Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.Serine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase A: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa10p catalytic subunit and the Naa15p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between lower and higher eukaryotes. It has specificity for N-terminal SERINE; ALANINE; THREONINE; GLYCINE; VALINE; and CYSTINE residues and acts on nascent peptide chains after the removal of the initiator METHIONINE by METHIONYL AMINOPEPTIDASES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase E: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa50p catalytic subunit, and the Naa10p and Naa15p auxiliary subunits. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is hydrophobic.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Dihydrolipoyllysine-Residue Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Amino Acids, SulfurGenes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.N-Terminal Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from ACETYL COENZYME A, to the N-terminus of a peptide chain.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase B: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa20p catalytic subunit and the Naa25p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between YEASTS and HUMAN. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is either ASPARTATE; GLUTAMATE; ASPARAGINE; OR GLUTAMINE.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Coenzyme ASpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).PolyaminesCodon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Spermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins: Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Cysteine Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Amino Acids, DiaminoGlutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Geobacillus stearothermophilus: A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Anacardic Acids: A group of 6-alkyl SALICYLIC ACIDS that are found in ANACARDIUM and known for causing CONTACT DERMATITIS.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein PrecursorsMass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Glucosamine 6-Phosphate N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the reaction of D-glucosamine 6-phosphate with ACETYL-COA to form N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Amino-Acid N-Acetyltransferase: A mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of L-GLUTAMATE to N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the presence of ACETYL-COA.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.

A new yeast metabolon involving at least the two first enzymes of arginine biosynthesis: acetylglutamate synthase activity requires complex formation with acetylglutamate kinase. (1/65)

Open reading frame YJL071W of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to be ARG2 and identified as the structural gene for acetylglutamate synthase, first step in arginine biosynthesis. The three Ascomycete acetylglutamate synthases characterized to date appear homologous, but unlike the other enzymes of the yeast arginine biosynthesis pathway, they showed no significant similarity to their prokaryotic equivalents. The measured synthase activity did not increase with the number of ARG2 gene copies unless the number of ARG5,6 gene copies was increased similarly. ARG5,6 encodes a precursor that is maturated in the mitochondria into acetylglutamate kinase and acetylglutamyl-phosphate reductase, catalyzing the second and third steps in the pathway. The results imply that the synthase must interact stoichiometrically in vivo with the kinase, the reductase, or both to be active. Results obtained with synthetic ARG5 and ARG6 genes suggested that both the kinase and the reductase could be needed. This situation, which has completely escaped notice in yeast until now, is reminiscent of the observation in Neurospora crassa that nonsense arg-6 kinase/reductase mutants lack synthase activity (Hinde, R. W., Jacobson, J. A., Weiss, R. L., and Davis, R. H. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 5848-5852). In immunoprecipitation experiments, hemagglutinin-tagged synthase coprecipitated with a protein proven by microsequencing to be the kinase. Western blot analyses showed that the synthase has reduced stability in the absence of the kinase/reductase. Our data demonstrate the existence of a new yeast arginine metabolon involving at least the first two, and possibly the first three, enzymes of the pathway. Hypotheses regarding the biological significance of this interaction are discussed.  (+info)

Identification, cloning and expression of the mouse N-acetylglutamate synthase gene. (2/65)

In ureotelic animals, N-acetylglutamate (NAG) is an essential allosteric activator of carbamylphosphate synthetase I (CPSI), the first enzyme in the urea cycle. NAG synthase (NAGS; EC 2.3.1.1) catalyses the formation of NAG from glutamate and acetyl-CoA in liver and intestinal mitochondria. This enzyme is supposed to regulate ureagenesis by producing variable amounts of NAG, thus modulating CPSI activity. Moreover, inherited deficiencies in NAGS have been associated with hyperammonaemia, probably due to the loss of CPSI activity. Although the existence of the NAGS protein in mammals has been known for decades, the gene has remained elusive. We identified the mouse (Mus musculus) and human NAGS genes using their similarity to the respective Neurospora crassa gene. NAGS was cloned from a mouse liver cDNA library and was found to encode a 2.3 kb message, highly expressed in liver and small intestine with lower expression levels in kidney, spleen and testis. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative mitochondrial targeting signal at the N-terminus. The cDNA sequence complements an argA (NAGS)-deficient Escherichia coli strain, reversing its arginine auxotrophy. His-tagged versions of the pre-protein and two putative mature proteins were each overexpressed in E. coli, and purified to apparent homogeneity by using a nickel-affinity column. The pre-protein and the two putative mature proteins catalysed the NAGS reaction but one of the putative mature enzymes had significantly higher activity than the pre-protein. The addition of l-arginine increased the catalytic activity of the purified recombinant NAGS enzymes by approx. 2-6-fold.  (+info)

The N-acetylglutamate synthase/N-acetylglutamate kinase metabolon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae allows co-ordinated feedback regulation of the first two steps in arginine biosynthesis. (3/65)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which uses the nonlinear pathway of arginine biosynthesis, the first two enzymes, N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) and N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK), are controlled by feedback inhibition. We have previously shown that NAGS and NAGK associate in a complex, essential to synthase activity and protein level [Abadjieva, A., Pauwels, K., Hilven, P. & Crabeel, M. (2001) J. Biol. Chem.276, 42869-42880]. The NAGKs of ascomycetes possess, in addition to the catalytic domain that is shared by all other NAGKs and whose structure has been determined, a C-terminal domain of unknown function and structure. Exploring the role of these two domains in the synthase/kinase interaction, we demonstrate that the ascomycete-specific domain is required to maintain synthase activity and protein level. Previous results had suggested a participation of the third enzyme of the pathway, N-acetylglutamylphosphate reductase, in the metabolon. Here, genetic analyses conducted in yeast at physiological level, or in a heterologous background, clearly demonstrate that the reductase is dispensable for synthase activity and protein level. Most importantly, we show that the arginine feedback regulation of the NAGS and NAGK enzymes is mutually interdependent. First, the kinase becomes less sensitive to arginine feedback inhibition in the absence of the synthase. Second, and as in Neurospora crassa, in a yeast kinase mutant resistant to arginine feedback inhibition, the synthase becomes feedback resistant concomitantly. We conclude that the NAGS/NAGK metabolon promotes the co-ordination of the catalytic activities and feedback regulation of the first two, flux controlling, enzymes of the arginine pathway.  (+info)

Mammalian N-acetylglutamate synthase. (4/65)

N-Acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS, E.C. 2.3.1.1) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the formation of N-acetylglutamate (NAG), an essential allosteric activator of carbamylphosphate synthetase I (CPSI). The mouse and human NAGS genes have been identified based on similarity to regions of NAGS from Neurospora crassa and cloned from liver cDNA libraries. These genes were shown to complement an argA- (NAGS) deficient Escherichia coli strain, and enzymatic activity of the proteins was confirmed by a new stable isotope dilution assay. The deduced amino acid sequence of mammalian NAGS contains a putative mitochondrial-targeting signal at the N-terminus. The mouse NAGS preprotein was overexpressed in insect cells to determine post-translational modifications and two processed proteins with different N-terminal truncations have been identified. Sequence analysis using a hidden Markov model suggests that the vertebrate NAGS protein contains domains with a carbamate kinase fold and an acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase fold, and protein crystallization experiments are currently underway. Inherited NAGS deficiency results in hyperammonemia, presumably due to the loss of CPSI activity. We, and others, have recently identified mutations in families with neonatal and late-onset NAGS deficiency and the identification of the gene has now made carrier testing and prenatal diagnosis feasible. A structural analog of NAG, carbamylglutamate, has been shown to bind and activate CPSI, and several patients have been reported to respond favorably to this drug (Carbaglu).  (+info)

Functional characterization of a novel ArgA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (5/65)

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene Rv2747 encodes a novel 19-kDa ArgA that catalyzes the initial step in L-arginine biosynthesis, namely the conversion of L-glutamate to alpha-N-acetyl-L-glutamate. Initial velocity studies reveal that Rv2747 proceeds through a sequential kinetic mechanism, with K(m) values of 280 mM for L-glutamine and 150 microM for acetyl-coenzyme A and with a k(cat) value of 200 min(-1). Initial velocity studies with L-glutamate showed that even at concentrations of 600 mM, saturation was not observed. Therefore, only a k(cat)/K(m) value of 125 M(-1) min(-1) can be calculated. Inhibition studies reveal that the enzyme is strongly regulated by L-arginine, the end product of the pathway (50% inhibitory concentration, 26 microM). The enzyme was completely inhibited by 500 microM arginine, with a Hill coefficient of 0.60, indicating negatively cooperative binding of L-arginine.  (+info)

Identification of novel mutations of the human N-acetylglutamate synthase gene and their functional investigation by expression studies. (6/65)

The mitochondrial enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) produces N-acetylglutamate serving as an allosteric activator of carbamylphosphate synthetase 1, the first enzyme of the urea cycle. Autosomal recessively inherited NAGS deficiency (NAGSD) leads to severe neonatal or late-onset hyperammonemia. To date few patients have been described and the gene involved was described only recently. In this study, another three families affected by NAGSD were analyzed for NAGS gene mutations resulting in the identification of three novel missense mutations (C200R [c.598T > C], S410P [c.1228T > C], A518T [c.1552G > A]). In order to investigate the effects of these three and two additional previously published missense mutations on enzyme activity, the mutated proteins were overexpressed in a bacterial expression system using the NAGS deficient E. coli strain NK5992. All mutated proteins showed a severe decrease in enzyme activity providing evidence for the disease-causing nature of the mutations. In addition, we expressed the full-length NAGS wild type protein including the mitochondrial leading sequence, the mature protein as well as a highly conserved core protein. NAGS activity was detected in all three recombinant proteins but varied regarding activity levels and response to stimulation by l-arginine. In conclusion, overexpression of wild type and mutated NAGS proteins in E. coli provides a suitable tool for functional analysis of NAGS deficiency.  (+info)

Translocation of a long amino-terminal domain through ER membrane by following signal-anchor sequence. (7/65)

Type I signal-anchor sequences mediate translocation of the N-terminal domain (N-domain) across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. To examine the translocation in detail, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) was fused to the N-terminus of synaptotagmin II as a long N-domain. Translocation was arrested by the DHFR ligand methotrexate, which stabilizes the folding of the DHFR domain, and resumed after depletion of methotrexate. The targeting of the ribosome-nascent chain complex to the ER requires GTP, whereas N-domain translocation does not require any nucleotide triphosphates. Significant translocation was observed even in the absence of a lumenal hsp70 (BiP). When the nascent polypeptide was released from the ribosomes after the membrane targeting, the N-domain translocation was suppressed and the nascent chain was released from the translocon. Ribosomes have a crucial role in maintaining the translocation-intermediate state. The translocation of the DHFR domain was greatly impaired when it was separated from the signal-anchor sequence. Unfolding and translocation of the DHFR domain must be driven by the stroke of the signal-anchor sequence into translocon.  (+info)

Involvement of LuxR, a quorum sensing regulator in Vibrio harveyi, in the promotion of metabolic genes: argA, purM, lysE and rluA. (8/65)

Quorum sensing, involving signal transduction via the two-component response regulator LuxO to its downstream target LuxR, controls luminescence in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. LuxR is a DNA binding protein that acts as both activator of the lux operon and repressor of its own gene. In order to determine if any other genes are affected by quorum sensing in V. harveyi, an assay for luxR-dependent promotion was devised using a genomic library maintained in a novel luxAB (luciferase) reporter. Screening in Escherichia coli DH-21 (lacI(sq)) entailed the addition of a second plasmid containing luxR under plac control. Four out of 5000 colonies showed luminescence stimulation upon IPTG induction of luxR. The four luxR-dependent promoters were upstream of argA, purM, lysE, and rluA, genes involved in arginine and purine biosyntheses, amino acid efflux, and pseudouridine synthesis, respectively. Based on analysis of luxR-dependent promoters, particularly that of argA, we describe a LuxR binding site, and implicate the coordination of LuxR with ArgR.  (+info)

We examined the distribution of NAGS and NAGK across the three domains of life. Although NAGK is found in archaea, eubacteria and eukaryotes, such as plants, algae and fungi, initially, we were only able to find sequences similar to either E. coli or mammalian NAGS in beta-proteobacteria, gamma-proteobacteria and three species of alpha-proteobacteria [48-50]. The three alpha-proteobacteria, M. maris, O. alexandrii and P. bermudensis, also appear to harbor acetylornithine transcarbamylase (argF) genes suggesting that their arginine biosynthesis pathway is similar to the one in X. campestris [7]. Identification of the alpha-proteobacterial NAGS genes that are closely related to the corresponding vertebrate, fungal and algal genes and to fungal NAGK is intriguing because mitochondria are thought to have arisen by endosymbiosis between proto-eukaryotic cell and an alpha-proteobacteria. Current thought suggests that the alpha-proteobacteria of the order Rickettsiales are the extant relatives of the ...
In the linear pathway (Figure 1A), GLU is converted to acetylglutamate (Ac-GLU) by N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS, encoded by argA) which is inhibited by ARG through negative feedback regulation [36],[39]. Sequential catalytic reactions catalyzed by the next three enzymes, N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK, encoded by argB), N-acetylglutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by argC) and N-acetylornithine transaminase (encoded by argD), which are common in the three pathways (Figure 1), yield N-acetylornithine (Ac-ORN) [34]. The next step, which distinguishes the linear pathway from the other two pathways, is deacetylation of Ac-ORN by AOase to yield ORN [40],[41]. The next and final steps are carried out by ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC or OTCase, encoded by argF), argininosuccinate synthase (encoded by argG) and argininosuccinate lyase (encoded by argH), which finally yield ARG [35]. This pathway has been found in a few species such as Myxococcus xanthus [41] and E. coli [36].. In many ...
Neurology news, research and treatment studies for epilepsy, neurodegenerative disorders, patients with MS and other brain and central nervous system disorders and diseases.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Jag såg en bok hos en kompis som handlade om arga lappar, och den var faktiskt riktigt rolig. På framsidan var det ett foto på en lapp som någon hade satt inne i någon tvättstuga där det stod "den som inte tar bort luddet ska dö!" Jättekul, snacka om att folk kan bli arga för triviala saker. Hela boken var en samling av fotografier på lappar som folk hade skickat in till den här författaren, och så samlade han ihop dem i den här boken. Jag skriver lappar eller meddelanden ibland, men inte så arga som dessa.. Posted by inomecoiniuro on Oct. 28, 2015, 9:02 p.m. ...
Faragó, A. and Dénes, G. (1967). „Mechanism of arginine biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardti. II. Purification and properties of N-acetylglutamate 5-phosphotransferase, the allosteric enzyme of the pathway". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 136: 6-18. PMID 6040410 ...
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A reactor at Dominion Virginia Powers nuclear power plant remains inactive two days after it was automatically shut down due to the failure of an electrical power supply on Tuesday morning. The
casSAR Dugability of A2S874 | argB | Acetylglutamate kinase - Also known as ARGB_BURM9, argB. Catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
1OHA: The Course of Phosphorus in the Reaction of N-Acetyl-L-Glutamate Kinase, Determined from the Structures of Crystalline Complexes, Including a Complex with an Alf(4)(-) Transition State Mimic
Global Genomics Group and Metabolon today announced that they have entered into a collaboration agreement to investigate biological networks and pathways in order to discover novel biomarkers and pharmaceutical targets for cardiovascular diseases.
Metabolon, Inc., a world leader in metabolomics-based diagnostic tests and research services, announced today that it has raised $15 million in a Seri
AAK1 - Aak1 - Mouse, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral untagged vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Hyperammonemia, which can cause brain damage, occurs in many different kinds of inborn errors of metabolism. The investigators propose to determine if short-term (3 day) treatment with N-carbamylglutamate can diminish hyperammonemia by enhancing ureagenesis in these patients. The investigators propose here a short-term (3 day) trial. If it succeeds, the investigators would consider more extensive long-term studies of the drug ...
RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C., Jan. 26, 2017-- Metabolon, Inc., the global leader in metabolomics, announced changes today to its executive team. Prior to joining Metabolon, he was the Managing Director of Klaipeda Health, a healthcare and life sciences advisory company. He has held a variety of commercial, medical, scientific, informatics and technology leadership...
We post blogs on all things metabolomics - from the latest publications to precision medicine. Visit the page to view recent posts from Metabolon.
We post blogs on all things metabolomics - from the latest publications to precision medicine. Visit the page to view recent posts from Metabolon.
US Patent 8,131,473. Data analysis methods for locating entities of interest within large, multivariable datasets. Inventors: Marie Coffin, Keith Allen, Brian Bullard, Alan Higgins. Assignee: Metabolon
Glutamate 5-kinase (G5K) makes the highly unstable product glutamyl 5-phosphate (G5P) in the initial, controlling step of proline/ornithine synthesis, being feedback-inhibited by proline or ornithine, and causing, when defective, clinical hyperammonaemia. We determined two crystal structures of G5K from Escherichia coli, at 2.9 A and 2.5 A resolution, complexed with glutamate and sulphate, or with G5P, sulphate and the proline analogue 5-oxoproline. E. coli G5K presents a novel tetrameric (dimer of dimers) architecture. Each subunit contains a 257 residue AAK domain, typical of acylphosphate-forming enzymes, with characteristic alpha(3)beta(8)alpha(4) sandwich topology. This domain is responsible for catalysis and proline inhibition, and has a crater on the beta sheet C-edge that hosts the active centre and bound 5-oxoproline. Each subunit contains a 93 residue C-terminal PUA domain, typical of RNA-modifying enzymes, which presents the characteristic beta(5)beta(4) sandwich fold and three alpha ...
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Gains proprietary lipids technology platform and further opportunities for diagnostics, personalized medicine and commercial services.
This is the list of the students who participate in this workshop Group 1 Nadhira Rizki Suci Harlen Olivia Mayer Group 2 Lana Syahbani Dara Azilya Satria Perdana Group 3 Tristia Risnawati Yosie Sesbania Gewap Yolanda Niagara Group 4 Puji Maharani Hera Khaerani Naluri Bella Wati Group 5 Aldo Fenalosa Bayu Arga Ramadhan Mardika Agung…
function nag_correg_robustm_corr_user_example indm = int64(1); x = [3.4, 6.9, 12.2; 6.4, 2.5, 15.1; 4.9, 5.5, 14.2; 7.3, 1.9, 18.2; 8.8, 3.6, 11.7; 8.4, 1.3, 17.9; 5.3, 3.1, 15; 2.7, 8.1, 7.7; 6.1, 3, 21.9; 5.3, 2.2, 13.9]; a = [1; 0; 1; 0; 0; 1]; theta = [0; 0; 0]; user = [4, 2]; [user, covar, aOut, wt, thetaOut, nit, ifail] = ... nag_correg_robustm_corr_user(@ucv, indm, x, a, theta, user, user) function [userp, u, w] = ucv(t, userp) cu = userp(1); u = 1.0; if (t ~= 0) t2 = t*t; if (t2 , cu) u = cu/t2; end end % w function and derivative cw = userp(2); if (t , cw) w = cw/t; else w = 1.0; end ...
22ο Πανελλήνιο Ουρολογικό Συνέδριο 16-19 Οκτωβρίου 2014 Ξενοδοχείο Creta Maris, Χερσόνησος,Ηράκλειο Κρήτης ...
In molecular biology, the amino acid kinase domain is a protein domain. It is found in protein kinases with various specificities, including the aspartate, glutamate and uridylate kinase families. In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed-back inhibition of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS). In Escherichia coli, thrA, metLM, and lysC encode aspartokinase isozymes that show feedback inhibition by threonine, methionine, and lysine, respectively. The lysine-sensitive isoenzyme of aspartate kinase from spinach leaves has a subunit composition of 4 large and 4 small subunits. In plants although the control of carbon fixation and nitrogen assimilation has been studied in detail, relatively little is known about the regulation of carbon and nitrogen flow into amino acids. The metabolic regulation of expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana aspartate kinase/homoserine dehydrogenase (AK/HSD) gene, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A phase I study of DMS612, a novel bifunctional alkylating agent. AU - Appleman, Leonard J.. AU - Balasubramaniam, Sanjeeve. AU - Parise, Robert A.. AU - Bryla, Christine. AU - Redon, Christophe E.. AU - Nakamura, Asako J.. AU - Bonner, William M.. AU - Wright, John J.. AU - Piekarz, Richard. AU - Kohler, David R.. AU - Jiang, Yixing. AU - Belani, Chandra P.. AU - Eiseman, Julie. AU - Chu, Edward. AU - Beumer, Jan H.. AU - Bates, Susan E.. PY - 2015/2/15. Y1 - 2015/2/15. N2 - Purpose: DMS612 is a dimethane sulfonate analog with bifunctional alkylating activity and preferential cytotoxicity to human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the NCI-60 cell panel. This first-in-human phase I study aimed to determine dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of DMS612 administered by 10-minute intravenous infusion on days 1, 8, and 15 of an every-28-day schedule. Experimental Design: Patients with advanced solid malignancies ...
Thousand-and-one amino acid kinases (TAOK) 1 and 2 are activated catalytically during mitosis and can contribute to mitotic cell rounding and spindle positioning. Here, we characterize a compound that inhibits TAOK1 and TAOK2 activity with IC50 values of 11 to 15 nmol/L, is ATP-competitive, and targets these kinases selectively. TAOK inhibition or depletion in centrosome-amplified SKBR3 or BT549 breast cancer cell models increases the mitotic population, the percentages of mitotic cells displaying amplified centrosomes and multipolar spindles, induces cell death, and inhibits cell growth. In contrast, nontumorigenic and dividing bipolar MCF-10A breast cells appear less dependent on TAOK activity and can complete mitosis and proliferate in the presence of the TAOK inhibitor. We demonstrate that TAOK1 and TAOK2 localize to the cytoplasm and centrosomes respectively during mitosis. Live cell imaging shows that the TAOK inhibitor prolongs the duration of mitosis in SKBR3 cells, increases mitotic ...
ASS Cardio Spirig is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to ASS Cardio Spirig is available on the Drugs.com website.
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Figure 5 An approach to diagnosis of hyperammonemia in older children OA: organic acidurias, FAO: fatty acid oxidation defects, PC: pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, PDH: pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, ASA: argininosuccinic acid, AS: argininosuccinic aciduria, NAGS: N-acetylglutamate synthetase deficiency, CPS I: carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency, OTC: ornithine transcarbamoylase deficiency, HHH: hyperornithinemia hyperammonemia homocitrullinuria syndrome, LPI: lysinuric protein intolerance. (Click image to enlarge) ...
CHF6366 is a novel bifunctional compound displaying both muscarinic receptor antagonist and β2-adrenergic receptor agonist properties (MABA), with the
... DAVIS, Calif., July 14, 2003 - SoftIntegration, Inc. and the Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) announce the release of Ch NAG Statistics Package version 1.0. Designed to meet the needs of a wide range of researchers seeking rapid statistical application development, the Ch NAG Statistics Package makes a set of the robust NAG statistical routines available to users of Ch, an embeddable C/C++ interpreter for cross-platform scripting, shell programming, 2D/3D plotting, numerical computing, and embedded scripting. Ch NAG Statistics Package makes the rigorously tested statistical routines in the NAG C library available to Ch users without traditional coding and linking. This comprehensive selection of statistical routines can readily use the 2D/3D graphical plotting capabilities of Ch. In addition, with SoftIntegrations free Ch ODBC and Ch CGI toolkit, it is easy to integrate with databases and create web-based applications for statistical ...
Expression of AAK1 (DKFZp686K16132, KIAA1048) in soft tissue tissue. Antibody staining with HPA017931 and HPA020289 in immunohistochemistry.
Pamplona: Capital of both the provincia (province) and the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Navarra, northeastern Spain. It lies on the western bank of the Arga River in the...
nag_regsn_mult_linear_tran_model (g02dkc) is intended for use in situations in which dummy (0-1) variables have been used such as in the analysis of designed experiments when you do not wish to change the arguments of the model to give a full rank model. The function is not intended for situations in which the relationships between the independent variables are only approximate ...
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Bakterije C. difficile uporabljajo Arg sistem za zaznavanje celične gostote (»quorum sensing«). Transmembranski protein ArgB procesira prepeptid ArgD, da nastane signalna molekula AIP (»autoinducer peptid«), ki se izloči iz celice. Ko se celice dovolj namnožijo, naraste zunajcelična koncentracija AIP, ki se veže na membrano vezan receptor histidin kinazo ArgC. Ob vezavi AIP pride do avtofosforilacije ArgC ter posledične fosforilacije ter dimerizacije proteina ArgA. Dimer ArgA je aktivna oblika proteina, ki deluje kot transkripcijski fakotor za aktivacijo promotorja Arg, ki vpliva tudi na izražanje toksinov. Celice začnejo ob povečanju celične gostote sintetizirati TcdA in TcdB, ki sta odgovorna za simptome okužbe s C. difficile [3]. Sistem ProQuorum deluje tako, da celice L. reuteri preko signalnih molekul AIP zaznajo porast števila patogenih bakterij C. difficile [4]. Molekula AIP preko dvokomponentnega detekcijskega sistema ArgC/ArgA v L. reuteri inducira sintezo in sekrecijo ...
Radikal Therapeutics (RTX) is developing a novel bifunctional small molecule, R-503, intended for the prevention of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) asso...
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The Apocryphon of John, trans. Frederik Wisse, from The Nag Hammadi Library. This site includes the entire Nag Hammadi Library, as well as a large collection of other primary Gnostic scriptures and documents.
February 17, 2015 - Will Hawkes The way Robin Appel tells it, Maris Otter was lucky to make it to 30, let alone 50. "Fewer and fewer farmers were growing it," Appel, a grain merchant, says of the famous barleys plight in 1990. "No one was encouraging them to. I asked Paul Robertshaw, production director at Wolverhampton & Dudley Breweries, if... View Article ...
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Pursuant to JGLs strategy to focus on business development in clusters/territories where it can make a significant impact, the ASEAN region is in the…
Reviews for Wonderfalls - Season 1, Episode 8: Lovesick Ass: As Jaye and Eric verbally spar over their relationship, or more precisely, lack of one, they encounter and help a ...
Reviews for Wonderfalls - Season 1, Episode 8: Lovesick Ass: As Jaye and Eric verbally spar over their relationship, or more precisely, lack of one, they encounter and help a ...
Furthermore, the amino acids that form CBP include a strip of 18 glutamines. Thus, the glutamines on CBP interact directly with ... Specifically, CBP contains an acetyltransferase domain to which HTT binds through its polyglutamine-containing domain. ... CAG is the 3-letter genetic code (codon) for the amino acid glutamine, so a series of them results in the production of a chain ... and myoclonic hyperkinesia can be treated with valproic acid. Psychiatric symptoms can be treated with medications similar to ...
HATs are enzymes responsible for the acetylation of amino acids. HATs acetylate by converting the lysine side group of amino ... Swank, M. W.; Sweatt, J. D. (2001). "Increased Histone Acetyltransferase and Lysine Acetyltransferase Activity and Biphasic ... the amino acid that is modified, and the number of methyl groups added. In the case of lysine methylation, three types of ... "Spatial Memory Consolidation is Associated with Induction of Several Lysine-Acetyltransferase (Histone Acetyltransferase) ...
Transamination, or the transfer of an amine (or NH2) group from an amino acid to a keto acid by an aminotransferase (also known ... Choline acetyltransferase (also known as ChAT or CAT) is an important enzyme which produces the neurotransmitter acetylcholine ... Braunstein AE, Kritzmann MG (1937). "Formation and Breakdown of Amino-acids by Inter-molecular Transfer of the Amino Group". ... the growing amino acid chain from the tRNA molecule in the A-site of the ribosome and its subsequent addition to the amino acid ...
Lysine is an amino acid with a positive charge when unmodified. Lysines on the amino terminal tails of histones have a tendency ... Histone Acetyltransferases, also known as HATs, are a family of enzymes that acetylate the histone tails of the nucleosome. ... The mechanism for acetylation and deacetylation takes place on the NH3+ groups of Lysine amino acid residues. These residues ... Chemical modifications of histone proteins often occur on particular amino acids. This specific addition of single or multiple ...
This protein in 611 amino acids in length and has a molecular weight of 71.1 kilodaltons and an isoelectric point of pI=6.7. ... It also contains a possible substrate of N-acetyltransferase A at Ser2. CCDC37 has a predicted nuclear localization via ... CCDC37 contains a DUF4200 region located from amino acid 151 to 269. There is no known frunction for DUF4200. CCDC37 also ... It contains four possible PEST sequence at amino acids 17-36, 293-304, 337-360, and 360-395. ...
The protein encoded on FAM135 is 1406 amino acids long. The protein contains a region called DUF676, believed to be a putative ... FAM135B has shown to interact with KAT5, a gene that encodes for a histone acetyltransferase through yeast two-hybrid ...
... is a lightweight structural protein made of 126 amino acids. Many of these amino acids have a positive charge at ... Acetylation relies on specific histone acetyltransferases that work at gene promoters during transcriptional activation. Adding ... All variants of histone H2B contain the same number of amino acids, and the variations in sequence are few in number. Only two ... Histone H2B's amino acid sequence is highly evolutionarily conserved. Even distantly related species have extremely similar ...
The protein ATF-2 has 505 amino acids. Studies in mice indicate a role for ATF-2 in the development of nervous system and the ... The protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus, it may ... Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (16): 3854-61. doi:10.1093/nar/26.16.3854. PMC 147779 . PMID 9685505. Sano Y, Tokitou F, Dai P, Maekawa T ... "Activation and interaction of ATF2 with the coactivator ASC-2 are responsive for granulocytic differentiation by retinoic acid ...
Each of these different enzyme complexes is specific for different amino acids or amino acid sequences which is shown in the ... A tubulin acetyltransferase is located in the axoneme, and acetylates the α-tubulin subunit in an assembled microtubule. Once ... to the α-amino group of the first amino acid residue of the protein. Different NATs are responsible for the acetylation of ... These amino acids are more frequently expressed in the N-terminal of proteins in eukaryotes, so NatA is the major NAT ...
An example of the first mechanism occurs during the acetylation of lysine terminal tail amino acids, which is catalyzed by ... histone acetyltransferases (HATs). HATs are part of a multiprotein complex that is recruited to chromatin when activators bind ... phosphorylation and ubiquitination can be associated with different transcriptional states depending on the specific amino acid ... Nucleic Acids Research. 28 (8): E32. doi:10.1093/nar/28.8.e32. PMC 102836 . PMID 10734209. Russell 2010, pp. 552-3. van der ...
The S37P mutation swaps one amino acid for another, a Serine amino acid for a Proline, in just one part at the end of the ... It was the first reported human genetic disorder linked with a mutation in an N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) gene. Males ... Ogden Syndrome, also known as n-terminal acetyltransferase deficiency (NATD), is an x-linked disorder of infancy comprising a ... Arnesen, T. (2009). "Proteomics analyses reveal the evolutionary conservation and divergence of N-terminal acetyltransferases ...
During cooking of muscle meat at high temperature, some amino acids may react with creatine to give heterocyclic aromatic ... One example is the N-Acetyltransferase (NAT) gene. NAT is a phase II metabolism enzyme that exists in two forms: NAT1 and NAT2 ... enzyme deficiency caused by mutations in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase cannot metabolize foods containing the amino acid ... fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids). In mice models, overexpression of SREBP-1c led to fatty livers, ...
PLP forms an imine with the amino acid derivative. The amine on the pyridine is protonated and acts as an electron sink, ... It has been proposed that histidine residue His122 of serotonin N-acetyl transferase is the catalytic residue that deprotonates ... "Molecular cloning of genomic DNA and chromosomal assignment of the gene for human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, the ... Lerner AB, Case JD, Takahashi Y (July 1960). "Isolation of melatonin and 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid from bovine pineal ...
Torre, Gregory M.; Lynch, Vincent D.; Jarowski, Charles I. (1981-01-01). "Lowering blood urea nitrogen with amino acid ... N-acetyltransferase, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 226 (3): 733-737 ... "Lowering of serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels by balancing amino acid intake in the white rat". The Journal of ...
Histone tails are normally positively charged due to amine groups present on their lysine and arginine amino acids. These ... Its action is opposite to that of histone acetyltransferase. HDAC proteins are now also called lysine deacetylases (KDAC), to ... Protein phosphorylation is perhaps the most widely studied and understood modification in which certain amino acid residues are ... from an ε-N-acetyl lysine amino acid on a histone, allowing the histones to wrap the DNA more tightly. This is important ...
It is 433 amino acids long, from amino acid 80 until amino acid number 512. DUF4641 is a part of pfam15483. The domain is ... This include sites for N-acetyltransferase (NetAcet 1-), glycation of ε amino groups of lysines (NetGlycate 1.0), mucin type ... The protein has 514 amino acids and a molecular mass of 54.4 kDa. The isoelectric point is 9.3. Compared to other human ... DUF4641 has an unusual spacing between lysine residues and positive charged amino acids (Analysis of Protein Sequences, SAPS ...
200 amino acids in OGA have homology with some proteins such as hyaluronidase, a putative acetyltransferase, eukaryotic ...
... amino acid homology, and are each 158 amino acids long. Glufosinate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is used to control ... "phosphinothricin acetyltransferase" or "pat". The two genes and their proteins have 80% homology on the DNA level and 86% ... it consists of two alanine residues and a unique amino acid that is an analog of glutamate that they named "phosphinothricin." ...
NAG can be used in the production of ornithine and arginine, two important amino acids, or as an allosteric cofactor for ... a member of the N-acetyltransferase family of enzymes, is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, although its role and ... produce NAG through orinithine acetyltransferase (OAT), which is part of a 'cyclic' ornithine production pathway. NAGS is ...
... acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.105 --- amino-acid n-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.150 ... amino acid oxidoreductases MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.062 --- alanine dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.125 --- d-amino-acid ... l-amino acid oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.724 --- leucine dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772 --- nitric oxide ... aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase MeSH D08.811.520.224.125.100.500 --- dopa decarboxylase MeSH D08.811.520.224.125.250 --- ...
... amino acids 1170-1226 of TAF1) that TAF7 binds to and inactivates TAF1's acetyltransferase (AT) function. Thus, it is likely ...
... and a BcBOT5 gene whose amino acid sequence showed high homology to known acetyl transferases. This brought Pinedo et al. to ... Additionally, aggressive strains of the fungus secrets polyketides such as botcinic acid that exhibit phytotoxic and antifungal ...
Cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 gene codes for the Muscle LIM Protein (MLP) or CSRP3, a small 194 amino acid protein, which ... by acetyltransferase (PCAF) and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), respectively. In myocytes, MLP has the ability to oligomerize, ... Furthermore, MLP carries a nuclear localization signal at amino acid positions 64-69 MLP can be acetylated/deacetylated at the ...
Romania Antiglobalization activists in Syria Amino-acid N-acetyltransferase, an enzyme Neoabietadiene synthase, an enzyme Ralph ...
Shi J, Zhu H, Arvidson DN, Woldegiorgis G (Feb 2000). "The first 28 N-terminal amino acid residues of human heart muscle ... "Crystal structure of carnitine acetyltransferase and implications for the catalytic mechanism and fatty acid transport". Cell. ... Long chain fatty acids such as palmitoyl-CoA, unlike short- and medium-chain fatty acids, cannot freely diffuse through the ... is that CPT1 contains an additional domain at its N-terminal consisting of about 160 amino acids. It has been determined that ...
Four hydrogen bonds form between polar side chains on TBP amino acid (Asn27, Asn117, Thr82, Thr173)( and bases in the minor ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 9 (19): 5145-58. doi:10.1093/nar/9.19.5145. PMC 327505. PMID 6171774.. ...
C. elegans glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase (GNA1): coenzyme A adduct. 4ag9 C. elegans glucosamine-6-phosphate N- ...
The SCOP classification for the Peripheral subunit-binding domain of 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex superfamily including the ... transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups ,, transferase activity ,, S-acetyltransferase activity. ... amino-acid metabolism. 0.000000000007325. Least Informative. Direct. UniPathway (UP). amino-acid degradation. 0. Moderately ... amino-acid metabolism. 0.000000000007325. 0.5959. Least Informative. DIRECT. UniPathway (UP). amino-acid degradation. 0. 0.8969 ...
D-amino-acid N-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include D-amino acid acetyltransferase, and D-amino acid-alpha-N- ... a D-amino-acid N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.36) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + a D-amino acid ... an N-acetyl-D-amino acid Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and D-amino acid, whereas its two products are ... CoA and N-acetyl-D-amino acid. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases ...
Acyl-CoA thioester hydrolase/bile acid-CoA amino acid N-acetyltransferase (IPR006862). Short name: Thio_Ohase/aa_AcTrfase ... This entry presents the N-termini of acyl-CoA thioester hydrolase and bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acetyltransferase (BAAT) [PMID ...
Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complexAdd BLAST. 553. Amino acid ... Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (EC:2.3.1.12*Search proteins in ... sp,Q59098,ODP2_CUPNH Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex OS=Cupriavidus ... It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2 ...
Acetyltransferase required for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion (PubMed:15958495, PubMed:18614053). Couples the ... N-acetyltransferase ESCO1Add BLAST. 840. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view ... section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the ... The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, ...
N-terminal protein amino acid acetylation IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... serotonin N-acetyltransferase. Names. arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. serotonin acetylase. NP_001079.1. *EC 2.3.1.87 ... AANAT aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase [Homo sapiens] AANAT aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:15 ... aralkylamine N-acetyltransferaseprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:19 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000129673 MIM:600950 ...
K(lysine) acetyltransferase 2A. STAF97. general control of amino acid synthesis protein 5-like 2. histone acetyltransferase ... GCN5 (general control of amino-acid synthesis, yeast, homolog)-like 2. General control of amino acid synthesis, yeast, homolog- ... and by amino acids 111-151 (histone acetyltransferase domain) and 389-476 (bromodomain) of hGCN5. PubMed ... Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long .... COG5076. Location:492 → 832. COG5076; Transcription factor involved in chromatin ...
N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nats) complex is responsible for protein N-terminal acetylation (Nα-acetylation), which is one of ... Figure 3. Amino acid sequence alignment. (a) Amino acid sequence alignment of all predicted Nat CS from poplar; (b) Amino acid ... Figure 3. Amino acid sequence alignment. (a) Amino acid sequence alignment of all predicted Nat CS from poplar; (b) Amino acid ... The consensus acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) binding motif sequence RxxGxG/A, where x can be any amino acid, is boxed (red). The ...
Acetyltransferases / metabolism* * Adenoviridae / enzymology * Amino Acid Sequence * CREB-Binding Protein * Histones / ... The transcriptional coactivators p300 and CBP are histone acetyltransferases Cell. 1996 Nov 29;87(5):953-9. doi: 10.1016/s0092- ... p300/CBP represents a novel class of acetyltransferases in that it does not have the conserved motif found among various other ... Here, we demonstrate that p300/CBP is not only a transcriptional adaptor but also a histone acetyltransferase. ...
Modulating substrate specificity of histone acetyltransferase with unnatural amino acids. Kinjal Rajesh Mehta, Ching Yao Yang, ... Modulating substrate specificity of histone acetyltransferase with unnatural amino acids. Molecular BioSystems. 2011 Nov 1;7(11 ... Modulating substrate specificity of histone acetyltransferase with unnatural amino acids. In: Molecular BioSystems. 2011 ; Vol ... Modulating substrate specificity of histone acetyltransferase with unnatural amino acids. / Mehta, Kinjal Rajesh; Yang, Ching ...
Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs) are involved in the regulation of lysine acetylation, a ... post-translational protein modification regulated by lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs; also ... Sensing and transmitting intracellular amino acid signals through reversible lysine aminoacylations. Cell Metab. 27, 151-166 ( ... therapeutic potential of valproic acid and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. Circulation 126, 455-467 (2012). ...
The aminoglycoside-3-O-acetyltransferase-I gene (aacC1) from R plasmids of two incompatibility groups (R1033 [Tn1696], and R135 ... Acetyltransferases / genetics* * Amino Acid Sequence * Base Sequence * Biological Evolution * DNA Transposable Elements* ... The aminoglycoside-3-O-acetyltransferase-I gene (aacC1) from R plasmids of two incompatibility groups (R1033 [Tn1696], and R135 ... for gentamicin acetyltransferase-3-I(AAC(3)-I), another member of the Tn21-based expression cassette Mol Gen Genet. 1989 Jun; ...
Buy our Choline Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748). Ab45678 is a blocking peptide for ab27484 and has been validated in BL. ... Amino acids. 736 to 748. Specifications. Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab45678 in the following tested applications ... Choline Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748). See all Choline Acetyltransferase proteins and peptides. ...
Polymorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferase. Gene Name. NAT2. Organism. Humans. Amino acid sequence. ,lcl,BSEQ0006940,Arylamine N ... Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 May 25;17(10):3978. [PubMed:2734109] *Blum M, Grant DM, McBride W, Heim M, Meyer UA: Human arylamine N- ... Acetylsalicylic acid. approved, vet_approved. unknown. substrate. Details. DB12612. Ozanimod. approved, investigational. ... Arylamine n-acetyltransferase activity. Specific Function. Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and ...
Abbreviations used : AADC, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase ; ChAT, choline acetyltransferase ; HPRT, hypoxanthine-guanine ... Tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, two enzymes responsible for the synthesis of dopamine, were reduced ...
Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are enzymes that acetylate conserved lysine amino acids on histone proteins by transferring ... Acetyltransferase. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i Lee KK, Workman JL (April 2007). "Histone acetyltransferase complexes ... 2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase ... a 110-amino acid module that recognizes acetylated lysine residues and is functionally linked to the co-activators in the ...
C) Complete amino acid sequence for Yng1p. The peptide sequence obtained by mass spectrometry from purified NuA3 is shown boxed ... Histone acetyltransferase activity of yeast Gcn5p is required for the activation of target genes in vivo. Genes Dev.12:627-639. ... The yeast histone acetyltransferase A2 complex, but not free Gcn5p, binds stably to nucleosomal arrays. J. Biol. Chem.275:24928 ... Yng1p Modulates the Activity of Sas3p as a Component of the Yeast NuA3 Histone Acetyltransferase Complex. LeAnn Howe, Thomas ...
C) Complete amino acid sequence for Yng1p. The peptide sequence obtained by mass spectrometry from purified NuA3 is shown boxed ... Yng1p Modulates the Activity of Sas3p as a Component of the Yeast NuA3 Histone Acetyltransferase Complex. LeAnn Howe, Thomas ... Yng1p Modulates the Activity of Sas3p as a Component of the Yeast NuA3 Histone Acetyltransferase Complex ... Yng1p Modulates the Activity of Sas3p as a Component of the Yeast NuA3 Histone Acetyltransferase Complex ...
A fragment consisting of the first 204 amino-terminal amino acids of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase one (NAT1) and the ... A fragment consisting of the first 204 amino-terminal amino acids of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase one (NAT1) and the ... arylamine; acetyltransferase; expression; NAT; GST fusion protein; purification. Faculty, School or Research Centre:. Faculty ...
AA, amino acid; AFP, alpha fetoprotein; ALS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ChAT, choline acetyltransferase; CRISPR, clustered ... A) Illustration, showing the DNA and amino acid (AA) sequence of the patient cell line R495QfsX527and the corrected cell line ... amino acids before the STOP codon (R495QfsX527; Belzil et al., 2012; Japtok et al., 2015; Lenzi et al., 2015). This mutation ... 100 μM nonessential amino acids (Invitrogen), and 100 μM ß-mercaptoethanol (Invitrogen) for 10 days. Afterwards, EBs were ...
Enzymes: choline acetyltransferase; dopamine beta-hydroxylase; GABA transaminase; glutamic acid decarboxylase; glutaminergic; ... Transporters: vesicular ACh; GABA; glutamate; glycine; glutamine; NET; VMAT, excitatory amino acid transporters. ...
... amino acid sequence in first source; atomic coordinates in PDB 5GCN ... tGCN5 histone acetyltransferase: transcription regulator involved in release of inactive DNA from its packaging of histone ... transcription regulator involved in release of inactive DNA from its packaging of histone proteins; amino acid sequence in ... tGCN5 histone acetyltransferase. Subscribe to New Research on tGCN5 histone acetyltransferase ...
11.14 In Vitro Translation - Determining Amino Acid Incorporation. 11.15 The Isoelectric Point (pI) of a Protein. Chapter ... 11.12 The Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase (CAT) Assay. 11.12.1 Calculating Molecules of Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase ( ... Chapter 5 Nucleic Acid Quantification. 5.1 Quantification of Nucleic Acids by Ultraviolet (UV) Spectroscopy. 5.2 Determining ... Chapter 6 Labeling Nucleic Acids with Radioisotopes. Introduction. 6.1 Units of Radioactivity - The Curie (Ci). 6.2 Estimating ...
... amino acids (amino acid transferases), an acetyl group (N-acetyl transferases), and a methyl group (N- and O-methyltransferases ... 2.2.4. Amino Acid Transferases. Amino acids of various types (e.g., taurine, glycine), whether endogenous or exogenous (from ... amino acid transferases, N-acetyl transferases, and methyltransferases. Note that there are other important classes of phase I ... Ellagic acid Berries, pomegranate, grapes, walnuts, and blackcurrants [42]. In vivo 10 and 30 mg/kg/d ellagic acid [43]. ...
  • Enhanced production of melatonin by ectopic overexpression of human serotonin N-acetyltransferase plays a role in cold resistance in transgenic rice seedlings. (nih.gov)
  • The uncommon nonprotein amino acid N δ -acetylornithine was discovered in a targeted search for Arabidopsis thaliana metabolites that are strongly induced by the phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). (plantcell.org)
  • The mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids is initiated by the sequential action of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I (outer membrane and detergent labile) and II (inner membrane and detergent stable), together with carnitine carrier. (scbt.com)
  • The transfer involves the removal of the growing amino acid chain from the tRNA molecule in the A-site of the ribosome and its subsequent addition to the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the P-site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transamination, or the transfer of an amine (or NH2) group from an amino acid to a keto acid by an aminotransferase (also known as a "transaminase"), was first noted in 1930 by D. M. Needham, after observing the disappearance of glutamic acid added to pigeon breast muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of the number of substrates, the major NAT is NatA, which co-translationally acetylates N-termini starting with a small amino acid (Ala, Cys, Ser, Thr, Val, Cys), after the initiator methionine has been removed. (portlandpress.com)