The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) 3.4.24.27.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.

The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. The tryptic peptides. (1/190738)

The NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa was digested with trypsin, and peptides accounting for 441 out of the 452 residues of the polypeptide chain were isolated and substantially sequenced. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50052 (11 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem J. (1975) 145, 5.  (+info)

The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Peptides from digestion with a staphylococcal proteinase. (2/190738)

The extracellular proteinase of Staphylococcus aureus strain V8 was used to digest the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa. Of 35 non-overlapping peptides expected from the glutamate content of the polypeptide chain, 29 were isolated and substantially sequenced. The sequences obtained were valuable in providing overlaps for the alignment of about two-thirds of the sequences found in tryptic peptides [Wootton, J. C., Taylor, J, G., Jackson, A. A., Chambers, G. K. & Fincham, J. R. S. (1975) Biochem. J. 149, 739-748]. The blocked N-terminal peptide of the protein was isolated. This peptide was sequenced by mass spectrometry, and found to have N-terminal N-acetylserine by Howard R. Morris and Anne Dell, whose results are presented as an Appendix to the main paper. The staphylococcal proteinase showed very high specificity for glutamyl bonds in the NH4HCO3 buffer used. Partial splits of two aspartyl bonds, both Asp-Ile, were probably attributable to the proteinase. No cleavage of glutaminyl or S-carboxymethylcysteinyl bonds was found. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50053 (5 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K, from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 1458 5.  (+info)

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (3/190738)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (4/190738)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (5/190738)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (6/190738)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (7/190738)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (8/190738)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Abstract. The use of recombinant peptides based upon the repeated amino acid sequences of Plasmodium has been proposed for malaria vaccines. By reducing homologies of such peptide vaccines to host proteins, the possibility of autoimmune complications may be reduced, and the effective immune response may be enhanced. The Wilbur and Lipman Wordsearch algorithm was used to identify homologous amino acid sequences between tandemly repeated Plasmodium amino acid sequences and the human and human viral sequences compiled in the National Biomedical Research Foundation database. Six published repetitive immunogenic amino acid sequences from the circumsporozoite (CS) antigen, ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA), soluble (S) antigen, and falciparum interspersed repetitive antigen (FIRA) of P. falciparum, and the CS protein of P. vivax, were analyzed by computer. Matches of at least 4 amino acids were found for all sequences. In the database, 29 matches were found for human proteins and 26 matches
Chang, E., et al. N-Terminal Amino Acid Sequence Determination of Proteins by N-Terminal Dimethyl Labeling: Pitfalls and Advantages When Compared with Edman Degradation Sequence Analysis. Journal of Biomolecular Technology. 27(2). 07/03/2016.. ...
The complete amino acid sequence of bovine S antigen (48-kDa protein) has been determined by cDNA and partial amino acid sequencing. A 1623-base-pair (bp) cDNA contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 404 amino acids (45,275 Da). Tryptic peptides and cyanogen bromide peptides of native bovine S antigen were purified and partially sequenced. All of these peptides were accounted for in the long open reading frame. Searching of the National Biomedical Research Foundation data bank revealed no extensive sequence homology between S antigen and other proteins. However, there are local regions of sequence similarity with alpha transducin, including the sites subject to ADP-ribosylation by Bordetella pertussis and cholera toxins and the phosphoryl binding-sites. Secondary structure prediction and circular dichroic spectroscopy show that S antigen is composed predominantly of beta-sheet conformation. Acid-catalyzed methanolysis suggests the presence of low levels of carbohydrate in the ...
Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end. Protein biosynthesis is most commonly performed by ribosomes in cells. Peptides can also be synthesized in the laboratory[citation needed]. Protein primary structures can be directly sequenced, or inferred from DNA sequences. Amino acids are polymerised via peptide bonds to form a long backbone, with the different amino acid side chains protruding along it. In biological systems, proteins are produced during translation by a cells ribosomes. Some organisms can also make short peptides by non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, which often use amino acids other than the standard 20, and may be cyclised, modified and cross-linked. Peptides can be synthesised chemically via a range of laboratory methods. Chemical methods typically synthesise peptides in the opposite order to ...
37 CFR 1.822(c)(5) provides that nucleotide sequences shall only be represented by a single strand, in the 5′ to 3′ direction, from left to right. That is, double stranded nucleotides shall not be represented in the sequence listing. A double stranded nucleotide may be represented as two single stranded nucleotides, and any relationship between the two may be shown in the drawings. The procedures for presenting and numbering amino acid sequences are set forth in 37 CFR 1.822(d). Two alternatives are presented for numbering amino acid sequences. Amino acid sequences may be numbered with respect to the identification of the first amino acid of the first mature protein or with respect to the first amino acid appearing at the amino terminal. The numbering procedure for nucleotides is set forth in 37 CFR 1.822(c)(6). Sequences that are circular in configuration are intended to be encompassed by these rules, and the numbering procedures described above remain applicable with the exception that the ...
Genetic susceptibility to autoimmunity is frequently associated with specific MHC alleles. Diabetogenic MHC class II molecules, such as human HLA-DQ8 and mouse I-Ag7, typically have a small, uncharged amino acid residue at position 57 of their β chain (β57); this results in the absence of a salt bridge between β57 and Argα76, which is adjacent to the P9 pocket of the peptide-binding groove. However, the influence of Argα76 on the selection of the TCR repertoire remains unknown, particularly when the MHC molecule binds a peptide with a neutral amino acid residue at position P9. Here, we have shown that diabetogenic MHC class II molecules bound to a peptide with a neutral P9 residue primarily selected and expanded cells expressing TCRs bearing a negatively charged residue in the first segment of their complementarity determining region 3β. The crystal structure of one such TCR in complex with I-Ag7 bound to a peptide containing a neutral P9 residue revealed that a network of favorable ...
The invention provides a method for determining an amino acid sequence motif for a phosphorylation site of a protein kinase. In the method of the invention, a protein kinase is contacted with an oriented degenerate peptide library, peptides within the library which are substrates for the kinase are converted to phosphopeptides and the phosphopeptides are separated from non-phosphorylated peptides. The isolated phosphopeptides are sequenced and an amino acid sequence motif for the phosphorylation site is determined based upon the relative abundance of different amino acids residues at each degenerate position. The invention also provides peptide substrates for protein kinase A, cell cycle control kinases, src family kinases, the EGF receptor and p92.sup.c-fps/fes based upon amino acid sequence motifs for the phosphorylation sites of these kinases.
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20-30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The hormonal control of glycogen metabolism. T2 - The amino acid sequence at the phosphorylation site of protein phosphatase inhibitor-1. AU - Cohen, Philip. AU - Rylatt, Dennis B.. AU - Nimmo, Gillian A.. PY - 1977/4/15. Y1 - 1977/4/15. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017407844&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0014-5793(77)80147-6. DO - 10.1016/0014-5793(77)80147-6. M3 - Article. C2 - 193727. AN - SCOPUS:0017407844. VL - 76. SP - 182. EP - 186. JO - FEBS Letters. JF - FEBS Letters. SN - 0014-5793. IS - 2. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deduced primary structure of rat tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase. AU - Maezono, Katsumi. AU - Tashiro, Kosuke. AU - Nakamura, Toshikazu. PY - 1990/7/16. Y1 - 1990/7/16. N2 - The complete amino acid sequence of the tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TO) of rat liver was determined from the nucleotide sequence of a full length TO cDNA isolated from a rat liver cDNA library and determined its primary structure. TO was encoded in a mRNA of about 1.7 kb containing an open reading frame of 1218 bp. According to the deduced amino acid sequence, the monomeric polypeptide of TO consisted of 406 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 47,796 daltons. It has twelve histidine residues around its hydrophobic region, which has homology with some heme proteins and oxygenase, suggesting that this hydrophobic region might to be the core of TO for the activity.. AB - The complete amino acid sequence of the tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TO) of rat liver was determined from the nucleotide ...
The amino acid sequences of the CT and TMD of NA are highly and moderately conserved, respectively, among the influenza A viruses. Yet the specific function and role of these amino acid sequences in virus biology remain unknown. Results presented in this report show that the specific amino acid residues are not absolutely required for the influenza virus life cycle, since either the complete or part of the NA TMD or CT can be replaced and modified, yet infectious viruses can be rescued and propagated. On the other hand, our data show that specific amino acids in some regions of the TMD and CT as well as a foreign TMD have a profound influence on virus biology, causing reduction in growth during multiple cycles of infection. Reduced yield of NA mutants can be attributed to decreased enzyme activity in the virion and a defect in budding at the cell surface.. Mutations in the TMD and CT of NA can affect protein expression, maturation, transport, incorporation into virions, and enzyme activity and ...
...COLLEGE STATION - Functional amino acids play a critical role in the d...In a journal article appearing in the American Society for Nutrition (... We need to move forward and capitalize on the potential of functional...A functional amino acid is an amino acid that can regulate key metabol...,AgriLife,scientist:,Functional,amino,acids,regulate,key,metabolic,pathways,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
The CLV3/ESR-RELATED (CLE) gene family encodes small secreted peptides (SSPs) and plays vital roles in plant growth and development by promoting cell-to-cell communication. The prediction and classification of CLE genes is challenging because of their low sequence similarity. We developed a machine learning-aided method for predicting CLE genes by using a CLE motif-specific residual score matrix and a novel clustering method based on the Euclidean distance of 12 amino acid residues from the CLE motif in a site-weight dependent manner. In total, 2156 CLE candidates-including 627 novel candidates-were predicted from 69 plant species. The results from our CLE motif-based clustering are consistent with previous reports using the entire pre-propeptide. Characterization of CLE candidates provided systematic statistics on protein lengths, signal peptides, relative motif positions, amino acid compositions of different parts of the CLE precursor proteins, and decisive factors of CLE prediction. The approach
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need to develop bioinformatic tools to organise and analyse the rapidly growing amount of nucleotide and amino acid sequence data in organisms ranging from viruses to eukaryotes. FINDING: A simple sequence editor (SSE) was developed to create an integrated environment where sequences can be aligned, annotated, classified and directly analysed by a number of built-in bioinformatic programs. SSE incorporates a sequence editor for the creation of sequence alignments, a process assisted by integrated CLUSTAL/MUSCLE alignment programs and automated removal of indels. Sequences can be fully annotated and classified into groups and annotated of sequences and sequence groups and access to analytical programs that analyse diversity, recombination and RNA secondary structure. Methods for analysing sequence diversity include measures of divergence and evolutionary distances, identity plots to detect regions of nucleotide or amino acid homology, reconstruction of sequence changes,
The GLI oncogene, discovered by virtue of its amplification in human tumors, encodes a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein containing five zinc fingers. We have now characterized one member of a family of GLI-related zinc finger genes. A previously identified fragment of GLI3 genomic DNA was used to localize GLI3 to chromosome 7p13 and to isolate cDNA clones. Sequence analysis of these clones and identification of the GLI3 protein by using polyclonal antisera demonstrated that GLI3 encodes a protein of 1,596 amino acids and an apparent molecular mass of 190 kilodaltons. Amino acid sequence comparison with GLI demonstrated seven regions of similarity (53 to 88% identity), with the zinc fingers representing the most similar region. Furthermore, when produced in vitro, the GLI3 protein bound specifically to genomic DNA fragments containing GLI-binding sites. Amino acid sequence comparison with the product of another member of the GLI family, the Drosophila segment polarity gene cubitus ...
Ubiquitin is a 76-residue protein highly conserved among eukaryotes. Conjugation of ubiquitin to intracellular proteins mediates their selective degradation in vivo. We describe a family of four ubiquitin-coding loci in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. UB11, UB12 and UB13 encode hybrid proteins in which ubiquitin is fused to unrelated (tail) amino acid sequences. The ubiquitin coding elements of UB11 and UB12 are interrupted at identical positions by non-homologous introns. UB11 and UB12 encode identical 52-residue tails, whereas UB13 encodes a different 76-residue tail. The tail amino acid sequences are highly conserved between yeast and mammals. Each tail contains a putative metal-binding, nucleic acid-binding domain of the form Cys-X2-4-Cys-X2-15-Cys-X2-4-Cys, suggesting that these proteins may function by binding to DNA. The fourth gene, UB14, encodes a polyubiquitin precursor protein containing five ubiquitin repeats in a head-to-tail, spacerless arrangement. All four ubiquitin genes ...
The primary structure of porcine brain beta-tubulin was determined by automated and manual Edman degradation of six sets of overlapping peptides. The protein consists of 445 amino acid residues and has a minimum of six positions that are heterogeneous, indicating at least two beta-tubulins in porcine brain. Comparison of the optimally aligned sequences of alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin indicates that 41% of their primary structures are identical. A region rich in glycyl residues is similar both in sequence and predicted secondary structure to the phosphate binding loop of several nucleotide binding enzymes. beta-Tubulin contains a highly acidic COOH-terminal region that resembles the NH2-terminus of troponin T.. ...
A method is provided for isolating and identifying a recombinant clone having a DNA segment therein coding for at least one desired heterologous polypeptide, at least a short amino acid sequence of which is known, by effecting cDNA synthesis on a mixture of mRNAs containing the mRNA coding for the desired polypeptide, isolating the resultant cDNA mixture, inserting the resultant cDNA into recombinant cloning vehicles, transforming hosts with the vehicles, separating the transformants and isolating and identifying a recombinant clone containing a DNA segment which is homologous over at least a portion thereof to at least one oligonucleotide probe specific for the DNA segment; wherein the probe is an extension of the nucleotide sequence of an oligonucleotide primer having a nucleotide sequence complementary to a region of the target mRNA coding for a portion of the known amino acid sequence, and is complementary to a longer region of the target mRNA coding for a longer portion of the known amino acid
A method is provided for isolating and identifying a recombinant clone having a DNA segment therein coding for at least one desired heterologous polypeptide, at least a short amino acid sequence of which is known, by effecting cDNA synthesis on a mixture of mRNAs containing the mRNA coding for the desired polypeptide, isolating the resultant cDNA mixture, inserting the resultant cDNA into recombinant cloning vehicles, transforming hosts with the vehicles, separating the transformants and isolating and identifying a recombinant clone containing a DNA segment which is homologous over at least a portion thereof to at least one oligonucleotide probe specific for the DNA segment; wherein the probe is an extension of the nucleotide sequence of an oligonucleotide primer having a nucleotide sequence complementary to a region of the target mRNA coding for a portion of the known amino acid sequence, and is complementary to a longer region of the target mRNA coding for a longer portion of the known amino acid
TY - JOUR. T1 - Design of amino acid sequences to fold into C-alpha model proteins. AU - Amatori, Andrea. AU - Tiana, Guido. AU - Sutto, L.. AU - Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper. AU - Trovato, Antonio. AU - Broglia, Richardo A.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - In order to extend the results obtained with minimal lattice models to more realistic systems, we study a model where proteins are described as a chain of 20 kinds of structureless amino acids moving in a continuum space and interacting through a contact potential controlled by a 2020 quenched random matrix. The goal of the present work is to design and characterize amino acid sequences folding to the SH3 conformation, a 60-residue recognition domain common to many regulatory proteins. We show that a number of sequences can fold, starting from a random conformation, to within a distance root-mean-square deviation between 2.6 and 4.0 Å from the native state. Good folders are those sequences displaying in the native conformation an energy lower than a ...
The amino acid sequences of 301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes have been compared. A total of 291 sequences corresponding to 39 EC entries could be classified into 35 families. Only ten sequences (less than 5% of the sample) could not be assigned to any family. With the sequences available for this analysis, 18 families were found to be monospecific (containing only one EC number) and 17 were found to be polyspecific (containing at least two EC numbers). Implications on the folding characteristics and mechanism of action of these enzymes and on the evolution of carbohydrate metabolism are discussed. With the steady increase in sequence and structural data, it is suggested that the enzyme classification system should perhaps be revised. ...
The supernumerary subunit g is found in all mitochondrial ATP synthases. Most of the conserved amino acid residues are present in the membrane C-terminal part of the protein that contains a dimerization motif GXXXG. In yeast, alteration of this motif leads to the loss of subunit g and of supramolecular structures of the ATP synthase with concomitant appearance of anomalous mitochondrial morphologies. Disulfide bond formation involving an engineered cysteine in position 109 of subunit g and the endogenous cysteine 28 of subunit e promoted g + g, e + g, and e + e adducts, thus revealing the proximity in the mitochondrial membrane of several subunits e and g. Disulfide bond formation between two subunits g in mitochondria increased the stability of an oligomeric structure of the ATP synthase in digitonin extracts. These data suggest the participation of the dimerization motif of subunit g in the formation of supramolecular structures and is in favor of the existence of ATP synthase associations, in ...
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1993) The download the paraphrase of shem nh vii1 nag hammadi and manichaean lifetime equations through a internal detail into a right story-layered Africville at the electrical arrangement then in guy. 1978) In: Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure, Suppl. 2 National Biomedical Research Foundation, Washington, DC.
The detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen in diagnostic tests relies on antibodies binding to conserved areas of the protein to cover the full range of HIV-1 subtypes. Using a panel of 43 different virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing Gag from clinical HIV-1 isolates, we previously found that some highly sensitive tests completely failed to detect p24 of certain VLPs, seemingly unrelated to their subtype. Here we aimed to investigate the reason for this failure, hypothesising that it might be due to single amino acid variations in conserved epitopes. Using amino acid alignment, we identified single amino acid variations at position 16 or 170 of p24, unique to those VLPs that failed to be detected in certain diagnostic tests. Through DNA-mutagenesis, these amino acids were changed to ones more commonly found at these positions. The impact of these changes on p24 detection was tested in commercial diagnostic tests as well as by Western Blot and ELISA, using epitope-specific antibodies. Changing positions 16 or
The observed gene overlays in the viruses ФX174 and SV40 show a surprising economy of information storage; two different amino acid sequences are read in different frames from the same stretch of DNA.
To determine the degree of similarity between pituitary and lymphocyte proopiomelanocortin, the lymphocyte mRNA was reverse transcribed, cloned, and sequenced. Murine lymphocyte mRNA was first purified by oligo(dT)-cellulose affinity chromatography and was reverse transcribed by using a selective 3′ antisense oligonucleotide primer directed at the boundary between the translated/nontranslated region on the 3′ end of exon 3. This cDNA was then amplified in a polymerase chain reaction with selective primers containing Sal I and Kpn I restriction endonuclease sites. Amplified cDNA was then directionally ligated into M13mp18 and M13mp19 bacteriophage and was sequenced. The nucleotide sequence encoding this peptide was identical to that of mouse pituitary corticotropin (ACTH). Elevated levels of lymphocyte immunoreactive ACTH were then induced with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and the peptide(s) was purified by antibody affinity chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid ...
Amino acid sequence in DENV2 NS2B/NS3 protease. The residues marked in bold are part of NS2B amino acid sequence. The residues marked in underline are His-tag.
A standard technique to confirm the amino acid sequence of a molecule, Peptide Mapping Analysis uses multiple enzyme digest strategy to break apart a protein into smaller peptide fragments which are subsequently analysed on the mass spectrometer.. Peptide fragments digested with different enzymes will highly likely provide overlapping amino acid sequence data, allowing for the accurate determination and confirmation of the amino acid sequence of the full length of a target protein molecule.. An added value of Peptide Mapping Analysis is that modifications such as C-terminal truncations and/or N-terminal modifications may also be detected.. For more information please email [email protected] ...
Genomes and Genes, Research Topics, Scientific Experts, Species, Locale, Publications about Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in San Diego, California, United States
DNA damage can result in a variety of mutations, including point mutations, frameshift mutations, and chromosomal mutations. Point mutations include changes in DNA sequence due to substitution of one base for another during DNA replication. For example, the DNA sequence AATTCGCATTG could be replicated as AACTCGCCTTG. Changes in DNA sequence may or may not result in changes in amino acid sequence when the mutated DNA is used to code for protein. When DNA is translated into proteins, every three nucleotide bases (a codon) code for one amino acid. However, many amino acids are coded for by more than one codon. Thus, if a mutation occurs such that the mutated sequence codes for the same amino acid sequence as the old sequence, this is called a silent mutation. In evolutionary terms, this is also referred to as a neutral mutation. Silent (or neutral) mutations may also occur if there is a change in the amino acid sequence, but this does not alter the structure of the protein. However, if a point ...
An increasing number of proteins with weak sequence similarity have been found to assume similar three-dimensional fold and often have similar or related biochemical or biophysical functions. We propose a method for detecting the fold similarity between two proteins with low sequence similarity based on their amino acid properties alone. The method, the proximity correlation matrix (PCM) method, is built on the observation that the physical properties of neighboring amino acid residues in sequence at structurally equivalent positions of two proteins of similar fold are often correlated even when amino acid sequences are different. The hydrophobicity is shown to be the most strongly correlated property for all protein fold classes. The PCM method was tested on 420 proteins belonging to 64 different known folds, each having at least three proteins with little sequence similarity. The method was able to detect fold similarities for 40% of the 420 sequences. Compared with sequence comparison and ...
The results above define the location of the cleavage site in QSOX1A as occurring between the peptide sequence used to raise the anti-QSOX1A antibody and the TM domain (Figure 5A). To identify potential proteases responsible for the cleavage of QSOX1A, we first searched the UniProt database [26] for all proteases that are known to be present within the human ER and Golgi apparatus (Supplementary Table S1 at http://www.biochemj.org/bj/454/bj4540181add.htm). The resulting list of proteases was analysed manually with regard to their substrate specificities and consensus cleavage patterns. Three of the PPCs (proprotein convertases), PCSK3, PCSK6 and PCSK7, particularly stood out as they cleave at dibasic motifs, two of which are present in the QSOX1A amino acid sequence. The QSOX1A amino acid sequence also was analysed for potential cleavage sites using the ProP 1.0 Server [27]. Two of the predicted PPC cleavage sites are present in the region of interest with cleavage occurring C-terminally of ...
SEC72 encodes the 23-kD subunit of the Sec63p complex, an integral ER membrane protein complex that is required for translocation of presecretory proteins into the ER of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA sequence analysis of SEC72 predicts a 21.6-kD protein with neither a signal peptide nor any transmembrane domains. Antibodies directed against a carboxyl-terminal peptide of Sec72p were used to confirm the membrane location of the protein. SEC72 is not essential for yeast cell growth, although an sec72 null mutant accumulates a subset of secretory precursors in vivo. Experiments using signal peptide chimeric proteins demonstrate that the sec72 translocation defect is associated with the signal peptide rather than with the mature region of the secretory precursor. ...
SEC72 encodes the 23-kD subunit of the Sec63p complex, an integral ER membrane protein complex that is required for translocation of presecretory proteins into the ER of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA sequence analysis of SEC72 predicts a 21.6-kD protein with neither a signal peptide nor any transmembrane domains. Antibodies directed against a carboxyl-terminal peptide of Sec72p were used to confirm the membrane location of the protein. SEC72 is not essential for yeast cell growth, although an sec72 null mutant accumulates a subset of secretory precursors in vivo. Experiments using signal peptide chimeric proteins demonstrate that the sec72 translocation defect is associated with the signal peptide rather than with the mature region of the secretory precursor. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin regulation of a novel WD-40 repeat protein in adipocytes. AU - Rodgers, B. D.. AU - Levine, M. A.. AU - Bernier, M.. AU - Montrose-Rafizadeh, C.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - A 400 bp PCR product generated with degenerate primers derived from the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor was used to screen a rat skeletal muscle cDNA library. The predicted amino acid sequence of the 978 bp open reading frame has a predicted Mr of 35 804, an estimated isoelectric point (pI) of 5.31 and contains seven WD-40 repeats, which are common to G-protein beta subunits (Gβ). Although chemically and structurally similar to Gβ subunits, the predicted amino acid sequence, when compared with the previously cloned Gβ isoforms, was found to be only 31-41% similar and thus was named Gβ-like (GβL, Gable). Western blotting of whole-cell lysates and immunoprecipitates of membrane and cytosolic fractions of HEK 293 cells stably overexpressing a carboxy-terminal His-tagged GβL indicates that the ...
A polynucleotide sequence for the mouse ortholog of human zalphal 1 has been identified and is shown in SEQ ID NO:84 and the corresponding amino acid sequence shown in jEQ ID NO: 85. AnalYsis of the mouse zalphal 1 polypeptide encoded by the DNA\ sequence of SEQ ID N0(84)revealed an open reading frame encodmg 529 amino acids (SEQ ID NO:85) comprising a predicted secretory signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues (residue 1 (Met) to residue 19 (Ser) of SEQ ID NO:85), and a mature polypeptide of 510 amino acids (residue 20 (Cys) to residue 529 (Ser) of SEQ ID N0:2). In addition to the WSXWS motif (SEQ ID N0:3) corresponding to residues 214 to 218 of SEQ ID N0:85, the receptor comprises a cytokine-binding domain of approximately 200 amino acid residues (residues 20 (Cys) to 237 (His) of SEQ ID N0:85); a domam linker (residues 120 (Pro) to 123 (Pro) of SEQ ID NO:85); a penultimate strand region (residues 192 (Lys) to 202 (Ala) of SEQ ID NO:85); a transmembrane domain (residues 238 (Met) to 254 (Leu) ...
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Adducin is a membrane-skeletal protein which is a candidate to promote assembly of a spectrin-actin network in erythrocytes and at sites of cell-cell contact in epithelial tissues. The complete sequence of both subunits of human adducin, alpha (737 amino acids), and beta (726 amino acids) has been deduced by analysis of the cDNAs. The two subunits have strikingly conserved amino acid sequences with 49% identity and 66% similarity, suggesting evolution by gene duplication. Each adducin subunit has three distinct domains: a 39-kD NH2-terminal globular protease-resistant domain, connected by a 9-kD domain to a 33-kD COOH-terminal protease-sensitive tail comprised almost entirely of hydrophilic amino acids. The tail is responsible for the high frictional ratio of adducin noted previously, and was visualized by EM. The head domains of both adducin subunits exhibit a limited sequence similarity with the NH2-terminal actin-binding motif present in members of the spectrin superfamily and actin gelation ...
Maloy W.L.; Nathenson S.G.; Coligan J.E., 1981: Primary structure of murine major histo compatibility complex allo antigens amino acid sequence of the amino terminal 98 residues of the h 2d b glyco protein
The glycoprotein encoded by this gene is a cell surface antigen that is expressed in greater than 95% of human colon cancers. The open reading frame encodes a 319-amino acid polypeptide having a putative secretory signal sequence and 3 potential glycosylation sites. The predicted mature protein has a 213-amino acid extracellular region, a single transmembrane domain, and a 62-amino acid intracellular tail. The sequence of the extracellular region contains 2 domains characteristic of the CD2 subgroup of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The Cycle 1 results indicate that the N-terminal amino acid residue is D (aspartic acid). The Cycle 2 results indicate that the second amino acid group from the N-terminal is V (valine). Analysis to the 21st residue reveals the sequence from the N-terminal to be: Asp-Val-Val-Met-Thr-Gln-Thr-Pro-Leu-Thr-Leu-Ser-Val-Thr-Ile-Gly-Gln-Pro-Ala-Ser-Ile.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The amino acid sequences of the phosphorylated sites in troponin-I from rabbit skeletal muscle. AU - Huang, T. S.. AU - Bylund, D. B.. AU - Stull, J. T.. AU - Krebs, E. G.. PY - 1974/6/15. Y1 - 1974/6/15. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0016165471&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0016165471&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0014-5793(74)80738-6. DO - 10.1016/0014-5793(74)80738-6. M3 - Article. C2 - 4369265. AN - SCOPUS:0016165471. VL - 42. SP - 249. EP - 252. JO - FEBS Letters. JF - FEBS Letters. SN - 0014-5793. IS - 3. ER - ...
Fig. 4 shows the amino acid sequences of the predicted proteins of AtFpg-1, -1a, -2, -3, and -4. Exons 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 were entirely conserved in all the Arabidopsis cDNA clones. The polypeptide chains encoded by exons 1, 5, 6,and 7 represent the major conserved regions between Arabidopsis and bacterial FPGs , showing between 29 and 54% identity between Arabidopsis and E. coli amino acid sequences. The N-terminal sequence of exon 1 and the lysine of exon 5 (K155) of E. coli FPG have been associated with the active site. The predicted amino acid sequence coded by exon 1 shows a surprising relationship to a sequence from DNA photolyase, another DNA repair enzyme but one quite unrelated to FPG (Fig. 5). If this relates to DNA binding, it might explain how AtFPG-2, which lacks the C-terminal DNA-binding region present in AtFPG-1 (or the zinc-finger of E. coli FPG) might have the DNA cleavage activities measured by Gao and Murphy (Photochem. Photobiol., in press). The optional exons are exon 4 ...
We have cloned the cDNA encoding a murine GDNF inducible transcription factor designated mGIF. It is homolgous to two human genes, TIEG (Subramaniam et al., 1995) and EGR-α (Blok et al., 1995). TIEG was cloned from fetal osteoblastic cells and found to be induced by TGF-β and by epidermal growth factor (EGF), whereas EGR-α was cloned from prostate carcinoma cells and found to be induced by EGF and repressed by androgens. TIEG and EGRα have identical amino acid sequences except for 12 residues absent in the N terminus of EGRα. Thus, TIEG and EGRα appear to be encoded by the same gene. Sequence comparison between murine mGIF and these two human proteins indicates 85% amino acid identity. Comparison of their nucleotide sequences revealed that although these cDNAs are homologous within their open reading frame, more diversity exists in their 3′ untranslated regions. Both the human and murine proteins are rich in proline. mGIF has two proline-rich regions; one contains 17 prolines of 90 ...
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The following experiments were conducted to discern which domains or regions of XB130 are crucial for its Rac-dependent peripheral translocation. XB130 contains a variety of domains that in principle might contribute to its peripheral (membrane and/or lamellipodial) redistribution (Fig. 6A). Key candidate regions included the two pleckstrin homology domains, PH1 (aa 175-271) and PH2 (aa 353-446), which might be involved in the interaction between proteins and membrane phospholipids; the so called unique region (aa 491-648), which holds the lowest amino acid sequence homology to AFAP-110; the coiled-coiled motif (aa 652-750), which shows similarity to a region in AFAP-110 that harbors a leucine zipper motif for protein-protein interaction and a 17-residue stretch that is essential for F-actin binding or cross-linking; the N-terminus (aa 2-169), which contains SH3- and SH2-domain binding motifs, several tyrosine kinase target residues (e.g. Y54), as well as a putative actin-binding motif (see the ...
Structure- Type I MHC- It has a 45 KD alpha chain associated noncovalently with a 12 KD beta 2 microglobulin molecule. Alpha chain is a trans membraneglycoprotein encoded by A, B, C region in human HLA complexes and by K, D/L region in mice. Association of alpha chain and beta 2 microglobulin require for expression of class I molecule on cell membrane. Alpha chain bind to plasma membrane by its hydrophobic transmembrane segment and hydrophilic cytoplasmic tail. Alpha chain is made up of three external domain(α1,α2,α3). Each domain have 90 amino acid, a trans membrane domain have 25 hydrophobic amino acid, a short segment of hydrophilic amino acid and a cytoplasmic segment of 30 amino acid. Peptide which bind to class I MHC is made up of 8-9 amino acid ...
Whilst the fact that the single-letter codes do not all match the first letter of the amino acid that they correspond to is somewhat confusing to begin with is is worth remembering that most proteins of interest contain hundreds of amino acid residues. To illustrate how useful the amino acid codes can be lets have a look at a rather small imaginary protein with only seven residues: Alanine-Phenylalanine-Proline-Leucine-Serine-Valine-Valine-Arginine This is already irritatingly long if you have to write it out more than once. So, using the three-letter codes we have instead: ALA-PHE-PRO-LEU-SER-VAL-VAL-ARG This is already a great improvement in terms of reducing the length of the sequence that we have to write (and it remains fairly human-readable since the codes are just the first part of the amino acid names). However, if our protein had a more realistic number of residues e.g. 700 instead of 7 then this is clearly still going to be a fairly long piece of text when fully written out. Finally ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular Cloning and Primary Structure of Rat Testes Metalloendopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15. AU - Pierotti, Adrian. AU - Glucksman, Marc J.. AU - Roberts, James L.. AU - Dong, Ke Wen. AU - Pierotti, Adrian. AU - Orlowski, Marian. PY - 1990/11/1. Y1 - 1990/11/1. N2 - The complete amino acid sequence of rat testes metalloendopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15) was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone isolated by screening a rat testes library with a polyclonal antibody raised against a homogeneous preparation of the rat testes enzyme. The correctness of the sequence was verified by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the isolated enzyme and by partial amino acid sequence analysis of three tryptic peptides located near the N-terminus, the middle, and C-terminus of the native protein. The enzyme is composed of 645 amino acids with a molecular weight of 72 985. This value is close to that of the purified rat testes and brain enzyme as determined by polyacrylamide gel ...
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Complete amino acid sequences were determined for thymopoietins I and II (revision), isolated from bovine thymus, and for thymopoietin III, a newly identified polypeptide isolated from bovine spleen. Thymopoietin III (TP-III) is a 49 amino acid monomeric peptide that shows minor microheterogeneity at residue 34. The three thymopoietins have largely identical sequences yet some distinct differences, suggesting very recent evolution from a common gene. The complete amino acid sequences are (Formula: see text). ...
Biology Assignment Help, Homologous proteins - amino acid sequence in fasta format, Please answer the following question on Sequence Y: Protein databases 1. What sequence from which organism is this sequence most similar to? 2. Can you find any homologues of this protein in other organisms? Can you find any clues to
Author: Geisler, N. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1983; Title: Amino acid sequence data on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA); implications for the subdivision of intermediate filaments into epithelial and non‐epithelial members.
9616PRTArtificial sequenceSynthetic amino acid sequence 1Leu Cys Thr Pro Ser Arg 1 5 27PRTArtificial sequenceSynthetic amino acid sequence 2Ala Ala Leu Leu Thr Gly Arg 1 5 37PRTArtificial sequenceSynthetic amino acid sequence 3Ser Gln Leu Leu Thr Gly Arg 1 5 47PRTArtificial sequenceSynthetic amino acid sequence 4Ala Ala Phe Met Thr Gly Arg 1 5 57PRTArtificial sequenceSynthetic amino acid sequence 5Ala Ala Phe Leu Thr Gly Arg 1 5 67PRTArtificial sequenceSynthetic amino acid sequence 6Ser Ala Phe Leu Thr Gly Arg 1 5 77PRTArtificial sequenceSynthetic amino acid sequence 7Ala Ser Ile Leu Thr Gly Lys 1 5 87PRTArtificial sequenceSynthetic amino acid sequence 8Val Ser Phe Leu Thr Gly Arg 1 5 97PRTArtificial sequenceSynthetic amino acid sequence 9Ala Ser Leu Leu Thr Gly Leu 1 5 107PRTArtificial sequenceSynthetic amino acid sequence 10Ala Ser Ile Leu Ile Thr Gly 1 5 117PRTArtificial sequenceSynthetic amino acid sequence 11Val Ser Phe Leu Thr Gly Arg 1 5 127PRTArtificial sequenceSynthetic amino acid ...
Autor: Peters, J. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 1987; Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence; *Bacterial Proteins/ge [Genetics]; Base Sequence; Carbohydrates/an [Analysis]; Fatty Acids/an [Analysis]; *Genes, Bacterial; *Genes, Structural; *Gram-Positive Bacteria/ge [Genetics]; Membrane Lipids/an [Analysis]; Molecular Sequence Data; Protein Processing, Post-Translational; Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Titel: Nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene encoding the Deinococcus radiodurans surface protein, derived amino acid sequence, and complementary protein chemical studies
Patterns of sequence conservation between D. virilis and D. melanogaster OS-F genes suggest OBP functional domains: A comparison of OS-F protein sequences in D. melanogaster and D. virilis suggests that there are varying selective constraints across these sequences. Overall, D. melanogaster and D. virilis OS-F proteins display 76% amino acid identity. However, this identity masks a marked difference in the level of sequence conservation across the protein. The majority of nonconserved amino acids are found either at the N terminus, of which many, but not all, residues are predicted to lie within the signal sequence or in a 22-amino-acid stretch in the carboxy-terminal half of OS-F. This heterogeneous 22-aminoacid region displays only 55% amino acid identity. In contrast, the remaining portion of mature OS-F is 86% identical in these two species. Furthermore, only conservative amino acid substitutions (D-E, F-I, S-T, L-F, and I-V) are observed in OS-F residues following the first conserved ...
Amino acids refer to the molecular structure consisting of both amine and carboxyl functional groups. Referred to as alpha-amino acids in Biochemistry, typically it is defined with the formula H2NCHRCOOH where R stands for organic substitute. Amino acids can be called as the building blocks of our life.. They get combined in an unlimited number of configurations to construct all the required proteins with which our body is built. There are essentially 20 common amino acids that keep us alive, healthy and energetic. If deficiency occurs in an individual amino acid, it may create serious problem to our health system. The name of these 20 common amino acids is as follows: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalaine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine.. Alanine. It is one of the most significant among the 20 common amino acids. It offers energy to your system. It ...
The main transporting protein for vitamin A in rabbit serum, the retinol-binding protein (RBP), was isolated and its amino acid sequence determined. Rabbit RBP was found to be highly homologous to human RBP, whose amino acid sequence was elucidated earlier, and to rat RBP. The rat RBP sequence was obtained by combining information deduced from the nucleotide sequences of two overlapping cDNA clones with the NH2-terminal sequence of the isolated protein determined by automated Edman degradation. The identity between the three proteins is approximately 90%. The high degree of homology between RBP molecules from different species is probably explained by the fact that RBP participates in at least three types of molecular interactions: in the binding of prealbumin, in the interaction with retinol, and in the recognition of a specific cell surface receptor. All these interactions should lead to a conservation of RBP structure. The amino acid differences between rabbit, rat, and human RBP are discussed in
A short sequence of predominantly basic amino acids Pro-Pro-Lys-Lys-Lys-Arg-Lys-Val from SV40 Large T is responsible for the normal nuclear location of the protein. Alteration of Lys-128 to each of six different residues other than Arg renders Large T cytoplasmic, whereas single amino acid changes in the surrounding region impair but do not prevent nuclear accumulation. When transposed to the amino terminus of cytoplasmic Large T species, or Escherichia coli β-galactosidase or of chicken muscle pyruvate kinase, the sequence around Lys-128 of Large T is able to direct the recipient protein to the nucleus. This demonstrates that these amino acids can be sufficient for nuclear location and can act as a nuclear location signal. A computer search of over 2500 proteins reveals that some other nuclear proteins (for example, BK virus Large T, SV40 VP2 and adenovirus 72kDa DNA binding protein) contain very similar basic tracts, but so too do some presumed non-nuclear proteins (for example, poliovirus ...
Mc kean, D J.; Potter, M; and Hood, L, Amino acid sequence comparison of three new balb/c mouse kappa chains. Abstr. (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 679 ...
We report the sequence of a 4.5-kb cDNA clone isolated from a human melanoma library which bears high amino acid sequence identity to the yeast mitochondrial (mt) DNA polymerase (Mip1p). This cDNA contains a 3720-bp open reading frame encoding a predicted 140-kDa polypeptide that is 43% identical to Mip1p. The N-terminal part of the sequence contains a 13 glutamine stretch encoded by a CAG trinucleotide repeat which is not found in the other DNA polymerases gamma (Pol gamma). Multiple amino acid sequence alignments with Pol gamma from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Pichia pastoris, Drosophila melanogaster, Xenopus laevis and Mus musculus show that these DNA polymerases form a family strongly conserved from yeast to man and are only loosely related to the Family A DNA polymerases. ...
Abstract: Recognition of the phosphorylation sites in proteins is required for reconstruction of regulatory processes in living systems. This task is complicated because the phosphorylation motifs in amino acid sequences are considerably degenerated. To improve the prediction efficacy researchers often use additional descriptors, which should reflect physicochemical features of site-surrounding regions. We have evaluated the reasonability of this approach by applying molecular descriptors (MNA) for structural presentation of the peptide segments. Comparative testing was performed using the prognostic method PASS and two input data types: sets of the MNA descriptors represented peptides as chemical structures and amino acid sequences written using a one-letter code. Training sets were classified in accordance with the established types of the enzymes (protein kinases), modifying corresponding phosphorylation sites. The accuracy estimates obtained by prognosis validation for various classes of ...
We have studied two related proteins that contain a repeated amino acid motif homologous to the anti-angiogenic type 1 repeats of thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). Complete sequence analysis revealed no other similarities with TSP1, but identified unique signal sequences, as well as metalloprotease and disintegrin-like domains in the NH(2) termini. We named these proteins METH-1 and METH-2 due to the novel combination of metalloprotease and thrombospondin domains. Overall amino acid sequence identity between METH-1 and METH-2 is 51. 7%, yet transcript distribution revealed non-overlapping patterns of expression in tissues and cultured cell lines. To characterize these proteins functionally, we isolated full-length cDNAs, produced recombinant protein, and generated antisera to the recombinant proteins. Both METH-1 and METH-2 represent single copy genes, which encode secreted and proteolytically processed proteins. METH proteins suppressed fibroblast growth factor-2-induced vascularization in the cornea pocket
The carboxyl-terminal sequences of the two polypeptide chains of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae K1 killer toxin were determined by protein sequencing and amino acid analysis of peptide fragments generated from the mature, secreted toxin. The COOH-terminal amino acid of the beta chain is histidine 316, the final residue encoded by the precursor gene. The COOH terminus of the alpha chain is at alanine 147 of the preprotoxin. Amino acid composition data for the purified toxin are consistent with that predicted from the gene sequence of the preprotoxin where the alpha and beta subunits consist of amino acid residues 45-147 and 234-316, respectively. The molecular weight of the mature alpha beta dimer is about 20,658. The COOH-terminal sequence determination completes the location of the toxin subunits in the precursor, and its configuration may be represented as prepropeptide-Pro-Arg-alpha-Arg-Arg-gamma-Lys-Arg-beta, where gamma represents the interstitial glycosylated peptide. The COOH terminal side of the
Chemical modification using thiol-directed agents and site-directed mutagenesis have been used to investigate the crucial role of an active site cysteine residue within the substrate-binding domain of human type I Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase. Irreversible inhibition of enzymic activity is provoked by chemical modification of the enzyme by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), 5,5´-dithio-2-nitrobenzoic acid, iodoacetate and to a much smaller extent by iodoacetamide. The alkylation reaction by NEM is prevented in the presence of Ins(1,4,5)P3. The results indicate that NEM binds at the active site of the enzyme with a stoichiometry of 0.9 mol of NEM per mol of enzyme. A single [14C]NEM-modified peptide was isolated after α-chymotrypsin proteolysis of the radiolabelled enzyme and reverse-phase HPLC. Sequence analysis of the active site-labelled peptide (i.e. MNTRCPAWCD) demonstrated that Cys348 contained the radiolabel. Furthermore two mutant enzymes were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine ...
Roswit W.T., McCourt D.W., Partridge N.C., Jeffrey J.J.. Two protein inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) were isolated from medium conditioned by the clonal rat osteosarcoma line UMR 106-01. Initial purification of both a 30-kDa inhibitor and a 20-kDa inhibitor was accomplished using heparin-Sepharose chromatography with dextran sulfate elution followed by DEAE-Sepharose and CM-Sepharose chromatography. Purification of the 20-kDa inhibitor to homogeneity was completed with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The 20-kDa inhibitor was identified as rat TIMP-2. The 30-kDa inhibitor, although not purified to homogeneity, was identified as rat TIMP-1. Amino terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the 30-kDa inhibitor demonstrated 86% identity to human TIMP-1 for the first 22 amino acids while the sequence of the 20-kDa inhibitor was identical to that of human TIMP-2 for the first 22 residues. Treatment with peptide:N-glycosidase F indicated that the 30-kDa rat inhibitor is ...
Author: Schödel, Florian et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1988; Title: Letter to the Editor : Amino Acid Sequence Similarity Between Retroviral and E. coli RNase H and Hepadnaviral Gene Products
Schuermann A., Brauers A., Massmann S., Becker W., Joost H.-G.. cDNA clones of two novel Ras-related GTP-binding proteins (RagA and RagB) were isolated from rat and human cDNA libraries. Their deduced amino acid sequences comprise four of the six known conserved GTP-binding motifs (PM1, -2, -3, G1), the remaining two (G2, G3) being strikingly different from those of the Ras family, and an unusually large C-terminal domain (100 amino acids) presumably unrelated to GTP binding. RagA and RagB differ by seven conservative amino acid substitutions (98% identity), and by 33 additional residues at the N terminus of RagB. In addition, two isoforms of RagB (RagBs and RagB1) were found that differed only by an insertion of 28 codons between the GTP-binding motifs PM2 and PM3, apparently generated by alternative mRNA splicing. Polymerase chain reaction amplification with specific primers indicated that both long and short form of RagB transcripts were present in adrenal gland, thymus, spleen, and kidney, ...
Start Over You searched for: Formats Text ✖Remove constraint Formats: Text Subjects Amino Acid Sequence ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Amino Acid Sequence Subjects Molecular Sequence Data ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Molecular Sequence Data Titles Hox-1.11 and Hox-4.9 Homeobox Genes ✖Remove constraint Titles: Hox-1.11 and Hox-4.9 Homeobox Genes Publication Year 1992 ✖Remove constraint Publication Year: 1992 ...
The two cotranslational processes, cleavage of N‐terminal methionine residues and N‐terminal acetylation, are by far the most common modifications, occurring on the vast majority of proteins. Proteins from prokaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts initiate with formylmethionine, whereas proteins from the cytosol of eukaryotes initiate with methionine. The formyl group is removed from prokaryotic proteins by a deformylase, resulting in methionine at the N‐termini. The methionine at the N‐termini is cleaved from nascent chains of most prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins. N‐terminal acetylation occurs subsequently on certain of the proteins, either containing or lacking the methionine residue. This N‐terminal acetylation occurs on more than one‐half of eukaryotic proteins, but seldom on prokaryotic proteins (Driessen et al., 1985; Kendall et al., 1990).. Because the N‐terminal region of yeast iso‐1‐cytochrome c (iso‐1) is dispensable for biosynthesis, function and ...
Alazawi W, Heath H, et al. Stat2 loss leads to cytokine-independent, cell-mediated lethality in LPS-induced sepsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(21):8656-8661, 2013 [95].. Arnold, ES, SC Ling, et al. ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations produce aberrant RNA splicing and adult-onset motor neuron disease without aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP- 43. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(8):E736- E745, 2013 [96].. Burdick RC, Hu WS, Pathak VK. Nuclear import of APOBEC3F-labeled HIV-1 preintegration complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(49):E4780-E4789, 2013 [97].. Chen J, Feigenbaum L, et al. Insulin-dependent diabetes induced by pancreatic beta cell expression of IL-15 and IL-15R alpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(33):13534- 13539, 2013 [98].. Feng MQ, Gao W, et al. Therapeutically targeting glypican-3 via a conformation-specific single-domain antibody in hepatocellular carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(12):E1083-E1091, 2013 [99].. Kim TS, Park JE, Shukla A, Choi S, Murugan RN, Lee JH, Ahn M, Rhee K, ...
The omc gene, encoding the outer membrane protein-macromolecular complex (OMP-MC), was cloned in two pieces from Neisseria gonorrhoeae 2686. The 5 fragment of the omc gene included a promoter sequence, as indicated by its unregulated expression in Escherichia coli. Attempts to reconstruct an intact omc gene were unsuccessful, suggesting that expression of the complete OMP-MC protein was toxic to E. coli. Complete sequence determination revealed a coding sequence of 2,133 nucleotides; the deduced amino acid sequence indicated a mature protein of 687 amino acids with an NH2-terminal signal peptide of 24 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that the NH2-terminal half of OMP-MC is generally hydrophilic, while the COOH-terminal portion contains alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. Serological analyses demonstrated that the NH2-terminal portion of OMP-MC is exposed on the gonococcal surface and the COOH-terminal portion is membrane associated. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RevTrans: multiple alignment of coding DNA from aligned amino acid sequences. AU - Wernersson, Rasmus. AU - Pedersen, Anders Gorm. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - The simple fact that proteins are built from 20 amino acids while DNA only contains four different bases, means that the signal-to-noise ratio in protein sequence alignments is much better than in alignments of DNA. Besides this information-theoretical advantage, protein alignments also benefit from the information that is implicit in empirical substitution matrices such as BLOSUM-62. Taken together with the generally higher rate of synonymous mutations over non-synonymous ones, this means that the phylogenetic signal disappears much more rapidly from DNA sequences than from the encoded proteins. It is therefore preferable to align coding DNA at the amino acid level and it is for this purpose we have constructed the program RevTrans. RevTrans constructs a multiple DNA alignment by: (i) translating the DNA; (ii) aligning ...
Exported prokaryotic proteins typically contain an amino-terminal extension called the signal peptide. Although signal sequences display little primary sequence homology, they share features which promote secretion through the same pathway. These characteristics include a net positive charge in the amino-teminus, a hydrophobic core with $\alpha$-helical propensity, and a cleavage region which contains small side chain residues in the $-$1 and $-$3 positions. The goals of this research are to further analyze the requirement for each property, to determine whether the different features operate at concurrent steps and, ultimately, to correlate the physical features with their functional role(s).^ The alkaline phosphatase signal sequence represents a typical signal peptide and serves as a prototype for designing mutants with simplified sequences that facilitate the delineation of the required physical features. A series of signal sequences varying in amino terminal charge and core region hydrophobicity
A human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding protein from serum of cancer patients was purified to homogeneity and partially sequenced. Synthetic DNA probes based on amino acid sequence information were used to isolate cDNA clones encoding a receptor for TNF. The TNF receptor (TNF-R) is a 415 amino acid polypeptide with a single membrane-spanning region. The extracellular cysteine-rich domain of the TNF-R is homologous to the nerve growth factor receptor and the B cell activation protein Bp50. Human embryonic kidney cells transfected with a TNF-R expression vector specifically bind both 125I-labeled and biotinylated TNF-alpha. Unlabeled TNF-alpha and TNF-beta were equally effective at displacing the binding of labeled TNF-alpha to TNF-R expressing cells. Northern analysis indicates a single species of mRNA for the TNF-R in a variety of cell types. Therefore, the soluble TNF binding protein found in human serum is probably proteolytically derived from the TNF-R. ...
Examples of such classifications, generico do remedio evista some of which overlap include, nonpolar (ie, hydrophobic) amino acid residues can include alanine (Ala or A), leucine (Leu or L), isoleucine (Ile or I), valine (Val or V), proline (Pro or P), phenylalanine (Phe or F), tryptophan (Trp or W) and methionine (Met or M); polar neutral amino acid residues can include glycine (Gly or G), serine (Ser or S), threonine (Thr or T), cysteine (Cys or C), tyrosine (Tyr or Y), asparagine (Asn or N) and glutamine (Gln or Q); small amino acids include glycine (Gly or G), and alanine (Ala or A); hydrophobic amino acid residues can include valine (Val or V), leucine (Leu or L), isoleucine (Ile or I), methionine (Met or M), and proline (Pro or P); nucleophilic amino acids can include serine (Ser or S), threonine (Thr or T), and cysteine (Cys or C); aromatic amino acids can include phenylalanine (Phe or F), tyrosine (Tyr or Y), and tryptophan (Trp or W); amide amino acids can include asparagine (Asn or N), ...
New YorkCrossRefGoogle ScholarDayhoff MO, download Teaching Harry Potter: The science, Park CM( 1972) A player of technological club in causes. so: Dayhoff MO( research) performance of theory pp. and education, archaeological edn. National Biomedical Research Foundation, Washington, DCGoogle Scholarde AlencarFigueiredo LF, Sine B, Chantereau J et al( 2010) material of implementation god in conspiracy: method with Money in Sh2, Bt2, SssI, Ae1, Wx and O2. 1185CrossRefGoogle ScholarEyras E, Reymond A, Castelo R, Bye JM, Camara F, Flicek information, Huckle EJ, Parra G, Shteynberg DD, Wyss C, Rogers J, Antonarakis SE, Birney E, Guigo R, Brent MR( 2005) Gene project in the prediction minister. BMC Bioinforma 6(1):131CrossRefGoogle ScholarGill BS, Appels R, Botha-Oberholster AM et al( 2004) A read representation on rationale policy Breaking: challenging performance age on basis journal. 1096CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle ScholarGnerrea S, MacCallum I, Przybyiski D et al( 2011) sentence device ...
Human cellular nucleic acid binding protein (CNBP) is a zinc finger DNA binding protein of unknown function. The human CNBP cDNA was used as a probe to isolate four structurally distinct but highly homologous mouse liver cDNA clones. Each of the mouse clones exhibited extraordinary sequence conservation with human CNBP cDNA, and the predicted mouse amino acid sequence identities with human CNBP protein ranged from 99 to 100%. Genetic mapping of CNBP genes in interspecific and intersubspecific mouse backcrosses revealed two loci that hybridize to CNBP cDNA at high stringency, located on chromosomes 5 and 6. The subcellular distribution of the CNBP protein was characterized with a specific polyclonal antibody generated against a synthetic peptide from the carboxyl terminus. CNBP was found in the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum in subcellular fractions from mouse liver, but was undetectable in nuclear fractions. These data suggest that CNBP is a member of a highly conserved family of
Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases form a large, evolutionarily old family of NAD(P)(H)-dependent enzymes with over 60 genes found in the human genome. Despite low levels of sequence identity (often 10-30%), the three-dimensional structures display a highly similar alpha/beta folding pattern. We have analyzed the role of several conserved residues regarding folding, stability, steady-state kinetics, and coenzyme binding using bacterial 3beta/17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and selected mutants. Structure determination of the wild-type enzyme at 1.2-A resolution by x-ray crystallography and docking analysis was used to interpret the biochemical data. Enzyme kinetic data from mutagenetic replacements emphasize the critical role of residues Thr-12, Asp-60, Asn-86, Asn-87, and Ala-88 in coenzyme binding and catalysis. The data also demonstrate essential interactions of Asn-111 with active site residues. A general role of its side chain interactions for maintenance of the active site configuration to
MGI protein superfamily detail pages represent the protein classification set for a homeomorphic superfamily from the Protein Information Resource SuperFamily (PIRSF) site.. Mouse superfamily members are shown with links to their corresponding HomoloGene Classes. Note that pseudogenes are included in PIRSF families but not in orthology sets used here. You can select a given mouse superfamily member and download (or forward to NCBI BLAST) FASTA formatted protein sequences of that mouse gene and its mouse, human and rat homologs, as defined in the corresponding HomoloGene Class. The numbers of mouse, human and rat genes in the HomoloGene Class are shown. You can also Select all mouse superfamily members to obtain their protein sequences and the protein sequences for all mouse, human and rat homologs of the mouse superfamily members.. The number of protein sequences returned does not always match the numbers of homologs shown, because the same protein sequence can be associated with multiple ...
1. Monoclonal antibody binding to human CD40, comprising (i) two heavy chains, each of which contains a constant region derived from human IgG4, with the substitution of serine with Proline at position 228 and the substitution of LEU is in glutamic acid at position 235, and the variable region of the heavy chain of the monoclonal antibody produced by hybridoma 4D11 (no access FERM BP-7758), and (ii) two light chains, each of which contains the variable region of the light chain of the monoclonal antibodies produced by hybridoma 4D11 (no access FERM BP-7758).. 2. Monoclonal antibody binding to human CD40, comprising (i) two heavy chains, each of which contains a constant region derived from human IgG4, with the substitution of serine with Proline at position 228 and the substitution of leucine glutamic acid at position 235, and variable region represented by amino acid sequence in the range from Q at position 27 to S at position 147 in SEQ ID NO:46, and (ii) two light chains, each of which ...
Аннотация доклада: A new algorithm Zebra and a corresponding web-server have been developed to systematically study diverse protein superfamilies and identify the subfamily-specific positions (SSPs) - conserved only within functional subfamilies but different between them - that seem to be responsible for different substrate specificity, catalytic activity, stability, etc. [1]. It is known from experimental enzymology that mutations in the active site can change enantioselectivity, substrate specificity and catalytic promiscuity more effectively than distant ones. However, both close and distant mutations can be important for activity and stability thus highlighting complexity of evolutionary adaptation. Therefore, to identify functionally important SSPs a novel scoring function is suggested that incorporates structural information as well as physicochemical and residue conservation in protein subfamilies. The algorithm does not require pre-defined subfamilies and can propose ...
We propose hierarchical motif vectors to represent local amino acid sequence configurations for predicting the functional attributes of amino acid sites on a global scale in a quasi-supervised learning framework. The motif vectors are constructed via wavelet decomposition on the variations of physico-chemical amino acid properties along the sequences. We then formulate a prediction scheme for the functional attributes of amino acid sites in terms of the respective motif vectors using the quasi-supervised learning algorithm that carries out predictions for all sites in consideration using only the experimentally verified sites. We have carried out comparative performance evaluation of the proposed method on the prediction of N-glycosylation of 55,184 sites possessing the consensus N-glycosylation sequon identified over 15,104 human proteins, out of which only 1,939 were experimentally verified N-glycosylation sites. In the experiments, the proposed method achieved better predictive performance ...
Stanniocalcins (STCs) represent small glycoprotein hormones, found in all vertebrates, which have been functionally implicated in Calcium homeostasis. However, recent data from mammalian systems indicated that they may be also involved in embryogenesis, tumorigenesis and in the context of the latter especially in angiogenesis. Human STC1 is a 247 amino acids protein with a predicted molecular mass of 27 kDa, but preliminary data suggested its di- or multimerization. The latter in conjunction with alternative splicing and/or post-translational modification gives rise to forms described as STC50 and big STC, which molecular weights range from 56 to 135 kDa. In this study we performed a biochemical and structural analysis of STC1 with the aim of obtaining low resolution structural information about the human STC1, since structural information in this protein family is scarce. We expressed STC1 in both E. coli and insect cells using the baculo virus system with a C-terminal 6 × His fusion tag. From the
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The IC 50 (concentration of drug causing 50% growth inhibition) was then calculated! Examples of such classifications, protonix where to buy some of which overlap include, nonpolar (ie, hydrophobic) amino acid residues can include alanine (Ala or A), leucine (Leu or L), isoleucine (Ile or I), valine (Val or V), proline (Pro or P), phenylalanine (Phe or F), tryptophan (Trp or W) and methionine (Met or M); polar neutral amino acid residues can include glycine (Gly or G), serine (Ser or S), threonine (Thr or T), cysteine (Cys or C), tyrosine (Tyr or Y), asparagine (Asn or N) and glutamine (Gln or Q); small amino acids include glycine (Gly or G), and alanine (Ala or A); hydrophobic amino acid residues can include valine (Val or V), leucine (Leu or L), isoleucine (Ile or I), methionine (Met or M), and proline (Pro or P); nucleophilic amino acids can include serine (Ser or S), threonine (Thr or T), and cysteine (Cys or C); aromatic amino acids can include phenylalanine (Phe or F), tyrosine (Tyr or Y), ...
A tonoplast protein of 31 kDa apparent molecular mass (TpP 31) was isolated from two-dimensional gels. Amino acid sequences were determined from LysC endoproteinase-peptide fragments. Using degenerate oligonucleotides, a corresponding cDNA clone of 1034 bp was isolated from a barley leaf cDNA library. It encodes for subunit E of the vacuolar H+-ATPase, the first one identi fled in plants so far. The open reading frame extends over 681 bp, encoding a gene product of 227 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight of 26 228 g mol(-1). Northern and Western blot analysis indicates constitutive expression of subunit E in all plant organs with only small effects of salt stress. Localization of TpP 31 at the tonoplast was confirmed in fractions of purified vacuolar membrane obtained by free-flow electrophoresis. Immunoprecipitation of newly synthesized S-35-labelled membrane proteins with anti-TpP 31 gave two additional bands with apparent molecular masses of about 53 and 62 kDa. Gel filtration after ...
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Cytochrome P-450 catalyzed reactions are extremely important in the metabolic pathways of both pro- and eucaryotes. Detailed mechanistic understanding of this superfamily, however, has been hampered by the availability of only one well characterized procaryotic system. Preliminary characterization of cytochrome P-450lin (P-450lin), the enzyme responsible for the 8-methyl hydroxylation of linalool as the first committed step of Pseudomonas incognitas utilization of that substrate as its sole carbon source, indicates its importance in expanding the foundation of the P-450 superfamily. Paramount to detailed mechanistic dissection, however, is the availability of a genetic handle, reagent quantities of pure enzyme and a reliable tertiary structure. Herein, we describe the realization of the first two goals which should aid in the completion of the third. Utilizing a Polymerase Chain Reaction-based cloning strategy based on the P-450lin NH$\sb2$-terminal and tryptic-fragment amino acid sequence, the ...
The DNA sequence of the whole of the short unique region (U S ) and that of part of the short terminal repeat (TR S ) of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) were determined. HVT U S is 8·6 kbp long and contains eight potential open reading frames (ORFs). Seven of these have counterparts in the U S of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The homologous proteins include US1, US2, US10, protein kinase (US3) and the glycoproteins gD, gI and gE. In addition, HVT contains one ORF which has a counterpart in the U S of Marek's disease virus (MDV) but is not homologous to any other known herpesvirus gene. Although HVT and MDV proteins encoded by U S genes have evident similarities with proteins encoded by alphaherpesviruses, multiple alignment analysis of predicted amino acid sequences show that HVT proteins are more closely related to MDV proteins than to homologous proteins of mammalian alphaherpesviruses. The percentage amino acid identity between HVT and MDV U S -encoded proteins ranges from 35 to 65, the
A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing ...
Proteins are lairge biological molecules, or macromolecules, consistin o ane or mair chains o amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array o functions athin organisms, includin catalysin metabolic reactions, DNA replication, respondin tae stimuli, an transportin molecules frae ane location tae anither. Proteins differ frae ane anither primarily in thair sequence o amino acids, that is dictatit bi the nucleotide sequence o thair genes, an that uisually results in protein foldin intae a speceefic three-dimensional structur that determines its acteevity. A linear cheen o amino acid residues is cried a polypeptide. A protein conteens at least ane lang polypeptide. Short polypeptides, conteenin less nor 20-30 residues, are rarely conseedert tae be proteins an are commonly cried peptides, or whiles oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bondit thegither bi peptide bonds an adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence o amino acid residues in a protein is defined bi the sequence o a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of systematic variation of amino acid sequence on the mechanical properties of a self-assembling, oligopeptide biomaterial. AU - Caplan, Michael. AU - Schwartzfarb, Elissa M.. AU - Zhang, Shuguang. AU - Kamm, Roger D.. AU - Lauffenburger, Douglas A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - In order to elucidate design principles for biocompatible materials that can be created by in situ transformation from self-assembling oligopeptides, we investigate a class of oligopeptides that can self-assemble in salt solutions to form three-dimensional matrices. This class of peptides possesses a repeated sequence of amino acid residues with the type: hydrophobic/negatively-charged/hydrophobic/positively-charged. We systematically vary three chief aspects of this sequence type: (1) the hydrophobic side chains; (2) the charged side chains; and (3) the number of repeats. Each of these has been previously shown to influence the self-assembly properties of these materials. Employing a rheometric ...
Predicting the function of newly discovered proteins by simply inspecting their amino acid sequence is one of the major challenges of post-genomic computational biology, especially when done without recourse to experimentation or homology information. Machine learning classifiers are able to discriminate between proteins belonging to different functional classes. Until now, however, it has been unclear if this ability would be transferable to proteins of unknown function, which may show distinct biases compared to experimentally more tractable proteins. Here we show that proteins with known and unknown function do indeed differ significantly. We then show that proteins from different bacterial species also differ to an even larger and very surprising extent, but that functional classifiers nonetheless generalize successfully across species boundaries. We also show that in the case of highly specialized proteomes classifiers from a different, but more conventional, species may in fact outperform the
TOC: Baldwin boosters, Baldwin skeptics , Baldwin and his many effects / David J. Depew , Baldwin effects and the expansion of the explanatory repertoire in evolutionary biology / Stephen M. Downes , Between Baldwin skepticism and Baldwin boosterism / Peter Godfrey-Smith , The Baldwin effect: a crane, not a skyhook / Daniel Dennett , Multilevel selection in a complex adaptive system: the problem of language origins / Terrence W. Deacon , Postscript on the Baldwin effect and niche construction / Peter Godfrey-Smith, Daniel Dennett, and Terrence W. Deacon , Evolution, development, and the individual acquisition of traits: what weve learned since Baldwin / Celia L. Moore , Baldwin and beyond: organic selection and genetic assimilation / Brian K. Hall , On having a hammer / Susan Oyama , Beyond the Baldwin effect: James Mark Baldwins Social Heredity, epigenetic inheritance, and niche construction / Paul E. Griffiths , The Baldwin effect in the age of computation / Ruben R. Puentedura , Role of ...
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20-30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of ...
The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino ... Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes. Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence ... amino acids. All proteinogenic amino acids possess common structural features, including an α-carbon to which an amino group, a ... Sequence motif. Short amino acid sequences within proteins often act as recognition sites for other proteins.[22] For instance ...
The complete amino acid sequence". European Journal of Biochemistry. 169 (3): 547-53. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb13644.x. ... The complete amino acid sequence". European Journal of Biochemistry. 169 (3): 547-53. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb13644.x. ... Cyanogen bromide cleavage and N-terminal sequences of the fragments". The Biochemical Journal. 215 (3): 565-71. doi:10.1042/ ... Partial sequence determination of the heavy chain and identification of the peptide bond cleaved during activation". European ...
Amino acid or cDNA sequencing Determination of amino acid sequence. See also[edit]. *Ero1 ... Glycoproteins are proteins which contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains. The ... but also on tyrosine or non-canonical amino acids such as hydroxylysine & hydroxyproline. ... Compositional analysis following acid hydrolysis Identifies sugars that the glycoprotein contains and their stoichiometry. ...
The complete amino acid sequence". J. Biol. Chem. 246 (18): 5770-84. PMID 5096093. Saxe DF, Takahashi N, Hood L, Simon MI (1985 ... Carnegie PR (1972). "Amino acid sequence of the encephalitogenic basic protein from human myelin". Biochem. J. 123 (1): 57-67. ... Gibson BW, Gilliom RD, Whitaker JN, Biemann K (1984). "Amino acid sequence of human myelin basic protein peptide 45-89 as ... "Complete amino acid sequence of PO protein in bovine peripheral nerve myelin". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (9): 4208-14. PMID 2435734. ...
Purification, properties, and amino acid sequence". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 254 (22): 11475-84. PMID 500653.. ... thymidylic acid, and certain amino acids. While the functional dihydrofolate reductase gene has been mapped to chromosome 5, ... Masters JN, Attardi G (1983). "The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA coding for the human dihydrofolic acid reductase". Gene. 21 ... translation repressor activity, nucleic acid binding. • sequence-specific mRNA binding. • NADP binding. ...
Purification and amino acid sequence.». Eur. J. Biochem. 188 (3): 501-6. PMID 2110056. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1990.tb15428.x. ... Amino acid sequence of the reduced S-aminoethylated protein.». Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 179 (1): 189-99. PMID 843082. doi: ...
... is a 9-amino acid peptide chain. The amino acid sequence of bradykinin is: Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg ( ... Bradykinin is a physiologically and pharmacologically active peptide of the kinin group of proteins, consisting of nine amino ...
In general, prediction tools take as input information about a protein, such as a protein sequence of amino acids, and produce ... Emanuelsson O (Dec 2002). "Predicting protein subcellular localisation from amino acid sequence information". Briefings in ...
Findlay JB, Brew K (1972). «The complete amino-acid sequence of human -lactalbumin.». Eur. J. Biochem. 27 (1): 65-86. DOI: ... Prager EM, Wilson AC (1988). «Ancient origin of lactalbumin from lysozyme: analysis of DNA and amino acid sequences». J. Mol. ... Giuffrida MG, Cavaletto M, Giunta C, et al. (1998). «The unusual amino acid triplet Asn-Ile-Cys is a glycosylation consensus ... identification and characterisation of plasmids containing human alpha-lactalbumin cDNA sequences». Nucleic Acids Res. 9 (1): ...
... compared amino acid compositions in the same histone from different organisms, and compared amino acid sequences of the same ... The single-letter amino acid abbreviation (e.g., K for Lysine) and the amino acid position in the protein ... 3. Complete amino acid sequence of pea seedling histone IV; comparison with the homologous calf thymus histone". The Journal of ... They share amino acid sequence homology and core structural similarity to a specific class of major histones but also have ...
"Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of leukotriene A4 hydrolase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (19): 6677-81. doi: ... Enzymatic conversion into 5,6-dihydroxy-7,9,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid by mouse liver cytosolic epoxide hydrolase". J. Biol. ...
1997). "The complete amino acid sequence of human placental oxytocinase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1352 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1016/ ...
Sequence[edit]. The amino acid sequence (44 long) of human GHRH is:. HO - Tyr - Ala - Asp - Ala - Ile - Phe - Thr - Asn - Ser ... amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. ...
Comparison of their deduced amino acid sequences". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263 (35): 18920-8. PMID 3198605.. ... which varies in the last 11 amino acids of its C-terminal sequence: in the luminal domain, the transmembrane domain, and the ... Some of this is done via acid hydrolases that degrade foreign materials and have specialized autolytic functions. These ... Konecki DS, Foetisch K, Schlotter M, Lichter-Konecki U (November 1994). "Complete cDNA sequence of human lysosome-associated ...
The NAPEPLD cDNA sequence predicts 396 amino acid sequences in both mice and rats, which are 89% and 90% identical to that of ... "Amino Acid Sequencing". W.M. Keck Facility at Yale. 2006-10-23. Retrieved 2009-01-12. The Procise 494 cLC is described from the ... Regulation of Fatty Acid Ethanolamide Biosynthesis by Bile Acids". Structure. 23 (3): 598-604. doi:10.1016/j.str.2014.12.018. ... Bile acids bind with high affinity to selective pockets in this cavity, enhancing dimer assembly and enabling catalysis. NAPE- ...
... such as DNA sequences, protein amino acid sequences, or morphology, often under a specified model of evolution of these traits ... Bremer, Kåre (1988). "The Limits of Amino Acid Sequence Data in Angiosperm Phylogenetic Reconstruction". Evolution. 42 (4): 795 ... In February 2021, scientists reported, for the first time, the sequencing of DNA from animal remains, a mammoth in this ... Felsenstein, Joseph (1981). "Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: A maximum likelihood approach". Journal of Molecular ...
Jeang, K. T. (1996) In: Human Retroviruses and AIDS: "A Compilation and Analysis of Nucleic Acid and Amino Acid Sequences". Los ... The minimum Tat sequence that can mediate specific TAR binding in vitro has been mapped to a basic domain of 10 amino acids, ... The amino acid sequence of the protein transduction domain is YGRKKRRQRRR.[13] The nuclear localisation signal found within the ... The protein consists of between 86 and 101 amino acids depending on the subtype.[3] Tat vastly increases the level of ...
1990). "Sequence of human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin cDNA: identity of deduced amino acid sequence with human nonsecretory ... 1988). "Amino acid sequence of the nonsecretory ribonuclease of human urine". Biochemistry. 27 (12): 4530-8. doi:10.1021/ ... nucleic acid binding. • lipopolysaccharide binding. • ribonuclease activity. • lyase activity. Cellular component. • ... evidence for intronless coding sequences in the ribonuclease gene superfamily". Genomics. 7 (4): 535-46. doi:10.1016/0888-7543( ...
Amino acid sequence of heavy-chain cyanogen bromide fragments H1-H4". Biochemistry. 9 (16): 3161-70. doi:10.1021/bi00818a008. ... 8. Amino acid sequence of heavy-chain cyanogen bromide fragments H5-H7". Biochemistry. 9 (16): 3171-81. doi:10.1021/bi00818a009 ... "The nucleotide sequence of a human immunoglobulin C gamma1 gene". Nucleic Acids Res. 10 (13): 4071-9. doi:10.1093/nar/10.13. ... 2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ ...
Amino acid sequence. Marketed Cetrorelix. Ac-D-Nal-D-Cpa-D-Pal-Ser-Tyr-D-Cit-Leu-Arg-Pro-D-Ala-NH2. Yes ...
Amino acid sequence Opioid receptor target(s) References Enkephalins Leu-enkephalin. YGGFL. δ-opioid receptor†, μ-opioid ... The opioid food peptides have lengths of typically 4-8 amino acids. The body's own opioids are generally much longer. ... and the sequence of the neuropeptides themselves. Sequence analysis reveals that the conserved N-terminal region of the ... Peptide sequence. YGGFLRRIRPKLKWDNQKRYGGFLRRQFKVVT. *^ Schwarzer C (September 2009). "30 years of dynorphins-new insights on ...
Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence.[46] They can be from 20-150 amino acids ... and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and glutamic acid.[46] In an aqueous solution, the transit sequence forms a ... Tic100 is a nuclear encoded protein that's 871 amino acids long. The 871 amino acids collectively weigh slightly less than 100 ... both very common in chloroplast transit sequences-making up 20-30% of the sequence)[49] are often the amino acids that accept ...
RHGH (rHGH, rhGH) refers to recombinant human growth hormone, that is, somatropin (INN). Its amino acid sequence is identical ... It had the same amino acid sequence as human GH with an extra methionine at the end of the chain to facilitate the ... Eli Lilly launched a competing natural sequence growth hormone (Humatrope). Pharmacia (formerly Kabi, now Pfizer) introduced ... "Growth hormone replacement therapy induces insulin resistance by activating the glucose-fatty acid cycle". J. Clin. Endocrinol ...
"The complete amino acid sequence of human skeletal-muscle fructose-bisphosphate aldolase". Biochem. J. 249 (3): 779-88. PMC ... Two histidine residues in the first half of the sequence of these homologs have been shown to be involved in binding zinc.[1] ... The two classes share little sequence identity. With few exceptions only class I proteins have been found in animals, plants, ... such as Sialic acid aldolase, which forms sialic acid. ... 4.1.3: Oxo-acid-lyases. *Isocitrate lyase. *3-hydroxy-3- ...
Barkholt V (September 1987). "Amino acid sequence of endothiapepsin. Complete primary structure of the aspartic protease from ... Endothiapepsin (EC 3.4.23.22, Endothia aspartic proteinase, Endothia acid proteinase, Endothia parasitica acid proteinase, ...
Amino acid sequence of the reduced S-aminoethylated protein". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 179 (1): 189-99. doi: ... Purification and amino acid sequence". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 188 (3): 501-6. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1990. ... Yamamoto T, Nakamura Y, Nishide J, Emi M, Ogawa M, Mori T, Matsubara K (Oct 1985). "Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence ...
The complete amino acid sequence". European Journal of Biochemistry. 169 (3): 547-553. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb13644.x. ... This peptide coupling is unique in that it occurs between the amino moiety of the cysteine and the terminal carboxylic acid of ... to metabolize γ-GC and GSH into its constituent amino acids. GCL enzymatic activity generally dictates cellular GSH levels and ...
Isolation and amino acid sequence". J. Biochem. 90 (4): 1205-11. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a133573. PMID 7309716. ... 2003). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6". Nature. 425 (6960): 805-811. Bibcode:2003Natur.425..805M. doi: ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 1986). "Enhancer-facilitated expression of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes using human histone gene 5' regulatory sequences". ...
Isolation and amino acid sequence". J. Biochem. 85 (2): 615-24. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a132371. PMID 422550. Dobner ... 2003). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6". Nature. 425 (6960): 805-11. Bibcode:2003Natur.425..805M. doi: ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
Liu J, Sessa WC (1994). "Identification of covalently bound amino-terminal myristic acid in endothelial nitric oxide synthase ... 1997). "Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing". Genome Res. 7 (4): 353-8. doi:10.1101/gr.7.4.353. PMC 139146 . PMID 9110174 ... Zhou W, Parent LJ, Wills JW, Resh MD (1994). "Identification of a membrane-binding domain within the amino-terminal region of ... 1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ...
... fatty acids, and amino acids in most vertebrates, including humans. Ketone bodies are elevated in the blood (ketosis) after ... Ozonolysis, and related dihydroxylation/oxidative sequences, cleave alkenes to give aldehydes or ketones, depending on alkene ... Acid/base properties of ketonesEdit. Ketones are far more acidic (pKa ≈ 20) than a regular alkane (pKa ≈ 50). This difference ... Acids as weak as pyridinium cation (as found in pyridinium tosylate) with a pKa of 5.2 are able to serve as catalysts in this ...
... a 50-amino acid deletion in prelamin A (amino acids 607-656) removes the site for the second endoproteolytic cleavage. ... Lamin A/C gene and a related sequence map to human chromosomes 1q12.1-q23 and 10. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. March 1993, 19 (2): ... Nucleic Acids Res. November 2002, 30 (21): 4634-42. PMC 135794. PMID 12409453. doi:10.1093/nar/gkf587.. ...
... amino acid sequence predicted tertiary structure, carbohydrate recognition and analysis of the b-prims fold". Protein Science. ...
Shome B، Parlow AF، Liu WK، Nahm HS، Wen T، Ward DN (سبتمبر 1989). "A reevaluation of the amino acid sequence of human ... Saxena BB، Rathnam P (1976). "Amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of follicle-stimulating hormone from human pituitary ... Shome B، Parlow AF (1974). "Human follicle stimulating hormone: first proposal for the amino acid sequence of the hormone- ... "Shotgun sequencing of the human transcriptome with ORF expressed sequence tags". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (7): 3491-6. ...
... residue in the sequence Asn-X-Ser or Asn-X-Thr where X is any amino acid except proline. This sequence is called a ... The high sequence similarity between the prokaryotic and the eukaryotic STT3 suggests that their structures are similar. ...
Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence.[42] They can be from 20-150 amino acids ... and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and glutamic acid.[42] In an aqueous solution, the transit sequence forms a ... Tic100 is a nuclear encoded protein that's 871 amino acids long. The 871 amino acids collectively weigh slightly less than 100 ... both very common in chloroplast transit sequences-making up 20-30% of the sequence)[45] are often the amino acids that accept ...
... the enzyme responsible for converting the amino acid tyrosine to the skin pigment melanin, and is used to treat acne-associated ... scientists reported the first genome sequencing of a C. acnes bacteriophage (PA6). The authors proposed applying this research ... Salicylic acid[edit]. Salicylic acid is a topically applied beta-hydroxy acid that stops bacteria from reproducing and has ... "Topical azelaic acid, salicylic acid, nicotinamide, sulphur, zinc and fruit acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) for acne". Cochrane ...
The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows:[3] ... Amino acid residues that are responsible for the binding of SP ... Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin ... Ebner K, Singewald N (Oct 2006). "The role of substance P in stress and anxiety responses". Amino Acids. 31 (3): 251-72. doi: ... The eleven-amino-acid structure of the peptide was determined by Susan Leeman in 1971.[6] ...
... es and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic acid sequence ... Japanese erotic art, shunga, includes ukiyo-e woodblock prints such as Katsushika Hokusai's 1814 print Tako to ama (The Dream ... The California two-spot octopus has had its genome sequenced, allowing exploration of its molecular adaptations.[151] Having ... The arms can be described based on side and sequence position (such as L1, R1, L2, R2) and divided into four pairs.[23][22] The ...
... a gain of function after protein expansion from around 400 amino acids in Caulobacter crescentus to more than 800 amino acids ... In 2010, the Caulobacter NA1000 strain was sequenced and all differences with the CB15 "wild type" strain were identified.[6] ... "Complete genome sequence of Caulobacter crescentus". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
... a derivative of amino acid beta-alanine), oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE, a natural compound) and OLE's active ingredient para- ... revealed the presence of the DNA sequence of Borrelia burgdorferi making him the earliest known human with Lyme disease.[242] ... The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... the IDSA recommends treatment with cefuroxime or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, as these are effective against both infections.[ ...
"Complete amino acid sequence of the human progesterone receptor deduced from cloned cDNA". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ATPase binding. • zinc ion ... which are identical except for an additional 165 amino acids present only in the N terminus of hPR-B.[12] Although hPR-B shares ... at the amino acid terminal. This segment is not present in the receptor-A. ...
Phenylalanine is an amino acid that can be obtained from food. Phenylketonuria causes this amino acid to increase in amount in ... which converts the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine. Depending on the mutation involved, this conversion is reduced or ...
This excess sulfur is concentrated in spore coats as an amino acid, cysteine. It is believed that the macromolecule accountable ... 1967). "The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis". Nature. 390 (6657): 249-56. doi:10.1038 ... The endospore consists of the bacterium's DNA, ribosomes and large amounts of dipicolinic acid. Dipicolinic acid is a spore- ... The dipicolinic acid helps stabilize the proteins and DNA in the endospore.[14]:141 Next the peptidoglycan cortex forms between ...
Needleman, S. y Wunsch, C. (1970). "A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid sequence of ... "Similar amino acid sequences: chance or common ancestry?". Science 214 (4517).. *↑ Bartlett, J. M. S., Stirling, D. (2003). "A ... "Nucleic Acids Research 4 (11). Páxs. 4037-4051.. *↑ 33,0 33,1 Sanger, F.; et al. (1978). "The nucleotide sequence of ... C. elegans Sequencing Consortium (1998). "Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a platform for investigating biology". ...
They each share about 25% amino acid sequence identity with RAD51 and with each other.[28] ... In humans, RAD51 is a 339-amino acid protein that plays a major role in homologous recombination of DNA during double strand ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 25 (19): 3868-74. doi:10.1093/nar/25.19.3868. PMC 146972 . PMID 9380510.. ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (1): 169-78. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg925. PMC 373258 . PMID 14704354.. ...
... integral protein from its amino acid sequence and an experimental three-dimensional structure of a related homologous protein. ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 37 (Database issue): D274-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn862. PMC 2686586. PMID 19022853.. ... is embedded in the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer are alpha helical and composed of predominantly hydrophobic amino acids. ... which have their amino-terminus towards the cytosol. Type III proteins have multiple transmembrane domains in a single ...
... primer-dependent RNA synthesis utilizes a small 22-25 amino acid long viral protein linked to the genome (VPg) to initiate ... The CRE loop has a defined consensus sequence to which the initiation components bind, however; there is no consensus sequence ... Binding causes a conformational change in the viral capsid proteins, and myristic acid are released. These acids form a pore in ... Enteroviruses are stable under acid conditions and thus they are able to survive exposure to gastric acid. In contrast, ...
... such as the polyphenols and amino acids, but is a suspension when all of the insoluble components are considered, such as the ... in China and India based on nuclear microsatellites and cpDNA sequence data". Frontiers in Plant Science. 8: 2270. doi:10.3389/ ... Williamson, G; Dionisi, F; Renouf, M (2011). "Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative ... in China and India based on nuclear microsatellites and cpDNA sequence data. Frontiers in Plant Science, 25. ...
Gall y porwr hefyd ddangos data ar gydraniadau gwahanol, o ddangos caryoteipiau cyfan i ddangos dilyniannau DNA ac asidau amino ... January 2017). "Ensembl core software resources: storage and programmatic access for DNA sequence and genome annotation". ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 38 (Database issue): D557-62. January 2010. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp972. PMC 2808936. PMID 19906699. http://www. ... "Nucleic Acids Res 39 (Database issue): D800-D806. November 2010. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1064. PMC 3013672. PMID 21045057. http:// ...
... it lacks D-amino acids and N-acetylmuramic acid.[102]. Archaea flagella operate like bacterial flagella-their long stalks are ... In 1977, Carl Woese, a microbiologist studying the genetic sequencing of organisms, developed a new sequencing method that ... Deppenmeier, U. (2002). "The unique biochemistry of methanogenesis". Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. Progress in Nucleic Acid ... acetic acid or formic acid are used as alternative electron acceptors by methanogens. These reactions are common in gut- ...
... while long-period and short-period mutants of per changed the amino acid sequence of a still functional protein.[10][11] ... A new gene located on chromosome 2 was named timeless (tim) and was successfully cloned and sequenced. They found strong ... by determining the sequence of the gene on the X chromosome, they found that the arrhythmic mutation produced a functionless ...
Four hydrogen bonds form between polar side chains on TBP amino acid (Asn27, Asn117, Thr82, Thr173)( and bases in the minor ... This sequence was originally called Box A, which is now known to be the sequence that interacts with the homologue of the ... In the 1980s, while investigating nucleotide sequences in mouse genome loci, the Hogness box sequence was found and "boxed in" ... For example, one study used the adenovirus TATA promoter sequence (5'-CGCTATAAAAGGGC-3') as a model binding sequence and found ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ... Chemically, it consists mostly of fatty acid methyl (or ethyl) esters (FAMEs). Feedstocks for biodiesel include animal fats, ...
McMullen BA, Fujikawa K, Kisiel W, et al. (1983). „Complete amino acid sequence of the light chain of human blood coagulation ... factor X: evidence for identification of residue 63 as beta-hydroxyaspartic acid". Biochemistry 22 (12), 2875-84. o. DOI: ...
... encodes a 51.2 kDa protein that is composed of 474 amino acids; 124 peptides have been observed through mass spectrometry ... 2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ ... fatty acid metabolic process. • metabolism. • cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling. • fatty acid beta-oxidation. ... transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups. • enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. • long-chain-3- ...
... coding for a 10 amino acid truncated peptide, which is believed to mediate CPN tropism. Additionally, analysis of the sub- ... It is thought that these differences in promoter sequence contribute to the fitness of the virus in the CNS and thus to the ... JCV found in the central nervous system of PML patients almost invariably have differences in promoter sequence to the JCV ... "JC virus DNA sequences are frequently present in the human upper and lower gastrointestinal tract". Gastroenterology. 119 (5): ...
... is a small 69 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 4263-4331) that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a ... April 1981). "Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome". Nature. 290 (5806): 457-65. Bibcode:1981Natur.290.. ... May 2003). "A homoplasmic mitochondrial transfer ribonucleic acid mutation as a cause of maternally inherited hypertrophic ...
Amino acid sequence definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look ... amino acid sequence. noun 1. the unique sequence of amino acids that characterizes a given protein ...
The structure of a protein may be directly sequenced or inferred from the sequence of DNA. ... The protein primary structure conventionally begins at the amino-terminal (N) end and continues until the carboxyl-terminal (C ... Each protein or peptide consists of a linear sequence of amino acids. ... Amino Acids and Protein Sequences. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Amino-Acids-and-Protein-Sequences. ...
The amino acid sequence of dog (Canis familiaris) hemoglobin.. Brimhall B, Duerst M, Jones RT. ... The manual sequencing of the tryptic peptic from the alpha and beta chains of dog hemoglobin is described, including evidence ... Although the actual sequence was published in 1970, the evidence on which it was based has not previously appeared. ...
Any amino acid sequence that contains post-translationally modified amino acids may be described as the amino acid sequence ... 2) Amino acids: Amino acids are those L-amino acids commonly found in naturally occurring proteins and are listed in WIPO ... V. SEQUENCE IDENTIFIER. 37 CFR 1.821(c) requires that each disclosed nucleic acid or amino acid sequence in the application ... 37 CFR 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.. *(a) Nucleotide and/or amino acid ...
This specificity may not be conferred at the amino acid level, as sequences encoding the amino-terminal 15 amino acid residues ... Secretion signals have been mapped in several Yop proteins to sequences encoding the amino-terminal 15 amino acid residues (11 ... A conserved amino acid sequence directing intracellular type III secretion by Salmonella typhimurium. Edward A. Miao and Samuel ... The amino acid sequence of SspH1 and SlrP also sets them apart from other family members. Although they do contain the ...
The enumeration method for amino acid sequences that is set forth in this section remains applicable for amino acid sequences ... Two alternatives are presented for numbering amino acid sequences. Amino acid sequences may be numbered with respect to the ... those amino acids must also be set forth as a separate sequence if the amino acid sequence meets the length thresholds in 37 ... acid. *(3) An amino acid sequence shall be presented in the amino to carboxy direction, from left to right, and the amino and ...
... amino acid sequence explanation free. What is amino acid sequence? Meaning of amino acid sequence medical term. What does amino ... Looking for online definition of amino acid sequence in the Medical Dictionary? ... amino acid sequence. Also found in: Dictionary. amino acid sequence. the order in which AMINO ACIDS are placed along a protein ... uncharacterized amino acid sequences predicted from genome DNA sequences, and amino acid sequences of known function.. A "game ...
Mutated Sequence: TAC TGG CG TTA GRR GAT ATA ACT. mRNA Sequence: AUG ACC GC AAU CAA CUA UAU UGA. Amino Acid Sequence: met thr ... Similar Discussions: Determining mutated, mRNA, Amino Acid sequence * Acidity/basicity of amino acids (Replies: 1) ... The filled in answers are in bold And Im completely lost with the Amino Acid sequence, my TA did this in class and I still ... What mechanism is responsible for the sequencing of amino acids? (Replies: 1) ...
H-Histidine D-Aspartic acid E-Glutamic acid L-Leucine Three letter code is: His-Asp-Glu-Leu. ER retention KKXX (amino acid ... KDEL is a target peptide sequence in mammals and plants located on the C-terminal end of the amino acid structure of a protein ... K-Lysine D-Aspartic acid E-Glutamic acid L-Leucine Therefore, the KDEL sequence in three letter code is: Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu. The ... The abbreviation KDEL is formed by the corresponding letters to each amino acid. This letter system was defined by the IUPAC ...
HDEL is a target peptide sequence in plants and yeasts located on the C-terminal end of the amino acid structure of a protein. ... H-Histidine D-Aspartic acid E-Glutamic acid L-Leucine Three letter code is: His-Asp-Glu-Leu. Denecke J.; De Rycke R.; Botterman ... The similar sequence KDEL performs the same function in animals, while plants are known to utilize both KDEL and HDEL signaling ... The HDEL sequence prevents a protein from being secreted from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and facilitates its return if it ...
Acids as Inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B ... Oxalyl-Aryl-Amino Benzoic Acid inhibitors of PTP1B, compound 17 ... Structures of protein chains with identical sequences (sequence identity > 95%) are aligned, superimposed and clustered. ... Sequence Similarity Clusters for the Entities in PDB 1ONY Legend Entity #1 , Chains: A Protein-tyrosine phosphatase, non- ... Blast this sequence against all of PDB Archive.. Rank. In each cluster, the chains are sorted (i.e. ranked) according to the ...
... consist of a group of nine amino acids that animals are unable to synthesize via de novo pathways. Recently, it has been found ... High sequence conservation in the paraphyletic group Plant-Fungi was identified for these two genes using a newly developed ... These enzymes were used as BLAST queries to search for similar sequences in a database containing 10 complete metazoan genomes ... Here we investigate the sequence conservation and evolution of all the metazoan remaining genes for EAA pathways. Initially, ...
Hydrophobic cluster analysis: an efficient new way to compare and analyse amino acid sequences.. Gaboriaud C1, Bissery V, ... Hydrophobic clusters are determined in this 2D pattern and then used for the sequence comparisons. The method does not require ... A new method for comparing and aligning protein sequences is described. This method, hydrophobic cluster analysis (HCA), relies ... upon a two-dimensional (2D) representation of the sequences. ... Sequence Analysis*BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). * ...
... in protein sequence alignments is much better than in alignments of DNA. Besides this information-theoretical advantage, ... The simple fact that proteins are built from 20 amino acids while DNA only contains four different bases, means that the ... RevTrans: Multiple alignment of coding DNA from aligned amino acid sequences Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 Jul 1;31(13):3537-9. doi: ... It is therefore preferable to align coding DNA at the amino acid level and it is for this purpose we have constructed the ...
... glutamic acid, and histidine) were sequenced in order to identify the mechanisms involved in the secretion. Amino acids ... glutamic acid, and histidine) were sequenced in order to identify the mechanisms involved in the secretion. Amino acids ... glutamic acid, and histidine) were sequenced in order to identify the mechanisms involved in the secretion. Amino acids ... Draft Genome Sequences of Three Amino Acid-Secreting Lactococcus lactis Strains. Hernandez-Valdes, J. A., de Jong, A., Kok, J. ...
Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States ... The predicted amino acid sequence of the pgm gene is highly conserved in E. coli, Acetobacter xylinum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Lane W, Galat A, Harding M, Schreiber S. Complete amino acid sequence of the FK506 and rapamycin binding protein, FKBP, ... You are here: Locale , United States , Massachusetts , Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in Cambridge, Massachusetts, ...
... amino acids cannot be used directly as inputs since they ... Relevant and Non-Redundant Amino Acid Sequence Selection for ... "Relevant and Non-Redundant Amino Acid Sequence Selection for Protein Functional Site Identification." Breakthroughs in Software ... "Relevant and Non-Redundant Amino Acid Sequence Selection for Protein Functional Site Identification." In Breakthroughs in ... Relevant and Non-Redundant Amino Acid Sequence Selection for Protein Functional Site Identification. Chandra Das (West Bengal ...
Structural consequences of accommodation of four non-cognate amino acid residues in the S1 pocket of bovine trypsin and ... non-canonical amino acid was incoporated UNP residues 36-93 9913 15 4Y10 2 I Pancreatic trypsin inhibitor non-canonical amino ... Structural consequences of accommodation of four non-cognate amino-acid residues in the S1 pocket of bovine trypsin and ... Structures of protein chains with identical sequences (sequence identity > 95%) are aligned, superimposed and clustered. ...
Publications about Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in San Diego, California, United States ... Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in San Diego, California, United States. Summary. Locale: San Diego, California, ... You are here: Locale , United States , California , Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in San Diego, California, United ... The nucleotide sequence predicts an open reading frame for a protein monomer of 19,400, confirmed by amino-terminal sequencing ...
Amino acid sequence in protein essay for coding theory case study. November 15, 2020 essay on heritage buildings ... When it feels like you to be made acid amino sequence in protein essay. Whether it was also lmed, and a concerted effort with ... Character analysis macbeth essay and amino acid sequence in protein essay. In response to them mentally and return to reading ... Building on protein in sequence acid amino essay this world. Iep ieemg ie ie total productive maintenance & reliability ie, ...
... dna sequences; dna sequence; isolated dna; significant amounts; acid sequence; amino acid; acid sequences; host cells; sequence ... nucleic; amino; acid; sequences; relating; novel; transketolase; methods; expression; cdnas; encoding; 1-deoxyxylulose-5- ... and the corresponding amino acid sequences have been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:5 ... Nucleic and amino acid sequences relating to a novel transketolase, and methods for the expression thereof ...
The Find Amino Acids command within Sequencher allows for the quick identification of an individual or sequence of amino acids ... Find Amino Acids. You are here. Home » Products » Sequencher » Sequencher Features » General Analysis » Find Amino Acids ... amino acids you wish to locate and Sequencher will find and highlight the bases within the sequence that code for those amino ... For more information, check out the Find Amino Acids command in the Sequencher User Manual. ...
... amino acid sequence as ambient music « Amy G. Dala. Says: May 8th, 2009 at 12:18 PM […] "Swine Flu Hemagglutinin": amino acid ... "Swine Flu Hemagglutinin": amino acid sequence as ambient music. Swine flu has been sequenced. More out of curiosity than ... amino acid sequence as ambient music , Stephan Zielinski: Dwa Swine flu has been sequenced. More out of curiosity than anything ... its considered as a string of amino acids. Each beat corresponds to one amino acid, and the piece is in 3/4 time, so each six ...
Ordering of the tryptic peptides; sequence of 164 amino acid residues in the NH2-terminal BrCN peptide.. Nakai N., Chang D., ... p>This will take you to the BLAST page where you can edit options ,/p>,p>,a href="/help/sequence-searches">More..,/a>,/p>. Wed ...
46-amino acid residues from the very end of the carboxyl terminus of NFATx1 (amino acids 1030-1075) and 15-amino acid residues ... The arrow at amino acid 1035 (nucleotide position 3131) indicates the common insertion site. B, Amino acid sequences of the ... Notably, the 15-amino acid transactivation sequence in NFATx1 does not contain typical amino acid residues for transactivation ... We further investigated this 15-amino acid transactivation sequence using a series of mutants that have one amino acid ...
WebLogo of Amino Acid Sequence of Circumsporozoite Protein from Malawi and the Gambia.Panel A and Panel B are the Weblogos for ... corresponding to amino acids 291 to 363 (Figure 1). Consistent with the literature, TH2 was defined as amino acids 311-327 ( ... corresponding to amino acids 291 to 363 (Figure 1). Consistent with the literature, TH2 was defined as amino acids 311-327 ( ... pone-0062427-g001: WebLogo of Amino Acid Sequence of Circumsporozoite Protein from Malawi and the Gambia.Panel A and Panel B ...
168h) The Binary Effect on Drug-Resistant Bacteria of Polymeric Vesicles Appended By Proline-Rich Amino Acid Sequences and ...
... and data analysis to determine the amino acid sequence from the N-terminal.. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of mouse ... sequential cleaving of amino acids from the N-terminal of the protein to determine the amino acid sequence), which is the most ... The PTH amino acid derivative peak is not expressed, indicating that the N-terminal amino group (α amino group) of the heavy ... N-terminal Amino Acid Sequencing of Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies Using the Edman Method. ...
The tRNA molecules have to bring a corresponding amino acid to match each codon on the RNA chain. The corresponding amino acid ... What mechanism is responsible for sequencing of amino acid?. Debate and discussion of any biological questions not pertaining ... I dont quite understand what it means by mechanism? The procedure of sequencing amino acid? ... Then other molecules in the cell, the transfer molecules (tRNA), bring corresponding amino acids to match each codon (a three ...
Nucleotide and/or Amino Acids Disclosures Requiring a Sequence Listing. Taken from the 9th Edition of the MPEP, Revision ... V. SEQUENCE IDENTIFIER 37 CFR 1.821(c) requires that each disclosed nucleic acid or amino acid sequence in the application ... With regard to amino acid sequences, the use of the terms "peptide or protein" implies, however, that the amino acids in a ... If an amino acid sequence can be represented by a string of amino acid abbreviations, with reference, where necessary, to a ...
  • Secretion signals have been mapped in several Yop proteins to sequences encoding the amino-terminal 15 amino acid residues ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • The calculated molar ratios of the amino acids and the percentages of the N- or C-terminal amino acid residues of the supposed dimers are compatible with those actually found in the sacculus polymer. (nih.gov)
  • Elucidation of the amino acid sequence of fructose-1,6-bis-phosphate aldolase from rabbit muscle has made it possible to assign the positions of the functional groups known to play specific roles in the catalytic activity, and also to locate the buried, exposed, and active site cysteine residues. (uniprot.org)
  • sequence of 164 amino acid residues in the NH2-terminal BrCN peptide. (uniprot.org)
  • In addition, free energy analysis shows polymorphic residues tend to be populated by energetically unfavorable amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • The polymorphic residues and types of amino acids that populate these sites appear to be conserved between two geographically disparate African parasite populations. (nih.gov)
  • The isolation, compositions, and sequences of cyanogen bromide peptides, ranging in size from 3 to 44 residues, have previously been reported (ELZINGA, M. (1971) Biochemistry 10, 224-229, and other papers in the present series). (eurekamag.com)
  • Finally, the position of CB-14 in the actin sequence as residues 120 to 123 was established by isolation of a chymotryptic overlap peptide. (eurekamag.com)
  • The complete sequence of the 374 residues of actin is presented. (eurekamag.com)
  • The NH2-terminal 98 amino acid residues of the murine histocompatibility antigen H-2Db were assigned using radiochemical methodology. (eurekamag.com)
  • The amino acid sequence was obtained from the sequences of 3 CNBr peptides, CN-E, CN-D and CN-B, which comprise residues 1-5, 6-52 and 53-98, respectively. (eurekamag.com)
  • The sequence analysis indicates a length of 48 amino acid residues. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Respond with an integer expressing the number of bases or amino acid residues. (bitlaw.com)
  • Protein tertiary structure can be partly characterized via each amino acid's contact number measuring how residues are spatially arranged. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we seek to use protein contact number to assist with the tertiary fold prediction of novel proteins for which an accurate functional relationship between a protein's primary sequence and its residues' contact numbers must be determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Peptide sequence, or amino acid sequence, is the order in which amino acid residues, connected by peptide bonds, lie in the chain in peptides and proteins. (soscholar.com)
  • Since each protein molecule consists of a long chain of amino acid residues, linked to each other by peptide bonds, the hydrolytic cleavage of all peptide bonds is a prerequisite for the quantitative determination of the amino acid residues. (britannica.com)
  • To obtain information about the sequence of the amino acid residues in the protein, the protein is degraded stepwise, one amino acid being split off in each step. (britannica.com)
  • We generated a synthetic peptide (SP-26), corresponding to the amino acid residues 53-78 of bovine P 2 protein, which induced severe clinical and pathological characteristics of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) in Lewis rats. (elsevier.com)
  • The sequence of the last 24 residues of the B-chain is consistent with that previously published (Aird, S.D., Kaiser, I.I., Lewis, R.V. and Kruggel, W.G. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 7054-7058), except at position 20, where Edman degradation gave glycine and mass spectrometry gave glutamic acid. (scripps.edu)
  • ab259418 is a heterodimeric glycoprotein consisting of disulfide-linked p40 and p35 subunits (503 total amino acid residues). (abcam.com)
  • The traditional approach to selective labeling yields only the chemical shifts of the particular amino acid being selected and does not help in establishing a link between adjacent residues along the polypeptide chain, which is important for sequential assignments. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • This leads to the assignment of a tri-peptide segment from the knowledge of the amino acid types of residues: i - 1, i and i + 1, thereby speeding up the sequential assignment process. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • The complete amino acid sequence of prolactin (PRL) from an amphibian species, the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), has been determined and conserved residues and domains were analyzed by sequence comparison of PRLs from 15 species of five major vertebrate classes. (elsevier.com)
  • The bullfrog PRL consists of 197 amino acid residues with three disulfide linkages formed between residues 4-11, 58-172, and 189-197. (elsevier.com)
  • Proteins ( / ˈ p r oʊ ˌ t iː n z / or / ˈ p r oʊ t i . ɪ n z / ) are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . (wikipedia.org)
  • A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide . (wikipedia.org)
  • The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene , which is encoded in the genetic code . (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes the complete sequence of the amino-terminal cryptic fragment of 290 residues comprising the von Willebrand factor-binding domain. (elsevier.com)
  • The determined sequence of the α chain of glycoprotein Ib contains a region (residues 29-193) with seven repeats, which is indication of gene duplication and is highly homologous to human leucine-rich α 2 -glycoprotein. (elsevier.com)
  • Cardiac calsequestrin contains 391 amino acid residues plus a 19-residue amino-terminal signal sequence. (elsevier.com)
  • The photoaffinity probe 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[ 125 I]iodophenyl)diazirine was used to localize the Ca 2+ -regulated hydrophobic site to amino acid residues 192-223. (elsevier.com)
  • First, it has a 31-amino acid extension at its carboxyl terminus (residues 361-391), which contains 71% acidic residues and a second glycosylation site. (elsevier.com)
  • In previous studies, the primary structure of the alpha-chain (Mr = 5,710) was shown to be homologous to the alpha-chain of the lectin from Pisum sativum, the Vicia cracca glucose-specific lectin, and a region in the middle of the concanavalin A sequence (residues 70-121). (scripps.edu)
  • The complete amino acid sequence of the beta-chain (Mr = 17,572) has been determined from 11 tryptic peptides, 4 peptides derived by chemical cleavage of the beta-chain at its three tryptophan residues, 11 peptides obtained after digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protease, and 5 tryptic peptides from the succinylated polypeptide chain. (scripps.edu)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence shows 498 residues which includes conserved motif for sucrose isomerisation {sup 325}RLDRD{sup 329} and 97% identical to palI gene from Klebsiella sp. (osti.gov)
  • There are two main methods used to find the amino acid sequences of proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • The hydrolysis is typically carried out by heating a sample of the protein to over 100 ° C in hydrochloric acid for an extended period of time (at least 24 hours), allowing more time for proteins with bulky hydrophobic groups. (news-medical.net)
  • Amino acids are those L-amino acids commonly found in naturally occurring proteins and are listed in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 3. (uspto.gov)
  • Previously, no consensus signal sequence for translocation has been identified among TTSS effector proteins. (pnas.org)
  • In this work, seven proteins, termed Salmonella -translocated effectors (STE), are described that contain conserved amino acid sequences that direct translocation by TTSS in Salmonella typhimurium . (pnas.org)
  • Unlike proteins exported by the general secretory pathway, TTSS effector proteins are not proteolytically cleaved and have not previously been identified by conserved amino acid sequence motifs within their secretion/translocation signals ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Data largely accumulated from the study of the TTSS-translocated Yop proteins of Yersinia indicate that the TTSS machinery recognizes effector proteins by two signals in their amino termini: a secretion signal and a translocation signal ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Proteins can only leave the ER after this sequence has been cleaved off. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transportation mechanism of proteins containing the KDEL signal sequence is facilitated by KDEL receptors attached to COPII and COPI vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonidentities among amino acid sequences of glycoprotein precursors and amino acid sequences of nucleocapsid proteins of Ocozocoautla de Espinosa virus strain AV B1030026, Mexico, and 8 arenaviruses from South America * % Amino acid sequence nonidentity Virus OCEV AMAV CHPV CPXV GTOV JUNV MACV SABV TCRV OCEV -- 43. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If such preservation is far more frequent than paleontologists have expected, discerning the amino acid sequences in ancient proteins "has enormous potential" for revealing evolutionary relationships among ancient creatures, he adds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The simple fact that proteins are built from 20 amino acids while DNA only contains four different bases, means that the 'signal-to-noise ratio' in protein sequence alignments is much better than in alignments of DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together with the generally higher rate of synonymous mutations over non-synonymous ones, this means that the phylogenetic signal disappears much more rapidly from DNA sequences than from the encoded proteins. (nih.gov)
  • In order to apply a powerful pattern recognition algorithm to predict functional sites in proteins, amino acids cannot be used directly as inputs since they are non-numerical variables. (igi-global.com)
  • In another aspect the present invention provides for isolated, recombinant DXPS proteins, such as the proteins having the sequences set forth in SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:6 and SEQ ID NO:8. (osti.gov)
  • This phenomenon appears contradictory in that the information in the two overlaid amino acid sequences is strongly interdependent, yet each of the two proteins has evolved to its own well-defined function. (springer.com)
  • Such a degeneracy is familiar from homologous proteins where a given biological function is implemented by many different amino acid sequences. (springer.com)
  • Pillars Article: Evidence for Amino Acid Sequence Differences among Proteins Resembling the L-chain Subunits of Immunoglobulins. (jimmunol.org)
  • Interestingly, this 15-amino acid transactivation sequence is well conserved in NFAT family proteins, although the sequences contiguous to the carboxyl-terminal regions of the NFAT family are much less conserved. (jimmunol.org)
  • The search for genes encoding cytoplasmic components of NFAT, collectively termed NFAT family proteins, led to the isolation of four distinct cDNAs that shared sequence similarities. (jimmunol.org)
  • The existence of this characteristic Rel similarity domain allowed us to divide NFAT family proteins into three distinct regions: an amino-terminal region, a carboxyl-terminal region, and a middle region containing the Rel similarity domain. (jimmunol.org)
  • The amino-terminal region shows significant, albeit weak, sequence similarity among NFAT family proteins and is characterized by the presence of three perfect repeats for NFAT1(NFATp), NFATc, and NFATx and one for NFAT3, containing the sequence SPXXSPXXSPXXXXX(D,E)(D,E), referred to as SP boxes ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Amino acid sequences are further limited to those listed in 37 CFR 1.822(b) , which incorporates by reference WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 3 (see MPEP § 2422 ), and those L-amino acids that are commonly found in naturally occurring proteins. (bitlaw.com)
  • NA, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, possesses an enzyme activity that removes sialic acid from host cell glycocongugates as well as newly synthesized viral proteins. (asm.org)
  • Proteins are made up of a sequence of 20 amino acids. (gleekguide.com)
  • Proteins are computationally designed from the level of amino acids to the level of a functional protein complex. (gleekguide.com)
  • How is the elaborate three-dimensional structure of proteins attained, and how is the three-dimensional structure related to the one-dimensional amino acid sequence information? (gleekguide.com)
  • Methods are provided for using the fused gene to produce labeled, chemically modified proteins in vivo and to isolate a protein knowing only the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the protein. (patents.com)
  • Sequences of amino acids come into the picture, when you study the structure of peptide chains and proteins. (biologywise.com)
  • Just as 26 letters of the alphabet combine together to form various words, the more than hundred known amino acids combine to form proteins. (biologywise.com)
  • Among them, there are 20 essential amino acids that form all the proteins in the human body. (biologywise.com)
  • Branched chain amino acids form all the proteins of the human body. (biologywise.com)
  • Proteins and peptide chains are created through the formation of peptide bonds between different amino acids. (biologywise.com)
  • With the exception of a few small proteins (peptides) that occur in bacteria , the amino acids that occur in proteins are l- amino acids. (britannica.com)
  • The abundance of hydroxyproline is noteworthy because this amino acid isn't found in other proteins. (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • 18 amino acidsVital Proteins collagen contains 18 amino acids, including 8 out of 9 essential amino acids. (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • Collagen is a fibrous protein that is particularly high in 3 amino acids (glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline) that help make up the connective tissues in your body, and can be found in animal proteins like eggs, chicken, bone broth, and dairy. (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • Proteins are built from a set of only twenty amino acids, each of which has a unique side chain. (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • Imported proteins require a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) which generally consists of a short region of basic amino acids or 2 such regions spaced about 10 amino acids apart. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Sequence specific resonance assignment constitutes an important step towards high-resolution structure determination of proteins by NMR and is aided by selective identification and assignment of amino acid types. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids , proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals, proteins are needed in the diet to provide the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most proteins consist of linear polymers built from series of up to 20 different L -α- amino acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Edman degradation allows the sequence of amino acids in the protein to be discovered with Edman sequencers, which are currently able to sequence peptides up to about 50 amino acids in length. (news-medical.net)
  • The manual sequencing of the tryptic peptic from the alpha and beta chains of dog hemoglobin is described, including evidence for the existence of two alphaT-13 peptides and thus 2 alpha chains, one with threonine and one with alanine at position 130. (nih.gov)
  • The amino acid sequence of the peptide subunits of the peptide moiety of the sacculus polymer (pseudomurein) of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was elucidated by analysing overlapping peptides obtained from partial acid hydrolsates of isolated sacculi. (nih.gov)
  • The isolation of one of the CNBr peptides (CB-14) was complicated by the presence of a Met-Thr bond that was only partially split under standard conditions for cyanogen bromide cleavage in formic acid. (eurekamag.com)
  • CB-14 is a tetrapeptide, Thr-Gln-Ile-Hse, and this sequence completes the characterization of the actin cyanogen bromide peptides. (eurekamag.com)
  • The amino acid sequence of CN-E was determined directly while the sequences of CN-D and CN-B were determined by NH2-terminal sequence analyses and sequence determinations of peptides produced by thrombin, staphylococcal V8 protease, and trypsin cleavage. (eurekamag.com)
  • Alignment of the CNBr peptides was accomplished by NH2-terminal sequence analysis of the H-2Db papain fragment (CN-E to CN-D) and by analyzing peptides from a tryptic digest of the intact H-2Db molecule. (eurekamag.com)
  • Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein of interest. (dtu.dk)
  • All but two of these sera bound peptides located between positions 236 and 327 in the 907 amino acids of the gp340 polypeptide chain. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • After purification by chromatographic procedures, these fragments have been used as a source for tryptic and chymotryptic peptides, Thirty-three major tryptic and twenty-two major chymotryptic peptides were purified in nanomole amounts and their amino acid compositions determined. (umn.edu)
  • These peptides were aligned by using the amino-terminal sequence of the intact protein and the sequences of selected arginyl and lysyl cleavage products. (elsevier.com)
  • Gentaur antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Amino acid sequence of cyanogen bromide peptides from the amino-terminal region of chick skicollagen. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • APEH is the enzyme acylpeptide hydrolase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the terminal acetylated amino acid preferentially from small acetylated peptides. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Peptides: JNK1_3 (c-Jun amino-terminal kinase 1_3) Protein Length:12-25 amino acids. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Peptides: EAAT3(Excitatory amino acid transporters 3) Protein Length:12-25 amino acids. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The influence of peptide sequence and Leu chirality in linear and cyclic peptides containing 3-[2-(9-anthryl)benzoxazol-5-yl]alanine on interaction with β-cyclodextrin were studied using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. (edu.pl)
  • Secondary and tertiary protein structure is highly dependent upon amino-acid sequence in the POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN , which affects the bonding together of the molecule. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The corresponding amino acid which is brought by the tRNA reacts chemically in the ribosome to form the peptide bond in the forming polypeptide chain of protein. (biology-online.org)
  • The primary structure of this protein is in full agreement with the predicted amino acid sequence of the putative polypeptide encoded by the mitochondrial aap1 gene recently discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Moreover, this protein shows 5011/o homology with the amino acid sequence of a putative polypeptide encoded by an unidentified reading frame also discovered near the mitochondrial ATPase subunit 6 genein Aspergillus nidulans. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • 1. An isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a S. epidermis polypeptide selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 2992, SEQ ID NO: 3209, SEQ ID NO: 4536, SEQ ID NO: 4728, SEQ ID NO: 4737, SEQ ID NO: 5089, SEQ ID NO: 5172, SEQ ID NO: 5318, and SEQ ID NO: 5510. (patents.com)
  • 5. An isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a S. epidermis polypeptide or fragment thereof, said nucleic acid selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 155, SEQ ID NO: 372, SEQ ID NO: 1699, SEQ ID NO: 1891, SEQ ID NO: 1900, SEQ ID NO: 2252, SEQ ID NO: 2335, SEQ ID NO: 2481, and SEQ ID NO: 2673. (patents.com)
  • These amino acids link together to form a polypeptide chain, and then folds into a three dimensional structure. (gleekguide.com)
  • The nucleic acid sequence of the gene and the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide have been determined. (patents.com)
  • Submit Comment for If all 18 nucleotides in a particular sequence are translated, how many amino acids would be in the polypeptide? (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • Sera from recipients of fragments from the amino-terminal half of the polypeptide chain bound gp340 in Western blot assays and ELISA but were not virus-neutralizing. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Human Aldolase-A protein ALDOA Human Recombinant fused to 20 amino acid His Tag at N-terminal produced in E.coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 384 amino acids (1-364 a.a. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • AFAP1 Human Recombinant produced in E. coli is a single polypeptide chain containing 360 amino acids (250-588) and having a molecular mass of 39.2 kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • TNNT2 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 305 amino acids (1-285 a.a.) and having a molecular mass of 36.4 kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • PRMT1 Human Recombinant (a.a. 1-353) fused with His-MBP tag at N-terminus produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 750 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 84 kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • Analysis of all these fragments provided data that allowed determination of the continuous sequence corresponding to approximately half of the α-chain polypeptide. (elsevier.com)
  • Essential amino acids (EAA) consist of a group of nine amino acids that animals are unable to synthesize via de novo pathways. (mdpi.com)
  • What are the 9 essential amino acids? (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • 7) For those nucleotide sequences that are circular in configuration, the enumeration method set forth in paragraph (c)(6) of this section remains applicable with the exception that the designation of the first base of the nucleotide sequence may be made at the option of the applicant. (uspto.gov)
  • In particular, the present invention provides for isolated nucleic acid molecules comprising nucleotide sequences encoding the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:2 or 4, or the nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 or 3, as well as variants thereof. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The limit of four or more amino acids was established for consistency with limits in place for industry database collections whereas the limit of ten or more nucleotides, while lower than certain industry database limits, was established to encompass those nucleotide sequences to which the smallest probe will bind in a stable manner. (bitlaw.com)
  • Nucleotide sequences are further limited to those that can be represented by the symbols set forth in 37 CFR 1.822(b), which incorporates by reference WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 1 (see MPEP § 2422 ). (bitlaw.com)
  • Lane W, Galat A, Harding M, Schreiber S. Complete amino acid sequence of the FK506 and rapamycin binding protein, FKBP, isolated from calf thymus. (labome.org)
  • The complete amino acid sequence of this protein was determined by automated solid phase Edman degradation of the whole protein and of fragments The purification and the amino acid sequence of a proteolipid translated on ribosomes in yeast mitochondria is reported. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The complete amino acid sequence of this protein was determined by automated solid phase Edman degradation of the whole protein and of fragments obtained after cleavage with cyanogen bromide. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Complete Amino Acid Sequence of a Papain-Solubilized Human Histocompatibility Antigen, HLA-B7. (umn.edu)
  • The complete amino acid sequence of aequorin has been determined. (elsevier.com)
  • cDNA cloning was used to deduce the complete amino acid sequence of canine cardiac calsequestrin, the principal Ca 2+ -binding protein of cardiac junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum. (elsevier.com)
  • The subunit structure and complete amino acid sequence of the lectin extracted from Lens culinaris (LcL) seeds was determined. (scripps.edu)
  • As a part of the overall strategy for determining the complete covalent structure of the papain-solubilized portion of the heavy chain of the human histocompatibility antigen H.LA-B7, the protein was dissected into various fragments by a combination of partial acid hydrolysis and cyanogen bromide cleavage. (umn.edu)
  • They provide the basis for the formal alignment of the acid cleavage and cyanogen bromide fragments of the molecule as well as the source material for the elucidation of the primary structure of the HLA-B7 heavy chain. (umn.edu)
  • The purification and the amino acid sequence of a proteolipid translated on ribosomes in yeast mitochondria is reported. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Isolation, purification, and amino acid sequence of lactobin A, one of the two bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus amylovorus LMG p-13139. (ugent.be)
  • Isolation, purification, and amino ac. (ugent.be)
  • Purification, characterization and sequence analyses of the extracellular giant hemoglobin from Oligobrachia mashikoi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Determine the composition and terminal amino acids of each chain. (news-medical.net)
  • The unordered composition of an amino acid is often useful information when attempting to determine the ordered sequence of the protein. (news-medical.net)
  • Hi, A request was made a week or two ago for software which will take the amino aci d composition of a peptide fragment and find the location of the peptide in a larger amino acid sequence. (bio.net)
  • Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active sites, etc. in biological sequences. (dtu.dk)
  • Including additional information about sequence weight and amino acid composition further improves prediction accuracies significantly with the correlation coefficient reaching 0.73. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3) The bases in the coding parts of a nucleotide sequence shall be listed as triplets (codons). (uspto.gov)
  • The amino acids corresponding to the codons in the coding parts of a nucleotide sequence shall be typed immediately below the corresponding codons. (uspto.gov)
  • 4) A nucleotide sequence shall be listed with a maximum of 16 codons or 60 bases per line, with a space provided between each codon or group of 10 bases. (uspto.gov)
  • Riley M. Nucleotide sequence of the Xdh region in Drosophila pseudoobscura and an analysis of the evolution of synonymous codons. (labome.org)
  • The RNA chain has only the codons, not the amino acids. (biology-online.org)
  • 3/05/2018 · The 3 d the nucleotide sequence of a gene, through medium mrna, is translated into amino acid protein by rules that are known as codons in an mrna molecule do not directly recognize acids they. (gleekguide.com)
  • This mRNA code has a sequence of codons, which provides the order of assembling various amino acids together. (biologywise.com)
  • The enumeration method for amino acid sequences that is set forth in this section remains applicable for amino acid sequences that are circular in configuration, with the exception that the designation of the first amino acid of the sequence may be made at the option of the applicant. (uspto.gov)
  • a) Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences as used in §§ 1.821 through 1.825 are interpreted to mean an unbranched sequence of four or more amino acids or an unbranched sequence of ten or more nucleotides. (uspto.gov)
  • Sequences with fewer than four specifically defined nucleotides or amino acids are specifically excluded from this section. (uspto.gov)
  • Where a codon spans an intron, the amino acid symbol shall be typed below the portion of the codon containing two nucleotides. (uspto.gov)
  • This definition sets forth limits, in terms of numbers of amino acids and/or numbers of nucleotides, at or above which compliance with the sequence rules is required. (bitlaw.com)
  • The Office does not want to exclude linkages of the type commonly found in naturally occurring nucleotides, e.g., eukaryotic end capped sequences. (bitlaw.com)
  • 9. A probe comprising a nucleotide sequence consisting of at least 40 nucleotides of a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 155, SEQ ID NO: 372, SEQ ID NO: 1699, SEQ ID NO: 1891, SEQ ID NO: 1900, SEQ ID NO: 2252, SEQ ID NO: 2335, SEQ ID NO: 2481, and SEQ ID NO: 2673. (patents.com)
  • Here we investigate the sequence conservation and evolution of all the metazoan remaining genes for EAA pathways. (mdpi.com)
  • High sequence conservation in the paraphyletic group Plant-Fungi was identified for these two genes using a newly developed Python algorithm. (mdpi.com)
  • Selective pressure analysis of ALS and BHMT protein sequences showed higher non-synonymous mutation ratios in comparisons between metazoans/fungi and metazoans/plants, supporting the hypothesis that these two genes have undergone non-ToL evolution in animals. (mdpi.com)
  • I. General organization of the locus and sequence comparisons of genes s15 and s19 in evolutionary distant species. (labome.org)
  • These data demonstrate that the 15-amino acid sequence of NFATx1 is a major transactivation sequence required for induction of genes by NFATx1 in T cells and possibly regulates NFAT activity through tissue-specific alternative splicing. (jimmunol.org)
  • As a result, one of the most powerful approaches for gaining insight into genome sequences is based simply on amino acid sequence comparisons between new, uncharacterized amino acid sequences predicted from genome DNA sequences, and amino acid sequences of known function. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As in say a protein sequence consisting of a chain of amino acids MK. (gleekguide.com)
  • Then other molecules in the cell, the transfer molecules (tRNA), bring corresponding amino acids to match each codon (a three letter code on the RNA chain). (biology-online.org)
  • The tRNA molecules have to bring a corresponding amino acid to match each codon on the RNA chain. (biology-online.org)
  • Allelic variation of the DRB1 DNA sequence can result in 3rd HVR amino acid sequences that differ for overall 3rd HVR charge and can impact the steric interaction between HLA molecules and T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They are carbon compounds, made from an amine group (-NH 2 ), carboxylic acid group (-COOH), and a chain of carbon molecules of varying types. (biologywise.com)
  • Protein molecules are made of strings of amino acids in a particular order. (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthases, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. (osti.gov)
  • In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding a plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase. (osti.gov)
  • 2. A recombinant expression vector comprising the nucleic acid of claim 1 operably linked to a transcription regulatory element. (patents.com)
  • The short CT contains six highly conserved amino acids ( 7 ) with no known function(s) in virus biology. (asm.org)
  • Firstly, hydrolysis of a known quantity of the protein should break it up into the amino acid monomers. (news-medical.net)
  • Hydrolysis is most frequently accomplished by boiling the protein with concentrated hydrochloric acid . (britannica.com)
  • and (iii) building a multiple DNA alignment by 'reverse translation' of the aligned protein sequences. (nih.gov)
  • B) Structure-based sequence alignment of family 3a CBDs. (asm.org)
  • A structure-based alignment of selected CBD sequences is shown in Fig. 1B . (asm.org)
  • Many software packages for sequence alignment and the construction of evolutionary trees have implemented their own standard of saving and reading sequence alignments. (mybiosoftware.com)
  • This letter system was defined by the IUPAC and IUBMB in 1983, and is as follows: K-Lysine D-Aspartic acid E-Glutamic acid L-Leucine Therefore, the KDEL sequence in three letter code is: Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abbreviation HDEL follows the same notation as KDEL: H-Histidine D-Aspartic acid E-Glutamic acid L-Leucine Three letter code is: His-Asp-Glu-Leu. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "Three Lactococcus lactis strains with the ability to secrete various amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, methionine, valine, glutamic acid, and histidine) were sequenced in order to identify the mechanisms involved in the secretion. (rug.nl)
  • It is helpful to know which amino acid is at the N-terminus of the protein both for ordering of the peptide fragments into the whole chain and to reduce the impact of impurities that commonly occur in the first round of Edman degradation. (news-medical.net)
  • Use the fragments to determine amino acid sequence. (news-medical.net)
  • The amino acid sequences of the Fd fragments of two human pathological immunoglobulins of the immunoglobulin G1 class are reported. (biochemj.org)
  • If a nucleotide sequence contains both DNA and RNA fragments, the type shall be "DNA. (bitlaw.com)
  • wherein the amino acid sequences of the coupled-fragments comprise a T-helper epitope and peptide fragments corresponding to the respective extracellular domains of the receptor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The Cycle 2 results indicate that the second amino acid group from the N-terminal is V (valine). (shimadzu.com)
  • So, if your DNA specifies that a protein should be made using the amino acid valine, then lysine, and finally serine, then those amino acids would be assembled in that sequence. (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • the order in which AMINO ACIDS are placed along a protein molecule (see PRIMARY STRUCTURE ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The method provides a complex comprising a polymerase enzyme, a target nucleic acid molecule, and a primer, wherein the complex is immobilized on a support Fluorescent label is attached to a terminal phosphate group of the nucleotide or nucleotide analog. (osti.gov)
  • This represents the 1st extensive, continuous sequence information for a histocompatibility antigen encoded by the H-2D locus and allows comparison with the recently determined amino acid sequence of the H-2Kb molecule. (eurekamag.com)
  • 1. An isolated DNA molecule encoding streptavidin and comprising the nucleic acid coding sequence set forth in FIG. 3. (patents.com)
  • Whether presented sequence molecule is DNA, RNA, or PRT (protein). (bitlaw.com)
  • However, the β1 chain of the HLA-DR molecule encoded by HLA-DRB1 is characterized by three regions of amino acid sequence hypervariability and the third hypervariable region (3rd HVR) is thought to be the most important site for T-cell recognition [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The recipe or the code for creation of any protein is encoded in the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) molecule. (biologywise.com)
  • Nucleic Acids Research , 40 (W1), W281-W287. (dtu.dk)
  • All collagen contains 19 different amino acids, with a particularly high content of hydroxyproline, glycine, and proline. (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • Such a cleavage is essential for viral infectivity because in the acidic pH of the endosome it exposes a membrane fusion peptide at the amino terminus of the HA2 subunit required for membrane fusion ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • These signals are insensitive to frameshift mutations ( 12 ), suggesting that the recognized signal lies within the mRNA sequence. (pnas.org)
  • From the strand of mRNA, that is transported in the cytoplasm, tRNA (transfer RNA) carry the information about the sequence, to a ribosome site for protein assembly. (biologywise.com)
  • This study aimed to obtain the complete cDNA coding sequences of aqp1 and aqp3 from the gills of Protopterus annectens , and to determine their branchial mRNA and protein expression levels during the induction, maintenance and arousal phases of aestivation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Second, its mRNA contains a second open reading frame with the capacity to code for a 111-amino acid protein. (elsevier.com)
  • These results show that although the sequences of NA CT and TMD per se are not absolutely essential for the virus life cycle, specific amino acid sequences play a critical role in providing structural stability, enzyme activity, and lipid raft association of NA. (asm.org)
  • An alternative approach is the method of amino acid selective `unlabeling' or reverse labeling, which involves selective unlabeling of specific amino acid types against a uniformly C-13/N-15 labeled background. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • DNA sequence analysis of the p20K cDNA predicted a novel protein distantly related to alpha 2 mu-globulin and plasma retinol-binding protein. (labome.org)
  • This protein sequence agrees completely with that deduced from the cDNA sequence reported by Lopez et al. (elsevier.com)
  • Specifically defined" means those amino acids other than "Xaa" and those nucleotide bases other than "n" defined in accordance with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Handbook on Industrial Property Information and Documentation, Standard ST.25: Standard for the Presentation of Nucleotide and Amino Acid Sequence Listings in Patent Applications (1998), including Tables 1 through 6 in Appendix 2, herein incorporated by reference. (uspto.gov)
  • Modifications, e.g. , methylated bases, may be described as set forth in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 2, but shall not be shown explicitly in the nucleotide sequence. (uspto.gov)
  • 1) A nucleotide sequence shall be listed using the lower-case letter for representing the one-letter code for the nucleotide bases set forth in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 1. (uspto.gov)
  • 2) The bases in a nucleotide sequence (including introns) shall be listed in groups of 10 bases except in the coding parts of the sequence. (uspto.gov)
  • Leftover bases, fewer than 10 in number, at the end of noncoding parts of a sequence shall be grouped together and separated from adjacent groups of 10 or 3 bases by a space. (uspto.gov)
  • 6) The enumeration of nucleotide bases shall start at the first base of the sequence with number 1. (uspto.gov)
  • three bases provide the code for each amino acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using the single-letter code, plug in the amino acids you wish to locate and Sequencher will find and highlight the bases within the sequence that code for those amino acids. (genecodes.com)
  • Sequencher can easily go to the next set of bases that comply with the search by selecting the Find Next button in the Find Amino Acids window. (genecodes.com)
  • In aqueous solutions they are dipolar ions (zwitterions, or hybrid ions) that react with strong acids or bases in a way that leads to the neutralization of the negatively or positively charged ends, respectively. (britannica.com)
  • Because of their reactions with strong acids and strong bases, the amino acids act as buffers-stabilizers of hydrogen ion (H + ) or hydroxide ion (OH − ) concentrations. (britannica.com)
  • As a result, each of the amino acids, except glycine, can exist in two different spatial, or geometric, arrangements (i.e., isomers ), which are mirror images akin to right and left hands. (britannica.com)
  • In fact, glycine is frequently used as a buffer in the pH range from 1 to 3 (acid solutions) and from 9 to 12 (basic solutions). (britannica.com)
  • In acid solutions, glycine has a positive charge and therefore migrates to the cathode (negative electrode of a direct-current electrical circuit with terminals in the solution). (britannica.com)
  • Most of the monoamino acids (i.e., those with only one amino group) have isoelectric points similar to that of glycine. (britannica.com)
  • It is characterized by the predominance of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline, which represent about 50% of the total amino acid content. (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • There are three amino acids important for collagen synthesis: proline, lysine, and glycine," says registered dietitian and beauty expert Katey Davidson, MScFN, RD. (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • The triple-helical structure of collagen arises from an unusual abundance of three amino acids: glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline. (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • abstract = "Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. (dtu.dk)
  • The Cycle 1 results indicate that the N-terminal amino acid residue is D (aspartic acid). (shimadzu.com)
  • The existence of heavy chain variable region subgroups is also deduced, from a comparison of these two sequences with those of another γ 1 chain, Eu, a μ chain, Ou, and the partial sequence of a fourth γ 1 chain, Ste. Carbohydrate has been found to be linked to an aspartic acid residue in the variable region of one of the γ 1 chains, Cor. (biochemj.org)
  • The quantitative determination of the amino acids is based on the discovery that amino acids can be separated from each other by chromatography on filter paper and made visible by spraying the paper with ninhydrin. (britannica.com)
  • Any peptide or protein that can be expressed as a sequence using the symbols in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 3 in conjunction with a description in the Feature section to describe, for example, modified linkages, cross links and end caps, non-peptidyl bonds, etc., is embraced by this definition. (uspto.gov)
  • With regard to amino acid sequences, the use of the terms "peptide or protein" implies, however, that the amino acids in a given sequence are linked by at least three consecutive peptide bonds. (bitlaw.com)
  • Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein. (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • The algorithm I used is a bit complicated, but just in case you're curious: since the gene is expressed as a surface protein antibodies can sense, it's considered as a string of amino acids. (stephan-zielinski.com)
  • The HA protein, a type I transmembrane protein, is responsible for binding to the cell surface sialic acid (the receptor), eliciting neutralizing antibodies, and mediating virus entry into the cell by fusion of the viral membrane with the endosomal membrane ( 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Amino acid sequence of rabbit muscle aldolase and the structure of the active center. (uniprot.org)
  • To investigate the role of amino acid sequences of the CT and TMD on the virus life cycle, we systematically mutagenized the entire CT and TMD of NA by converting two to five contiguous amino acids to alanine. (asm.org)
  • In bacteria, d -alanine and some other d -amino acids have been found as components of gramicidin and bacitracin. (britannica.com)
  • By the processes of TRANSCRIPTION and TRANSLATION the DNA -base sequence is mirrored in the amino-acid sequence, there generally being COLINEARITY between DNA and protein in PROKARYOTES . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The protein primary structure conventionally begins at the amino-terminal (N) end and continues until the carboxyl-terminal (C) end. (news-medical.net)
  • The sequence of a protein is usually notated as a string of letters, according to the order of the amino acids from the amino-terminal to the carboxyl-terminal of the protein. (news-medical.net)
  • Here we provide evidence showing that 15 amino acids in the carboxyl-terminal end of NFATx1 are required for its maximum transactivation activity in Jurkat T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Finally, in contrast to the middle and the amino-terminal regions, little is known about the carboxyl-terminal region, which shows no significant sequence similarities. (jimmunol.org)
  • Their sequence is created through the bonding of the carboxyl group of one amino acid, with the amino group of another. (biologywise.com)
  • The sequence is generally reported from the N-terminal end containing free amino group to the C-terminal end containing free carboxyl group. (soscholar.com)
  • By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end. (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • All proteinogenic amino acids possess common structural features, including an α-carbon to which an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a variable side chain are bonded . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other than that, rare/non proteinaceous amino acids, modified amino acids (hydroxylysine, hydroxyproline etc.) are present at specific sequence points to add to the framework of the tertiary and quarternary structure of the protein. (gleekguide.com)
  • The structure of a protein may be directly sequenced or inferred from the sequence of DNA. (news-medical.net)
  • KDEL is a target peptide sequence in mammals and plants located on the C-terminal end of the amino acid structure of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • HDEL is a target peptide sequence in plants and yeasts located on the C-terminal end of the amino acid structure of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide sequence is often called protein sequence if it represents the primary structure of a protein. (soscholar.com)
  • Scoring protein sequence alignments II PAM1 matrix: answers question, "if 1% of the amino acids in a sequence change, at what rates would each amino acid be substituted for each other one? (gleekguide.com)
  • Scoring protein sequence alignments II Substitution matrices PAM (Accepted Point Mutation, but "PAM" easier to say than "APM") matrix PAM1 matrix: answers question, "if 1% of the amino. (gleekguide.com)
  • Using protein local sequences with multiple sequence alignments (PSI-BLAST profiles), we demonstrate a correlation coefficient between predicted and observed contact numbers of 0.70, which outperforms previously achieved accuracies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ForCon is a user-friendly software tool for the conversion of nucleic acid and amino acid sequence alignments. (mybiosoftware.com)
  • ForCon : a software tool for the conversion of sequence alignments. (mybiosoftware.com)
  • Those amino acid sequences containing D-amino acids are not intended to be embraced by this definition. (uspto.gov)
  • 37 CFR 1.821(a)(1) and 37 CFR 1.821(a)(2) present further definitions for those nucleotide and amino acid sequences that are intended to be embraced by the sequence rules. (bitlaw.com)
  • The mechanism by which TTSS recognize a diverse array of effectors with no apparent consensus signal sequence remains elusive. (pnas.org)
  • What mechanism is responsible for the sequencing of amino acids? (physicsforums.com)
  • What mechanism is responsible for sequencing of amino acid? (biology-online.org)
  • In addition, we also made two chimeric NA by replacing the CT proximal one-third amino acids of the NA TMD [NA(1T2N)NA] and the entire NA TMD (NATRNA) with that of human transferrin receptor (TR) (a type II transmembrane glycoprotein). (asm.org)
  • We report the amino acid sequence of a 299-residue segment from the α chain of the human platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib. (elsevier.com)
  • 37 CFR 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (uspto.gov)
  • b) Patent applications which contain disclosures of nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences, in accordance with the definition in paragraph (a) of this section, shall, with regard to the manner in which the nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences are presented and described, conform exclusively to the requirements of §§ 1.821 through 1.825 . (uspto.gov)
  • 37 CFR 1.821(a) presents a definition for "nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences. (bitlaw.com)
  • The requirement for compliance in 37 CFR 1.821(c) is directed to "disclosures of nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences. (bitlaw.com)
  • All sequence information, whether claimed or not, that meets the length thresholds in 37 CFR 1.821(a) is subject to the rules. (bitlaw.com)
  • 1) If the "Sequence Listing" required by § 1.821(c) is submitted on paper: The "Sequence Listing," setting forth the nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence and associated information in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, must begin on a new page and must be titled "Sequence Listing. (bitlaw.com)
  • 2) If the "Sequence Listing" required by § 1.821(c) is submitted on compact disc: The "Sequence Listing" must be submitted on a compact disc in compliance with § 1.52(e) . (bitlaw.com)
  • The presentation of the "Sequence Listing" and other materials on compact disc under § 1.821(c) does not substitute for the Computer Readable Form that must be submitted on disk, compact disc, or tape in accordance with § 1.824 . (bitlaw.com)
  • The preceding steps should be repeated with a different fragment pattern so that the overall protein sequence can be reconstructed with minimal errors. (news-medical.net)
  • 1. The assumed specifically active fragment of bovine fibrinopeptide B with the amino acid sequence 15-21 and the fragment 12-21 containing the tripeptide residue Asp 12 -Arg 13 -Pro 14 have been synthesized. (springer.com)
  • 9. The antigenic conjugate as claimed in claim 5, wherein the amino acid sequence of the coupled-fragment is SEQ ID NO. 5, SEQ ID NO. 6, SEQ ID NO. 7 or a combination thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The 5'-most c-abl promoter contains several sequence motifs that are highly conserved between mouse and man. (labome.org)
  • Sequences from Malawi (GenBank Accession numbers: JN634586- JN634642) were accessed from a previously published study from our group. (nih.gov)
  • The Gambian pfcsp sequences (GenBank Accession numbers: JX885511-JX885521) derive from 55 participants in a clinical trial in the year 2000 [20], [21], and were generated by di-deoxy fluorescent capillary sequencing at The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM). (nih.gov)
  • CipA contains 1,484 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 154.4 kDa. (asm.org)
  • Amino acids with side chains that are neither aromatic not aliphatic control the piano and organ: the nine non-hydrophobics the piano, and the four hydrophobics the organ. (stephan-zielinski.com)
  • The three amino acids with aliphatic side chains control the low synthesizer, while the four with aromatics control the percussion. (stephan-zielinski.com)
  • Charged amino acid side chains can form ionic bonds, and polar amino acids are capable of forming hydrogen bonds. (cheapbroncosjersey.com)
  • A substitution of cytosine for guanine, also located in VD 1, resulted in Gln instead of Glu at amino acid position 117, as found in genotype B and strain 6BC (numbering according to the ompA amino acid sequence of the C. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are two main steps to determine the frequency of amino acids in a process known as amino acid analysis. (news-medical.net)
  • Their analysis of the protein also showed that the amino acid sequence in this region shares some important characteristics with the active agent of bee venom, which works by forming holes in membranes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The probability that an amino acid in an ancestral sequence is correctly reconstructed by the likelihood analysis ranged from 91.3 to 98.7% for the four ancestral sequences. (genetics.org)
  • Using the information from these parasite populations, structural analysis reveals that polymorphic amino acids within TH2 and TH3 colocalize to one side of the protein, surround, but do not involve, the hydrophobic pocket in CS, and predominately involve charge switches. (nih.gov)
  • This analysis employs the Edman method (sequential cleaving of amino acids from the N-terminal of the protein to determine the amino acid sequence), which is the most reliable method for determining amino acid sequences. (shimadzu.com)
  • The PPSQ-31A/33A Protein Sequencer System automates the Edman reaction, HPLC separation and detection, and data analysis to determine the amino acid sequence from the N-terminal. (shimadzu.com)
  • Analysis to the 21st residue reveals the sequence from the N-terminal to be: Asp-Val-Val-Met-Thr-Gln-Thr-Pro-Leu-Thr-Leu-Ser-Val-Thr-Ile-Gly-Gln-Pro-Ala-Ser-Ile. (shimadzu.com)
  • In turn, each residue's contact number can be partially predicted from primary amino acid sequence, assisting tertiary fold analysis from sequence data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis was conducted according to DRβ1 3rd HVR sequence, charge, and parental inheritance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When subjected to sequence analysis using tandem mass spectrometry, pyroglutamate was found at the amino-terminal end, even though earlier attempts to de-block with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase were unsuccessful. (scripps.edu)
  • Although this bacterium is unable to degrade cellulose, the sequence analysis of its genome revealed the presence of a large cellulosomal gene cluster ( 12 ). (asm.org)