The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and insecticide resistance in insects. (1/16550)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in many cases of resistance of insects to insecticides. Resistance has long been associated with an increase in monooxygenase activities and with an increase in cytochrome P450 content. However, this increase does not always account for all of the resistance. In Drosophila melanogaster, we have shown that the overproduction of cytochrome P450 can be lost by the fly without a corresponding complete loss of resistance. These results prompted the sequencing of a cytochrome P450 candidate for resistance in resistant and susceptible flies. Several mutations leading to amino-acid substitutions have been detected in the P450 gene CYP6A2 of a resistant strain. The location of these mutations in a model of the 3D structure of the CYP6A2 protein suggested that some of them may be important for enzyme activity of this molecule. This has been verified by heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated cDNA in Escherichia coli. When other resistance mechanisms are considered, relatively few genetic mutations are involved in insecticide resistance, and this has led to an optimistic view of the management of resistance. Our observations compel us to survey in more detail the genetic diversity of cytochrome P450 genes and alleles involved in resistance.  (+info)

An antiviral mechanism of nitric oxide: inhibition of a viral protease. (2/16550)

Although nitric oxide (NO) kills or inhibits the replication of a variety of intracellular pathogens, the antimicrobial mechanisms of NO are unknown. Here, we identify a viral protease as a target of NO. The life cycle of many viruses depends upon viral proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual polypeptides. NO inactivates the Coxsackievirus protease 3C, an enzyme necessary for the replication of Coxsackievirus. NO S-nitrosylates the cysteine residue in the active site of protease 3C, inhibiting protease activity and interrupting the viral life cycle. Substituting a serine residue for the active site cysteine renders protease 3C resistant to NO inhibition. Since cysteine proteases are critical for virulence or replication of many viruses, bacteria, and parasites, S-nitrosylation of pathogen cysteine proteases may be a general mechanism of antimicrobial host defenses.  (+info)

Functional consequences of mutations in the human alpha1A calcium channel subunit linked to familial hemiplegic migraine. (3/16550)

Mutations in alpha1A, the pore-forming subunit of P/Q-type calcium channels, are linked to several human diseases, including familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). We introduced the four missense mutations linked to FHM into human alpha1A-2 subunits and investigated their functional consequences after expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. By combining single-channel and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we show that all four mutations affect both the biophysical properties and the density of functional channels. Mutation R192Q in the S4 segment of domain I increased the density of functional P/Q-type channels and their open probability. Mutation T666M in the pore loop of domain II decreased both the density of functional channels and their unitary conductance (from 20 to 11 pS). Mutations V714A and I1815L in the S6 segments of domains II and IV shifted the voltage range of activation toward more negative voltages, increased both the open probability and the rate of recovery from inactivation, and decreased the density of functional channels. Mutation V714A decreased the single-channel conductance to 16 pS. Strikingly, the reduction in single-channel conductance induced by mutations T666M and V714A was not observed in some patches or periods of activity, suggesting that the abnormal channel may switch on and off, perhaps depending on some unknown factor. Our data show that the FHM mutations can lead to both gain- and loss-of-function of human P/Q-type calcium channels.  (+info)

Phe161 and Arg166 variants of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. Implications for NADPH recognition and structural stability. (4/16550)

Phe161 and Arg166 of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens belong to a newly discovered sequence motif in flavoprotein hydroxylases with a putative dual function in FAD and NADPH binding [1]. To study their role in more detail, Phe161 and Arg166 were selectively changed by site-directed mutagenesis. F161A and F161G are catalytically competent enzymes having a rather poor affinity for NADPH. The catalytic properties of R166K are similar to those of the native enzyme. R166S and R166E show impaired NADPH binding and R166E has lost the ability to bind FAD. The crystal structure of substrate complexed F161A at 2.2 A is indistinguishable from the native enzyme, except for small changes at the site of mutation. The crystal structure of substrate complexed R166S at 2.0 A revealed that Arg166 is important for providing an intimate contact between the FAD binding domain and a long excursion of the substrate binding domain. It is proposed that this interaction is essential for structural stability and for the recognition of the pyrophosphate moiety of NADPH.  (+info)

Possible role for ligand binding of histidine 81 in the second transmembrane domain of the rat prostaglandin F2alpha receptor. (5/16550)

For the five principal prostanoids PGD2, PGE2, PGF2alpha, prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 eight receptors have been identified that belong to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors. They display an overall homology of merely 30%. However, single amino acids in the transmembrane domains such as an Arg in the seventh transmembrane domain are highly conserved. This Arg has been identified as part of the ligand binding pocket. It interacts with the carboxyl group of the prostanoid. The aim of the current study was to analyze the potential role in ligand binding of His-81 in the second transmembrane domain of the rat PGF2alpha receptor, which is conserved among all PGF2alpha receptors from different species. Molecular modeling suggested that this residue is located in close proximity to the ligand binding pocket Arg 291 in the 7th transmembrane domain. The His81 (H) was exchanged by site-directed mutagenesis to Gln (Q), Asp (D), Arg (R), Ala (A) and Gly (G). The receptor molecules were N-terminally extended by a Flag epitope for immunological detection. All mutant proteins were expressed at levels between 50% and 80% of the wild type construct. The H81Q and H81D receptor bound PGF2alpha with 2-fold and 25-fold lower affinity, respectively, than the wild type receptor. Membranes of cells expressing the H81R, H81A or H81G mutants did not bind significant amounts of PGF2alpha. Wild type receptor and H81Q showed a shallow pH optimum for PGF2alpha binding around pH 5.5 with almost no reduction of binding at higher pH. In contrast the H81D mutant bound PGF2alpha with a sharp optimum at pH 4.5, a pH at which the Asp side chain is partially undissociated and may serve as a hydrogen bond donor as do His and Gln at higher pH values. The data indicate that the His-81 in the second transmembrane domain of the PGF2alpha receptor in concert with Arg-291 in the seventh transmembrane domain may be involved in ligand binding, most likely not by ionic interaction with the prostaglandin's carboxyl group but rather as a hydrogen bond donor.  (+info)

The contribution of adjacent subunits to the active sites of D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. (6/16550)

D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) from Escherichia coli is allosterically inhibited by L-serine, the end product of its metabolic pathway. Previous results have shown that inhibition by serine has a large effect on Vmax and only a small or negligible effect on Km. PGDH is thus classified as a V-type allosteric enzyme. In this study, the active site of PGDH has been studied by site-directed mutagenesis to assess the role of certain residues in substrate binding and catalysis. These consist of a group of cationic residues (Arg-240, Arg-60, Arg-62, Lys-39, and Lys-141') that potentially form an electrostatic environment for the binding of the negatively charged substrate, as well as the only tryptophan residue found in PGDH and which fits into a hydrophobic pocket immediately adjacent to the active site histidine residue. Interestingly, Trp-139' and Lys-141' are part of the polypeptide chain of the subunit that is adjacent to the active site. The results of mutating these residues show that Arg-240, Arg-60, Arg-62, and Lys-141' play distinct roles in the binding of the substrate to the active site. Mutants of Trp-139' show that this residue may play a role in stabilizing the catalytic center of the enzyme. Furthermore, these mutants appear to have a significant effect on the cooperativity of serine inhibition and suggest a possible role for Trp-139' in the cooperative interactions between subunits.  (+info)

Mechanistic studies on the reductive half-reaction of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. (7/16550)

Site-directed mutagenesis has been employed to study the mechanism of hydride transfer from NADPH to NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. Specifically, Ser457, Asp675, and Cys630 have been selected because of their proximity to the isoalloxazine ring of FAD. Substitution of Asp675 with asparagine or valine decreased cytochrome c reductase activities 17- and 677-fold, respectively, while the C630A substitution decreased enzymatic activity 49-fold. Earlier studies had shown that the S457A mutation decreased cytochrome c reductase activity 90-fold and also lowered the redox potential of the FAD semiquinone (Shen, A., and Kasper, C. B. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 9451-9459). The S457A/D675N and S457A/D675N/C630A mutants produced roughly multiplicative decreases in cytochrome c reductase activity (774- and 22000-fold, respectively) with corresponding decreases in the rates of flavin reduction. For each mutation, increases were observed in the magnitudes of the primary deuterium isotope effects with NADPD, consistent with decreased rates of hydride transfer from NADPH to FAD and an increase in the relative rate limitation of hydride transfer. Asp675 substitutions lowered the redox potential of the FAD semiquinone. In addition, the C630A substitution shifted the pKa of an ionizable group previously identified as necessary for catalysis (Sem, D. S., and Kasper, C. B. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 11539-11547) from 6.9 to 7.8. These results are consistent with a model in which Ser457, Asp675, and Cys630 stabilize the transition state for hydride transfer. Ser457 and Asp675 interact to stabilize both the transition state and the FAD semiquinone, while Cys630 interacts with the nicotinamide ring and the fully reduced FAD, functioning as a proton donor/acceptor to FAD.  (+info)

Cystic fibrosis-associated mutations at arginine 347 alter the pore architecture of CFTR. Evidence for disruption of a salt bridge. (8/16550)

Arginine 347 in the sixth transmembrane domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a site of four cystic fibrosis-associated mutations. To better understand the function of Arg-347 and to learn how mutations at this site disrupt channel activity, we mutated Arg-347 to Asp, Cys, Glu, His, Leu, or Lys and examined single-channel function. Every Arg-347 mutation examined, except R347K, had a destabilizing effect on the pore, causing the channel to flutter between two conductance states. Chloride flow through the larger conductance state was similar to that of wild-type CFTR, suggesting that the residue at position 347 does not interact directly with permeating anions. We hypothesized that Arg-347 stabilizes the channel through an electrostatic interaction with an anionic residue in another transmembrane domain. To test this, we mutated anionic residues (Asp-924, Asp-993, and Glu-1104) to Arg in the context of either R347E or R347D mutations. Interestingly, the D924R mutation complemented R347D, yielding a channel that behaved like wild-type CFTR. These data suggest that Arg-347 plays an important structural role in CFTR, at least in part by forming a salt bridge with Asp-924; cystic fibrosis-associated mutations disrupt this interaction.  (+info)

Adequate representations of protein evolution should consider how the acceptance of mutations depends on the sequence context in which they arise. However, epistatic interactions among sites in a protein result in hererogeneities in the substitution rate, both temporal and spatial, that are beyond the capabilities of current models. Here we use parallels between amino acid substitutions and chemical reaction kinetics to develop an improved theory of protein evolution. We constructed a mechanistic framework for modelling amino acid substitution rates that uses the formalisms of statistical mechanics, with principles of population genetics underlying the analysis. Theoretical analyses and computer simulations of proteins under purifying selection for thermodynamic stability show that substitution rates and the stabilization of resident amino acids (the evolutionary Stokes shift) can be predicted from biophysics and the effect of sequence entropy alone. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ...
These findings explain how drugs that target the ATP-binding site can inhibit protein kinases specifically, and show that the presence of threonine or a smaller amino acid at the position equivalent to Thr106 of SAPK2a/p38 and SAPK2b/p38 beta 2 is diagnostic of whether a protein kinase is sensitive …
A key element in evaluating the quality of a pairwise sequence alignment is the substitution matrix, which assigns a score for aligning any possible pair of residues. The theory of amino acid substitution matrices is described in [1], and applied to DNA sequence comparison in [2]. In general, different substitution matrices are tailored to detecting similarities among sequences that are diverged by differing degrees [1-3]. A single matrix may nevertheless be reasonably efficient over a relatively broad range of evolutionary change [1-3]. Experimentation has shown that the BLOSUM-62 matrix [4] is among the best for detecting most weak protein similarities. For particularly long and weak alignments, the BLOSUM-45 matrix may prove superior. A detailed statistical theory for gapped alignments has not been developed, and the best gap costs to use with a given substitution matrix are determined empirically. Short alignments need to be relatively strong (i.e. have a higher percentage of matching ...
Identification of specificity determining residues in enzymes using environment specific substitution tables - Quantitative Biology > Quantitative Methods. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In this project, we develop a general framework that applies 3D convolutional neural network (3DCNN) technology to structure-based protein analysis. The framework automatically extracts task-specific features from the raw atom distribution, driven by supervised labels. As a pilot study, we use our network to analyze local protein microenvironments surrounding the 20 amino acids, and predict the amino acids most compatible with environments within a protein structure. To further validate the power of our method, we construct two amino acid substitution matrices from the prediction statistics and use them to predict effects of mutations in T4 lysozyme structures. ...
The Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) algorithm predicts the effect of coding variants on protein function. It was first introduced in 2001, with a corresponding website that provides users with predictions on their variants. Since its release, SIFT has become one of the standard tools for cha …
1C5I: Hydrogen bonding and catalysis: a novel explanation for how a single amino acid substitution can change the pH optimum of a glycosidase.
Single Amino Acid Mutation related change of Binding Energy (SAAMBE) method addresses the demand for computational tools of predicting the effect of single amino acid substitution on the binding free energy of protein complexes. It is based on the fast (,, 1 minute) modified MM-PBSA protocol that is successfully tested and optimized for more than thousand experimental data points. If the usage of the server results in scientific publication, please, cite the following papers: References SAAMBE is running on Clemson Universitys Palmetto Supercomputer Cluster. If you experience problems, they may be due to Palmetto Cluster being not functional or under maintenance. Contact us at [email protected] ...
Substitution Mutations: In substitution mutations, a nitrogenous base of a triplet codon of DNA is replaced by another nitrogen base or some derivative of the nitrogen base, changing the codon. The altered codon codes for a different amino acid substitution.The substitution mutations are of two types: 1.Transitions: It is the replacement of one purine in a polynucleotide chain by another purine(A by G or G by A) or one pyrimidine by another pyrimidine(T by C or C by T) 2.Transversions:A base pair substitution involving the substitution of a purine by pyrimidine or pyrimidine by a purine is called transversion. ...
Structure-function studies of potassium channels have shown that many pore loop substitutions result in a loss of functional channel expression. Some point mutations in the pore loop disrupt subunit tetramerization (Heginbotham et al., 1997), whereas in other cases channels are delivered to the cell surface, as determined by voltage-dependent gating charge movement, but potassium ion conduction through the pore is eliminated (Perozo et al., 1993). Glutamate receptor channels appear to tolerate a larger repertoire of substitutions, possibly owing to their larger pore dimensions. Estimates of pore size at the selectivity filter based on permeation of organic cations suggest a diameter of ∼5.5 Å for NMDA receptors (Villarroel et al., 1995), 7.5-7.6 Å for both Q and R forms of kainate receptors and ∼7.8 Å for AMPA receptors (Burnashev et al., 1996). In contrast, potassium channels exhibit a narrower pore diameter of ∼3 Å (Hille, 2001). With some notable exceptions, single amino acid ...
These are internal identifiers that are unique to a mutation on a particular transcript and are displayed in the URL of the mutation pages. Therefore, several of these internal ids could be associated with a single genomic COSV id where the mutation has been mapped to all overlapping genes and transcripts. Similarly, since every COSM id is mapped to one COSV id (where genomic coordinates are known), each COSM id can also be associated with several alternative (internal) identifiers. These ids are expected to change between assemblies (GRCh37 and GRCh38) and between the releases ...
The sessile nature of plants forces them to cope directly with environmental stresses, which include insect herbivory, pathogen attack, UV light radiation, and drought. Secondary metabolites are believed to be an important mechanism that allows plants to respond to these environmental challenges. There are more than 100,000 known plant secondary metabolites, which probably represent less than 10% of the actual total in nature (Wink, 1988). A large fraction of this diversity is derived from differential modification of common backbone structures, which requires the evolution of numerous enzymes with different product specificities. There are several mechanisms by which this can occur. First, as is the case with terpene synthases, a single protein can produce numerous products from a single substrate (Steele et al., 1998). A few amino acid substitutions can alter the ratio of products generated by a terpene synthase (Back and Chappell, 1996). The second mechanism is the use of gene duplication. In ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
ants in an amino-acid sequence can bedetermined if the In addition to identifying important genetic variants substitution is in an annotated active or binding site, for research prioritization, genotyping efforts could be affects interaction with ligands present in the crystallo- reduced by eliminating amino-acid substitutions that graphic structure, leadsto hydrophobicity or electrostatic have been deemed neutral by algorithms such as charge change in a buriedsite, destroys a disulfide bond, PolyPhen. In some cases, some genes could be removed affects the proteins solubility, inserts proline in an from further consideration if all of the variant alleles α-helix,or is incompatiblewith the profile of amino-acid were deemed to be non-functional. Because prediction substitutions observed at this site in the set of homolo- algorithms provide numerical data, it is feasible to fur- gous proteins. Mapping the amino-acid substitution tothe ther subdivide the variant alleles of a gene into those ...
Dalla Chiesa, Marta, Martensen, Pia, Simmons, Cameron, Porakishvili, Nino, Justesen, Just, Dougan, Gordon, Roitt, Ivan M., Delves, Peter J. and Lund, Torben (2001) Refocusing of B-cell responses following a single amino acid substitution in an antigen. Immunology, 103 (2). pp. 172-178. ISSN 0019-2805 ...
Three amino acid substitutions in the Aβ sequence accelerate BACE cleavage of APP and ramp up Aβ production in rats and mice. The mice can serve as better controls for mutant APP knock-ins already in use. ...
Three amino acid substitutions in the Aβ sequence accelerate BACE cleavage of APP and ramp up Aβ production in rats and mice. The mice can serve as better controls for mutant APP knock-ins already in use. ...
Lindner, B. D., Engelhart, J. U., Tverskoy, O., Appleton, A. L., Rominger, F., Peters, A., Himmel, H.-J. and Bunz, U. H. F. (2011), Stable Hexacenes through Nitrogen Substitution. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 50: 8588-8591. doi: 10.1002/anie.201103676 ...
Computational prediction of protein stability change due to single-site amino acid substitutions is of interest in protein design and analysis. We consider the following four ways to improve the performance of the currently available predictors: (1) We include additional sequence- and structure-based features, namely, the amino acid substitution likelihoods, the equilibrium fluctuations of the alpha- and beta-carbon atoms, and the packing density. (2) By implementing different machine learning integration approaches, we combine information from different features or representations. (3) We compare classification vs. regression methods to predict the sign vs. the output of stability change. (4) We allow a reject option for doubtful cases where the risk of misclassification is high. We investigate three different approaches: early, intermediate and late integration, which respectively combine features, kernels over feature subsets, and decisions. We perform simulations on two data sets: (1) S1615 is used
TY - JOUR. T1 - DeMaSk. T2 - A deep mutational scanning substitution matrix and its use for variant impact prediction. AU - Munro, Daniel. AU - Singh, Mona. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press.. PY - 2020/12/1. Y1 - 2020/12/1. N2 - Motivation: Accurately predicting the quantitative impact of a substitution on a proteins molecular function would be a great aid in understanding the effects of observed genetic variants across populations. While this remains a challenging task, new approaches can leverage data from the increasing numbers of comprehensive deep mutational scanning (DMS) studies that systematically mutate proteins and measure fitness. Results: We introduce DeMaSk, an intuitive and interpretable method based only upon DMS datasets and sequence homologs that predicts the impact of missense mutations within any protein. DeMaSk first infers a directional amino acid substitution matrix from DMS datasets and then fits a linear model ...
Classifying and predicting amino acid substitutions are important in pharmaceutical and pathological research. We proposed a novel feature set from amino acids physicochemical properties, evolutionary profile of proteins, and protein sequence information. Large scale size of human disease-associated data were collected and processed, together with the unbiased experimental amino acid substitutions. Machine learning methods of decision tree, support vector machine, Gaussian mixture model, and random forests were used to classify neutral and deleterious substitutions, and the comparison of classification accuracy with published results showed that our feature set is superior to the existing ones.; We designed a simulated annealing bump hunting method to automatically extract interpretable rules for amino acid substitutions. Rules are consistent with current biological knowledge or provide new insights for understanding substitutions.; We also designed a Multiple Selection and Rule Voting (MS-RV) ...
BioAssay record AID 198913 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of HIV-1 Mutant HIV-1 RT enzymes containing the single amino acid substitution V106A.
We describe a method of designing artificial sequences that resemble naturally occurring sequences in terms of their compatibility with a template structure and its functional constraints. The design procedure is a Monte Carlo simulation of amino acid substitution process. The selective fixation of substitutions is dictated by a simple scoring function derived from the template structure and a multiple alignment of its homologs. Designed sequences represent an enlargement of sequence space around native sequences. We show that the use of designed sequences improves the performance of profile-based homology detection. The difference in position-specific conservation between designed sequences and native sequences is helpful for prediction of functionally important residues. Our sequence selection criteria in evolutionary simulations introduce amino acid substitution rate variation among sites in a natural way, providing a better model to test phylogenetic methods. ...
Accumulation of somatic mutations is critical for the transition of a normal cell to become cancerous. Mutations cause amino acid substitutions that change properties of proteins. However, it has not been studied as to what extent the composition and accordingly chemical properties of the cell proteome is altered as a result of the increased mutation load in cancer. Here, we analyzed data on amino acid substitutions caused by mutations in about 2000 protein coding genes from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia that contains information on nucleotide and amino acid alterations in 782 cancer cell lines, and validated the analysis with information on amino acid substitutions for the same set of proteins in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC; v78) in circa 18,000 tumor samples. We found that nonsynonymous single nucleotide substitutions in the analyzed proteome subset ultimately result in a net gain of cysteine, histidine, and tryptophan at the expense of a net loss of arginine. The
Methods: In this study, E6 and E7 gene sequences were obtained from 12 samples of Indonesian isolates, which were compared with HPV16R (prototype) and 6 standard isolates in the category of European (E), Asian (As), Asian-American (AA), African-1 (Af-1), African-2 (Af-2), and North American (NA) branch from Genbank. Bioedit v.7.0.0 was used to analyze the composition and substitution of single amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of E6 and E7 genes and proteins was performed using Clustal X (1.81) and NJPLOT softwares. Effects of single amino acid substitutions on protein function of E6 and E7 were analysed by SNAP. ...
We have previously demonstrated that substitution of Asn for Ser at position 17 of RasH yields a dominant inhibitory protein whose expression in cells interferes with endogenous Ras function (L. A. Feig, and G. M. Cooper, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:3235-3243, 1988). Subsequent structural studies have shown that the hydroxyl group of Ser-17 contributes to the binding of Mg2+ associated with bound nucleotide. In this report, we show that more subtle amino acid substitutions at this site that would be expected to interfere with complexing Mg2+, such as Cys or Ala, also generated dominant inhibitory mutants. In contrast, a Thr substitution that conserves a reactive hydroxyl group maintained normal Ras function. These results argue that the defect responsible for the inhibitory activity is improper coordination of Mg2+. Preferential affinity for GDP, observed in the original Asn-17 mutant, was found exclusively in inhibitory mutants. However, this binding specificity did not completely block the mutant ...
Study shows that seasonal flu escapes immunity with single amino acid substitutions. Scientists have identified a potential way to improve future flu vaccines after discovering that seasonal flu typically escapes immunity from vaccines with as little as a single amino acid substitution. Additionally, they found these single amino acid changes occur at only seven places on its surface - not the 130 places previously believed. The research was published today, 21 November, in the journal Science.. This work is a major step forward in our understanding of the evolution of flu viruses, and could possibly enable us to predict that evolution. If we can do that, then we can make flu vaccines that would be even more effective than the current vaccine, said Professor Derek Smith from the University of Cambridge, one of the two leaders of the research, together with Professor Ron Fouchier from Erasmus Medical Center in The Netherlands.. The flu vaccine works by exposing the body to parts of inactivated ...
Dear Colleagues, I am seeking pdb files to use as paired examples of the effects of a single amino acid substitution on protein structure/function. Ideally I would like to have some examples of substitutions that alter function, and some that have little or no evident functional effect. If both types of substitutions are available for the same protein, so much the better. A good example is normal and sickle cell hemoglobin, but I would like to have somewhere between four and ten different protein examples. I need some that affect binding or enzymatic activity and are located in the binding or active site. Thanks in advance for suggestions on this topic. Frieda Frieda Reichsman, PhD Molecules in Motion Interactive Molecular Structures MyDNA Project ...
p.Pro1933Leu (CCA,CTA): c.5798 C,T in exon 41 of the MYH11 gene (#NM_022844.2). A variant of unknown significance has been identified in an alternate transcript of the MYH11 gene. The P1933L variant has not been published as a mutation, nor has it been reported as a benign polymorphism to our knowledge. The P1933L variant was not observed in approximately 6,500 individuals of European and African American ancestry in the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project, indicating it is not a common benign variant in these populations. The P1933L variant is a semi-conservative amino acid substitution, which may impact secondary protein structure as these residues differ in some properties. This substitution occurs at a position that is not conserved across species. In silico analysis is inconsistent in its predictions as to whether or not the variant is damaging to the protein structure/function. Furthermore, missense mutations in this transcript have not been reported in association with TAAD. Therefore, based ...
Ns done by the Polyphen-2 software used by the Exome Variant Server (EVS) database to predict the effect of amino acid substitution on 115103-85-0 manufacturer
http://​​pph2,PolyPhen-2]] is a tool for predicting the effect of an amino acid substitution on protein structure and function, based on comparative genomics and experimentally determined protein structures. It is available as a web service, and can also be downloaded as a standalone application ...
In a recent paper in Nature, Kemp and colleagues report on the in vivo evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in a patient unable to clear the infection due to lymphoma (Nature 2021;592:277-82). In this patient, SARS-CoV-2 acquired the D796H mutation, allowing escape from convalescent plasma that was given to the patient when it was clear that the patient could not clear the infection on his own. This mutation decreased affinity for the ACE2 receptor. The strains with the D796H mutations further evolved by deleting amino acids 69 and 70 (abbreviated Δ69-70) from the S protein peptide sequence. In vitro studies revealed that the virus bearing Δ69-70 and D796H displayed modestly decreased sensitivity to convalescent plasma, while maintaining infectivity levels that were similar to the wild-type virus. Individually, the D796H substitution was thought to have been the main source of reduced susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies, while the Δ69-70 deletion alone showed a two-fold greater infectivity ...
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The PPARγ2 Pro12Ala variant is protective against progression of nephropathy in people with type 2 diabetes. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The R779C variant in the IFIH1 gene has been reported previously in two unrelated individuals with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, one which the R779C variant was shown to occur de novo (Rice et al., 2014; Marguet et al., 2016). The R779C variant is not observed in large population cohorts (Lek et al., 2016). The R779C variant is a non-conservative amino acid substitution, which is likely to impact secondary protein structure as these residues differ in polarity, charge, size and/or other properties. Functional studies show the R779C variant demonstrates a gain of function mechanism, enhancing the interferon signaling pathway activation, stability of filament formation, and dsRNA binding activity (Rice et al., 2014). We interpret R779C as a pathogenic variant. (less) ...
It contains the values of a, b, c and E damping parameters for amino acid substitution scores. Generally, if a residue is completely buried ( Area=0), its substitution scores will be used without changes. If it is completely exposed, its substitution scores will be multiplied by the minimal possible value of a. Between these cases the substitution scores are modulated by a smooth (arctangent) function with a saddle point at Area=c, where the slope will be -b. The fourth parameter is reserved for development ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement of thermoelectric properties by Se substitution in layered bismuth-chalcogenide LaOBiS2-xSex. AU - Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu. AU - Omachi, Atsushi. AU - Goto, Yosuke. AU - Kamihara, Yoichi. AU - Matoba, Masanori. AU - Hiroi, Takafumi. AU - Kajitani, Joe. AU - Miura, Osuke. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of the novel layered bismuth chalcogenides LaOBiS2-xSex. The partial substitution of S by Se produced the enhancement of electrical conductivity (metallic characteristics) in LaOBiS2-xSex. The power factor largely increased with increasing Se concentration. The highest power factor was 4.5 μW/cmK2 at around 470 °C for LaOBiS1.2Se0.8. The obtained dimensionless figure-of-merit (ZT) was 0.17 at around 470 °C in LaOBiS1.2Se0.8.. AB - We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of the novel layered bismuth chalcogenides LaOBiS2-xSex. The partial substitution of S by Se produced the enhancement of electrical ...
[104 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Dura Substitution Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Dura Substitution market is...
Buy high purity Aldotetraouronic acid internal substitution borohydride reduced for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnos...
Principle of Substitution MCQs 1251 to 1255 are here. You can practice these MCQs frequently to prepare for your exams. Stay Connected for more.
Heres a handy list of baking ingredient substitutions. Youll need it when youre elbow-deep into a recipe and suddenly realize youre missing a key ingredient.
I already intuitively make some of these substitutions, like could not be reached for comment to is guilty and everybody knows it or new study to tumblr post ...
The biochemical properties of CMY-32, a class C enzyme possessing a single-amino acid substitution in the Omega loop (Gly214Glu… Expand ...
I am using MediaLab 2010. I am attempting to put a substitute the value of a variable in the wording for a question. The variable is assigned a value via a multiple select element. However, when I put it in || in the question that references it, it does not properly display the variables value. However, as an experiment, I made the multi select a fill in the blank, and it worked properly. Is there a way to make this work with multi select as well?
2 Substitutions 2 Recoveries / 5 Chills Items = Training All Abilities 2 Day DQ Ransei... the wartorn region of seventeen. Seventeen daimyos...
A crucial prerequisite for plant growth and survival is the maintenance of potassium uptake, especially when high sodium surrounds the root zone. The Arabidopsis HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER1 (HKT1), and its homologs in other salt-sensitive dicots, contributes to salinity tolerance by removing Na+ from the transpiration stream. However, TsHKT1;2, one of three HKT1 copies in Thellungiella salsuginea, a halophytic Arabidopsis relative, acts as a K+ transporter in the presence of Na+ in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Amino-acid sequence comparisons indicated differences between TsHKT1;2 and most other published HKT1 sequences with respect to an Asp residue (D207) in the second pore-loop domain. Two additional T. salsuginea and most other HKT1 sequences contain Asn (n) in this position. Wild-type TsHKT1;2 and altered AtHKT1 (AtHKT1N-D) complemented K+-uptake deficiency of yeast cells. Mutant hkt1-1 plants complemented with both AtHKT1N-D and TsHKT1;2 showed higher tolerance to salt stress than ...
Where did the nylon-eating ability come from? Carboxylesterases are enzymes with broad substrate specificities; they can carry out a variety of reactions. Their binding pocket is large and can accommodate a lot of different substrates. They are promiscuous enzymes, in other words. Furthermore, the carboxylesterase reaction hydrolyzes a chemical bond similar to the one hydrolyzed by nylonase.. […]. From Kato et al. (1991):. Our studies demonstrated that among the 47 amino acids altered between the EII and EII proteins, a single amino acid substitution at position 181 was essential for the activity of 6-aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase [nylonase] and substitution at position 266 enhanced the effect.. So. This is not the story of a highly improbable frame-shift producing a new functional enzyme. This is the story of a pre-existing enzyme with a low level of promiscuous nylonase activity, which improved its activity toward nylon by first one, then another selectable mutation. In other words ...
English) A Simple Mechanism Based on Amino Acid Substitutions is not a Critical Determinant of High Mortality of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Mice ...
The Y155H amino acid substitution in the neuraminidase gene (NA) has previously been associated with highly reduced inhibition by neuraminidase inhibitors in the seasonal H1N1 influenza A virus which circulated in humans before the 2009 pandemic. During the 2012/13 epidemic season in Spain, two A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses bearing the specific Y155H substitution in the NA were detected and isolated from two patients diagnosed with severe respiratory syndrome and pneumonia requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Contrary to what was observed in the seasonal A(H1N1) viruses, neither of the Y155H A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses described here showed a phenotype of reduced inhibition by NAIs as determined by the neuraminidase enzyme inhibition assay (MUNANA). High-throughput sequencing of the NA of both Y155H viruses showed that they were composed to >99% of H155 variants. We believe that this report can contribute to a better understanding of the biological significance of amino acid substitutions in the
Five point mutations within the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) sequence of the APP gene are associated with hereditary diseases which are similar or identical to Alzheimers disease and encode: the A21G (Flemish), E22G (Arctic), E22K (Italian), E22Q (Dutch) and the D23N (Iowa) amino acid substitutions. Although a substantial body of data exists on the effects of these mutations on Abeta production, whether or not intra-Abeta mutations alter degradation and how this relates to their aggregation state remain unclear. Here we report that the E22G, E22Q and the D23N substitutions significantly increase fibril nucleation and extension, whereas the E22K substitution exhibits only an increased rate of extension and the A21G substitution actually causes a decrease in the extension rate. These substantial differences in aggregation together with our observation that aggregated wild type Abeta(1-40) was much less well degraded than monomeric wild type Abeta(1-40), prompted us to assess whether or not ...
It is currently unclear whether the amino acid substitutions that occur during protein evolution are primarily driven by adaptation, or reflect the random accumulation of neutral changes. When estimated from genomic data, the proportion of adaptive amino acid substitutions, called , was found to vary greatly across species, from nearly zero in humans to above 0.5 in Drosophila. These variations have been interpreted as reflecting differences in effective population size, adaptation being supposedly more efficient in large populations. Here, we investigate the influence of effective popu-lation size and other biological parameters on the rate of adaptive evolution by simulating the evolution of a coding sequence under Fishers geometric formalism. We explicitly model recurrent environmental changes and the subsequent adaptive walks, followed by periods of stasis during which purifying selection dominates. We show that, under a variety of conditions, the effective population size has only a ...
Abstract: Proteomic studies of some human tissues and organs (skeletal muscles, myometrium, motor zone of the brain, prostate), and also cultivated myoblasts revealed 41 of 300 identified proteins, in which the present of certain variants of amino acids (conflicts) was recognized at several positions. Among the 93 registered amino acids conflicts, seven cases represented the results of the protein polymorphisms caused by corresponding substitution of individual amino acid. Moreover, among prostate proteins the proteomic analysis revealed two isoforms of prostate-specific antigen, formed due to alternative splicing. Thus, our results have shown, that proteomic technologies allow to specify effectively the features of primary structures and to characterize various kinds of polymorphism in many human proteins ...
Mutations leading to hemophilia A by substitution of amino acids in coagulation factor VIII may provide important clues to the structure and function of this large and enigmatic protein. To efficiently find missense mutations, hemophiliacs with mild
Health - Check Up Powder in your oral liquid antibiotic bottle? Ингибирует АПФ, paroxetine buy online предотвращает переход ангиотензина I в ангиотензин II, увеличивает концентрацию эндогенных вазодилатирующих ПГ. Against my reassurances, she was embarrassed nonetheless. 5, differin gel nz price789,156, a Tn10-derived Tet repressor having amino acid substitutions at amino acid positions 71, 95, 101 and 102 has the desired functional properties and thus can be used as the first polypeptide in the transcriptional regulator fusion protein of the invention? Some of these patients developed serious infections which in a few instances did not respond to intensive antibiotic therapy. Touching apogamously kamagra oral jelly kaufen deutschland paypal an infected area and then touching your eyes. (Life expectancy in England during the 1850s was about forty years. Whether you are a member or ...
Lower your blood pressure with one single amino acid If you have stubborn hypertension, you might be interested in a simple and inexpensive treatment. Its a single amino acid. As you may know, amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. But many amino acids serve as raw materials for key molecules. For example, tryptophan and phenylalanine serve as raw materials for neurotransmitters. A deficiency in either of these can lead to mood disorders.
This server predicts the functional impact of amino-acid substitutions in proteins, such as mutations discovered in cancer or missense polymorphisms. The functional impact is assessed based on evolutionary conservation of the affected amino acid in protein homologs. The method has been validated on a large set (60k) of disease associated (OMIM) and polymorphic variants. To explore the functional impact of missense mutations found in The Cancer Genome Atlas please use cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics ...
Just a few viruses fell into subgroup 3B and group 6 (Fig. 4, Fig. S4). Some isolates from North America, Europe and Asia belonged to groups 5 and 6, which have signature AA substitutions D53N, Y94H, I230V and E280A in HA1, with group 6 isolates carrying an additional AA substitution S199A. Viruses with low HI titres to post-infection ferret antisera raised against cell-propagated A/Victoria/361/2011 viruses were scattered throughout the HA tree and did not form monophyletic groups or share common AA substitutions. Genetic analysis OSI 906 of the HA sequences of several egg-propagated A/Victoria/361/2011-like. viruses were compared in order to see if low HI titres might be associated with amino acid substitutions linked to adaptation to growth in eggs. A number of such substitutions were noted in the HA of the initial egg-propagated A/Victoria/361/2011 wild-type virus, including a H156R substitution. A. subsequent R156Q change was acquired in the high growth reassortants IVR-165 and X221, ...
The S14L variant has been reported in individuals with autism and seizures, although the phenotype was variable with reduced penetrance and did not uniformly include seizures (Feng et al., 2006; Gauthier et al., 2011; Yangngam et al., 2014). This variant is in the shorter transcript of NRXN1 (NM_138735.2), and alters a residue that is predicted to be in the signal peptide of the beta-neurexin protein (Zweier et al., 2009; Gauthier et al., 2011). Although the S14L was not observed in 1,201 controls studied separately (Feng et al., 2006; Gauthier et al., 2011; Kim et al., 2008), it was observed in 1/200 controls in an additional publication (Camacho-Garcia et al., 2012). This variant is a non-conservative amino acid substitution, which is likely to impact secondary protein structure as these residues differ in polarity, charge, size, and/or other properties. However, this substitution occurs at a position that is not conserved, and functional studies have shown no abnormalities in beta-neurexin ...
In article ,90luod$kkb$1 at,, James McInerney ,james.o.mcinerney at, wrote: ,I have a question about selection on genes in HIV (but probably anywhere). ,In some HIV genes there is often a great excess of replacement substitutions ,over silent substitutions. In the past we would say that this meant that ,there was a positive selection event involved. However, if there is no ,selective difference between substitutions that occur in synonymous and ,non-synonymous sites then we would see about three times as many ,substitutions that are replacement than silent. I believe such studies generally take this into account. They reckon up how many sites *could* have a synonymous or nonsynonymous (S and N from here on) substitution, and weight by how many such substitutions could occur (a fourfold degenerate site contributes more possible S substitutions than a twofold ones). So the actual statistic is the ratio of S mutations per S site and N mutations per N site. This is ...
For Telecom Program Individual Applicants. FCC Report and Order 19-78 aligned the HCF program rules for site and service substitutions with the Telecom program. On November 30, 2020, the FCC released Order DA 20-1420 amending the effective date for site and service substitutions in the Telecom program. The effective date for site and service substitutions in Telecom is March 15, 2021. Under these Orders, Telecom program applicants may request a service substitution for their approved FY2020 funding commitment by emailing [email protected] with the Funding Request Number (FRN) and the subject line FY2020 Telecom Site and Service Substitution.. ...
The R633S variant has not been published as a pathogenic variant, nor has it been reported as a benign variant to our knowledge. The R633S variant is observed in 49/7604 (0.6%) alleles from individuals of East Asian background (Lek et al., 2016; 1000 Genomes Consortium et al., 2015; Exome Variant Server). This substitution occurs at a position where amino acids with similar properties to Arginine are tolerated across species. However, this variant is a semi-conservative amino acid substitution, which may impact secondary protein structure as these residues differ in some properties. In silico analysis is inconsistent in its predictions as to whether or not the variant is damaging to the protein structure/function. (less) ...
Downloadable! The relationship between the goods-time elasticity of substitution with consumption time as an input and the goods-time elasticity of substitution without consumption time as an input is derived analytically. Under some reasonable assumptions, the goods-time elasticity of substitution is shown to be greater if consumption time is not included as an input. An empirical example of food production for single headed households is consistent with this result and indicates the goods-time elasticity of substitution is about 60% greater when consumption time is not included as an input than when it is included.
We discovered that replacing residue D23 with a non-negatively charged amino acid leads to dramatically enhanced affinity of leptin for its receptor, D23L substitution being the most effective. The resulting D23L/L39A/D40A/F41A mutant acted as super leptin antagonist. ...
Effect of B-Cation Substitution on the Activity of LaCrO3 and LaNiO3 Perovskites for Autothermal Reforming of Methane Conference Abstracts ...
CleanerSolutions Solvent Substitution Database is a Simple Solution for solvent substitution for surface cleaning. CleanerSolutions was developed by the Toxics Use Reduction Institutes Laboratory to provide assistance in selecting alternative cleaning products for surface cleaning.
CleanerSolutions Solvent Substitution Database is a Simple Solution for solvent substitution for surface cleaning. CleanerSolutions was developed by the Toxics Use Reduction Institutes Laboratory to provide assistance in selecting alternative cleaning products for surface cleaning.
s including MARHS4, MARHS2 and MARe in uninduced K562 cells. Hemin induction of the K562 cells obviously increased the binding of SATB1 to MARHS4, MARHS2 and
Please note: Our online store ships from one of our store locations. Due to the large volume of orders in-store and online inventory displayed may not be accurate. ...
Efficiency of Cu and Pd substitution in Fe-based perovskites to promote N 2 formation during NH 3 selective catalytic oxidation (NH 3 -SCO ...
Overhauling your diet can certainly help you shed pounds, but so can making small changes in the ingredients you choose. Here are a few substitutions that will help you keep your calorie consumption in check.1. Substitute Greek yogurt for sour creamThis sw
Overhauling your diet can certainly help you shed pounds, but so can making small changes in the ingredients you choose. Here are a few substitutions that will help you keep your calorie consumption in check.1. Substitute Greek yogurt for sour creamThis sw
Overhauling your diet can certainly help you shed pounds, but so can making small changes in the ingredients you choose. Here are a few substitutions that will help you keep your calorie consumption in check.1. Substitute Greek yogurt for sour creamThis sw
Overhauling your diet can certainly help you shed pounds, but so can making small changes in the ingredients you choose. Here are a few substitutions that will help you keep your calorie consumption in check.1. Substitute Greek yogurt for sour creamThis sw
Overhauling your diet can certainly help you shed pounds, but so can making small changes in the ingredients you choose. Here are a few substitutions that will help you keep your calorie consumption in check.1. Substitute Greek yogurt for sour creamThis sw
Forgot to pick up whole-wheat flour? Have brown sugar but not white? Dont have quite enough eggs to prepare that batch of muffins you want to make today? Not to worry, EatingWells guide to substitutions for common baking ingredients will help you make adjustments so you dont have to run to the supermarket on the fly.. ...
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Many specialized substitution matrices have been developed that describe the amino acid substitution rates in specific ... Each amino acid is more or less likely to mutate into various other amino acids. For instance, a hydrophilic residue such as ... and the same substitution matrix is often expressed in different bases. One of the first amino acid substitution matrices, the ... th amino acid being transformed into the j {\displaystyle j} th amino acid in a certain amount of evolutionary time. There are ...
Steven Henikoff; Jorja Henikoff (1992). "Amino Acid Substitution Matrices from Protein Blocks". PNAS. 89 (22): 10915-10919. ... In CS-BLAST, the mutation probabilities between amino acids depend not only on the single amino acid, as in BLAST, but also on ... such as the amino-acid sequences of proteins or the nucleotides of DNA and/or RNA sequences. A BLAST search enables a ... Which bacterial species have a protein that is related in lineage to a certain protein with known amino-acid sequence What ...
Two major forces drive the amino-acid substitution rates away from uniformity: substitutions occur with the different ... However, these amino acids can be categorised into groups with similar physicochemical properties. Substituting an amino acid ... Substitution matrices for amino acids are more complicated and implicitly take into account everything that might affect the ... Then, they calculated a log-odds score for each of the 210 possible substitution pairs of the 20 standard amino acids. All ...
Henikoff, S.; Henikoff, J.G. (1992). "Amino Acid Substitution Matrices from Protein Blocks". PNAS. 89 (22): 10915-10919. ... In 1992, Steven Henikoff, together with his wife Jorja Henikoff, introduced the BLOSUM substitution matrices. The BLOSUM ...
Estimating Time Nonreversible Amino Acid Substitution Models". Systematic Biology. 71 (5): 1110-1123. doi:10.1093/sysbio/ ... Another method is midpoint rooting, or a tree can also be rooted by using a non-stationary substitution model. Unrooted trees ...
The absence of substitutions, or the presence of only very conservative substitutions (that is, the substitution of amino acids ... ISBN 0-87969-608-7. Ng, P. C.; Henikoff, S. (2001). "Predicting Deleterious Amino Acid Substitutions". Genome Research. 11 (5 ... The sequence of nucleobases on a nucleic acid strand is translated by cell machinery into a sequence of amino acids making up a ... Each group of three bases, called a codon, corresponds to a single amino acid, and there is a specific genetic code by which ...
The absence of substitutions, or the presence of only very conservative substitutions (that is, the substitution of amino acids ... color is often used to indicate amino acid properties to aid in judging the conservation of a given amino acid substitution. ... In typical usage, protein alignments use a substitution matrix to assign scores to amino-acid matches or mismatches, and a gap ... Ng PC; Henikoff S (May 2001). "Predicting deleterious amino acid substitutions". Genome Res. 11 (5): 863-74. doi:10.1101/gr. ...
Similarities between amino acids or nucleotides are quantified in these substitution matrices. The substitution score ( S {\ ... mutating into amino acid b {\displaystyle b} [2]. In a large set of sequence alignments, counting the number of amino acids as ... "Discriminative Modelling of Context-specific Amino Acid Substitution Properties" BIOINFORMATICS 28.24 (2012): 3240-247. Oxford ... In predicting substitution probabilities using only the amino acid's local sequence context, you gain the advantage of not ...
"Discriminative modelling of context-specific amino acid substitution probabilities". Bioinformatics. 28 (24): 3240-7. doi: ... September 1997). "Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs". Nucleic Acids Research. 25 ... 1998). Biological sequence analysis: probabilistic models of proteins and nucleic acids. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University ... Nucleic Acids Research. 34 (17): e112. doi:10.1093/nar/gkl480. PMC 1635247. PMID 16971460. Girdea, M; Noe, L; Kucherov, G ( ...
PRO95 Na+-translocating rhodopsin by a single amino acid substitution". Photosynthesis Research. 136 (2): 161-169. doi:10.1007/ ... uses amino acids as carbon and nitrogen sources via expression of peptidases which break peptides down into amino acids. ... and allow cells to uptake amino acids and peptides at lower concentrations. This strain uses aerobic heterotrophic metabolism; ... strain MED134 has complete Embden-Meyerhof-Farnas pathway (glycolysis), gluconeogenesis pathway, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) ...
Jeppsson JO (June 1976). "Amino acid substitution Glu leads to Lys alpha1-antitrypsin PiZ". FEBS Letters. 65 (2): 195-197. doi: ... Amino acid sequence analysis has placed 14 of these serpins in serpin clade Q and three in serpin clade K with the remaining ... In some rare cases, a single amino acid change in a serpin's RCL alters its specificity to target the wrong protease. For ... MENT and murine antichymotrypsin reveal that these serpins adopt a conformation wherein the first two amino acids of the RCL ...
The amino acid substitutions impaired corin activity. An insertion variant in exon 1 alters the cytoplasmic tail. This variant ... Human corin, a polypeptide of 1042 amino acids, consists of an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain and an ...
Amino acid substitutions in the A chains". Journal of Biochemistry. 91 (5): 1531-48. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a133844 ... α-Bungarotoxin κ-bungarotoxin Kondo, K; Toda, H; Narita, K; Lee, CY (May 1982). "Amino acid sequences of three beta- ...
It differs by 107 amino acid substitutions. It retains approximately 30% of Caf40's DNA-binding sites but over the past perhaps ...
"Selective amino acid substitution reduces cytotoxicity of the antimicrobial peptide mastoparan". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ...
"Codon-substitution models for heterogeneous selection pressure at amino acid sites". Genetics. 155 (1): 431-449. doi:10.1093/ ... on different amino acids in the protein and can be used to test for positive selection affecting only a few amino acid sites. ... And the branch-site models attempt to detect positive selection that affects only a few amino acid sites along pre-specific ... Nielsen, R., Yang, Z. (1998). "Likelihood models for detecting positively selected amino acid sites and applications to the HIV ...
Gu X, Li WH (September 1992). "Higher rates of amino acid substitution in rodents than in humans". Molecular Phylogenetics and ... for an amino acid sequence (there are 20 "standard" amino acids that make up proteins), one would find there are 209 parameters ... a codon is three bases and codes for one amino acid in a protein). There are 4 3 = 64 {\displaystyle 4^{3}=64} codons, but the ... These substitution models differ in terms of the parameters used to describe the rates at which one nucleotide replaces another ...
Mitraki A, King J (Jul 1992). "Amino acid substitutions influencing intracellular protein folding pathways". FEBS Letters. 307 ... P22TSP is a homotrimeric structural protein consisting of 666 amino acids. It is noncovalently bound to the neck of the viral ... Two aspartic acids and one glutamic acid in the active site have been strongly linked to enzymatic activity. Different ...
"Greater efficiency of photosynthetic carbon fixation due to single amino-acid substitution". Nature Communications. 4 (2): 1518 ... "Greater efficiency of photosynthetic carbon fixation due to single amino-acid substitution". Nature Communications. 4: 1518. ... The sequence length is about 966 amino acids. The enzyme active site is not completely characterized. It includes a conserved ... such as for example amino acids. PEP carboxylase is mainly subject to two levels of regulation: phosphorylation and allostery. ...
... substitution at amino acid position 78 of the final protein. There is a K to R substitution at amino acid position 95. The ... Editing at the K/R site at amino acid position 95 is very high in the human brain. The edited sites are found within the ... At amino acid position 98 the unedited transcript contains a lysine. This residue makes some non specific interactions via the ... Structural analysis of the edited sites determined that the two amino acids that corresponded to the edited sites are not ...
The third stage includes different models of DNA and amino acid substitution. Several models of substitution exist. A few ... One method, including a comprehensive step-by-step protocol on constructing a phylogenetic tree, including DNA/Amino Acid ... Every living organism contains deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and proteins. In general, closely related ... This is associated with being a limitation in that if unequal substitution rates exist, the result may be an incorrect tree. ...
Typical amino acids - there are several other amino acids which they can change into through single nucleotide substitution. ... Amino acid replacement is a change from one amino acid to a different amino acid in a protein due to point mutation in the ... Leucine is an example of a typical amino acid. Idiosyncratic amino acids - there are few similar amino acids that they can ... or simple properties such as amino acid size or charge (see also amino acid chemical properties). Usually amino acids are thus ...
... or radical substitution, is an amino acid replacement that exchanges an initial amino acid by a final amino acid with different ... is an amino acid replacement in a protein that changes a given amino acid to a different amino acid with similar biochemical ... "Radical and conservative amino-acid replacements". Judge Starling. Retrieved 2018-03-11. Grantham, R. (1974-09-06). "Amino acid ... Miyata, Takashi; Miyazawa, Sanzo; Yasunaga, Teruo (1979-03-01). "Two types of amino acid substitutions in protein evolution". ...
Nucleophilic substitution with ammonia then converts the alkyl bromide to the amino acid. "dl-ALANINE". Organic Syntheses. 9: 4 ... The Strecker amino acid synthesis, also known simply as the Strecker synthesis, is a method for the synthesis of amino acids by ... While usage of ammonium salts gives unsubstituted amino acids, primary and secondary amines also give substituted amino acids. ... Several methods exist to synthesize amino acids aside from the Strecker synthesis. The commercial production of amino acids ...
Oxazolidinones can be prepared from amino acids or readily available amino alcohols. A large number of oxazolidinones are ... Through steric hindrance, the substituents direct the direction of substitution of various groups. The auxiliary is ... The preparation of a variety of enantiomerically pure uncommon R-amino acids can be achieved by the alkylation of chiral ... Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Ahn, Mija; Watanabe, Yukari; Fuji, Kaoru (1996-06-01). "Asymmetric synthesis of uncommon α-amino acids by ...
... where alanine and lysine are replaced by 2-aminoisobutyric acid and arginine, respectively. Amino-acid substitution at position ... The only differences are two amino-acid substitutions at positions 8 and 34, ...
The majority of these consist of point mutations causing substitution of amino acids. The mutations are in many cases ... Two cases of dilated cardiomyopathy have been studied involving a substitution of highly conserved amino acids belonging to the ... It contains 374 amino acid residues. Its N-terminus is highly acidic and starts with an acetyled aspartate in its amino group. ... an analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal tryptic peptide". Journal of Molecular Biology. 126 (4): 783 ...
Garel MC, Lemarchandel V, Calvin MC, Arous N, Craescu CT, Prehu MO, Rosa J, Rosa R (April 1993). "Amino acid residues involved ... Functional consequences of substitutions of His10, His187 and Arg89". Eur. J. Biochem. 213 (1): 493-500. doi:10.1111/j.1432- ...
A single amino acid substitution was shown to cause major effects on neurovirulence. The mechanisms and determinants involved ... encoding 3374 amino acids. The ORF has the gene order C-prM-E-NS1-NS2A-NS2B-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5 which is consistent with mosquito ...
"Predicting the functional consequences of cancer-associated amino acid substitutions". Bioinformatics. 29 (12): 1504-10. doi: ... "Predicting the functional consequences of cancer-associated amino acid substitutions". Bioinformatics. 29 (12): 1504-10. doi: ... His research has been published in leading peer reviewed scientific journals including Nature, Science, Cell, Nucleic Acids ... 2005). "InterPro, progress and status in 2005". Nucleic Acids Research. 33 (Database issue): D201-5. doi:10.1093/nar/gki106. ...
Wanting Jiao; Yifei Fan; Nicola J Blackmore; Emily J. Parker (26 March 2020). "A single amino acid substitution uncouples ...
In SARS-CoV, the causative agent of SARS, the N protein is 422 amino acid residues long and in SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent ... Type I PRMT inhibitor (MS023) or substitution of R95 or R177 with lysine inhibited interaction of N protein with the 5'-UTR of ...
DasSarma, Shiladitya; Capes, Melinda D.; Karan, Ram; DasSarma, Priya (2013-03-11). "Amino Acid Substitutions in Cold-Adapted ...
... activity with a major exception compared to other parasites still retain the bio-synthetic ability of production of amino acid ... "Psyllid endosymbionts exhibit patterns of co-speciation with hosts and destabilizing substitutions in ribosomal RNA". Insect ... Commoner, Barry (June 1964). "Roles Of Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Inheritance". Nature. 202 (4936): 960-968. Bibcode:1964Natur. ... and an overall conversion of the composition of the gene to a richer A-T content due to mutation and substitutions. Evidence of ...
Haag Breese E, Uversky VN, Georgiadis MM, Harrington MA (December 2006). "The disordered amino-terminus of SIMPL interacts with ... protein phosphatase 5 dissociates from heat-shock proteins and is proteolytically activated in response to arachidonic acid and ... nearly identical proteins because the few differences in their DNA sequences are almost exclusively synonymous substitutions or ...
Also notable is the fact that all amino acid residues exist in the L form. However, bacteria produce D-amino acid residues that ... In a unimolecular aliphatic electrophilic substitution reaction, if the carbanion is planar or if it cannot maintain a ... R/S notation is the primary notation used for +/- now because D and L notation are used primarily for sugars and amino acids. ... Of note, the L form of amino acids and the D form of sugars (primarily glucose) are usually the biologically reactive form. ...
found 87% amino acid identity among insect sequences, which shows a high level of molecular convergence among four orders of ... Thus, some substitutions provide resistance to cardenolides as an adaptation even across phylogenetic branches. Thyroid hormone ... amino acids and other nutrients into the cell by use of the sodium ion gradient. Another important task of the Na⁺-K⁺ pump is ... ATPase through the change of glutamic acid to aspartic acid.[verification needed] Thus, the insects were found to have a higher ...
On the other hand, the substitution rate of mt-proteins is very low, thus amino acid changes accumulate slowly (with ... Statistical models that treat substitution rates among codon positions separately, can thus be used to simultaneously estimate ... Schatz G, Haslbrunner E, Tuppy H (March 1964). "Deoxyribonucleic acid associated with yeast mitochondria". Biochemical and ... Nucleic Acids Research. 47 (D1): D29-D32. doi:10.1093/nar/gky843. PMC 6324066. PMID 30247677. Gu Z, Li J, Gao S, Gong M, Wang J ...
1986). "Complete amino acid sequence of human thyroxine-binding globulin deduced from cloned DNA: close homology to the serine ... 1992). "Sequencing of the variant thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)-San Diego reveals two nucleotide substitutions". Biochim. ... Only one of two amino acid replacements is responsible for its altered properties". J. Clin. Invest. 83 (4): 1344-8. doi: ... "Partial amino acid sequence of human thyroxine-binding globulin. Further evidence for a single polypeptide chain". Biochem. ...
The human thromboxane A (TXA) synthase is a 60 kDa cytochrome P450 protein with 533 amino acids and a heme prosthetic group. ... Mutagenesis studies that made substitutions at that position resulted in loss of catalytic activity and minimal heme binding. ... Hsu PY, Tsai AL, Wang LH (2000). "Identification of Thromboxane Synthase Amino Acid Residues Involved in Heme-Propionate ... and also to 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (i.e. 12-(S)-hydroxy-5Z,8E,10E-heptadecatrienoic acid or 12-HHT) an agonist of ...
Using genomic DNA and Reverse Transcription PCR Sequences, Mahowald determined that these amino acid substitutions in Act5C and ... To attempt to answer this question, Mahowald and team isolated two actin genes, Act42A and Act5C, with only two amino acids ... However, a hybrid gene containing Act42A prevented organism death, indicating that the amino acid differences between the two ... genes that encode for the same proteins with only a few amino acids different. ...
... with its affinity for amino acids, permits charged species of endogenous and exogenous origin to take up residence. The ... Alteration occurs at all scales from molecular loss and substitution, through crystallite reorganization, porosity and ... cause recrystallization where hydroxyapatite is dissolved and re-precipitated allowing for the incorporation or substitution of ...
Of the twenty common naturally occurring amino acids, only proline is likely to adopt the cis isomer of the peptide bond, ... Substitution of the poly-Pro II (φ,ψ) dihedral angles into this equation yields almost exactly Ω = -120°, i.e., the PPII helix ... However, peptide bonds that replace proline with another N-substituted amino acid (such as sarcosine) are also likely to adopt ... This PPII conformation is also common in proteins and polypeptides with other amino acids apart from proline. Similarly, a more ...
Phenylalanine, a common amino acid. Biphenyl, consisting of two phenyl groups. The two rings tend not to be coplanar. ... are associated with electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions and the products follow the arene substitution pattern. So, a ... Most common among natural products is the amino acid phenylalanine, which contains a phenyl group. A major product of the ... Higher degrees of substitution, of which the pentafluorophenyl group is an example, exist and are named according to IUPAC ...
February 1991). "Point mutation causing a single amino acid substitution in the hormone binding domain of the glucocorticoid ... Almlöf T, Wallberg AE, Gustafsson JA, Wright AP (June 1998). "Role of important hydrophobic amino acids in the interaction ... "Coactivator TIF1beta interacts with transcription factor C/EBPbeta and glucocorticoid receptor to induce alpha1-acid ...
Substitution mutations (which alter a single amino acid) have also been shown to give rise to the disease. RSK2 is highly ...
These mutations are mainly missense mutations that result in amino acid substitutions, and while some of them result in G6PD ... As for size, each monomer is approximately 500 amino acids long (514 amino acids for humans). Functional and structural ... 2 glutamic acids, and other polar amino acids. The proline at position 172 is thought to play a crucial role in positioning ... identity in amino acid sequence to G6PD sequences from other species. Humans also have two isoforms of a single gene coding for ...
... resulting in two amino acid substitutions). There has not yet been extensive research into the genetic background of those with ... "Genetic elucidation of human hyperosmia to isovaleric acid". PLOS Biology. 5 (11): e284. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050284. PMC ... single nucleotide polymorphism variant in the OR11H7P pseudogene have a lower receptor activation threshold for isovaleric acid ...
There are over 70 reported mutations of this enzyme, but the most common ones are the amino acid substitutions E285A and A305E ... Amino acid aminoacylases I and II from hog kidney. Methods Enzymol. Methods in Enzymology. Vol. 2. pp. 115-119. doi:10.1016/ ... Aspartoacylase is a dimer of two identical monomers of 313 amino acids and uses a zinc cofactor in each. There are two distinct ... Birnbaum SM, Levintow L, Kingsley RB, Greenstein JP (January 1952). "Specificity of amino acid acylases". The Journal of ...
... longa secreted luciferase gene encodes a 24 kDa protein containing an N-terminal secretory signal peptide of 17 amino acid ... "Members of a dinoflagellate luciferase gene family differ in synonymous substitution rates". Biochemistry. 40 (51): 15862-68. ... additionally be made more sensitive for ATP detection by increasing the luminescence intensity by changing certain amino acid ... molecular oxygen oxidizes flavin mononucleotide and a long-chain aliphatic aldehyde to an aliphatic carboxylic acid. The ...
It contains 48 amino acid residues. Substitution of the 16th amino acid, asparagine (N), into an aspartic acid (D) is named ... It has two homologous amino acid substitutions (S17T and S19T) and one non-homologous substitution (V13S). This makes it 94% ... a replacement of the 14th amino acid, arginine (R), into histidine (H). Cangitoxin is to varying degrees homologous to the ... cangitoxin-II (CGTX-II). Cangitoxin-III (CGTX-III) contains in addition to the previous substitution, ...
All four structures feature at least two active sites made of three amino acids (tyrosine, histidine, and lysine) that catalyze ... leading to a substitution at position 307 of alanine by serine. This mutation causes destabilization of the β-β-interaction, ... takes on a rectangular parallelepiped conformation consisting of four α subunits of 179 amino acids each. Each α subunit is ... Nucleic Acids Research. 48 (14): 7609-7622. doi:10.1093/nar/gkaa438. PMC 7641302. PMID 32476018. Abelson J, Trotta CR, Li H ( ...
When mice were created with this single, conservative amino acid substitution in TRβ, synaptic maturation and plasticity in the ... Some of these receptors such as FXR, LXR, and PPAR bind a number of metabolic intermediates such as fatty acids, bile acids and ... Two putative orphan receptors, HNF4 and USP were found, via structural and mass spectrometry analysis, to bind fatty acids and ... Furthermore, RXR is sensitive to a wide range of molecules including retinoids, fatty acids, and phospholipids. Study of ...
Aziridine is less basic than acyclic aliphatic amines, with a pKa of 7.9 for the conjugate acid, due to increased s character ... The Role of N-Substitution". J. Org. Chem. 73 (4): 1462-7. doi:10.1021/jo702444c. PMID 18211092. Kanerva L, Keskinen H, Autio P ... 25 (38): 4271-4. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(01)81414-3. Ryan Hili; Andrei K. Yudin (2006). "Readily Available Unprotected Amino ... N-unsubstituted aziridines can be opened with olefins in the presence of strong Lewis acid B(C 6F 5) 3. As electrophiles, ...
Polymorphisms resulting in amino acid substitutions in these two subunits have been associated with the regulation of blood ... The amino-terminal region is protease-resistant and globular in shape, while the carboxy-terminal region is protease-sensitive ...
These mutation studies have been done to study the role of the four amino acids in zero ionic layer. Underlying mechanisms of ... "Identification of Functionally Interacting SNAREs by Using Complementary Substitutions in the Conserved '0' Layer". Molecular ... In the mutation where all four amino acids in the zero ionic layer are glutamine residues, the cells still exhibit normal ... The 4 amino acids are asymmetrically arranged in the layer, as shown in the picture. However, their intensive interactions ...
Key amino acids responsible for its catalytic function have been identified. The residue Tyr363 functions as the acid-base ... Gly substitution: characteristics of an enzyme generated in E. coli transfected with the expression plasmid pHAAD128G". J. ... Freemont PS, Dunbar B, Fothergill-Gilmore LA (1988). "The complete amino acid sequence of human skeletal-muscle fructose- ... the key catalytic amino acid residues involved in the reaction are lysine and tyrosine. The tyrosine acts as an efficient ...
This led to many developments such as, probabilistic models of amino acid substitutions, sequence aligning and phylogenetic ... Dayhoff and her team made use of their facilities for determining amino acid sequences of protein molecules in mainframe ... and his comparative approach is what sparked other protein biochemists to begin collecting amino acid sequences. Thus marking ... He won his second Nobel Prize for creating methods for sequencing nucleic acids, ...
Genetic mutations in the hemagglutinin gene that cause single amino acid substitutions can significantly alter the ability of ... 3 sialic acid, which is the major form in the avian enteric tract. It has been shown that only a single amino acid change can ... Viruses with 7 of the 10 amino acids in the human influenza locations have already been identified in currently circulating ... of the 1918 virus and subsequent human viruses differ by only 10 amino acids from the avian influenza viruses. ...
Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they ... We propose an influenza-specific amino acid substitution model to enhance the understanding of the evolution of influenza ... A maximum likelihood approach was applied to estimate an amino acid substitution model (FLU) from ~113, 000 influenza protein ... should be useful for any influenza protein analysis system which requires an accurate description of amino acid substitutions. ...
Determining the Effects of Myeloma-Derived Amino Acid Substitutions in the Functional Domain of Mcl-1 on Stress-Induced ...
The side chains of Arg110 and Ser36 cannot establish hydrogen bonds with UMP, and their substitution by hydrophobic amino acids ... modified CMP kinases with ATP as a variable substrate indicated that none of changes induced by these amino acid substitutions ... To explain these differences in structural terms, we investigated the contribution of four key amino acids interacting with the ... Substitution of Ser for Asp132 results in a moderate decrease in stability without significant changes in K(m) value for CMP ...
Functional compensation of a detrimental amino acid substitution in a cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte epitope of influenza a viruses by ... Functional compensation of a detrimental amino acid substitution in a cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte epitope of influenza a viruses by ... Functional compensation of a detrimental amino acid substitution in a cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte epitope of influenza a viruses by ... title = "Functional compensation of a detrimental amino acid substitution in a cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte epitope of influenza a ...
UniProt/SwissProt Amino Acid Substitutions. Variants in Papers. hide. show. Genetic Variants mentioned in scientific ...
Dive into the research topics of Concerted evolution reveals co-adapted amino acid substitutions in Na+K+-ATPase of frogs that ... Concerted evolution reveals co-adapted amino acid substitutions in Na+K+-ATPase of frogs that prey on toxic toads. ...
Amino Acid Substitution * Cloning, Molecular * Escherichia coli * Female * Fever / enzymology * Fever / genetics* ... we analysed urine of several patients and discovered increased concentrations of mevalonic acid during severe episodes of fever ...
... amino acid substitution; gene name; description. The first column based on CNV indicates the strain analyzed. The following ...
Some of the key amino acid substitution polymorphisms are indicated. ...
The functional impact of 1,570 individual amino acid substitutions in human OTC.. Lo, Russell S; Cromie, Gareth A; Tang, ... Examining the results of our assay in the context of protein structure further allowed us to identify a 13 amino acid domain, ...
Differences in the amino acid sequence between the adr and adu)2 subtypes occur at residues 132 and 141. Amino acid ... Effect of amino acid substitution on the subtype specificity of preS2 epitope in hepatitis B surface antigen. Author(s). Aeree ... However, substitutions at residue 141 did lead to a loss of antigenicity. A change of amino acid residue 141 from leucine 切 ... Effect of amino acid substitution on the subtype specificity of preS2 epitope in hepatitis B surface antigen. ...
Effect of amino acid substitution on the enzymatic and biological properties of bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase., Polymerase: ... Effect of amino acid substitution on the enzymatic and biological properties of bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase. Nucleotide ... Effect of amino acid substitution on the enzymatic and biological properties of bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase., Polymerase: ... Substitution Rate 0.001 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) Technique: T4 rII 199oc reversion assay ...
Effect of isotope substitution on the Fermi resonance and vibrational lifetime of unnatural amino acids modified with IR probe ... Effect of isotope substitution on the Fermi resonance and vibrational lifetime of unnatural amino acids modified with IR probe ... Effect of isotope substitution on the Fermi resonance and vibrational lifetime of unnatural amino acids modified with IR probe ... Effect of isotope substitution on the Fermi resonance and vibrational lifetime of unnatural amino acids modified with IR probe ...
Table 8 Neuraminidase Amino Acid Substitutions Associated with Reduced Susceptibility to Oseltamivir * All numbering is N2, ... No single amino acid substitution has been identified that could confer cross-resistance between the neuraminidase inhibitor ... Reduced susceptibility of influenza virus to inhibition by oseltamivir carboxylate may be conferred by amino acid substitutions ... OSELTAMIVIR PHOSPHATE (UNII: 4A3O49NGEZ) (OSELTAMIVIR ACID - UNII:K6106LV5Q8) OSELTAMIVIR ACID. 75 mg. ...
This amino acid substitution improves the modified IL-15s binding affinity to IL-15Rα. The IL-15 superagonist has a 25-fold ... IgG1 Fc domains are fused to each of the two IL-15Rα 65 amino acid Suchi domains. The opposite ends of the IL-15Rα molecules ... are bound to a genetically modified IL-15 containing asparagine converted to aspartic acid at position 72 (N72D). ...
A billion-year trend of amino acid substitutions in the mitochondrial genome. A. A. Mikhailova; A. G. Mikhailova; V. Shamanskiy ... A mitochondria-specific mutational signature of aging: increased rate of A , G substitutions on the heavy strand. A. G. ...
The amino acid change may alter the function of the protein.. *Nonsense: A nonsense variant. is another type of substitution. ... is a type of substitution in which the nucleotide change results in the replacement of one protein building block (amino acid) ... A reading frame consists of groups of three nucleotides that each code for one amino acid. . A frameshift variant. occurs when ... Instead of causing a change in one amino acid, however, the altered DNA sequence results in a stop signal that prematurely ...
Most are single-base changes that result in an amino acid substitution. [3] These substitutions affect enzyme activity by ...
A prion protein amino acid substitution in ataxic Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1989. 26:137. ... 160, 161] and immunization with prion peptides of 20 amino acids has been shown to reduce the levels of PrPSc in scrapie- ... Octarepeats of 16, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, or 72 amino acids at codons 67, 75, or 83 are indicated by the rectangle above the ... Prion protein PrP nucleic acid binding and mobilization implicates retroelements as the replicative component of transmissible ...
N amino acid substitution. The D N substitution are also found in amphibian IRF3 but not in amphibian IRF7. Terrestrial ... These observations suggest that the D N substitutions in the IRF3 DPHK motif is likely to be associated with vertebrates ... animals such as reptiles and mammals predominantly use DPHK sequences in both IRF3 and 7. However, the D N substitution in ...
Amino acid substitutions Phe66 → Leu and Ser126 → Pro abolish cortisol and aldosterone synthesis by bovine cytochrome P450(11β) ... Dive into the research topics of Amino acid substitutions Phe66 → Leu and Ser126 → Pro abolish cortisol and aldosterone ...
T1 - Effect of amino acid substitutions in the signal peptide cleavage region on the processing of escherichia coli alkaline ... Effect of amino acid substitutions in the signal peptide cleavage region on the processing of escherichia coli alkaline ... Effect of amino acid substitutions in the signal peptide cleavage region on the processing of escherichia coli alkaline ... Effect of amino acid substitutions in the signal peptide cleavage region on the processing of escherichia coli alkaline ...
Amino acid substitution at the dimeric interface of human manganese superoxide dismutase. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 5861-5866 (2004). ... Catalytic and structural effects of amino acid substitution at histidine 30 in human manganese superoxide dismutase: insertion ... Buried amino acid residues can have elevated or depressed pKas52,53. His30 and Tyr166 may be following these qualities. The pKa ... In terms of hard and soft Lewis acid and base (HSAB) theory, the transition of the metal acid and solvent base from (Mn3+--OH) ...
Three amino acid substitutions, K127M, T256A, and Y298A, in the kinase domain of SGK1 were identified and incorporated ... Three amino acid substitutions, K127M, T256A and Y298A, in the kinase domain of SGK1 were identified and incorporated ... It requires amino acid sequence/SwissProt code, GO terms, and amino acid substitutions as input. An SNPs and GO score of more ... It also depends on the evolutionary conservation of amino acids in protein families. The highly conserved amino acids tend to ...
A single amino acid substitution at residue 218 of hemagglutinin improves the growth of influenza A(H7N9) candidate vaccine ... Innovation and Regulatory Science- Research Summary: Influenza candidate vaccine viruses improved by amino acid substitution in ... A Y161F hemagglutinin substitution increases thermostability and improves yields of 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus in cells.. Wen ... Solid-phase chemical modification for sialic acid linkage analysis: application to glycoproteins of host cells used in ...
One A(H1N1)pdm09 virus had NA-S247G amino acid substitution and showed reduced inhibition by oseltamivir. ...
An Amino Acid Substitution Matrix for Protein Conformation Identification. J. Bioinform. Comput. Biol. 4(3): 769-782 (2006). ... GPCRtm: An amino acid substitution matrix for the transmembrane region of class A G Protein-Coupled Receptors. BMC Bioinform. ... Robust sequence alignment using evolutionary rates coupled with an amino acid substitution matrix. BMC Bioinform. 16: 255:1-255 ... RNAlign2D: a rapid method for combined RNA structure and sequence-based alignment using a pseudo-amino acid substitution matrix ...
  • Studies of serial deletions located the antigenic epitope between amino acid residues 132 and 143. (
  • Differences in the amino acid sequence between the adr and adu)2 subtypes occur at residues 132 and 141. (
  • Reference: A novel genotype encoding a single amino acid insertion and five other substitutions between residues 64 and 74 of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase confers high-level cross-resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. (
  • Here, we use evolution-guided, substitution mutagenesis of conserved amino acids across the Cif proteins, coupled with transgenic expression in uninfected Drosophila melanogaster , to determine the functional impacts of conserved residues evolving mostly under purifying selection. (
  • We report that amino acids in CifA's N-terminal unannotated region and annotated catalase-related domain are important for both complete CI and rescue, whereas C-terminal residues in CifA's putative domain of unknown function are solely important for CI. (
  • In dUTPases from D. ryukyuensis , H. sapiens and P. falciparum , missing amino acid residues in the 3D-structure models were marked by doted underlines, and two neighboring residues were marked green as visual markers ( B ). B 3D structure of dUTPase. (
  • For the deletion mutants, Delta47-48 and Delta101, the deleted residues are in turns on the surface and are absent in human alpha-lactalbumin, which is homologous to human lysozyme in amino acid sequence and tertiary structure. (
  • For the point mutants, R50G, Q58G, H78G, and G37Q, the main-chain conformations of these substitution residues located in turns adopt a left-handed helical region in the wild-type structure. (
  • The present results indicate that turn structures are able to change their main-chain conformations, depending upon the side-chain features of amino acid residues on the turns. (
  • The bar indicates the number of per amino acid residue, with one corresponding to a distance of one substitution per 10 amino acid residues. (
  • These preliminary results showed that the DSS/DHF strains have unique amino acid residues that are different from the DF strain and have better ability to propagate to a higher level in human monocytes. (
  • and ii) a heavy chain comprising amino acid residues 20 to 466 of SEQ ID NO:31. (
  • To determine which amino acid residues are essential for the catalytic activity of mouse Gal1,3GalNAc 2,3-sialyltransferase (mST3Gal I), chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis were employed against tryptophan and cysteine residues located in the predicted catalytic domain. (
  • Substitution of the glycine residues in the central domain of the [Ser-19, Ser-25] analog by lysine produced inactive peptides despite increased α-helical content and cationicity. (
  • We used molecular modeling in conjunction with alanine substitution and functional studies to identify two distinct sets of residues that determine these effects and may coordinate Zn(2+). (
  • Since this lysozyme contained two amino acid substitutions (Ala 31 →Valand Asn 106 →Ser)in addition to an extra methionine residue at the NH 2 -terminus the substituted amino acid residues were converted back to the original ones by means of oligonucleotide-directed site-specific mutagenesis and in vitro recombination. (
  • In biology , a mutation is an alteration in the nucleic acid sequence of the genome of an organism , virus , or extrachromosomal DNA . (
  • A 2007 study on genetic variations between different species of Drosophila suggested that, if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, the result is likely to be harmful, with an estimated 70% of amino acid polymorphisms that have damaging effects, and the remainder being either neutral or marginally beneficial. (
  • We show here that the dCREB2-a transgene originally reported to enhance LTM carries a mutation that produces a translational reading-frame shift with the consequent formation of a stop codon at predicted amino acid position 79. (
  • The resulting Dr-dUTPase had the leading peptide Gly-Ser-His- originating from the vector at the amino terminus, and a mutation, Arg66Lys, to remove the internal thrombin site. (
  • HBV/Sul-1/2022, a new strain with a 37-amino acid mutation, was found to be distinct from any previously known HBV isolates. (
  • The D842V mutation results in an amino acid substitution at position 842 in PDGFRA, from an aspartic acid (D) to a valine (V). This mutation occurs within the TK2 domain. (
  • Therefore we created a picture for the original amino acid, for the new mutated amino acid and finally for both together in one picture whereas the mutation is white colored. (
  • We extracted the substitution value for the underlying mutation, the value for the most frequent substitution and the rarest substitution. (
  • It describes the source of the mutation i.e gene name/sample name/tissue name with unique ID, and also shows the mutation syntax at the amino acid and nucleotide sequence level. (
  • Substitution variants can be further classified by the effect they have on the production of protein from the altered gene. (
  • is a type of substitution in which the nucleotide change results in the replacement of one protein building block (amino acid) with another in the protein made from the gene. (
  • Genomic analysis revealed several unique amino acid substitutions among the polyprotein gene. (
  • Furthermore, experimental data have highlighted a relatively low barrier to resistance, with single amino acid substitutions at various locations in the F13L gene coding VP37 conferring substantial reductions in tecovirimat's antiviral activity. (
  • The only known distinction between most sequenced isolates of aspA from Y. pestis and the active gene in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (the immediate progenitor of Y. pestis ) is a single base transversion (G·C→T·A) causing replacement of leucine (encoded by UUG) for valine (encoded by GUG) at amino acid position 363. (
  • The gene from Y. pestis KIM possesses a unique second transversion (G·C→T·A) at amino acid 146 causing substitution of aspartic acid (encoded by GAU) with tyrosine (encoded by UAU). (
  • Variant A.27 is characterized by a mutational pattern in the spike gene that includes the L18F, L452R and N501Y spike amino acid substitutions found in various variants of concern but lacks the globally dominant D614G. (
  • The Usutu virus positive blackbird sample, which exhibited numerous nucleotide and amino acid changes compared with the other sequences, had been found outside of the Usutu virus endemic area. (
  • Hence, we need to clarify the variations in the CD4 nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the positive and negative antibody phenotypes in Microminipigs. (
  • Two proteins, CifA and CifB, underlie the genetic basis of CI and rescue, but how amino acid sites across these proteins contribute to CI and/or rescue remain unknown. (
  • Amino acid differences were detected at 40 positions throughout the structural and non-structural proteins, except for the preM protein. (
  • Whey proteins are well known for their excellent nutritional quality, rapid absorption and superior content of essential amino acids and branched-chain amino acids," he adds. (
  • The opposite ends of the IL-15Rα molecules are bound to a genetically modified IL-15 containing asparagine converted to aspartic acid at position 72 (N72D). (
  • It is established that cells of Yersinia pestis , the causative agent of bubonic plague, excrete l -aspartic acid at the expense of exogenous l -glutamic acid during expression of the low-calcium response. (
  • After purification to near homogeneity, the products were subjected to biochemical analysis and found to exhibit similar secondary, tertiary and quaternary (tetrameric) structures as well as comparable Michaelis constants for l -aspartic acid. (
  • Contrary, for PAM250 the value for the amino acid subsitution Histidine to Aspartic acid is average. (
  • By using diverse SNP analysing tools we have found 5 missense SNPs in the 3 crucial amino acids position in the DNA binding domain. (
  • It was found that a class of substitutions in the DNA sequence of the ATM protein that alter amino acids (known as missense mutations) have a greater association with breast cancer than expected. (
  • Follow-up samples demonstrated that the novel mutant represents a stable genetic rearrangement and that the amino acid insertions can coexist with nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) mutations resulting in phenotypic resistance to both NRTIs and NNRTIs. (
  • it has 2 characteristic amino acid insertions in the most surface-exposed antigenic region of the major capsid viral protein 1 (VP1) ( 2 ). (
  • The HBV/Sul-2/2021 had two sequence deletion mutations from G61del-T87del, which accounted for 27 amino acid deletions, and ten other mutations were identified in the carboxylic terminus of the pre-S1 from Q104del-R113del. (
  • To further understand the importance of this residue and its equivalent in RAMP1 (Trp74) we substituted the native amino acids with several others. (
  • To remove the constraint of a Cys at the ligation site, we explored traceless ligation methods that desulfurized Cys into Ala, or β- and γ- thiol analogs into native amino acids after ligation in the presence of thioamides. (
  • Two amino acid mutations that cause a switch from the human alpha2,6 to the avian alpha2,3 sialic acid receptor binding preference resulted in a virus incapable of respiratory droplet transmission between ferrets, but that maintained its lethality and replication efficiency in the upper respiratory tract. (
  • Several other substitution mutations were recorded in both HBV isolates. (
  • The umbrella of Artificial Life is broad, and covers three principal approaches to synthesis: in hardware (e.g., robotics, nanotechnology), in software (e.g., replicating and evolving computer programs), in wetware (e.g., replicating and evolving organic molecules, nucleic acids or others). (
  • Fluorouracil and fluorodeoxyuridine (floxuridine) inhibit pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis and interfere with the synthesis and actions of nucleic acids. (
  • Structural and functional consequences of single amino acid substitutions in the pyrimidine base binding pocket of Escherichia coli CMP kinase. (
  • To explain these differences in structural terms, we investigated the contribution of four key amino acids interacting with the pyrimidine ring of CMP (Ser36, Asp132, Arg110 and Arg188) to the stability, catalysis and substrate specificity of Escherichia coli CMP kinase. (
  • The following pictures display that the original amino acid Serine looks different to Isoleucine. (
  • In this case, the substitution of Serine to Isoleucine acid has very low value that is nearer to the values for the rarest subsitution for PAM1. (
  • In this case the substitution rate for Serine to Isoleucine at this position is very low and near to the value for the rarest substitution. (
  • Methotrexate (Amethopterin) is a folic acid antagonist that binds to dihydrofolate reductase, thus interfering with the synthesis of the active cofactor tetrahydrofolic acid, which is necessary for the synthesis of thymidylate, purine nucleotides, and the amino acids serine and methionine. (
  • Failure of CD4 cells to react with an anti-pig CD4 antibody was reported previously in the NIH miniature swine [ 10 ] and the presence of partial nucleotide sequences and 10 amino-acid substitutions in exon 3 and 4 of two kinds of CD4 alleles ( CD4.1 , CD4.2 ) in these miniature swine might be the cause of helper T cells not reacting with the anti-pig CD4 antibody [ 11 ]. (
  • Further developments are underway in our laboratory to expand the AaT substrate scope for β- and γ- thiol amino acid analogs. (
  • This is a lysine to threonine substitution at amino acid 76. (
  • Effects on antimicrobial potencies of substitutions of neutral amino acids at positions 4, 18, 22, and 24 by lysine were less marked. (
  • Acetyl CoA transfer acetyl group to lysine amino acid with the presence of acetyltransferases enzymes. (
  • Direct sequencing of the pan-flavavirus PCR amplicons showed Usutu virus nucleic acid sequences in each sample. (
  • The amino-acid sequences within domain 1 of CD4.B were identical to the swine CD4.2 [GenBank: CAA46584] sequence that had been reported previously to be a modified CD4 molecule that had lost reactivity with an anti-pig CD4 antibody in NIH miniature pigs. (
  • Furthermore, poor transmission of a 1918 virus with dual alpha2,6/alpha2,3 specificity suggests that a predominant human alpha2,6 sialic acid binding preference is essential for optimal transmission of this pandemic virus. (
  • A reading frame consists of groups of three nucleotides that each code for one amino acid . (
  • occurs when there is an addition or loss of nucleotides that shifts the grouping and changes the code for all downstream amino acids. (
  • These results indicate that a single amino acid, Phe141, in the preS2 epitope is responsible for determining the subtype specificity recognized by the monoclonal an社body H8. (
  • Structural analyses of parallel and antiparallel homotetrameric coiled coils reveal configurational sensitivity to a single solvent-exposed amino acid substitution. (
  • Our group previously demonstrated that a thioamide, a single atom substitution of the peptide bond, could serve as a minimalist fluorescence quencher. (
  • Adding Matrix Control: Insertion-Deletion Systems with Substitutions III. (
  • The deletion/substitutions in turns located in the alpha-domain of human lysozyme affected the refolding rate, indicating the contribution of turn structures to the folding of a globular protein. (
  • The data also reveals a higher amino acids conservation at -1 position of Gram-negative bacteriaas compared with the eukaryotir organisms. (
  • Return of valine for leucine at position 363 of the Y. pestis enzyme restored normal turnover ( k cat 86±2 s −1 ) provided that the amino acid substitution at position 146 was also reversed. (
  • Therefore the structure of both amino acids is really different and Ile is too big for the position where Ser was. (
  • In contrast to PAM and BLOSOUM, the PSSM contains a specific substitution rate for each position in the sequence. (
  • Reason (r) : The oil contains ricinoleic acid having a hydroxyl group at C-12 position which is responsible for its solubility in alcohol and its purgative action. (
  • A two-amino acid change in the hemagglutinin of the 1918 influenza virus abolishes transmission. (
  • and (iii) the substitution of Ala 31 Val prohibits the correct folding of lysozyme. (
  • Of the 40 positions, amino acids were conserved at 24 positions among three DSS/DHF strains, and the DF strain possessed different amino acids at these positions. (
  • DeMaSk: a deep mutational scanning substitution matrix and its use for variant impact prediction. (
  • Three amino acid substitutions, K127M, T256A, and Y298A, in the kinase domain of SGK1 were identified and incorporated structurally into original coordinates of SGK1 to explore their time evolution impact using all-atom molecular dynamic (MD) simulations for 200 ns. (
  • In this study, the effect of isotope substitution (15N) on the vibrational properties of the azide stretching band in 4-azido-L-phenylalanine has been investigated using ultrafast pump-probe and 2D-IR spectroscopy. (
  • Effect of the nature of the amino acid, amide substitution and anion. (
  • Most other substitutions had a small effect on AM potency in both receptors whereas there was little impact on CGRP or AM(2) potency. (
  • Substitution matrix based color schemes for sequence alignment visualization. (
  • Robust sequence alignment using evolutionary rates coupled with an amino acid substitution matrix. (
  • A Multiple amino acid sequence alignment of dUTPases. (
  • taking monodentate particles to green acid: Why cost hours, ' Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, October 18, 2001. (
  • Reference virus A/Texas/23/2012 contains H275Y oseltamivir,resistance conferring neuraminidase substitution. (
  • Optimal substitution by levothyroxine (LT4) restores biochemical euthyroidism.In postmenopausal women and elderly patients with hypothyroidism and associated vascularcomorbidity, excessive LT4 substitution could lead to atrial rhythm disorders and osteoporosis. (
  • Taken together, these findings indicate that (i) all CifA amino acids determined to be crucial in rescue are correspondingly crucial in CI, (ii) an additional set of CifA amino acids are uniquely important in CI, and (iii) CifB amino acids across the protein, rather than in one particular domain, are all crucial for CI. (
  • Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. (
  • Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties. (
  • GPCRtm: An amino acid substitution matrix for the transmembrane region of class A G Protein-Coupled Receptors. (
  • Accordingly, 37 amino acids were deleted in the S promoter region. (
  • The amino acid change may alter the function of the protein. (
  • Instead of causing a change in one amino acid, however, the altered DNA sequence results in a stop signal that prematurely signals the cell to stop building a protein. (
  • However, the change must be complex enough to differ from a simple substitution. (
  • A change of amino acid residue 141 from leucine 切 phenylalanine in 什? preS2 sequence of the adw2 subtype was sufficient for the sequence to be recognized by the monoclonal antibody H8. (
  • In contrast to the earlier reports, it has been observed that the Fermi resonance remains unchanged even after isotope substitution, and there is very little change in the vibrational relaxation dynamics as well. (
  • If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. (
  • Researchers have found that isotope substitution to the IR probe not only removes the Fermi resonance but also extends the dynamic observation window with a prolonged vibrational lifetime. (
  • N substitution are also found in amphibian IRF3 but not in amphibian IRF7. (
  • N substitution in IRF3 DPHK is again found in cetaceans such as whales and dolphins as well as in marsupials. (
  • It has now been found, surprisingly, that even a strong base the conjugate acid of which has a pKa of greater than 11.5, for example, of about 12, may be used under certain conditions to bring about substantially complete deprotection e.g. of β-cyanoethyl protective group while substantially avoiding formation of cyanoethyl adducts to nucleobases, in particular thymidine. (
  • Structures of IARC Group 1 aromatic amines, drugs that are urothelial cancer in humans ( IARC, metabolized to Group 1 aromatic amines, and aristolochic acids. (
  • To determine the underlying defect in HIDS, we analysed urine of several patients and discovered increased concentrations of mevalonic acid during severe episodes of fever, but not between crises. (
  • Amino acid substitutions at residue 132 in the adr sequence did not affect antigenicity of the preS2 to 仕te monoclonal antibody H8, which is specific to the adr subtype preS2 sequence. (
  • Substitution of Ser for Asp132 results in a moderate decrease in stability without significant changes in K(m) value for CMP and dCMP. (
  • The reaction rate for different modified CMP kinases with ATP as a variable substrate indicated that none of changes induced by these amino acid substitutions was 'propagated' to the ATP subsite. (
  • We identified that amino-acids substitutions of domain 1 in CD4.B gave rise to the failure of some CD4 expressing cells to react with particular anti-pig CD4 monoclonal antibodies. (
  • For each 12-mer in the human genome a measure of constraint was scored using SiPhy (see reference below), both as a rate-based score (omega), and a measure that includes biased substitution patterns (pi). (
  • These files contain base-level measure of constraint scored using SiPhy (see reference above), both as a rate-based score (omega) and a measure that includes biased substitution patterns (pi). (
  • Identified coding regions with a very low synonymous substitution rate - indicating additional sequence constraints beyond the amino acid level. (
  • There is also a bedGraph track for the local estimate of the synonymous substitution rate (lambda_s). (
  • For the PAM1-matrix the substitution rate is 1% which means the probability that one amino acid changes is 1% and that there is 99% similarity. (
  • PFASUM: a substitution matrix from Pfam structural alignments. (