Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa10p catalytic subunit and the Naa15p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between lower and higher eukaryotes. It has specificity for N-terminal SERINE; ALANINE; THREONINE; GLYCINE; VALINE; and CYSTINE residues and acts on nascent peptide chains after the removal of the initiator METHIONINE by METHIONYL AMINOPEPTIDASES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa50p catalytic subunit, and the Naa10p and Naa15p auxiliary subunits. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is hydrophobic.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from ACETYL COENZYME A, to the N-terminus of a peptide chain.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa20p catalytic subunit and the Naa25p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between YEASTS and HUMAN. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is either ASPARTATE; GLUTAMATE; ASPARAGINE; OR GLUTAMINE.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A group of 6-alkyl SALICYLIC ACIDS that are found in ANACARDIUM and known for causing CONTACT DERMATITIS.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
An enzyme that catalyses the reaction of D-glucosamine 6-phosphate with ACETYL-COA to form N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of L-GLUTAMATE to N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the presence of ACETYL-COA.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.

A new yeast metabolon involving at least the two first enzymes of arginine biosynthesis: acetylglutamate synthase activity requires complex formation with acetylglutamate kinase. (1/65)

Open reading frame YJL071W of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to be ARG2 and identified as the structural gene for acetylglutamate synthase, first step in arginine biosynthesis. The three Ascomycete acetylglutamate synthases characterized to date appear homologous, but unlike the other enzymes of the yeast arginine biosynthesis pathway, they showed no significant similarity to their prokaryotic equivalents. The measured synthase activity did not increase with the number of ARG2 gene copies unless the number of ARG5,6 gene copies was increased similarly. ARG5,6 encodes a precursor that is maturated in the mitochondria into acetylglutamate kinase and acetylglutamyl-phosphate reductase, catalyzing the second and third steps in the pathway. The results imply that the synthase must interact stoichiometrically in vivo with the kinase, the reductase, or both to be active. Results obtained with synthetic ARG5 and ARG6 genes suggested that both the kinase and the reductase could be needed. This situation, which has completely escaped notice in yeast until now, is reminiscent of the observation in Neurospora crassa that nonsense arg-6 kinase/reductase mutants lack synthase activity (Hinde, R. W., Jacobson, J. A., Weiss, R. L., and Davis, R. H. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 5848-5852). In immunoprecipitation experiments, hemagglutinin-tagged synthase coprecipitated with a protein proven by microsequencing to be the kinase. Western blot analyses showed that the synthase has reduced stability in the absence of the kinase/reductase. Our data demonstrate the existence of a new yeast arginine metabolon involving at least the first two, and possibly the first three, enzymes of the pathway. Hypotheses regarding the biological significance of this interaction are discussed.  (+info)

Identification, cloning and expression of the mouse N-acetylglutamate synthase gene. (2/65)

In ureotelic animals, N-acetylglutamate (NAG) is an essential allosteric activator of carbamylphosphate synthetase I (CPSI), the first enzyme in the urea cycle. NAG synthase (NAGS; EC catalyses the formation of NAG from glutamate and acetyl-CoA in liver and intestinal mitochondria. This enzyme is supposed to regulate ureagenesis by producing variable amounts of NAG, thus modulating CPSI activity. Moreover, inherited deficiencies in NAGS have been associated with hyperammonaemia, probably due to the loss of CPSI activity. Although the existence of the NAGS protein in mammals has been known for decades, the gene has remained elusive. We identified the mouse (Mus musculus) and human NAGS genes using their similarity to the respective Neurospora crassa gene. NAGS was cloned from a mouse liver cDNA library and was found to encode a 2.3 kb message, highly expressed in liver and small intestine with lower expression levels in kidney, spleen and testis. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative mitochondrial targeting signal at the N-terminus. The cDNA sequence complements an argA (NAGS)-deficient Escherichia coli strain, reversing its arginine auxotrophy. His-tagged versions of the pre-protein and two putative mature proteins were each overexpressed in E. coli, and purified to apparent homogeneity by using a nickel-affinity column. The pre-protein and the two putative mature proteins catalysed the NAGS reaction but one of the putative mature enzymes had significantly higher activity than the pre-protein. The addition of l-arginine increased the catalytic activity of the purified recombinant NAGS enzymes by approx. 2-6-fold.  (+info)

The N-acetylglutamate synthase/N-acetylglutamate kinase metabolon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae allows co-ordinated feedback regulation of the first two steps in arginine biosynthesis. (3/65)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which uses the nonlinear pathway of arginine biosynthesis, the first two enzymes, N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) and N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK), are controlled by feedback inhibition. We have previously shown that NAGS and NAGK associate in a complex, essential to synthase activity and protein level [Abadjieva, A., Pauwels, K., Hilven, P. & Crabeel, M. (2001) J. Biol. Chem.276, 42869-42880]. The NAGKs of ascomycetes possess, in addition to the catalytic domain that is shared by all other NAGKs and whose structure has been determined, a C-terminal domain of unknown function and structure. Exploring the role of these two domains in the synthase/kinase interaction, we demonstrate that the ascomycete-specific domain is required to maintain synthase activity and protein level. Previous results had suggested a participation of the third enzyme of the pathway, N-acetylglutamylphosphate reductase, in the metabolon. Here, genetic analyses conducted in yeast at physiological level, or in a heterologous background, clearly demonstrate that the reductase is dispensable for synthase activity and protein level. Most importantly, we show that the arginine feedback regulation of the NAGS and NAGK enzymes is mutually interdependent. First, the kinase becomes less sensitive to arginine feedback inhibition in the absence of the synthase. Second, and as in Neurospora crassa, in a yeast kinase mutant resistant to arginine feedback inhibition, the synthase becomes feedback resistant concomitantly. We conclude that the NAGS/NAGK metabolon promotes the co-ordination of the catalytic activities and feedback regulation of the first two, flux controlling, enzymes of the arginine pathway.  (+info)

Mammalian N-acetylglutamate synthase. (4/65)

N-Acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS, E.C. is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the formation of N-acetylglutamate (NAG), an essential allosteric activator of carbamylphosphate synthetase I (CPSI). The mouse and human NAGS genes have been identified based on similarity to regions of NAGS from Neurospora crassa and cloned from liver cDNA libraries. These genes were shown to complement an argA- (NAGS) deficient Escherichia coli strain, and enzymatic activity of the proteins was confirmed by a new stable isotope dilution assay. The deduced amino acid sequence of mammalian NAGS contains a putative mitochondrial-targeting signal at the N-terminus. The mouse NAGS preprotein was overexpressed in insect cells to determine post-translational modifications and two processed proteins with different N-terminal truncations have been identified. Sequence analysis using a hidden Markov model suggests that the vertebrate NAGS protein contains domains with a carbamate kinase fold and an acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase fold, and protein crystallization experiments are currently underway. Inherited NAGS deficiency results in hyperammonemia, presumably due to the loss of CPSI activity. We, and others, have recently identified mutations in families with neonatal and late-onset NAGS deficiency and the identification of the gene has now made carrier testing and prenatal diagnosis feasible. A structural analog of NAG, carbamylglutamate, has been shown to bind and activate CPSI, and several patients have been reported to respond favorably to this drug (Carbaglu).  (+info)

Functional characterization of a novel ArgA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (5/65)

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene Rv2747 encodes a novel 19-kDa ArgA that catalyzes the initial step in L-arginine biosynthesis, namely the conversion of L-glutamate to alpha-N-acetyl-L-glutamate. Initial velocity studies reveal that Rv2747 proceeds through a sequential kinetic mechanism, with K(m) values of 280 mM for L-glutamine and 150 microM for acetyl-coenzyme A and with a k(cat) value of 200 min(-1). Initial velocity studies with L-glutamate showed that even at concentrations of 600 mM, saturation was not observed. Therefore, only a k(cat)/K(m) value of 125 M(-1) min(-1) can be calculated. Inhibition studies reveal that the enzyme is strongly regulated by L-arginine, the end product of the pathway (50% inhibitory concentration, 26 microM). The enzyme was completely inhibited by 500 microM arginine, with a Hill coefficient of 0.60, indicating negatively cooperative binding of L-arginine.  (+info)

Identification of novel mutations of the human N-acetylglutamate synthase gene and their functional investigation by expression studies. (6/65)

The mitochondrial enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) produces N-acetylglutamate serving as an allosteric activator of carbamylphosphate synthetase 1, the first enzyme of the urea cycle. Autosomal recessively inherited NAGS deficiency (NAGSD) leads to severe neonatal or late-onset hyperammonemia. To date few patients have been described and the gene involved was described only recently. In this study, another three families affected by NAGSD were analyzed for NAGS gene mutations resulting in the identification of three novel missense mutations (C200R [c.598T > C], S410P [c.1228T > C], A518T [c.1552G > A]). In order to investigate the effects of these three and two additional previously published missense mutations on enzyme activity, the mutated proteins were overexpressed in a bacterial expression system using the NAGS deficient E. coli strain NK5992. All mutated proteins showed a severe decrease in enzyme activity providing evidence for the disease-causing nature of the mutations. In addition, we expressed the full-length NAGS wild type protein including the mitochondrial leading sequence, the mature protein as well as a highly conserved core protein. NAGS activity was detected in all three recombinant proteins but varied regarding activity levels and response to stimulation by l-arginine. In conclusion, overexpression of wild type and mutated NAGS proteins in E. coli provides a suitable tool for functional analysis of NAGS deficiency.  (+info)

Translocation of a long amino-terminal domain through ER membrane by following signal-anchor sequence. (7/65)

Type I signal-anchor sequences mediate translocation of the N-terminal domain (N-domain) across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. To examine the translocation in detail, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) was fused to the N-terminus of synaptotagmin II as a long N-domain. Translocation was arrested by the DHFR ligand methotrexate, which stabilizes the folding of the DHFR domain, and resumed after depletion of methotrexate. The targeting of the ribosome-nascent chain complex to the ER requires GTP, whereas N-domain translocation does not require any nucleotide triphosphates. Significant translocation was observed even in the absence of a lumenal hsp70 (BiP). When the nascent polypeptide was released from the ribosomes after the membrane targeting, the N-domain translocation was suppressed and the nascent chain was released from the translocon. Ribosomes have a crucial role in maintaining the translocation-intermediate state. The translocation of the DHFR domain was greatly impaired when it was separated from the signal-anchor sequence. Unfolding and translocation of the DHFR domain must be driven by the stroke of the signal-anchor sequence into translocon.  (+info)

Involvement of LuxR, a quorum sensing regulator in Vibrio harveyi, in the promotion of metabolic genes: argA, purM, lysE and rluA. (8/65)

Quorum sensing, involving signal transduction via the two-component response regulator LuxO to its downstream target LuxR, controls luminescence in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. LuxR is a DNA binding protein that acts as both activator of the lux operon and repressor of its own gene. In order to determine if any other genes are affected by quorum sensing in V. harveyi, an assay for luxR-dependent promotion was devised using a genomic library maintained in a novel luxAB (luciferase) reporter. Screening in Escherichia coli DH-21 (lacI(sq)) entailed the addition of a second plasmid containing luxR under plac control. Four out of 5000 colonies showed luminescence stimulation upon IPTG induction of luxR. The four luxR-dependent promoters were upstream of argA, purM, lysE, and rluA, genes involved in arginine and purine biosyntheses, amino acid efflux, and pseudouridine synthesis, respectively. Based on analysis of luxR-dependent promoters, particularly that of argA, we describe a LuxR binding site, and implicate the coordination of LuxR with ArgR.  (+info)

We examined the distribution of NAGS and NAGK across the three domains of life. Although NAGK is found in archaea, eubacteria and eukaryotes, such as plants, algae and fungi, initially, we were only able to find sequences similar to either E. coli or mammalian NAGS in beta-proteobacteria, gamma-proteobacteria and three species of alpha-proteobacteria [48-50]. The three alpha-proteobacteria, M. maris, O. alexandrii and P. bermudensis, also appear to harbor acetylornithine transcarbamylase (argF) genes suggesting that their arginine biosynthesis pathway is similar to the one in X. campestris [7]. Identification of the alpha-proteobacterial NAGS genes that are closely related to the corresponding vertebrate, fungal and algal genes and to fungal NAGK is intriguing because mitochondria are thought to have arisen by endosymbiosis between proto-eukaryotic cell and an alpha-proteobacteria. Current thought suggests that the alpha-proteobacteria of the order Rickettsiales are the extant relatives of the ...
In the linear pathway (Figure 1A), GLU is converted to acetylglutamate (Ac-GLU) by N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS, encoded by argA) which is inhibited by ARG through negative feedback regulation [36],[39]. Sequential catalytic reactions catalyzed by the next three enzymes, N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK, encoded by argB), N-acetylglutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by argC) and N-acetylornithine transaminase (encoded by argD), which are common in the three pathways (Figure 1), yield N-acetylornithine (Ac-ORN) [34]. The next step, which distinguishes the linear pathway from the other two pathways, is deacetylation of Ac-ORN by AOase to yield ORN [40],[41]. The next and final steps are carried out by ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC or OTCase, encoded by argF), argininosuccinate synthase (encoded by argG) and argininosuccinate lyase (encoded by argH), which finally yield ARG [35]. This pathway has been found in a few species such as Myxococcus xanthus [41] and E. coli [36].. In many ...
Neurology news, research and treatment studies for epilepsy, neurodegenerative disorders, patients with MS and other brain and central nervous system disorders and diseases.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Jag såg en bok hos en kompis som handlade om arga lappar, och den var faktiskt riktigt rolig. På framsidan var det ett foto på en lapp som någon hade satt inne i någon tvättstuga där det stod den som inte tar bort luddet ska dö! Jättekul, snacka om att folk kan bli arga för triviala saker. Hela boken var en samling av fotografier på lappar som folk hade skickat in till den här författaren, och så samlade han ihop dem i den här boken. Jag skriver lappar eller meddelanden ibland, men inte så arga som dessa.. Posted by inomecoiniuro on Oct. 28, 2015, 9:02 p.m. ...
Faragó, A. and Dénes, G. (1967). „Mechanism of arginine biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardti. II. Purification and properties of N-acetylglutamate 5-phosphotransferase, the allosteric enzyme of the pathway. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 136: 6-18. PMID 6040410 ...
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A reactor at Dominion Virginia Powers nuclear power plant remains inactive two days after it was automatically shut down due to the failure of an electrical power supply on Tuesday morning. The
casSAR Dugability of A2S874 | argB | Acetylglutamate kinase - Also known as ARGB_BURM9, argB. Catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
Catalyzes two activities which are involved in the cyclic version of arginine biosynthesis: the synthesis of N-acetylglutamate from glutamate and acetyl-CoA as the acetyl donor, and of ornithine by transacetylation between N(2)-acetylornithine and glutamate.
1OHA: The Course of Phosphorus in the Reaction of N-Acetyl-L-Glutamate Kinase, Determined from the Structures of Crystalline Complexes, Including a Complex with an Alf(4)(-) Transition State Mimic
Combining the power of metabolomics with the genetic blueprint created by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has allowed Metabolon and its collaborators to create an atlas of genetic influences on human blood metabolites.
Global Genomics Group and Metabolon today announced that they have entered into a collaboration agreement to investigate biological networks and pathways in order to discover novel biomarkers and pharmaceutical targets for cardiovascular diseases.
Metabolon, Inc., a world leader in metabolomics-based diagnostic tests and research services, announced today that it has raised $15 million in a Seri
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
AAK1 293T Cell Transient Overexpression Lysate H00022848-T01 GeneID= AAK1-In 50mM Tris-HCl, 2%SDS, 10% glycerol, 2% 2-mercaptoethanol, pH 6.8.-denatured
AAK1 - Aak1 - Mouse, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral untagged vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Hyperammonemia, which can cause brain damage, occurs in many different kinds of inborn errors of metabolism. The investigators propose to determine if short-term (3 day) treatment with N-carbamylglutamate can diminish hyperammonemia by enhancing ureagenesis in these patients. The investigators propose here a short-term (3 day) trial. If it succeeds, the investigators would consider more extensive long-term studies of the drug ...
RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C., Jan. 26, 2017-- Metabolon, Inc., the global leader in metabolomics, announced changes today to its executive team. Prior to joining Metabolon, he was the Managing Director of Klaipeda Health, a healthcare and life sciences advisory company. He has held a variety of commercial, medical, scientific, informatics and technology leadership...
We post blogs on all things metabolomics - from the latest publications to precision medicine. Visit the page to view recent posts from Metabolon.
US Patent 8,131,473. Data analysis methods for locating entities of interest within large, multivariable datasets. Inventors: Marie Coffin, Keith Allen, Brian Bullard, Alan Higgins. Assignee: Metabolon
Glutamate 5-kinase (G5K) makes the highly unstable product glutamyl 5-phosphate (G5P) in the initial, controlling step of proline/ornithine synthesis, being feedback-inhibited by proline or ornithine, and causing, when defective, clinical hyperammonaemia. We determined two crystal structures of G5K from Escherichia coli, at 2.9 A and 2.5 A resolution, complexed with glutamate and sulphate, or with G5P, sulphate and the proline analogue 5-oxoproline. E. coli G5K presents a novel tetrameric (dimer of dimers) architecture. Each subunit contains a 257 residue AAK domain, typical of acylphosphate-forming enzymes, with characteristic alpha(3)beta(8)alpha(4) sandwich topology. This domain is responsible for catalysis and proline inhibition, and has a crater on the beta sheet C-edge that hosts the active centre and bound 5-oxoproline. Each subunit contains a 93 residue C-terminal PUA domain, typical of RNA-modifying enzymes, which presents the characteristic beta(5)beta(4) sandwich fold and three alpha ...
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Gains proprietary lipids technology platform and further opportunities for diagnostics, personalized medicine and commercial services.
This is the list of the students who participate in this workshop Group 1 Nadhira Rizki Suci Harlen Olivia Mayer Group 2 Lana Syahbani Dara Azilya Satria Perdana Group 3 Tristia Risnawati Yosie Sesbania Gewap Yolanda Niagara Group 4 Puji Maharani Hera Khaerani Naluri Bella Wati Group 5 Aldo Fenalosa Bayu Arga Ramadhan Mardika Agung…
function nag_correg_robustm_corr_user_example indm = int64(1); x = [3.4, 6.9, 12.2; 6.4, 2.5, 15.1; 4.9, 5.5, 14.2; 7.3, 1.9, 18.2; 8.8, 3.6, 11.7; 8.4, 1.3, 17.9; 5.3, 3.1, 15; 2.7, 8.1, 7.7; 6.1, 3, 21.9; 5.3, 2.2, 13.9]; a = [1; 0; 1; 0; 0; 1]; theta = [0; 0; 0]; user = [4, 2]; [user, covar, aOut, wt, thetaOut, nit, ifail] = ... nag_correg_robustm_corr_user(@ucv, indm, x, a, theta, user, user) function [userp, u, w] = ucv(t, userp) cu = userp(1); u = 1.0; if (t ~= 0) t2 = t*t; if (t2 , cu) u = cu/t2; end end % w function and derivative cw = userp(2); if (t , cw) w = cw/t; else w = 1.0; end ...
22ο Πανελλήνιο Ουρολογικό Συνέδριο 16-19 Οκτωβρίου 2014 Ξενοδοχείο Creta Maris, Χερσόνησος,Ηράκλειο Κρήτης ...
In molecular biology, the amino acid kinase domain is a protein domain. It is found in protein kinases with various specificities, including the aspartate, glutamate and uridylate kinase families. In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed-back inhibition of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS). In Escherichia coli, thrA, metLM, and lysC encode aspartokinase isozymes that show feedback inhibition by threonine, methionine, and lysine, respectively. The lysine-sensitive isoenzyme of aspartate kinase from spinach leaves has a subunit composition of 4 large and 4 small subunits. In plants although the control of carbon fixation and nitrogen assimilation has been studied in detail, relatively little is known about the regulation of carbon and nitrogen flow into amino acids. The metabolic regulation of expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana aspartate kinase/homoserine dehydrogenase (AK/HSD) gene, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A phase I study of DMS612, a novel bifunctional alkylating agent. AU - Appleman, Leonard J.. AU - Balasubramaniam, Sanjeeve. AU - Parise, Robert A.. AU - Bryla, Christine. AU - Redon, Christophe E.. AU - Nakamura, Asako J.. AU - Bonner, William M.. AU - Wright, John J.. AU - Piekarz, Richard. AU - Kohler, David R.. AU - Jiang, Yixing. AU - Belani, Chandra P.. AU - Eiseman, Julie. AU - Chu, Edward. AU - Beumer, Jan H.. AU - Bates, Susan E.. PY - 2015/2/15. Y1 - 2015/2/15. N2 - Purpose: DMS612 is a dimethane sulfonate analog with bifunctional alkylating activity and preferential cytotoxicity to human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the NCI-60 cell panel. This first-in-human phase I study aimed to determine dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of DMS612 administered by 10-minute intravenous infusion on days 1, 8, and 15 of an every-28-day schedule. Experimental Design: Patients with advanced solid malignancies ...
Thousand-and-one amino acid kinases (TAOK) 1 and 2 are activated catalytically during mitosis and can contribute to mitotic cell rounding and spindle positioning. Here, we characterize a compound that inhibits TAOK1 and TAOK2 activity with IC50 values of 11 to 15 nmol/L, is ATP-competitive, and targets these kinases selectively. TAOK inhibition or depletion in centrosome-amplified SKBR3 or BT549 breast cancer cell models increases the mitotic population, the percentages of mitotic cells displaying amplified centrosomes and multipolar spindles, induces cell death, and inhibits cell growth. In contrast, nontumorigenic and dividing bipolar MCF-10A breast cells appear less dependent on TAOK activity and can complete mitosis and proliferate in the presence of the TAOK inhibitor. We demonstrate that TAOK1 and TAOK2 localize to the cytoplasm and centrosomes respectively during mitosis. Live cell imaging shows that the TAOK inhibitor prolongs the duration of mitosis in SKBR3 cells, increases mitotic ...
How to find The Maris Practice in Twickenham. A map showing where we are, with information about getting to us, and our opening hours.
ASS Cardio Spirig is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to ASS Cardio Spirig is available on the Drugs.com website.
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Achetez à petit prix Pieds Zirconal Poudre Assèchante anti Transpirante Addax, 75 G dans la gamme Soin des pieds sur la Parapaharmacie MonCoinSanté
Figure 5 An approach to diagnosis of hyperammonemia in older children OA: organic acidurias, FAO: fatty acid oxidation defects, PC: pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, PDH: pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, ASA: argininosuccinic acid, AS: argininosuccinic aciduria, NAGS: N-acetylglutamate synthetase deficiency, CPS I: carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency, OTC: ornithine transcarbamoylase deficiency, HHH: hyperornithinemia hyperammonemia homocitrullinuria syndrome, LPI: lysinuric protein intolerance. (Click image to enlarge) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel bifunctional transcriptional regulator of riboflavin metabolism in Archaea. AU - Rodionova, Irina A.. AU - Vetting, Matthew W.. AU - Li, Xiaoqing. AU - Almo, Steven C.. AU - Osterman, Andrei L.. AU - Rodionov, Dmitry A.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2017 The Author(s). Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2017/4/20. Y1 - 2017/4/20. N2 - Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide, which are essential coenzymes in all free-living organisms. Riboflavin biosynthesis in many Bacteria but not in Archaea is controlled by FMN-responsive riboswitches. We identified a novel bifunctional riboflavin kinase/regulator (RbkR), which controls riboflavin biosynthesis and transport genes in major lineages of Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. RbkR proteins are composed of the riboflavin kinase domain and a DNA-binding winged helix-turn-helix-like domain. Using comparative genomics, we ...
ArgR may be the regulator of arginine biosynthesis genes in species. operon genes suggest that these genes are more tightly controlled. Other genes, including genes encoding regulatory proteins, possess a DNA sequence created by a single ARG-box which responds to ArgR, as validated by EMSA. Introduction Arginine metabolism is usually opinions repressed by arginine in different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This effect is usually mediated by ArgR, a hexameric protein that represses arginine biosynthesis genes, using L-arginine as co-repressor, in and to locate ARG-boxes, for ArgR binding, upstream of several arginine biosynthesis genes [7]. This provided the basis to study arginine regulation in other species. This group of soil-dwelling bacteria produces many secondary metabolites that use arginine, or arginine-related molecules, as precursors. Streptomycin, mitomycin, streptothricin or clavulanic acid are metabolites that contain moieties of guanidine, carbamoyl groups, ornithine or ...
CHF6366 is a novel bifunctional compound displaying both muscarinic receptor antagonist and β2-adrenergic receptor agonist properties (MABA), with the
SoftIntegration and NAG Release Ch NAG Statistics Package DAVIS, Calif., July 14, 2003 - SoftIntegration, Inc. and the Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) announce the release of Ch NAG Statistics Package version 1.0. Designed to meet the needs of a wide range of researchers seeking rapid statistical application development, the Ch NAG Statistics Package makes a set of the robust NAG statistical routines available to users of Ch, an embeddable C/C++ interpreter for cross-platform scripting, shell programming, 2D/3D plotting, numerical computing, and embedded scripting. Ch NAG Statistics Package makes the rigorously tested statistical routines in the NAG C library available to Ch users without traditional coding and linking. This comprehensive selection of statistical routines can readily use the 2D/3D graphical plotting capabilities of Ch. In addition, with SoftIntegrations free Ch ODBC and Ch CGI toolkit, it is easy to integrate with databases and create web-based applications for statistical ...
HTTP 200 OK Allow: GET, HEAD, OPTIONS Content-Type: application/json Vary: Accept { status: ok, result: { http://aber-owl.net/drug/CID110471037: [ { _index: cbrc-hoehndorf-bio2vec-dataset_1, _type: _doc, _id: 129148, _score: 2.0, _source: { alt_ids: [ als ], synonyms: [ N7-Pan ], x: 13.665844278705357, y: -7.266381585188181, label: N7-Pan, id: http://aber-owl.net/drug/CID110471037, type: http://bio2vec.net/ontology/chemical } }, { _index: cbrc-hoehndorf-bio2vec-dataset_1, _type: _doc, _id: 3361, _score: 1.8669908, _source: { alt_ids: [ 79646 ], synonyms: [ PANK3, pantothenate kinase 3, hPanK3, pantothenic acid kinase 3 ], x: -1.928386111716335, y: 3.339372997077209, label: PANK3, id: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/79646, type: http://bio2vec.net/ontology/gene } }, { _index: cbrc-hoehndorf-bio2vec-dataset_1, _type: _doc, _id: 280827, _score: 1.6934847, _source: { alt_ids: [ als ], ...
Expression of AAK1 (DKFZp686K16132, KIAA1048) in soft tissue tissue. Antibody staining with HPA017931 and HPA020289 in immunohistochemistry.
For analysis of covariance the residuals are obtained from an analysis of variance of both the response variable and the covariates. The residuals from the response variable are then regressed on the residuals from the covariates using, say, nag_regress_confid_interval (g02cbc) or nag_regsn_mult_linear (g02dac). The results from those functions can be used to test for the significance of the covariates. To test the significance of the treatment effects after fitting the covariate, the residual sum of squares from the regression should be compared with the residual sum of squares obtained from the equivalent regression but using the residuals from fitting blocks only ...
Pamplona: Capital of both the provincia (province) and the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Navarra, northeastern Spain. It lies on the western bank of the Arga River in the...
Ubicaci n: situado en el barrio de la Rochapea en las inmediaciones de los corralillos del Gas y el r o Arga.Instalaciones: dispone de 2 comedores, zona...
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This page contains several essays on poems taken from God Loves You by Kathryn Maris See authors comments on her poem The Assembly TK 1. Knowledge is a Good Thing While searching for a way to talk about nihilism in one of her poems, I chanced upon Knowledge is a Good Thing (God Loves…
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First ah Emmah comes.....Then ah I comes .....then ah 2 asses come..then I ah comes again ...then then ah two asses come again.... then ah I comes again...then then ah Pee 2 times..... and then I comes one final time ...
First ah Emmah comes.....Then ah I comes .....then ah 2 asses come..then I ah comes again ...then then ah two asses come again.... then ah I comes again...then then ah Pee 2 times..... and then I comes one final time ...
Furthermore, the amino acids that form CBP include a strip of 18 glutamines. Thus, the glutamines on CBP interact directly with ... Specifically, CBP contains an acetyltransferase domain to which HTT binds through its polyglutamine-containing domain. ... CAG is the three-letter genetic code (codon) for the amino acid glutamine, so a series of them results in the production of a ... and myoclonic hyperkinesia can be treated with valproic acid. Tentative evidence has found ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid to ...
HATs are enzymes responsible for the acetylation of amino acids. HATs acetylate by converting the lysine side group of amino ... Swank MW, Sweatt JD (May 2001). "Increased histone acetyltransferase and lysine acetyltransferase activity and biphasic ... the amino acid that is modified, and the number of methyl groups added. In the case of lysine methylation, three types of ... The acetylation reaction is most often catalyzed by enzymes that contain histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. ...
Lysine is an amino acid with a positive charge when unmodified. Lysines on the amino terminal tails of histones have a tendency ... Histone Acetyltransferases, also known as HATs, are a family of enzymes that acetylate the histone tails of the nucleosome. ... The mechanism for acetylation and deacetylation takes place on the NH3+ groups of lysine amino acid residues. These residues ... Chemical modifications of histone proteins often occur on particular amino acids. This specific addition of single or multiple ...
Transamination, or the transfer of an amine (or NH2) group from an amino acid to a keto acid by an aminotransferase (also known ... Choline acetyltransferase (also known as ChAT or CAT) is an important enzyme which produces the neurotransmitter acetylcholine ... Braunstein AE, Kritzmann MG (1937). "Formation and Breakdown of Amino-acids by Inter-molecular Transfer of the Amino Group". ... the growing amino acid chain from the tRNA molecule in the A-site of the ribosome and its subsequent addition to the amino acid ...
This protein in 611 amino acids in length and has a molecular weight of 71.1 kilodaltons and an isoelectric point of pI=6.7. ... It also contains a possible substrate of N-acetyltransferase A at Ser2. CCDC37 has a predicted nuclear localization via ... CCDC37 contains a DUF4200 region located from amino acid 151 to 269. There is no known frunction for DUF4200. CCDC37 also ... It contains four possible PEST sequence at amino acids 17-36, 293-304, 337-360, and 360-395. ...
... of amino acids and these enzymes would have been prevalent during the periods on prehistoric earth dominated by rich amino acid ... The E2 subunit, or dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase, for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, is generally composed of three domains ... The N-terminal domain (the lipoyl domain), consists of 1-3 lipoyl groups of approximately 80 amino acids each. The peripheral ... polar amino acid residues (Asp, Asn, and Tyr) located on the alpha chain, and the thiamine diphosphate (TPP) cofactor directly ...
The protein encoded on FAM135 is 1406 amino acids long. The protein contains a region called DUF676, believed to be a putative ... FAM135B has shown to interact with KAT5, a gene that encodes for a histone acetyltransferase through yeast two-hybrid ...
... is a lightweight structural protein made of 126 amino acids. Many of these amino acids have a positive charge at ... Acetylation relies on specific histone acetyltransferases that work at gene promoters during transcriptional activation. Adding ... All variants of histone H2B contain the same number of amino acids, and the variations in sequence are few in number. Only two ... Histone H2B's amino acid sequence is highly evolutionarily conserved. Even distantly related species have extremely similar ...
The protein ATF-2 has 505 amino acids. Studies in mice indicate a role for ATF-2 in the development of nervous system and the ... The protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus, it may ... Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (16): 3854-61. doi:10.1093/nar/26.16.3854. PMC 147779. PMID 9685505. Sano Y, Tokitou F, Dai P, Maekawa T ... "Activation and interaction of ATF2 with the coactivator ASC-2 are responsive for granulocytic differentiation by retinoic acid ...
Each of these different enzyme complexes is specific for different amino acids or amino acid sequences which is shown in the ... A tubulin acetyltransferase is located in the axoneme, and acetylates the α-tubulin subunit in an assembled microtubule. Once ... to the α-amino group of the first amino acid residue of the protein. Different NATs are responsible for the acetylation of ... These amino acids are more frequently expressed in the N-terminal of proteins in eukaryotes, so NatA is the major NAT ...
... glutamine in the liver involves amino acid acetylation carried out by the enzyme phenylacetyltranferase or glutamine N-acetyl transferase ... circulated and retained in the blood after microbial fermentation of certain proteins and amino acids in the gut. Blood serum ... non-invasive biomarker for gluconeogenesis and citric acid cycle intermediates in the liver. High levels of ... of the substrates phenylacetyl-CoA and L-glutamine to produce CoA and alpha-N-phenylacetyl-L-glutamine and phenylacetic acid. ...
An example of the first mechanism occurs during the acetylation of lysine terminal tail amino acids, which is catalyzed by ... histone acetyltransferases (HATs). HATs are part of a multiprotein complex that is recruited to chromatin when activators bind ... phosphorylation and ubiquitination can be associated with different transcriptional states depending on the specific amino acid ... MNase-seq and DNase-seq both follow the same principles, as they employ lytic enzymes that target nucleic acids to cut the DNA ...
... may refer to: Amino-acid N-acetyltransferase Glutamate N-acetyltransferase Urea cycle This set ...
... may refer to: Amino-acid N-acetyltransferase Glutamate N-acetyltransferase This set index page ...
The S37P mutation swaps one amino acid for another, a serine for a proline, in just one part at the end of the resulting NatA ... It was the first reported human genetic disorder linked with a mutation in an N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) gene. The ... Ogden Syndrome, also known as N-terminal acetyltransferase deficiency (NATD), is an X-linked disorder of infancy comprising a ... Arnesen, T. (2009). "Proteomics analyses reveal the evolutionary conservation and divergence of N-terminal acetyltransferases ...
Histone tails are normally positively charged due to amine groups present on their lysine and arginine amino acids. These ... Its action is opposite to that of histone acetyltransferase. HDAC proteins are now also called lysine deacetylases (KDAC), to ... Protein phosphorylation is perhaps the most widely studied and understood modification in which certain amino acid residues are ... from an ε-N-acetyl lysine amino acid on a histone, allowing the histones to wrap the DNA more tightly. This is important ...
It is 433 amino acids long, from amino acid 80 until amino acid number 512. DUF4641 is a part of pfam15483. The domain is ... This include sites for N-acetyltransferase (NetAcet 1-), glycation of ε amino groups of lysines (NetGlycate 1.0), mucin type ... The protein has 514 amino acids and a molecular mass of 54.4 kDa. The isoelectric point is 9.3. Compared to other human ... DUF4641 has an unusual spacing between lysine residues and positive charged amino acids (Analysis of Protein Sequences, SAPS ...
However, short stretches of about 200 amino acids in OGA have homology with some proteins such as hyaluronidase, a putative ... Toleman C, Paterson AJ, Whisenhunt TR, Kudlow JE (December 2004). "Characterization of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) ... Nuclear cytoplasmic O-GlcNAcase and acetyltransferase There are three isoforms of O-GlcNAcase in humans that have been ... acetyltransferase, eukaryotic translation elongation factor-1γ, and the 11-1 polypeptide. O-GlcNAcylation is a form of ...
... amino acid homology, and are each 158 amino acids long. Glufosinate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is used to control ... "phosphinothricin acetyltransferase" or "pat". The two genes and their proteins have 80% homology on the DNA level and 86% ... it consists of two alanine residues and a unique amino acid that is an analog of glutamate that they named "phosphinothricin". ...
NAG can be used in the production of ornithine and arginine, two important amino acids, or as an allosteric cofactor for ... a member of the N-acetyltransferase family of enzymes, is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, although its role and ... produce NAG through ornithine acetyltransferase (OAT), which is part of a 'cyclic' ornithine production pathway. NAGS is ...
... acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.105 - amino-acid n-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.150 - ... amino acid oxidoreductases MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.062 - alanine dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.125 - d-amino-acid ... l-amino acid oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.724 - leucine dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772 - nitric oxide synthase ... amino acid isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.894.200.200 - alanine racemase MeSH D08.811.399.894.500 - carbohydrate epimerases MeSH ...
... amino acids 1170-1226 of TAF1) that TAF7 binds to and inactivates TAF1's acetyltransferase (AT) function. Thus, it is likely ...
... IS a small 194 amino acid protein, which is specifically expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. In rodents, CSRP3 has ... by acetyltransferase (PCAF) and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), respectively. In myocytes, MLP has the ability to oligomerize, ... Furthermore, MLP carries a nuclear localization signal at amino acid positions 64-69 MLP can be acetylated/deacetylated at the ...
Romania Antiglobalization activists in Syria Amino-acid N-acetyltransferase, an enzyme Neoabietadiene synthase, an enzyme Ralph ...
The longest CCDC74A peptide product, isoform 6, is 420 amino acids in length. This protein has a predicted molecular weight of ... Deng W, Wang C, Zhang Y, Xu Y, Zhang S, Liu Z, Xue Y (December 2016). "GPS-PAIL: prediction of lysine acetyltransferase- ... "Prediction of post-translational glycosylation and phosphorylation of proteins from the amino acid sequence". Proteomics. 4 (6 ... January 2017). "InterPro in 2017-beyond protein family and domain annotations". Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (D1): D190-D199. doi ...
Torre, Gregory M.; Lynch, Vincent D.; Jarowski, Charles I. (1981-01-01). "Lowering blood urea nitrogen with amino acid ... N-acetyltransferase, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 226 (3): 733-737 ... "Lowering of serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels by balancing amino acid intake in the white rat". The Journal of ...
Shi J, Zhu H, Arvidson DN, Woldegiorgis G (Feb 2000). "The first 28 N-terminal amino acid residues of human heart muscle ... "Crystal structure of carnitine acetyltransferase and implications for the catalytic mechanism and fatty acid transport". Cell. ... Long chain fatty acids such as palmitoyl-CoA, unlike short- and medium-chain fatty acids, cannot freely diffuse through the ... is that CPT1 contains an additional domain at its N-terminal consisting of about 160 amino acids. It has been determined that ...
... which acetylates the α-amino group of the first amino acid residue of proteins starting with small side chains like serine, ... acetyltransferases and point to hNaa10p as the post-translational actin N(alpha)-acetyltransferase". Molecular & Cellular ... both harboring the same open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 866 amino acids (~105 kDa) protein that can be ... N-alpha-acetyltransferase 15, NatA auxiliary subunit also known as gastric cancer antigen Ga19 (GA19), NMDA receptor-regulated ...
... and a BcBOT5 gene whose amino acid sequence showed high homology to known acetyl transferases. This brought Pinedo et al. to ... Additionally, aggressive strains of the fungus secrets polyketides such as botcinic acid that exhibit phytotoxic and antifungal ...
Acetylation is the reversible covalent addition of an acetyl group onto a lysine amino acid by the enzyme acetyltransferase. ... Methylation occurs on at least 9 of the 20 common amino acids, however, it mainly occurs on the amino acids lysine and arginine ... This tRNA delivers the correct amino acid corresponding to the mRNA codon, in the case of the start codon, this is the amino ... This changes codon 6 from encoding the amino acid glutamic acid to encoding valine. This change in the primary structure of the ...
Four hydrogen bonds form between polar side chains on TBP amino acid (Asn27, Asn117, Thr82, Thr173)( and bases in the minor ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 9 (19): 5145-58. doi:10.1093/nar/9.19.5145. PMC 327505. PMID 6171774.. ...
The single-letter amino acid abbreviation (e.g., K for Lysine) and the amino acid position in the protein ... Lysine acetylation appears to be less precise in meaning than methylation, in that histone acetyltransferases tend to act on ... compared amino acid compositions in the same histone from different organisms, and compared amino acid sequences of the same ... 3. Complete amino acid sequence of pea seedling histone IV; comparison with the homologous calf thymus histone". The Journal of ...
2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase ... HADHB encodes a 51.2 kDa protein that is composed of 474 amino acids; 124 peptides have been observed through mass spectrometry ... fatty acid metabolic process. • metabolism. • cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling. • fatty acid beta-oxidation. ... transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups. • enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. • long-chain-3- ...
The effects of histone methylation are residue dependent (e.g. which amino acid on which histone tail is methylated) therefore ... Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are enzymes responsible for the addition of acetyl groups, and histone deacetylases (HDACs) ... Valproic acid. Valproic acid added to cells from SMA patients increased SMN2 mRNA and protein levels and that the drug directly ... Valproic acid. Valproic acid treatment increased mutant Htt H3 and H4 acetylation levels comparable to wild-type Htt in ...
Resistance to puromycin is conferred by the pac gene encoding a puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (PAC) that was found in a ... 3'-deoxy-N,N-dimethyl-3'-[(O-methyl-L-tyrosyl)amino]adenosine ... also be conferred through expression of the puromycin N-acetyl-transferase ...
It is biosynthesized from the amino acid L-phenylalanine by enzymatic decarboxylation via the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid ... "EC - aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase". BRENDA. Technische Universität Braunschweig. July 2014. Retrieved 10 November ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)[3][4]. Metabolism. Primarily: MAO-B[3][4][5]. Other enzymes: MAO-A,[5][6] SSAOs ( ... In humans, catecholamines and phenethylaminergic trace amines are derived from the amino acid L-phenylalanine. ...
Histone proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids. If the amino acids that are in the chain are changed, the shape of ... For example, acetylation of the K14 and K9 lysines of the tail of histone H3 by histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) is ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. ... The SET domain is a 130-amino acid sequence involved in modulating gene activities. This domain has been demonstrated to bind ...
The catalytic domain of PRMTs consists of a SAM binding domain and substrate binding domain (about 310 amino acids in total).[5 ... Histone acetyltransferase (HAT). *Histone deacetylase (HDAC). *RNA polymerase control by chromatin structure ... The structures involved in methyltransferase activity are the SET domain (composed of approximately 130 amino acids), the pre- ... Next, a nearby tyrosine residue deprotonates the ε-amino group of the lysine residue.[10] The lysine chain then makes a ...
The opines are amino acid derivatives used by the bacterium as a source of carbon and energy. This natural process of ... and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (which acetylates and deactivates phosphinothricin, a potent inhibitor of glutamine ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Ben-Amar, Anis; Daldoul, Samia; Reustle, Götz M.; Krczal, Gabriele; Mliki, Ahmed ...
... s synthesize the hormone melatonin by first converting the amino acid tryptophan to serotonin. The serotonin is then ... arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase). The expression of the AANAT gene is controlled by the transcription factor pCREB, and this ...
"Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment affects citrate and amino acid accumulation to improve fruit quality and storage ... Glutamic acid decarboxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and impaired function ... Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to ... Wei J, Davis KM, Wu H, Wu JY (May 2004). "Protein phosphorylation of human brain glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GAD67 ...
PLP forms an imine with the amino acid derivative. The amine on the pyridine is protonated and acts as an electron sink, ... It has been proposed that histidine residue His122 of serotonin N-acetyl transferase is the catalytic residue that deprotonates ... "Molecular cloning of genomic DNA and chromosomal assignment of the gene for human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, the ... Lerner AB, Case JD, Takahashi Y (July 1960). "Isolation of melatonin and 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid from bovine pineal ...
Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are enzymes that acetylate conserved lysine amino acids on histone proteins by transferring ... Acetyltransferase. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i Lee KK, Workman JL (April 2007). "Histone acetyltransferase complexes ... 2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase ... a 110-amino acid module that recognizes acetylated lysine residues and is functionally linked to the co-activators in the ...
The amino terminal ~150 amino acids make up a regulatory domain, thought to control access of substrates to the active site.[17 ... amino acid binding. • monooxygenase activity. • protein domain specific binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • ... aromatic amino acid family metabolic process. • response to lipopolysaccharide. • cerebral cortex development. • response to ... Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L- ...
Degradation of branched-chain ketogenic amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine occurs. These amino acids are ... This acetylation is catalyzed by acetyltransferases. This acetylation affects cell growth, mitosis, and apoptosis.[18] ... At low glucose levels, the production of acetyl-CoA is linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acids are first converted to ... where the fatty acids are combined with glycerol to form triglycerides, the major fuel reservoir of most animals. Fatty acids ...
2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase ... Citrate synthase has three key amino acids in its active site (known as the catalytic triad) which catalyze the conversion of ... Citrate synthase's 437 amino acid residues are organized into two main subunits, each consisting of 20 alpha-helices. These ... exists in nearly all living cells and stands as a pace-making enzyme in the first step of the citric acid cycle (or Krebs cycle ...
The enzyme is about 1,620 amino acids long. The first 1,100 amino acids constitute the regulatory domain of the enzyme, and the ... Narva KE, Van Etten JL, Slatko BE, Benner JS (December 1988). "The amino acid sequence of the eukaryotic DNA [N6-adenine] ... Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 49: 65-111. PMID 7863011.. *. Pradhan S, Esteve PO (2003). "Mammalian DNA (cytosine-5) ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 22 (1): 1-10. doi:10.1093/nar/22.1.1. PMC 307737. PMID 8127644.. ...
7-dimethylaric acid.[5] In another pathway, paraxanthine is broken down into 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil through ... N-acetyl-transferase 2, which is then broken down into 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil by non-enzymatic decomposition.[7] ... and its presence in the blood causes an increase in serum free fatty acid concentration.[8] ... which can then be metabolized by xanthine oxidase to form 1-methyl-uric acid.[7] ...
... protein engineering has been used to create enzyme variants with non-native amino acids, or entirely synthetic amino acids.[40] ... Ornithine acetyltransferase precursor (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) PseudoenzymesEdit. A further subclass of catalytic triad ... A catalytic triad is a set of three coordinated amino acids that can be found in the active site of some enzymes.[1][2] ... Very rarely, the selenium atom of the uncommon amino acid selenocysteine is used as a nucleophile.[27] The deprotonated Se− ...
amino acid addition *arginylation, a tRNA-mediation addition. *polyglutamylation, covalent linkage of glutamic acid residues to ... Polevoda B, Sherman F; Sherman (2003). "N-terminal acetyltransferases and sequence requirements for N-terminal acetylation of ... isoaspartate formation, via the cyclisation of asparagine or aspartic acid amino-acid residues ... Chemical modification of amino acidsEdit. *citrullination, or deimination, the conversion of arginine to citrulline [23] ...
... is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues. POMC is synthesized in the pituitary from the 285-amino-acid-long ... N-acetyltransferase (N-AT), and prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP). The processing of POMC involves glycosylations, acetylations, ... This gene encodes a 285-amino acid polypeptide hormone precursor that undergoes extensive, tissue-specific, post-translational ... by the removal of a 44-amino-acid-long signal peptide sequence during translation. POMC is cleaved to give rise to multiple ...
The amino acid sequence is the same as for androgen-binding protein but that has different oligosaccharides attached and is ... Overlapping on the complimentary DNA strand is the gene for spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase family member 2 (SAT2). ... Walsh KA, Titani K, Takio K, Kumar S, Hayes R, Petra PH (November 1986). "Amino acid sequence of the sex steroid binding ... When first produced the SHBG precursor has a leading signal peptide attached with 29 amino acids. The remaining peptide has 373 ...
"The N-Terminal 24 Amino Acids of the p55 Gamma Regulatory Subunit of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Binds Rb and Induces Cell Cycle ... Proteins called histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are responsible for acetylating histones and thus facilitating the ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (15): 3131-6. doi:10.1093/nar/29.15.3131. PMC 55834. PMID 11470869.. ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 30 (23): 5261-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkf658. PMC 137971. PMID 12466551.. ...
3-dimethyluric acid was described by Emil Fischer and Lorenz Ach.[30] The Traube purine synthesis, an alternative method to ... Histone Acetyltransferase Inhibitor. Hidden categories: *Webarchive template other archives. *Webarchive template wayback links ... 2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. *2-Aminoindane. *5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole. *2-Aminotetralin ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 10 (8): 2709-21. doi:10.1093/nar/10.8.2709. PMC 320645. PMID 7079182.. ... Loss of amino-groups occurs with a high frequency for cytosines, with different consequences depending on their methylation. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 35 (6): e41. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm013. PMC 1874596. PMID 17289753.. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 37 (12): e86. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp383. PMC 2709587. PMID 19454604.. ...
Shepard HM, Leung D, Stebbing N, Goeddel DV (1982). "A single amino acid change in IFN-beta1 abolishes its antiviral activity ... chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase activity. • type I interferon receptor binding. المكونات الخلوية. • خارج خلوي. • منطقة خارج ... "The complete amino acid sequence of human fibroblast interferon as deduced using synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers of ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 8 (13): 2885-94. doi:10.1093/nar/8.13.2885. PMC 324132. PMID 6159580.. الوسيط ,CitationClass=. تم تجاهله ( ...
Schematic diagram of the amino acid sequence (amino terminus to the left and carboxylic acid terminus to the right) of a ... histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity - acetylates histone proteins, which weakens the association of DNA with histones, ... Piskacek S, Gregor M, Nemethova M, Grabner M, Kovarik P, Piskacek M (June 2007). "Nine-amino-acid transactivation domain: ... Many TADs are as short as 9 amino acids (present in e.g., p53, VP16, MLL, E2A, HSF1, NF-IL6, NFAT1 and NF-κB Gal4, Pdr1, Oaf1, ...
Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (EC *RubisCO (EC ... Choline acetyltransferase EC *Category:EC 2.3.2 *Factor XIII EC ... Category:EC 3.6 (act on acid anhydrides)Edit. *Category:EC 3.6.1 *Helicase ... 2-Succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic-acid synthase EC ...
D-amino-acid N-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include D-amino acid acetyltransferase, and D-amino acid-alpha-N- ... a D-amino-acid N-acetyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + a D-amino acid ... an N-acetyl-D-amino acid Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and D-amino acid, whereas its two products are ... CoA and N-acetyl-D-amino acid. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases ...
Acyl-CoA thioester hydrolase/bile acid-CoA amino acid N-acetyltransferase (IPR006862). Short name: Thio_Ohase/aa_AcTrfase ... This entry presents the N-termini of acyl-CoA thioester hydrolase and bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acetyltransferase (BAAT) [PMID ...
Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complexAdd BLAST. 553. Amino acid ... Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (EC:*Search proteins in ... sp,Q59098,ODP2_CUPNH Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex OS=Cupriavidus ... It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2 ...
Acetyltransferase required for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion (PubMed:15958495, PubMed:18614053). Couples the ... N-acetyltransferase ESCO1Add BLAST. 840. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view ... section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the ... The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, ...
N-terminal protein amino acid acetylation IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... serotonin N-acetyltransferase. Names. arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. serotonin acetylase. NP_001079.1. *EC ... AANAT aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase [Homo sapiens] AANAT aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:15 ... aralkylamine N-acetyltransferaseprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:19 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000129673 MIM:600950 ...
K(lysine) acetyltransferase 2A. STAF97. general control of amino acid synthesis protein 5-like 2. histone acetyltransferase ... GCN5 (general control of amino-acid synthesis, yeast, homolog)-like 2. General control of amino acid synthesis, yeast, homolog- ... and by amino acids 111-151 (histone acetyltransferase domain) and 389-476 (bromodomain) of hGCN5. PubMed ... Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long .... COG5076. Location:492 → 832. COG5076; Transcription factor involved in chromatin ...
N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nats) complex is responsible for protein N-terminal acetylation (Nα-acetylation), which is one of ... Figure 3. Amino acid sequence alignment. (a) Amino acid sequence alignment of all predicted Nat CS from poplar; (b) Amino acid ... Figure 3. Amino acid sequence alignment. (a) Amino acid sequence alignment of all predicted Nat CS from poplar; (b) Amino acid ... The consensus acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) binding motif sequence RxxGxG/A, where x can be any amino acid, is boxed (red). The ...
C. elegans glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase (GNA1): coenzyme A adduct. 4ag9 C. elegans glucosamine-6-phosphate N- ...
Acetyltransferases / metabolism* * Adenoviridae / enzymology * Amino Acid Sequence * CREB-Binding Protein * Histones / ... The transcriptional coactivators p300 and CBP are histone acetyltransferases Cell. 1996 Nov 29;87(5):953-9. doi: 10.1016/s0092- ... p300/CBP represents a novel class of acetyltransferases in that it does not have the conserved motif found among various other ... Here, we demonstrate that p300/CBP is not only a transcriptional adaptor but also a histone acetyltransferase. ...
Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are cytosolic conjugating enzymes which transfer an acetyl group from acetylCoenzyme A to ... Amino Acid Sequence * Animals * Antitubercular Agents / metabolism * Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase / chemistry * Arylamine N- ... Arylamine N-acetyltransferases: from structure to function Drug Metab Rev. 2008;40(3):479-510. doi: 10.1080/03602530802186603. ... Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are cytosolic conjugating enzymes which transfer an acetyl group from acetylCoenzyme A to ...
Modulating substrate specificity of histone acetyltransferase with unnatural amino acids. Kinjal Rajesh Mehta, Ching Yao Yang, ... Modulating substrate specificity of histone acetyltransferase with unnatural amino acids. Molecular BioSystems. 2011 Nov 1;7(11 ... Modulating substrate specificity of histone acetyltransferase with unnatural amino acids. In: Molecular BioSystems. 2011 ; Vol ... Modulating substrate specificity of histone acetyltransferase with unnatural amino acids. / Mehta, Kinjal Rajesh; Yang, Ching ...
Modulating substrate specificity of histone acetyltransferase with unnatural amino acids. Kinjal Rajesh Mehta, Ching Yao Yang, ... Modulating substrate specificity of histone acetyltransferase with unnatural amino acids. Together they form a unique ...
Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs) are involved in the regulation of lysine acetylation, a ... post-translational protein modification regulated by lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs; also ... Sensing and transmitting intracellular amino acid signals through reversible lysine aminoacylations. Cell Metab. 27, 151-166 ( ... therapeutic potential of valproic acid and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. Circulation 126, 455-467 (2012). ...
Sequential removal of two amino acids. J Biol Chem 258:11354-11360. ... 1992) Removal of the amino-terminal acidic residues of yeast actin. Studies in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem 267:9430-9436. ... 2014) Loss of amino-terminal acetylation suppresses a prion phenotype by modulating global protein folding. Nat Commun 5:4383. ... 2012) N-terminal acetylome analyses and functional insights of the N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ...
Buy our Choline Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748). Ab45678 is a blocking peptide for ab27484 and has been validated in BL. ... Amino acids. 736 to 748. Specifications. Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab45678 in the following tested applications ... Choline Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748). See all Choline Acetyltransferase proteins and peptides. ...
Polymorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferase. Gene Name. NAT2. Organism. Humans. Amino acid sequence. ,lcl,BSEQ0006940,Arylamine N ... Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 May 25;17(10):3978. [PubMed:2734109] *Blum M, Grant DM, McBride W, Heim M, Meyer UA: Human arylamine N- ... Acetylsalicylic acid. approved, vet_approved. unknown. substrate. Details. DB12612. Ozanimod. approved, investigational. ... Arylamine n-acetyltransferase activity. Specific Function. Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and ...
Abbreviations used : AADC, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase ; ChAT, choline acetyltransferase ; HPRT, hypoxanthine-guanine ... Tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, two enzymes responsible for the synthesis of dopamine, were reduced ...
Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are enzymes that acetylate conserved lysine amino acids on histone proteins by transferring ... Acetyltransferase. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i Lee KK, Workman JL (April 2007). "Histone acetyltransferase complexes ... 2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase ... a 110-amino acid module that recognizes acetylated lysine residues and is functionally linked to the co-activators in the ...
A fragment consisting of the first 204 amino-terminal amino acids of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase one (NAT1) and the ... A fragment consisting of the first 204 amino-terminal amino acids of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase one (NAT1) and the ... arylamine; acetyltransferase; expression; NAT; GST fusion protein; purification. Faculty, School or Research Centre:. Faculty ...
C) Complete amino acid sequence for Yng1p. The peptide sequence obtained by mass spectrometry from purified NuA3 is shown boxed ... Histone acetyltransferase activity of yeast Gcn5p is required for the activation of target genes in vivo. Genes Dev.12:627-639. ... The yeast histone acetyltransferase A2 complex, but not free Gcn5p, binds stably to nucleosomal arrays. J. Biol. Chem.275:24928 ... Yng1p Modulates the Activity of Sas3p as a Component of the Yeast NuA3 Histone Acetyltransferase Complex. LeAnn Howe, Thomas ...
C) Complete amino acid sequence for Yng1p. The peptide sequence obtained by mass spectrometry from purified NuA3 is shown boxed ... Yng1p Modulates the Activity of Sas3p as a Component of the Yeast NuA3 Histone Acetyltransferase Complex. LeAnn Howe, Thomas ... Yng1p Modulates the Activity of Sas3p as a Component of the Yeast NuA3 Histone Acetyltransferase Complex ... Yng1p Modulates the Activity of Sas3p as a Component of the Yeast NuA3 Histone Acetyltransferase Complex ...
... rat Nat3 amino acid sequence is 71.0% identical to rat Nat1 and 71.7% identical to rat Nat2 (Fig. 4). Rat Nat3 amino acid and ... Human, mouse, and rat N-acetyltransferase nucleotide (top) and amino acid (bottom) sequence comparisons (percentage identical ... ABBREVIATIONS: NAT1, human N-acetyltransferase 1; NAT2, human N-acetyltransferase 2; Nat1, rat or mouse N-acetyltransferase 1; ... Identification of amino acids imparting acceptor substrate selectivity to human arylamine acetyltransferases NAT1 and NAT2. ...
AA, amino acid; AFP, alpha fetoprotein; ALS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ChAT, choline acetyltransferase; CRISPR, clustered ... A) Illustration, showing the DNA and amino acid (AA) sequence of the patient cell line R495QfsX527and the corrected cell line ... amino acids before the STOP codon (R495QfsX527; Belzil et al., 2012; Japtok et al., 2015; Lenzi et al., 2015). This mutation ... 100 μM nonessential amino acids (Invitrogen), and 100 μM ß-mercaptoethanol (Invitrogen) for 10 days. Afterwards, EBs were ...
Enzymes: choline acetyltransferase; dopamine beta-hydroxylase; GABA transaminase; glutamic acid decarboxylase; glutaminergic; ... Transporters: vesicular ACh; GABA; glutamate; glycine; glutamine; NET; VMAT, excitatory amino acid transporters. ...
11.14 In Vitro Translation - Determining Amino Acid Incorporation. 11.15 The Isoelectric Point (pI) of a Protein. Chapter ... 11.12 The Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase (CAT) Assay. 11.12.1 Calculating Molecules of Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase ( ... Chapter 5 Nucleic Acid Quantification. 5.1 Quantification of Nucleic Acids by Ultraviolet (UV) Spectroscopy. 5.2 Determining ... Chapter 6 Labeling Nucleic Acids with Radioisotopes. Introduction. 6.1 Units of Radioactivity - The Curie (Ci). 6.2 Estimating ...
... amino acid sequence in first source; atomic coordinates in PDB 5GCN ... tGCN5 histone acetyltransferase: transcription regulator involved in release of inactive DNA from its packaging of histone ... transcription regulator involved in release of inactive DNA from its packaging of histone proteins; amino acid sequence in ... tGCN5 histone acetyltransferase. Subscribe to New Research on tGCN5 histone acetyltransferase ...
Furthermore, two ,i,N,/i,-acetyltransferase isozymes (,i,NATs,/i,), ,i,NAT1,/i, and ,i,NAT2,/i,, are polymorphic and catalyze ... acetyltransferase isozymes (,i,NAT1,/i, and ,i,NAT2,/i,) in order to summarize and analyze findings from the literature related ... "Identification of amino acids imparting acceptor substrate selectivity to human arylamine acetyltransferases NAT1 and NAT2," ... J. S. Mammen, G. S. Pittman, Y. Li et al., "Single amino acid mutations, but not common polymorphisms, decrease the activity of ...
The derived amino acid sequences from csiA, B, and E/cskA, B, and E shared ,70% sequence identity with capsule biosynthesis ... The O-acetyltransferases should be termed cssE for serogroup C and cssF for serogroups W and Y; the nomenclature for ctrG, ... The deduced amino acid sequence from cseE shared 83% sequence identity with a 3-deoxy-8-phosphooctulonate synthase belonging to ... The capsule polymerases belonging to serogroups W and Y (csw and csy) are closely related; a single amino acid substitution in ...
... amino acids (amino acid transferases), an acetyl group (N-acetyl transferases), and a methyl group (N- and O-methyltransferases ... 2.2.4. Amino Acid Transferases. Amino acids of various types (e.g., taurine, glycine), whether endogenous or exogenous (from ... amino acid transferases, N-acetyl transferases, and methyltransferases. Note that there are other important classes of phase I ... Ellagic acid Berries, pomegranate, grapes, walnuts, and blackcurrants [42]. In vivo 10 and 30 mg/kg/d ellagic acid [43]. ...
... deposited in humans by one of seven N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) complexes composed of a catalytic and potentially ... NAA15 is 866 amino acids in length while NAA10 is 235 amino acids), the frequency of mutations was normalised to the amino acid ... across the TCGA pan-cancer study found similar levels for each amino acid position, thus mutations of the first two amino acids ... After removal of iMET proteins through the action of MAP, N-termini with the first amino acid being S/A/C/T/V/G can be Nt-Ac ...
  • N -terminal acetyltransferase (Nats) complex is responsible for protein N -terminal acetylation ( N α-acetylation), which is one of the most common covalent modifications of eukaryotic proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Protein N -terminal acetylation ( N α-acetylation) is one of the most common covalent modifications of eukaryotic proteins, in which an acetyl group is transferred from acetyl-CoA to the α-amino group of protein N -terminal residues [ 1 - 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • it mainly occurs cotranslationally on nascent polypeptide chains and almost all N α-acetylation is catalyzed by the action of ribosome associated N -terminal acetyltransferase (Nats) complex in eukaryotes [ 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Reversible lysine acetylation mediated by lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs) has an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). (nature.com)
  • Grant DM, Blum M, Demierre A, Meyer UA: Nucleotide sequence of an intronless gene for a human arylamine N-acetyltransferase related to polymorphic drug acetylation. (drugbank.ca)
  • N -Acetyltransferases can bioactivate ( O -acetylation) or deactivate ( N -acetylation) arylamine procarcinogens such as 4-aminobiphenyl, a component of cigarette smoke ( Patrianakos and Hoffman, 1979 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, two N -acetyltransferase isozymes ( NATs ), NAT1 and NAT2 , are polymorphic and catalyze both N -acetylation and O -acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens. (hindawi.com)
  • The mechanism for acetylation and deacetylation takes place on the NH3+ groups of lysine amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-terminal acetylation (Nt-Ac) is an abundant eukaryotic protein modification, deposited in humans by one of seven N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) complexes composed of a catalytic and potentially auxiliary subunits. (mdpi.com)
  • Polymorphic N -acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) catalyzes the activation of heterocyclic amines via O -acetylation, suggesting that NAT2 genotypes with high O -acetyltransferase activity (rapid/intermediate acetylator phenotype) increase the risk of breast cancer in women who consume well-done meat. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Histone acetyltransferases ( HATs ) are enzymes that acetylate conserved lysine amino acids on histone proteins by transferring an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to form ε- N -acetyllysine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone acetyltransferases can also acetylate non-histone proteins, such as nuclear receptors and other transcription factors to facilitate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, conservation of major amino acid neurotransmitters and calcium-associated proteins in the lamprey retina confirms these elements as essential features of the vertebrate visual system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The nutritional quality of the potato tuber protein, although relatively high, is, like for most plant proteins, deficient in certain essential amino acids, e.g. lysine and methionine. (springer.com)
  • The expression of synthetic genes encoding proteins rich in essential amino acids, along with normal protein production within the tuber, may increase the overall nutritional quality of the potato as well as its aggregated value in the market especially for the food industry. (springer.com)
  • Each actin is encoded on a separate chromosome but the coding sequence of the actins are 71% identical and there is 92% amino acid sequence identity between actin proteins. (prolekare.cz)
  • This degree of conservation is indicative of intolerance of these proteins to changes in amino acid composition, presumably because of the large number of proteins that interact directly with actin. (prolekare.cz)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, two enzymes responsible for the synthesis of dopamine, were reduced by 22.4-37.3 and 22.2-43.1%, respectively. (wiley.com)
  • L-DOPA uses the enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase to be converted into Dopamine. (medium.com)
  • C) Complete amino acid sequence for Yng1p. (asm.org)
  • Rat Nat3 amino acid sequence was 68.6 and 67.2% identical to human NAT1 and NAT2, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore, the amino acid sequence is very similar, however pChAT is missing parts of the sequence present in cChAT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeasts can convert amino acids to flavor alcohols following the Ehrlich pathway, a reaction sequence comprising transamination, decarboxylation, and reduction. (springer.com)
  • As part of a project on environmental disasters in minority populations, this study aimed to evaluate differences in the sequence of N-acetyltransferase 2 ( NAT2 ) as a metabolic susceptibility gene in yet unexplored ethnicities. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 9. The plant according to claim 8, wherein the heterologous polynucleotide comprises the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID No: 1, 5 or 7. (epo.org)
  • 1. A wheat plant, which is resistant to a fungus that produces a trichothecene that comprises a C-3 hydroxyl group, said wheat plant comprising a plant cell, wherein said plant cell comprises the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 and wherein said plant is resistant to Fusarium infection. (epo.org)
  • Four species of [alpha]s cDNA were found that differ in nucleotide sequence in the region that corresponds to [alpha]s amino acid residues 71-88. (nih.gov)
  • The encoded protein shows amino acid sequence similarity to N-acetyltransferases. (thermofisher.com)
  • The number of amino acid residues in each HAT is indicated at the right in each example. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best-characterized class of histone-modifying complexes is the histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which use acetyl-coenzyme A as a substrate to acetylate lysine residues within the amino-terminal tails of histones. (asm.org)
  • The full protein is reported to be 171 amino acid residues in length. (biocompare.com)
  • The clones differ in the codon for [alpha]s amino acid residue 71 (glutamic acid vs. aspartic acid), the presence or absence of codons for the next 15 amino acid residues, and the presence or absence of an adjacent serine residue. (nih.gov)
  • Belongs to the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family. (abcam.com)
  • The amino acid precursors are: The nutrient Choline which we usually get through our diet (though in insufficient amounts). (medium.com)
  • Choline gets converted/synthesised via the enzyme choline acetyltransferase into Acetylcholine. (medium.com)
  • Choline acetyltransferase (commonly abbreviated as ChAT, but sometimes CAT) is a transferase enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the choline acetyltransferase enzyme is encoded by the CHAT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Choline acetyltransferase was first described by David Nachmansohn and A. L. Machado in 1943. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure of choline acetyltransferase binding sites Crystal structure of choline ion bound in choline acetyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precursors are Acetyl CoA and choline (an amino acid), and it is synthesized by acetyl transferase. (wikibooks.org)
  • Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are cytosolic conjugating enzymes which transfer an acetyl group from acetylCoenzyme A to a xenobiotic acceptor substrate. (nih.gov)
  • This review will cover phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes as well as phase II enzymes, specifically UDP-glucuronosyl transferases, glutathione S-transferases, amino acid transferases, N-acetyl transferases, and methyltransferases. (hindawi.com)
  • CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 ) and N- acetyltransferase ( NAT1 and NAT2 ) enzymes involved in the biotransformation of the carcinogenic constituents of tobacco have been shown to be the risk factors involved in HNSCC [ 20 - 23 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These reactions are typically catalysed by enzymes with " histone acetyltransferase " (HAT) or " histone deacetylase " (HDAC) activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acyl-CoA thioesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs into free fatty acids and coenzyme A (CoASH), regulating intracellular levels of acyl-CoAs, free fatty acids and CoASH. (genecards.org)
  • Phase II reactions, including glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), sulfonation by sulfotransferases (SULTs), glutathione conjugation by glutathione- S -transferases (GSTs), and amino acid conjugation by various enzymes such as medium-chain CoA ligases and acyl-CoA [glycine N -acetyltransferases (NATs), seryl-tRNA synthetases, and bile acid conjugation enzymes], increase the water solubility of the substrates and favor their excretion. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this study, we examined the involvement of a specific gene family, encoding protein N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), in various types of tumours by analysing available large-scale cancer-associated datasets. (mdpi.com)
  • Here we explore the effects of residue-specific incorporation of ortho-, meta- and para-fluorophenylalanine (oFF, mFF, pFF) on the selectivity of human histone acetyltransferase (HAT) protein, p300/CBP associated factor (PCAF). (elsevier.com)
  • One such factor, the cellular p300/CBP associated factor (PCAF), possesses intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Deguchi T: Sequences and expression of alleles of polymorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferase of human liver. (drugbank.ca)
  • Rat Nat2 and human NAT1 amino acid sequences both contain Phe125, Arg127, Tyr129, which is predictive of their similar arylamine substrate selectivities. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Engstrom A, Xanthopoulos K, Boman HG, Bennich H (1985) Amino acid and cDNA sequences of lysozyme from Hyalophora cecropia . (springer.com)
  • 15, 2004, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety, including all figures, tables and amino acid or nucleic acid sequences. (google.ca)
  • Though the predicted amino acid sequences are not similar between all species, inclusion of exon 3a consistently results in the in the introduction of a premature termination codon within the alternative Actg1 transcript. (prolekare.cz)
  • Ferguson RJ, Doll MA, Rustan TD, Gray K, Hein DW: Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of two mutant (NAT2(191) and NAT2(341/803)) and wild-type human polymorphic N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) alleles. (drugbank.ca)
  • Humans possess two functional N -acetyltransferase genes, NAT1 and NAT2 , as well as a nonfunctional pseudogene, NATP . (aspetjournals.org)
  • Arylamine N -acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) catalyzes the addition of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to a terminal nitrogen on substrates ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • rs1041983 , also known as C282T, is a SNP in the NAT2 gene, potentially encoding a variant detoxifying protein known as an N-acetyltransferase, but which NAT2 variant depends on which other NAT2 SNPs were also inherited. (snpedia.com)
  • Genetic variation in N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2) and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (snpedia.com)
  • Multiple advantageous amino acid variants in the NAT2 gene in human populations. (snpedia.com)
  • It is listed to be a member of the Acetyltransferase family. (biocompare.com)
  • The 207-amino acid protein is a member of the Acetyltransferase family, AANAT subfamily. (biocompare.com)
  • Pita homologues are found in a large number of bacterial genomes, and while the majority of these have been assigned putative phosphinothricin acetyltransferase activity, their true function is unknown. (rcsb.org)
  • Ebisawa T, Deguchi T: Structure and restriction fragment length polymorphism of genes for human liver arylamine N-acetyltransferases. (drugbank.ca)
  • In this study, we identified and characterized a third rat N -acetyltransferase gene ( Nat3 ) consisting of a single open reading frame of 870 base pairs encoding a 290-amino acid protein, analogous to the previously identified human and rat N -acetyltransferase genes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Deciphering the ancient and complex evolutionary history of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase genes. (snpedia.com)
  • Histone acetyltransferase, which by binding to the host chromatin, may manipulate the expression of host genes involved in anti-inflammatory responses to evade clearance and to survive in the intracellular milieu. (mybiosource.com)
  • Nucleic Acids Res. (abcam.com)
  • Nucleic Acids Res ;45(12):7401-7415, 2017 Jul 07. (bireme.br)
  • KAT2A, or GCN5, is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that functions primarily as a transcriptional activator. (nih.gov)
  • Title: The lysine acetyltransferase GCN5 contributes to human papillomavirus oncoprotein E7-induced cell proliferation via up-regulating E2F1. (nih.gov)
  • Expression Profile of the Serine Acetyltransferase (SERAT) and O-Acetylserine (thiol)lyase (OASTL) Gene Families in Arabidopsis. (mpg.de)
  • Gotor, Cecilia 2004-10-07 00:00:00 Expression of the serine acetyltransferase (SAT) gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated in response to treatment with the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). (deepdyve.com)
  • In enzymology, a D-amino-acid N-acetyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + a D-amino acid ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + an N-acetyl-D-amino acid Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and D-amino acid, whereas its two products are CoA and N-acetyl-D-amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has specificity for the N-terminal Methionine of Peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is hydrophobic. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • There are many neurotransmitters, but the basic transmitters are the amino acid neurotransmitters: glutamate, GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid) and glycine. (wikibooks.org)
  • Between the migratory phases, few differences were observed in the distribution of major neurotransmitters i.e. glutamate, GABA and glycine, but changes in amino acids associated with retinal metabolism i.e. glutamine and aspartate, were evident. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Yng1p is a stable component of the NuA3 histone acetyltransferase complex, which contains Sas3p, the yeast homolog of the mammalian MOZ proto-oncogene product, as its catalytic subunit. (asm.org)
  • An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa50p Catalytic Subunit , and the Naa10p and Naa15p auxiliary subunits. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • The MAK10 gene encodes a 733-amino acid protein with several regions of similarity to T cell receptor alpha-subunit V (variable) regions in yeast. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The mammalian homologue of yeast MAK10, also known as EGAP, is one subunit of a novel N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) that is highly conserved among vertebrate species. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Instead, we demonstrate that pita acts as an acetyltransferase using the glutamate analogues l-methionine sulfoximine and l-methionine sulfone as substrates, with Km(app) values of 1.3 +/- 0.21 and 1.3 +/- 0.13 mM and kcat(app) values of 505 +/- 43 and 610 +/- 23 s-1 for l-methionine sulfoximine and l-methionine sulfone, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • Glutamate is an excitatory amino acid ntr. (wikibooks.org)
  • Its synthesis occurs from glutamate via glutamic acid decarboxylase. (wikibooks.org)
  • The transacetylation is catalyzed by ornithine acetyltransferase (encoded by argJ ), an enzyme which in some organisms is also able to use acetyl coenzyme A to acetylate glutamate and in this way bypasses the first step of the linear pathway ( 11 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Ohsako S, Deguchi T: Cloning and expression of cDNAs for polymorphic and monomorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferases from human liver. (drugbank.ca)
  • In plants, biosynthesis follows the typical reaction pathways established for the formation of these amino acids in microorganisms. (wikipathways.org)
  • Enhanced production of melatonin by ectopic overexpression of human serotonin N-acetyltransferase plays a role in cold resistance in transgenic rice seedlings. (nih.gov)
  • The uncommon nonprotein amino acid N δ -acetylornithine was discovered in a targeted search for Arabidopsis thaliana metabolites that are strongly induced by the phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). (plantcell.org)
  • Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) genotype as a personal trait in melatonin synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • About half of the 20 protein amino acids are essential dietary constituents because they cannot be synthesized by most animals. (plantcell.org)
  • Resequencing and association analysis of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) gene and its contribution to major depression susceptibility. (nih.gov)
  • DAS-68416-4 soybean produces aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12), an enzyme which confers resistance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), which inactivates the herbicide phosphinothricin (glufosinate). (canada.ca)
  • The mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids is initiated by the sequential action of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I (outer membrane and detergent labile) and II (inner membrane and detergent stable), together with carnitine carrier. (scbt.com)
  • A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. (umassmed.edu)
  • The amino acid precursors: The essential amino acid L-phenylalanine is usually present in our diet, it gets converted/synthesised via the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase into the non-essential amino acid L-tyrosine . (medium.com)
  • This particular class completely removes acetyl groups from lysine amino acid. (prospecbio.com)
  • KAT2A (Lysine Acetyltransferase 2A) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:D-amino-acid N-acetyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike animals, plants are able to de novo synthesize these amino acids from pyruvate, 2-oxobutanoate and acetyl-CoA. (wikipathways.org)
  • The nature of the recognition of acetyl-lysine by the P/CAF bromodomain is similar to that of acetyl-CoA by histone acetyltransferase. (rcsb.org)
  • N-acetyltransferase, also known as FUS2 (NAT6), is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to acrylamines. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This entry presents the N-termini of acyl-CoA thioester hydrolase and bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acetyltransferase (BAAT) [ PMID: 11673457 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Drug-induced intrahepatic cholestasis is characterized by cellular accumulation of bile acids (BAs), whose mechanisms remain poorly understood. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Vatsis KP, Martell KJ, Weber WW: Diverse point mutations in the human gene for polymorphic N-acetyltransferase. (drugbank.ca)
  • Abe M, Deguchi T, Suzuki T: The structure and characteristics of a fourth allele of polymorphic N-acetyltransferase gene found in the Japanese population. (drugbank.ca)
  • Structure/function evaluations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in human N-acetyltransferase 2. (snpedia.com)
  • Functions as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) to promote transcriptional activation. (genecards.org)
  • The amino acid precursor is the essential amino acid L-glutamine . (medium.com)
  • showing that availability of a single essential amino acid can be growth-limiting for insects. (plantcell.org)
  • These results suggest that global incorporation of unnatural amino acids may be used to re-engineer protein specificity. (elsevier.com)
  • Has significant histone acetyltransferase activity with core histones, but not with nucleosome core particles. (genecards.org)
  • Gamma-amino butyric acid, or GABA, is an inhibitory amino acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • Furthermore, we studied how the responses were affected by combined local application of SS and an agonists/antagonist of the type-A or type-B γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA A or GABA B receptor). (frontiersin.org)
  • CA1 area), and spinal dorsal horn suggest that SS can affect inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ( 32 - 35 ). (frontiersin.org)