid in Synaptosomes from Rat Cerebral Cortex. (springer.com)
  • The present disclosure teaches that glioma cells are dependent on system Xc for cystine uptake. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A method for treating a disease state dependent on uptake of cystine for the maintenance of said disease state in a subject in need of said treatment, said method comprising administering to said subject a therapeutically effective amount of a compound capable of inhibiting cystine uptake by inhibiting system Xc a cystine-glutamate exchanger. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 2 where said glioma depends on said system Xc for at least about 85% of cystine uptake. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Phloem-feeding insects benefit from having evolved rapid and efficient pathways for the uptake and metabolic conversion of glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and aspartic acid into essential amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptophan selectively inhibited PAT1-mediated amino acid uptake across the brush-border membrane of the human intestinal (Caco-2) epithelium whereas 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid selectively inhibited PepT1-mediated dipeptide uptake. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, the structure of ALA is also analogous to that of the neuroactive amino acid GABA, suggesting that ALA may also interact with a GABA uptake system. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although molecular cloning has recently identified the proteins that mediate Systems ASC and L ( 13 - 17 ), System A has eluded biochemical purification, genetic approaches, and expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes ( 10 , 18 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • Under these conditions, the expression of SNAT2 gene is induced and newly synthesized SNAT2 proteins are preferentially targeted to the cell membrane, leading to a significant increase of system A transport Vmax. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Placental amino acid ( 4 ) and GLUT activity ( 5 , 6 ) as well as the expression of fatty acid-binding proteins in the placenta ( 7 ) are increased in diabetes, suggesting that an upregulation of placental nutrient transport capacity may contribute to fetal overgrowth ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A detailed characterization of these proteins has provided new information on transport characteristics and mechanisms for coupling to different inorganic ions. (biologists.org)
  • Following attachment to the plant cell, the bacterial type IV secretion system (T4SS) is established by diverse Vir proteins to export the T-DNA strand into the host. (asm.org)
  • Major role of integral membrane proteins, carriers, or transporters in drug transport is highlighted. (hindawi.com)
  • The subunits are built from rRNA-molecules, constructed from nucleotides, and proteins, made from amino acids. (nobelprize.org)
  • Examples of proteins are oxygen-transporting haemoglobin, hormones such as insulin and the antibodies of the immune system. (nobelprize.org)
  • Proteins are built from 20 different kinds of amino acids which are linked together in long chains. (nobelprize.org)
  • or anabolic - the building up (synthesis) of compounds (such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because System A also catalyzes Na + -dependent amino acid transport sensitive to low pH, we considered that the protein(s) responsible might belong to the same family as VGAT and, in particular, SN1. (pnas.org)
  • We report here on the primary structure and functional characteristics of the protein responsible for the system A amino acid transport activity that is known to be expressed in most human tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, protein synthesis, and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in L6 muscle cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To demonstrate that the rBAT protein is functionally related to this transport activity, we have transfected OK cells with human rBAT antisense and sense sequences. (uzh.ch)
  • RT-qPCR analysis and the in vitro overexpression experiments indicated that USA300HOU_RS00550 (an Na/Pi cotransporter family protein) and USA300HOU_RS01625 (a branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein) contributed to Erava heteroresistance in S. aureus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • RESULTS In the absence of insulin, gAd stimulated AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation, SNAT2 protein expression, and system A activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid β- N -methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. (mdpi.com)
  • For instance, BMAA is a small non-protein amino acid that appears to be synthesized by the entire cyanobacterial phylum [ 5 , 6 ], suggesting that BMAA is a fundamental cellular metabolite in cyanobacteria. (mdpi.com)
  • Note: Tryptophan and Phenylalanine are amino acids commonly found in protein-rich foods such a meat, nuts, and legumes. (amazonaws.com)
  • The heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of a type II glycoprotein and a non‐glycosylated polytopic membrane protein. (embopress.org)
  • Seafood consumption is highly demanding due to the important source of protein it contains, as well as being rich in omega-3 fatty acids. (degruyter.com)
  • Identification and functional analysis of fructosyl amino acid-binding protein from Gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter sp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Characterization of the binding protein-dependent cellobiose and cellotriose transport system of the cellulose degrader Streptomyces reticuli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A protein chain can consist of anything from ten to tens of thousands of amino acids. (nobelprize.org)
  • Some antibiotics inhibit the monitoring mechanism of the molecular ruler (see illustration above), others hinder the formation of the connection between amino acids or block the tunnel through which the emerging protein chain leaves the ribosome. (nobelprize.org)
  • Induction of AGP1 by amino acids also requires Grr1p, the F-box protein of the SCF Grr1 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex also required for transduction of the glucose signal generated by the Snf3p and Rgt2p glucose sensors. (asm.org)
  • The essential role of Grr1p in this amino acid signaling pathway lends further support to the hypothesis that this protein participates in integrating nutrient availability with the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism 16. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • In this study, we investigated PGB transport in rats, mammalian cell lines, and Xenopus laevis oocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Molecular characteristics of mammalian and insect amino acid transporters: implications for amino acid homeostasis. (biologists.org)
  • Both systems have a broad substrate range which excludes 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, an amino acid analog accepted by the mammalian Na(+)-coupled system A. In order to gain insights into the K(+)-coupling mechanism and into amino acid and K+ homeostasis in insects, current studies are designed to delineate the molecular characteristics of these insect transporters. (biologists.org)
  • Vitamin C transport systems of mammalian cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Peptides, short amino acid chains that control many functions in the human body, represent a billion-dollar market, also in the pharmaceutical industry. (eurekalert.org)
  • Peptides are short chains of amino acids. (eurekalert.org)
  • Poly(A)+ RNA from OK cells induced by system b0,(+)-like transport activity in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
  • We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger activity induced by rBAT cRNA in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
  • In contrast, resting human T cells expressed only the conventional system L. We speculate that the high-affinity, tryptophan-specific transport system allows MDM to take up tryptophan efficiently under conditions of low substrate concentration, such as may occur during interaction between T cells and IDO-expressing APC. (elsevier.com)
  • RESULTS: Treatment of BeWo cells with ethanol reduced the activity of system A. The effect was dose and treatment time dependent. (elsevier.com)
  • Ethanol did not alter the messenger RNA levels for system A. CONCLUSION: Exposure of BeWo cells to ethanol significantly reduces the function of system A. This finding has potential implications that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of the fetal alcohol syndrome. (elsevier.com)
  • The antiporter system x(c)(-) imports the amino acid cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, into cells with a 1:1 counter-transport of glutamate. (nih.gov)
  • Mutants for these transport systems were obtained after incubation of Chlorella cells in the presence of acridine orange or ethidium bromide, followed by a selection procedure using the toxic amino acid analogs l-canavanine (for l-arginine), and l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (for l-proline). (fau.de)
  • These results demonstrate the pivotal role played by SNAT2 induction in the short-term hypertonic RVI and suggest that neutral amino acids behave as compatible osmolytes in hypertonically stressed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This effect appeared to be mediated by interleukin-6 release and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling because gAd failed to stimulate system A in cells in which STAT3 had been silenced using small interfering RNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cells use several transport systems to take up folates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This is known as the most abundant amino acid that is present in a person's muscle cells. (archive.org)
  • Ussing's definition of active transport made possible an understanding, at the cellular level, of the way in which ions and water are pumped into and out of living cells in order to regulate the ionic composition and water balance in cells, organs, and organisms. (britannica.com)
  • Apart from its cation selectivity, it appears to be related to the amino acid transport system B previously characterized in vertebrate epithelial cells. (biologists.org)
  • In the first, MSG moves through the incomplete (immature) blood-brain-barrier in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of the unborn and very young, and kills brain cells (neurons), causing permanent damage to the endocrine system that controls appetite. (truthinlabeling.org)
  • The alteration of fas receptor and ligand system in hepatocellular carcinomas: How do hepatoma cells escape from the host immune surveillance in vivo ? (wiley.com)
  • b o,+ AT‐reconstituted systems from HeLa or MDCK cells catalysed transport of arginine that was totally dependent on the presence of one of the b o,+ substrates inside the liposomes. (embopress.org)
  • No system b o,+ transport was detected in liposomes derived from cells expressing rBAT alone. (embopress.org)
  • In mammals, L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) enters cells via Na+-dependent transporters SVCT1 (solute carrier family 23 member 1, SLC23A1) and SVCT2 (solute carrier family 23 member 1, SLC23A2). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Blood brain barrier (BBB) is a vasculature of the central nervous system (CNS) that is formed by capillary endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • These are quite different from other capillaries found in the body as their endothelial wall possesses tight junctions which obstruct transport between cells. (hindawi.com)
  • More specifically, the endothelial cells also possess transporters which show permeability characteristics and allow transport of oxygen and CO 2 across the BBB, bu these selectively prevent other substances from crossing [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular processes, including the insulin-induced regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and glucose transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The stimulation in glucose transport was facilitated, in part, by the increased translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane and also through an increase in the cellular synthesis of GLUT3. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The transport properties for phenylalanine and glucose in luminal-membrane vesicles from outer cortex (pars convoluta) and outer medulla (pars recta) of rabbit kidney were studied by a spectrophotometric method. (biochemj.org)
  • Attempts to calculate the stoichiometry of the different Na+/D-glucose transport systems by using Hill-type plots revealed that the ratio of the Na+/hexose co-transport probably is 1:1 in the case of pars convoluta and 2:1 in membrane vesicles from pars recta. (biochemj.org)
  • In the presence of glucose as an energy source, NCAO inhibited tryptophan transport competitively (Ki=80 μM) during short time intervals (1-2 min), but adding 100 μM NCAO to a yeast cell suspension resulted in a time-dependent activation of tryptophan transport during the first 15 min of treatment. (umn.edu)
  • In this paper we will focus on recent studies of regulatory mechanisms that modulate placental transport of amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. (hindawi.com)
  • He discussed this in the context of diabetes in pregnancy leading to excess fuel exposure to the fetal-placental unit, not only from glucose but also from excess lipids and amino acids (AAs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • ATP-binding cassette transport system involved in regulation of morphological differentiation in response to glucose in Streptomyces griseus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we provide biochemical characterization of a novel transport system with nanomolar affinity and high selectivity for tryptophan. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevier.com)
  • Selection and characterization of chlorella mutants deficient in amino Acid transport : further evidence for three independent systems. (fau.de)
  • The characterization of the control mechanisms of amino acid biosynthesis has revealed insights into principles of genetic and biochemical regulation, such as transcriptional regulators and a new class of regulatory elements, the riboswitch. (springer.com)
  • Transport by System N also depends on Na + but shows a striking sensitivity to inhibition by low external pH. (pnas.org)
  • Saturation kinetics, substrate specificity and inhibition, and trans-stimulation were demonstrated in the presence of this SH-containing amino acid. (elsevier.com)
  • In vitro, glutamate-mediated system x(c)(-) inhibition leads to neuronal cell death, a paradigm called oxidative glutamate toxicity, which has successfully been used to identify neuroprotective compounds. (nih.gov)
  • However, the mutual inhibition alone is insufficient to conclude which specific transport system is involved in PGB transport in the ileum. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. (mdpi.com)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of system Xc causes a rapid depletion of intracellular glutathione, resulting in decreased cell growth. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth endoplasmic reticulum into lipoprotein chylomicra and exocytozed into lacteals . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipids I: Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids 17. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from four basic classes of molecule: amino acids, carbohydrates , nucleic acid and lipids (often called fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • l-Tryptophan, which is transported exclusively by the general transport system, was used as a substrate. (umn.edu)
  • Following the activation a time-dependent decay of tryptophan transport activity occurred. (umn.edu)
  • When a yeast cell suspension was treated with NCAO in the absence of an energy source, an 80% inactivation of tryptophan transport occurred in 90 min. (umn.edu)
  • Addition of a fivefold excess of L-lysine during NCAO treatment or prevented inactivation of tryptophan transport. (umn.edu)
  • For tryptophan to be catabolized by IDO, it must first enter the APC via transmembrane transport. (elsevier.com)
  • The amino-acids tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine seem to play an important role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. (nature.com)
  • Both neurotransmitters are synthesized from aromatic amino-acids, i.e. serotonin from tryptophan, and noradrenalin from tyrosine or its precursor phenylalanine. (nature.com)
  • Taken together, different classes of NVU-AATs constitute an integrated dynamic system controlling the homeostasis of AAs such as large neutral amino acids (LNAAs: L-tyrosine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-phenylalanine, L-histidine, L-valine, L-tryptophan, and L-methionine) in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF). (frontiersin.org)
  • It was trans-stimulated by amino acids with the same specificity as rBAT-induced transport activity in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
  • The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier in the rat. (elsevier.com)
  • Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate. (abcam.com)
  • Amino acids are taken up by different transport systems with overlapping substrate specificity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The inhibitory effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid were additive, demonstrating that both PAT1 and PepT1 contribute to intestinal transport of ALA. This is the first demonstration of overlap in substrate specificity between these distinct transporters for amino acids and dipeptides. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We show here that SSY1 is required for transcriptional induction, in response to multiple amino acids, of the AGP1 gene encoding a low-affinity, broad-specificity amino acid permease. (asm.org)
  • The chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis has been proposed as a model for the coupling of energy metabolism with amino acid transport in S. cerevisiae. (kzoo.edu)
  • In total, our examination of functions in these MAGs shows a diversity of nutrient acquisition and metabolism pathways present that may benefit the host, as well as genomic signatures of host association and immune system evasion. (nature.com)
  • Metabolismus of nitrogen compounds I - Amino acid metabolism. (vutbr.cz)
  • This is mainly because a standard methodology for extracting functional category information, such as individual metabolism, energy generation and transportation systems, has not yet been fully established. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Well-known examples include insulin, which comprises 51 amino acid building blocks and controls the metabolism of sugar, or cyclosporine, an eleven amino acid-peptide that has been proven to suppress organ rejection after transplants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism I: Glycolysis and the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle 13. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Endocrine Metabolism V: Reproductive System 33. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Na+-dependent transport of L-phenylalanine by outer-cortical membrane vesicles could be accounted for by one transport system (KA congruent to 1.5 mM). (biochemj.org)
  • Both the high-affinity and the low-affinity Na+-dependent L-phenylalanine transport system of pars recta membrane vesicles seem to operate with a 1:1 stoichiometry. (biochemj.org)
  • Involved in a phospholipid transport pathway that maintains lipid asymmetry in the outer membrane by retrograde trafficking of phospholipids from the outer membrane to the inner membrane. (uniprot.org)
  • Isolation of a mutant yeast strain with altered plasma membrane ATPase activity and the preparation of spheroplasts may serve as possible experimental systems for the study of this model in yeast. (kzoo.edu)
  • Hence, endocytotic or pinocytotic mechanisms, and shuttling of MeHg via sequential sulfhydryl membrane ligand exchange do not appear to operate in the transport of MeHg into the astrocyte. (elsevier.com)
  • Placental nutrient transport and membrane kinetics (how do nutrients such as amino acids get from the mother to the fetus and how does transport work as an integrated system). (southampton.ac.uk)
  • of energy, it is called active transport (see cell: The plasma membrane). (britannica.com)
  • Active transport systems move chemicals essential to cellular functions through the membrane into the cell. (britannica.com)
  • Studies with brush-border membrane vesicles have shown that there are several transport systems in the larval intestine with distinct amino acid and cation specificities. (biologists.org)
  • Inaugural Meeting of the Scottish Membrane Transport Group Discovery Quay, Dundee, Friday 28th April 1995 Second Notice and Call for Abstracts The meeting will take the form of a one day symposium with a total of 4 sessions. (bio.net)
  • and so may be involved in ALA transport across the intestinal epithelial brush-border membrane. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The neutral amino acid transport system of larval midgut has been studied most extensively. (biologists.org)
  • System ASC preferentially transports alanine, serine, and cysteine but also recognizes other aliphatic amino acids ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly energized, system A substrates, such as glutamine, glycine, proline and alanine, reach high transmembrane gradients and constitute major components of the intracellular amino acid pool. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Na-dependent alanine/α-(methylamino) isobutyric acid-transporting system A, ATA3 or SNAT4. (tcdb.org)
  • The remaining process had the same kinetic constants as the low-affinity system for alanine and leucine and a KD similar to the diffusion constant for proline. (portlandpress.com)
  • It comprised six molecules of the simplest amino acid, alanine. (eurekalert.org)
  • No potent inhibitors of l‐glutamic acid accumulation were found among several structural analogues or derivatives. (elsevier.com)
  • Developmental studies revealed GABA and l‐glutamic acid to have absolute sodium requirements for cortical synaptosomal accumulation from the 16th gestational day through adulthood, with glycine accumulation showing a decreasing sodium requirement as maturation proceeded over this period. (elsevier.com)
  • Plant roots incorporate inorganic nitrogen into the amino acids glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and aspartic acid, which together serve as the primary metabolites of nitrogen transport to other tissues. (biologists.org)
  • GC-MS assays also showed that, even with an excess of dietary labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine or aspartic acid, the overall content of these amino acids in aphid bodies was mostly the product of catabolism of dietary amino acids and subsequent re-synthesis within the aphids. (biologists.org)
  • Aspartic acid aminotransferase and asparagine synthase use glutamic acid and glutamine, respectively, as nitrogen donors to produce aspartic acid and asparagine. (biologists.org)
  • For less permeable substrates the placenta possesses both passive and active transport mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Changes in energy availability or ion gradients can profoundly influence net transfer of substrates transported by active mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Synthesis of syn- and anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluoromethyl-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FMACBC), potential PET ligands for tumor detection. (harvard.edu)
  • Moreover, through a complex array of exchange fluxes, involving other amino acid transporters, and of metabolic reactions, such as the synthesis of glutamate from glutamine, SNAT2 activity influences the cell content of most amino acids, thus determining the overall size and the composition of the intracellular amino acid pool. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Folates are involved in the synthesis of amino and nucleic acids and deliver one-carbon groups to S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) through the methionine homocysteine pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis , much amino acid synthesis, and the immune response in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, aphids and other phloem feeders typically rely on microbial symbionts for the synthesis of essential amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, these predominant dietary amino acids are not passed directly to Buchnera endosymbionts for synthesis of essential amino acids, but are rather are produced de novo , most likely by endogenous aphid enzymes. (biologists.org)
  • The cysteine is subsequently transported in to neurons, where it supports glutathione production. (novusbio.com)
  • Moreover, the roles of system x(c)(-) in regulating GSH levels, the redox state of the extracellular cystine/cysteine redox couple, and extracellular glutamate levels are discussed. (nih.gov)
  • MTs have the capacity to bind both physiological (such as zinc, copper, selenium) and xenobiotic (such as cadmium, mercury, silver, arsenic) heavy metals through the thiol group of its cysteine residues, which represent nearly 30% of its constituent amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their production is dependent on availability of the dietary minerals such as zinc, copper, and selenium, as well as the amino acids histidine and cysteine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three amino acids comprising glutathione are glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. (asnjournals.org)
  • System A has also provided a paradigm for short- and long-term regulation by physiological stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, amino acid transport System A has provided a paradigm for the short- and long-term regulation of transport activity ( 1 , 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • System A function also varies inversely with the concentration of extracellular amino acids as part of adaptive regulation and up-regulates with cell proliferation and hypertonic shock, suggesting additional homeostatic roles. (pnas.org)
  • We highlight the diverse roles of system x(c)(-) in the regulation of the immune response, in various aspects of cancer and in the eye and the CNS. (nih.gov)
  • Topics discussed are the amino acid biosynthetic pathways, their genetic and biochemical regulation, transport of amino acids and genomics of producing microorganisms. (springer.com)
  • The homeostatic regulation of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential for proper brain function. (frontiersin.org)
  • and chain lengthening or shortening of individual fatty acids. (springer.com)
  • a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accumulation by synaptosomal fractions from rat central nervous system tissue of transmitter candidate amino acids and non‐candidate amino acids was studied with respect to ionic requirements, metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and ontogeny. (elsevier.com)
  • The volume further deals with the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biotechnological production of amino acids for use as pharmaceuticals and, particularly, as food and feed additives. (springer.com)
  • Maternal diet and obesity impact fuels, hormones, and inflammation with powerful effects on fetal metabolic systems. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • or γ- 15 N). The metabolic fate of the dietary 15 N and 13 C was traced using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrogen was the major contributor to the observed amino acid isotopomers with one additional unit mass (M+1). (biologists.org)
  • The acquired form of 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) metabolic acidosis was first described in 1989 and its relationship to chronic acetaminophen ingestion was proposed the next year. (asnjournals.org)
  • Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. (hindawi.com)
  • The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which poisonous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect on system A activity was associated with a decrease in the maximal velocity of the transport system without affecting the substrate affinity. (elsevier.com)
  • Insulin increased AKT and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, system A activity, and SNAT2 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Taylor, Peter M. . / Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta . (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Ritchie, JWA & Taylor, PM 2001, ' Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta ', Biochemical Journal , vol. 356, no. 3, pp. 719-725. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Fetal growth is dependent on nutrient availability, which in turn is related to the capacity of the placenta to transport these nutrients. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, the placenta with its nutrient transport functions is increasingly seen as being the mediator of maternal nutrition effects on the lifelong health consequences for the child [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A wide range of nutrients (e.g., amino acids, phosphorus, and lactate) are transported across the placenta mediated by secondary active transport, utilizing energy provided by ion gradients such as sodium, chloride, and protons [ 14 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cyclic hexapeptide in its bioactive form with the integrin-binding tripeptide sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid: Green spheres represent carbon atoms, red oxygen atoms, blue nitrogen atoms and white hydrogen atoms. (eurekalert.org)
  • A sequence of the three amino acids arginine, glycine and aspartic acid is the key to the docking at these receptors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Taurine is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory semi-essential amino acid extensively involved in neurological activities, acting as neurotrophic factor, binding to GABA A/glycine receptors and blocking the excitotoxicity glutamate-induced pathway leading to be a neuroprotective effect and neuromodulation. (mdpi.com)
  • The fete-placental unit relies on a maternal supply of indispensable amino acids and iodothyronines for early development and normal growth. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • We hypothesized that adiponectin regulates placental amino acid transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As a result, fAd inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport, which may have important implications for placental nutrient transport and fetal growth in pregnancy complications associated with altered maternal adiponectin levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • however, the primary determinant of fetal growth is nutrient supply, which is dependent on placental nutrient transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Obesity in pregnancy ( 9 , 10 ) and gestational diabetes mellitus ( 11 ) are associated with low maternal circulating levels of adiponectin, but the impact of adiponectin on placental nutrient transport functions is unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The activity of a range of nutrient transporters has been reported to be decreased in placentas of growth restricted fetuses, whereas at least some studies indicate that placental nutrient transport is upregulated in fetal overgrowth. (hindawi.com)
  • These findings suggest that changes in placental nutrient transport may directly contribute to the development of abnormal fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
  • Fetal growth is largely determined by nutrient supply, which is dependent upon placental nutrient transport. (hindawi.com)
  • This suggests that changes in placental nutrient transport directly contribute to altered fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
  • Hill PMM, Young M. Net placental transfer of free amino acids against varying concentrations. (springer.com)
  • Disease severity and SAH-related complications were not associated with amino-acid concentrations. (nature.com)
  • Sialic acid supplementation ameliorates puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats. (nih.gov)
  • When taken in a form of capsule of tablet, L-glutamine can give protection to your muscles during rigorous workouts and can also enhance your immune system to make it more likely to increase muscle mass. (archive.org)
  • In contrast, non-malignant astrocytes and cortical neurons remain viable in the presence of Xc inhibitors and continue to take up cystine via alternate amino acid transporters. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • System L recognizes branched chain and aromatic amino acids ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • By contrast, in the outer-medullary preparation, L-phenylalanine transport occurred via two transport systems, namely a high-affinity system with K1A congruent to 0.33 mM and a low-affinity system with K2A congruent to 7 mM respectively. (biochemj.org)
  • The physiological importance of the arrangement of low-affinity and high-affinity transport systems along the kidney proximal tubule is discussed. (biochemj.org)
  • This heterogeneity disappeared in the presence of cycloleucine, since the high-affinity systems were no longer detectable. (portlandpress.com)
  • Amino acid exporters were identified in MAGs identified as important for host fitness, and pathways for key vitamin biosynthesis and export were identified across MAGs. (nature.com)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides an attractive model system for studying adhesion in yeast because of its well-characterized genetics and gene expression systems and the conservation of signal transduction pathways among the yeasts. (asm.org)
  • Their function as exchangers presumably relies on the active accumulation of amino acids through other mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • As a first step in understanding the relationship between the astrocyte and the mechanisms of MeHg's neurotoxicity, studies were directed at how MeHg is transported into cultured astrocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Numerous solutes move across the NVU cell membranes with various transport mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Animals that feed on nutritionally unbalanced resources such as phloem sap, which typically has sub-optimal amounts of essential amino acids, have evolved mechanisms for acquiring or synthesizing these amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • Many of these prn mutations can be directly classified according to the gene product(s) affected on the basis of growth phenotype with respect to L-arginine and L-ornithine utilization, proline-dependent resistance to certain toxic amino acid analogues and effect on supplementation of proline auxotrophies. (cambridge.org)
  • These heterodimers facilitate the transport of amino acids across cell membranes. (novusbio.com)
  • frequently occurs by way of active transport within cell membranes, an excess of one nutrient (A) may inhibit absorption of a second nutrient (B), if they share the same absorption pathway. (britannica.com)
  • Present review paper highlights role of BBB in endothelial transport of various substances into the brain. (hindawi.com)
  • The function of system A was monitored by the transport of α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid. (elsevier.com)
  • In cultured human fibroblasts incubated under hypertonic conditions, the specific silencing of SNAT2 expression, obtained with anti-SNAT2 siRNAs, prevents the increase in system A transport activity, hinders the expansion of intracellular amino acid pool, and significantly delays cell volume recovery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We measured daily brain extracellular levels of these amino-acids using cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and high performance liquid chromatography in 26 consecutive subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients and associated them with the presence of depressive disorders. (nature.com)
  • For example, in the central nervous system, glutamate transporters are critically important in maintaining the extracellular glutamate concentration below neurotoxic levels, and defects of the human D2 gene have been shown to account for the formation of kidney stones in patients with cystinuria. (biologists.org)
  • However, there was differential incorporation, with the amine nitrogen of asparagine being incorporated into other amino acids more efficiently than the amide nitrogen. (biologists.org)
  • Hilger, D. 2007-04-06 00:00:00 Amino acid transport is a ubiquitous phenomenon and serves a variety of functions in prokaryotes, including supply of carbon and nitrogen for catabolic and anabolic processes, pH homeostasis, osmoprotection, virulence, detoxification, signal transduction and generation of electrochemical ion gradients. (deepdyve.com)
  • Higher isotopomers (M+2, M+3 and M+4) indicated the incorporation of varying numbers of 13 C atoms into essential amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • The BBB endothelium together with the astrocytes and neurons are the fundamental elements of the neurovascular unit (NVU) system. (frontiersin.org)
  • The availability of both a positive selection technique and an extensive nutritional screening system has enabled the identification of fourteen spontaneous deletion mutations, recognized as extending into the prn B gene, specifying the principal L-proline permease, and into at least one other prn gene. (cambridge.org)
  • L-proline was taken up by one saturable transport system plus a diffusion-like process. (portlandpress.com)
  • hATB(0+) was found to transport both neutral and cationic amino acids, with the highest affinity for hydrophobic amino acids and the lowest affinity for proline. (tcdb.org)
  • Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). (nih.gov)
  • It is composed of a light chain, xCT, and a heavy chain, 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc), and, thus, belongs to the family of heterodimeric amino acid transporters. (nih.gov)
  • When combined with insulin, gAd did not affect system A activity or SNAT expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, fAd abolished insulin-stimulated AKT Thr308 and IRS-1 Tyr612 phosphorylation, system A activity, and SNAT2 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ive been told by some people to add BCAA's and some insulin spiking amino acids to this shake. (exrx.net)
  • What circulatory systems are involved in nutrient absorption and transport? (studystack.com)
  • To circumvent these limitations, we have incorporated published in vivo data of rat brain into a robust computational model of NVU-LNAA homeostasis, allowing us to evaluate hypotheses concerning LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs across the blood brain barrier (BBB). (frontiersin.org)
  • This review also suggests requirement of new well-designed therapeutic strategies mainly potential techniques, appropriate drug formulations, and new transport systems for quick, easy, and safe delivery of drugs across blood brain barrier to save the life of tumor and virus infected patients. (hindawi.com)
  • 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine PET/CT in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: relation to genotype and amino acid transport system L. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging , Springer Verlag (Germany), 2017, 44 (5), pp.812-821. (univ-cotedazur.fr)
  • Using similar approaches, we are investigating the molecular characteristics of K(+)-coupled amino acid transporters in the larval lepidopteran insect midgut. (biologists.org)
  • Dr Julian Dow Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow: Genetic analysis of epithelial transport in Drosophila. (bio.net)
  • however, the molecular basis for this transport system is still unknown. (tcdb.org)
  • Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic" by people in Profiles. (wakehealth.edu)
  • 1] "Structure and function of ATA3, a new subtype of amino acid transport system A, primarily expressed in the liver and skeletal muscle. (tcdb.org)
  • Amino Acids Biosynthesis presents the current knowledge of fundamental as well as applied microbiology of amino acids. (springer.com)
  • including through amino acid biosynthesis (Richards et al. (biologists.org)
  • Amino Acid Transport System L" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • System-L amino acid transporters play a key role in pancreatic β-cell signalling and function. (nih.gov)
  • This work has furthermore advanced our understanding of the roles these transporters play in amino acid homeostasis and in various pathologies. (biologists.org)
  • Apart from oocytes, no other expression system has been used for transfection of functional rBAT activity. (uzh.ch)
  • Distribution, physiological roles, functional properties, and structure-function relationships of prokaryotic α-amino acid transporters are discussed. (deepdyve.com)