Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Cellophane: A generic name for film produced from wood pulp by the viscose process. It is a thin, transparent sheeting of regenerated cellulose, moisture-proof and sometimes dyed, and used chiefly as food wrapping or as bags for dialysis. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Keto AcidsBuchnera: A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Histidinol: The penultimate step in the pathway of histidine biosynthesis. Oxidation of the alcohol group on the side chain gives the acid group forming histidine. Histidinol has also been used as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Bromus: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM).Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.TritiumNutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Diet, Protein-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase: A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is an extrahepatic enzyme that plays a role in metabolism as the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Zein: A group of alcohol-soluble seed storage proteins from the endosperm of corn.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Amino Acids, SulfurDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.KynurenineGenes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Cryptophyta: A class of EUKARYOTA (traditionally algae), characterized by biflagellated cells and found in both freshwater and marine environments. Pigmentation varies but only one CHLOROPLAST is present. Unique structures include a nucleomorph and ejectosomes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 2: Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Eleusine: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Finger millet or raggee (E. coracana) is an important food grain in southern Asia and parts of Africa.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protein Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Saccharopine Dehydrogenases: Amine oxidoreductases that use either NAD+ (EC 1.5.1.7) or NADP+ (EC 1.5.1.8) as an acceptor to form L-LYSINE or NAD+ (EC 1.5.1.9) or NADP+ (EC 1.5.1.10) as an acceptor to form L-GLUTAMATE. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERLYSINEMIAS.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.ThymidineFeeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Tryptophan Oxygenase: A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is a LIVER-specific enzyme that is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
... is not essential to the human diet, as it is biosynthesized in the body from the amino acid serine, which is in turn ... or as a component of food supplements and protein drinks. Two glycine molecules in a dipeptide form (Diglycinate) are sometimes ... Glycine is also cogenerated as an impurity in the synthesis of EDTA, arising from reactions of the ammonia coproduct. In ... The predominant pathway in animals and plants is the reverse of the glycine synthase pathway mentioned above. In this context, ...
... a non-protein amino acid of great importance in the formation of a host of essential amino acids. In this way, the third ... nitrogen atom of canavanine enters into the reactions of nitrogen metabolism of the plant. As homoserine, its carbon skeleton ... Every time a canavanine molecule runs through the canaline-urea cycle, the two terminal nitrogen atoms are released as urea. ... Tobacco hornworm larvae fed a diet containing 2.5 mM canaline showed massive developmental aberrations, and most larvae so ...
... aliphatic amino acid. It is non-essential in humans, meaning the body can synthesize it. A reaction between asparagine and ... is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH+ ... of asparagine leads to the production of oxaloacetate which is the molecule which combines with citrate in the citric acid ... Asparagine is found in: Animal sources: dairy, whey, beef, poultry, eggs, fish, lactalbumin, seafood Plant sources: asparagus, ...
... as they are often limiting in one or more essential amino acids. Good sources of plant protein include chickpeas, green peas, ... During the extrusion process, sucrose is converted to reducing sugars that can be lost from Maillard reactions. Therefore, it ... Processing increases water solubility of fiber by reducing the molecular weight of starch molecules like hemicellulose and ... A vegan diet provides the same amino acids through plants such as legumes, peas, beans, nuts, seeds and grains. While all ...
... and by interfering with protein absorption and digestive enzymes. In addition, some plants use fatty acid derivates, amino ... Each type of defense can be either constitutive (always present in the plant), or induced (produced in reaction to damage or ... The synthesis of fluoroacetate in several plants is an example of the use of small molecules to disrupt the metabolism of ... Another approach diverts herbivores toward eating non-essential parts, or enhances the ability of a plant to recover from the ...
Mushrooms have high protein content. Any of these may be sources of essential amino acids. When proteins are heated they become ... "Traditional food-processing and preparation practices to enhance the bioavailability of micronutrients in plant-based diets". ... Chemical processes central to cooking include the Maillard reaction - a form of non-enzymatic browning involving an amino acid ... Naturally occurring ingredients contain various amounts of molecules called proteins, carbohydrates and fats. They also contain ...
Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain ... They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout the body. Each protein molecule is composed of amino ... A nutrient that is able to limit plant growth according to Liebig's law of the minimum is considered an essential plant ... As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet. Excess amino acids are ...
... the growing amino acid chain from the tRNA molecule in the A-site of the ribosome and its subsequent addition to the amino acid ... The reaction catalyzed by CDK is as follows: ATP + a target protein → {\displaystyle \rightarrow } ADP + a phosphoprotein. ... Plants use glutathione transferases as a means to segregate toxic metals from the rest of the cell. These glutathione ... These defects in the medulla could lead to an inability to control essential autonomic functions such as the cardiovascular and ...
Although classified as a non-essential amino acid, in rare cases, cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and ... Cysteine is found in most high-protein foods, including: Animal sources: meat (including pork and poultry), eggs, dairy; Plant ... Amino acids Cysteine metabolism Cystinuria Selenocysteine Thiols Sullivan reaction Belitz, H.-D; Grosch, Werner; Schieberle, ... glycine and glutamic acid. Glutamic acid and glycine are readily available in most Western diets, but the availability of ...
... is not an essential nutrient for humans, since it can be synthesized in the body from the amino acids L-cysteine, L ... It is used in metabolic and biochemical reactions such as DNA synthesis and repair, protein synthesis, prostaglandin synthesis ... and plant defence signalling. Systemic bioavailability of orally consumed glutathione is poor because the molecule, a ... acid, and glycine; it does not have to be present as a supplement in the diet. The sulfhydryl group (SH) of cysteine serves as ...
There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein-energy malnutrition ... Vegans can get enough essential amino acids by eating a variety of plant proteins. It is commonly believed that athletes should ... Other parts of the amino acid molecules can be converted into glucose and used for fuel. When food protein intake is ... The following eight foods are responsible for about 90% of allergic reactions: cow's milk, eggs, wheat, shellfish, fish, ...
... (symbol Cys or C;[3] /ˈsɪstiiːn/)[4] is a semi-essential[5] proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH ... Roles in protein structure[edit]. In the translation of messenger RNA molecules to produce polypeptides, cysteine is coded for ... glycine and glutamic acid. Glutamic acid and glycine are readily available in most Western diets, but the availability of ... For example, the reaction of cysteine with sugars in a Maillard reaction yields meat flavors.[25] L-Cysteine is also used as a ...
... nonessential amino acids de novo but cannot synthesize nine essential amino acids that must be obtained through their diets: ... "A protein from the salivary glands of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is essential in feeding on a host plant". Proceedings ... signaling molecules, and ATP. The Buchnera genome contains the necessary genes to encode the reaction intermediates missing ... The ratio of essential amino acids to nonessential amino acids in these phloem saps ranges from 1:4-1:20. This ratio of ...
Taurine is an amino acid, which is essential in cat diets due to their low capacity to synthesize it. Because of taurine has ... Natural sources of Vitamin E are primarily plant based and therefore cat diets with high amounts of raw protein, such as fish, ... Flavoproteins drive reactions for the synthesis of proteins involved with electron transport, oxygen transport, vasodilation ... nucleic acids and precursory molecules for various compounds involved in brain function. It has been shown that cats suffer ...
... essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium ... Plants get minerals from soil. Most of the minerals in a human diet come from eating plants and animals or from drinking water ... Roles for trace minerals include enzyme catalysis, attracting substrate molecules, redox reactions, and structural or ... regulatory effects on protein binding. Recent studies have shown a tight linkage between living organisms and chemical elements ...
These reactions add hydroxyl groups to the amino acids proline or lysine in the collagen molecule via prolyl hydroxylase and ... The need to include fresh plant food or raw animal flesh in the diet to prevent disease was known from ancient times. Native ... Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ... Vitamin C functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in animals (and humans) that mediate a variety of essential ...
Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain ... They also form the enyzmes which control chemical reactions throughout the body. Each molecule is composed of amino acids which ... Other dietary substances found in plant foods (phytochemicals, polyphenols) are not identified as essential nutrients but ... As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet. Excess amino acids are ...
Recent work demonstrates widespread human protein phosphorylation on multiple non-canonical amino acids, including motifs ... Glycolysis is an essential process of glucose degrading into two molecules of pyruvate, through various steps, with the help of ... Each molecule of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is phosphorylated to form 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. This reaction is catalyzed by ... Fructose consumed in the diet is converted to F1P in the liver. This negates the action of F6P on glucokinase,[8] which ...
Proteins are very large molecules - macro-biopolymers - made from monomers called amino acids. An amino acid consists of a ... and so these are often considered essential amino acids. If the amino group is removed from an amino acid, it leaves behind a ... Virtually every reaction in a living cell requires an enzyme to lower the activation energy of the reaction. These molecules ... and the pentose phosphate pathway can be used to make all twenty amino acids, and most bacteria and plants possess all the ...
... from an amino acid-either tryptophan (Trp) in animals and some bacteria, or aspartic acid (Asp) in some bacteria and plants. ... Despite the presence of the de novo pathway, the salvage reactions are essential in humans; a lack of niacin in the diet causes ... For example, enzymes called ADP-ribosyltransferases add the ADP-ribose moiety of this molecule to proteins, in a ... In organisms, NAD can be synthesized from simple building-blocks (de novo) from the amino acids tryptophan or aspartic acid. In ...
Amino Acid impacts Selenocysteine (abbreviated as Sec or U, in older publications also as Se-Cys) is the 21st proteinogenic ... However, the Japanese diet, high in kelp, contains 1,000 to 3,000 µg of iodine per day, and research indicates the body is able ... Some cases of reaction to Povidone-iodine (Betadine) have been documented to be a chemical burn. Eating iodine-containing foods ... Iodine is an essential trace element for life, the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms, and the second- ...
Protein a class of biochemicals made from amino acids in specific sequences. Proteins can be very large molecules with very ... The rest must come in the diet-they are the essential amino acids. Amyotrophy A type of diabetic neuropathy that causes muscle ... Enzymes proteins which have the effect of greatly increasing the reaction rate of specific chemical reactions. Reaction rates ... Fats food substances which are the chief energy storage mechanism in organisms such as plants and animals. Fat molecules are ...
Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid molecule with ATP (which is ... no cell in the body can manufacture the required essential fatty acids which have to be obtained from the diet and delivered to ... these same reactions occur on fatty acid synthase I (FASI), a large dimeric protein that has all of the enzymatic activities ... The decarboxylation reactions occur before malate is formed in the cycle. Only plants possess the enzymes to convert acetyl-CoA ...
... (abbreviated as Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It is encoded by the codons ... immature and rapidly growing individuals require arginine in their diet, and it is also essential under physiological stress, ... because for each molecule of argininosuccinate that is synthesized, one molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is hydrolyzed ... Animal sources of arginine include meat, dairy products and eggs, and plant sources include seeds of all types, for example ...
This polymerization of amino acids is what creates proteins. This condensation reaction yields the newly formed peptide bond ... As both the amine and carboxylic acid groups of amino acids can react to form amide bonds, one amino acid molecule can react ... Essential amino acids may also differ between species. Because of their biological significance, amino acids are important in ... In order to form other amino acids, the plant uses transaminases to move the amino group to another alpha-keto carboxylic acid ...
Proteins are necessary in an animal's diets, since animals cannot make all the amino acids they need (they can make most of them). They must get certain amino acids from food. These are called the essential amino acids. Through digestion, animals break down ingested protein into free amino acids. The amino acids are then used in metabolism to make the enzymes and structures the body needs. There are nine essential amino acids for humans, which are obtained from food. The nine essential amino ...
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet. The nine amino acids humans cannot synthesize are phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine (i.e., F V T W M L I K H). Six other amino acids are considered conditionally essential in the human diet, meaning their synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions, such as prematurity in the infant or individuals in severe catabolic distress. These six are ...
If one of the essential amino acids is less than needed for an individual the utilization of other amino acids will be hindered and thus protein synthesis will be less than what it usually is, even in the presence of adequate total nitrogen intake.[2]. Protein deficiency has been shown to affect all of the body's organs and many of its systems, including the brain and brain function of infants and young children; the immune system, thus elevating risk of infection; gut mucosal function and permeability, which affects absorption and vulnerability to systemic disease; and kidney function.[2] The physical signs of protein deficiency include edema, failure to thrive in infants and children, poor musculature, dull skin, and thin and fragile hair. Biochemical changes reflecting protein deficiency include low serum albumin and low serum transferrin.[2]. The ...
டிரிப்டோபான் (Tryptophan) [குறுக்கம்: Trp (அ) W[2]] என்னும் அமினோ அமிலம் ஒரு அத்தியாவசிய அமினோ அமிலமாகும். இது விலங்குகளினால்/மனிதர்களால் தயாரிக்கப்படுவதில்லை. எனவே, நாம் உண்ணும் புரதங்களிலிருந்தே இது பெறப்படுகிறது. ஆதலினால் இது இன்றியமையா அமினோ அமிலங்கள் (Essential Amino Acid) என்ற பிரிவினுள் அடங்கும். இதனுடைய வாய்பாடு: C11H12N2O2. மரபுக்குறியீட்டில் (Genetic code), இந்த டிரிப்டோபானுக்குரிய முக்குறியம் (Codon) UGG ...
A low-sulfur diet is a diet with reduced sulfur content. Sulfur containing compounds may also be referred to as thiols or mercaptans. Important dietary sources of sulfur and sulfur containing compounds may be classified as essential mineral (e.g. elemental sulfur), essential amino acid (methionine) and semi-essential amino acid (e.g. cysteine). Sulfur is an essential dietary mineral primarily because amino acids contain it. Sulphur is thus considered fundamentally important to human health, and conditions such as nitrogen imbalance and protein-energy malnutrition may result from deficiency. Methionine cannot be synthesized by humans, and cysteine synthesis requires a steady ...
... is an essential component of all living cells. It is either the seventh or eighth most abundant element in the human body by weight, about equal in abundance to potassium, and slightly greater than sodium and chlorine. A 70 kg (150 lb) human body contains about 140 grams of sulfur. In plants and animals, the amino acids cysteine and methionine contain most of the sulfur, and the element is present in all polypeptides, proteins, and enzymes that contain these amino acids. In humans, methionine is an essential amino acid that must be ingested. However, save for the vitamins biotin and thiamine, cysteine and all sulfur-containing compounds in the human body can be synthesized from methionine. The enzyme sulfite oxidase is needed for the ...
... (IUPAC-IUBMB abbreviation: Trp or W; IUPAC abbreviation: L-Trp or D-Trp; sauld for medical uise as Tryptan)[2] is ane o the 22 staundart amino acids an an essential amino acid in the human diet, as demonstratit bi its growth effects on rats. ...
As reports have indicated, feeding make-up the major cost in raising poultry animals as birds in general require feeding more than any other animals did particularly due to their faster growth rate and high rate of productivity. Feeding efficiency is reflected on the birds' performance and its products. According to National Research Council (1994), poultry required at least 38% components in their feed. The ration of each feed components, although differ for each different stage of birds, must include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins. Carbohydrates which is usually supply by grains including corn, wheat, barley, etc. serve as major energy source in poultry feeds. Fats usually from tallow, lard or vegetables oil are essentially required to provide important fatty acid in poultry feed for membrane integrity and hormone synthesis. Proteins are important to supply the essential ...
In most of Latin America, sweet corn is traditionally eaten with beans; each plant is deficient in an essential amino acid that happens to be abundant in the other, so together sweet corn and beans form a protein-complete meal.[6] In Brazil, sweet corn cut off from the cobs is generally eaten with peas (where this combination, given the practicality of steamed canned grains in an urban diet, is a frequent addition to diverse meals such as salads, stews, seasoned white rice, risottos, soups, pasta, and, most famously, whole sausage hot dogs).. Similarly, sweet corn in Indonesia is traditionally ground or soaked with milk, which makes available the B vitamin niacin in the corn, the absence of which would otherwise lead to pellagra; in Brazil, a combination of ground sweet corn and milk is also the basis of various well-known dishes, such as pamonha and the pudding-like dessert curau, while ...
வேதியியலில், அமினோ அமிலம் அல்லது அமினோக் காடி (amino acid) என்பது, அமைன் (-NH2), கார்பாக்சைல் (-COOH) ஆகிய இரண்டு வேதி வினைக்குழுக்கள் கொண்ட ஒரு மூலக்கூறு ஆகும். அமினோ அமிலத்தில் காணப்படும் முதன்மையான தனிமங்களாக கார்பன் (கரிமம்), ஐதரசன், ஆக்சிசன், நைதரசன் போன்றவை காணப்படுகின்றன, பிற சில தனிமங்கள், ஒரு சில அமினோ அமிலங்களின் பக்கச்சங்கிலிகளில் காணப்படுகின்றன. மரபுக்குறியீட்டில் 20 அமினோ ...
Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to analyze solid surfaces and thin films by sputtering the surface with a focused primary ion beam and collecting and analyzing ejected secondary ions. There are many different sources for a primary ion beam. However, the primary ion beam must contain ions that are at the higher end of the energy scale. Some common sources are: Cs+, O2+, O, Ar+ and Ga+.[5] SIMS imaging is performed in a manner similar to electron microscopy; the primary ion beam is emitted across the sample while secondary mass spectra are recorded.[6] SIMS proves to be advantageous in providing increased resolution for visualizing spatial distribution over smaller mass ranges.[1] SIMS is widely regarded as one of the most sensitive forms of mass spectrometry as it can detect elements as small as 10−6-10−9.[7]. Multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) is a SIMS method that uses metal isotope labeled antibodies to label compounds in biological samples.[8]. Developments within SIMS: ...
Data analysis is generally challenging for DIA methods as the resulting fragment ion spectra are highly multiplexed. In DIA spectra therefore the direct relation between a precursor ion and its fragment ions is lost since the fragment ions in DIA spectra may potentially result from multiple precursor ions (any precursor ion present in the m/z range from which the DIA spectrum was derived). One approach to DIA data analysis attempts to use database-based search engines used in data-dependent acquisition to search the produced multiplexed spectra.[4][6] This approach can be improved by assigning individual fragment ion to precursor ions observed in precursor ion scans, using the elution profile of the fragment ions and the precursor ions, and then searching the resulting "pseudo-spectra".[5] A second approach to DIA data analysis is based on a targeted analysis, also known as SWATH-MS (Sequential Windowed Acquisition of All Theoretical Fragment Ion Mass Spectra).[7] This approach uses targeted ...
Asid glikolik lebih kuat sedikit berbanding asid asetik kerana kuasa tarikan elektron daripada kumpulan hidroksil terminalnya. Kumpulan karboksilatnya pula boleh berpadanan dengan ion logam untuk menghasilkan kompleks pengkoordinat (coordination complexes), terutamanya dengan ion-ion Pb2+ dan Cu2+ yang lebih kuat berbanding asid-asid karboksilik lain. Hal ini menunjukkan penglibatan kumpulan hidroksil dalam pembentukan kompleks sebegini barangkalinya dengan kehilangan ion dalam kumpulan tersebut.[4] ...
Proteins from diet are digested into amino acids. Some essential amino acids found in meat, less found in plants.. When amino ... A condensation reaction between the acid group of a fatty acid molecule and one of the OH groups of the glycerol molecules ... In plants. Plants make amino acids with nitrates from soil, theyre converted into amino acids and bonded with organic groups ... Amino Acids. Proteins are made up from polymers consisting of a chain of amino acid monomers.. There are 20 types of naturally ...
Strings of amino acids make up proteins, of which there are countless varieties. ... AMINO ACIDS CONCEPT Amino acids are organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and (in some cases) sulfur ... Many plant proteins do not contain all of the essential amino acids. Corn, for example, does not contain the essential amino ... and a molecule of water is added when the reaction occurs. The resulting amino acids are released into the small intestine, ...
Fatty acids-Complex molecules found in fats and oils. Essential fatty acids are fatty acids the body needs but cannot ... It is also involved in the transformation of amino acids into protein. Biotin plays a role in cell growth and division through ... They are made by plants and must be present in the diet to maintain health ... Enzyme -A protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction within the body without themselves being used up in the reaction ...
Where can you get all the essential amino acids?[edit]. Amino acids are the molecules from which proteins are built. There are ... If you dont eat animal products, the only way you can get all the essential amino acids is by combining plant foods. For ... are the nine amino acids required for protein synthesis that cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained in the diet: ... Water is an essential nutrient and is directly involved in all the chemical reactions of life. It is primarily absorbed in the ...
... "a diet high in protein". *S: (n) macromolecule, supermolecule (any very large complex molecule; found only in plants and ... consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from ... S: (n) chemical, chemical substance (material produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules) ... any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as ...
They include vitamins and essential amino acids. They can be used to construct more complex molecules, or they can be broken ... as carbonic acid, can also participate in the biosynthesis of some substances, particularly in plants. Catabolism and Anabolism ... Urea, for example, is an end product of protein degradation in man. Carbon dioxide is usually thought of as an end product of ... Primary metabolites encompass reactions involving compounds which are formed as part of the normal anabolic and catabolic ...
Molecules made from units called amino acids. Proteins are found in plant foods in small amounts. Proteins are an essential ... A diet too high in protein can lead to gout (see above), and a diet too low in protein or missing certain proteins can also ... which regulate the various chemical reactions needed for life. Although proteins are necessary, iguanas cannot handle the large ... In iguanas, poor diet, especially too much protein in the diet, is usually the cause. For more information on proper diet and ...
This article explains how and provides a high-protein diet plan to get started. ... High-protein diets can help you lose weight and improve your overall health. ... Vegetable proteins don't provide adequate amounts of every essential amino acid but can be combined with other plant ... Transportation and storage: Some proteins help deliver important molecules where they're needed. For example, the protein ...
Glycine is not essential to the human diet, as it is biosynthesized in the body from the amino acid serine, which is in turn ... or as a component of food supplements and protein drinks. Two glycine molecules in a dipeptide form (Diglycinate) are sometimes ... Glycine is also cogenerated as an impurity in the synthesis of EDTA, arising from reactions of the ammonia coproduct. In ... The predominant pathway in animals and plants is the reverse of the glycine synthase pathway mentioned above. In this context, ...
These amino acids are essential components in the diets of humans and other animals. Unlike animals, plants are able to de novo ... Amino acids serve as constituents of proteins, precursors for anabolism, and, in some cases, as signaling molecules in ... Plant primary metabolism, also referred to as central metabolism, comprises the reactions that result in assimilation, ... lactic acid; m36, malic acid; m37, malic acid, 2-methyl; m38, nicotinic acid; m39, pyruvic acid; m40, quinic acid; m41, quinic ...
Whey protein is a pure, natural, high-quality protein from cows milk. It is a rich source of the essential amino acids needed ... Plant-based materials, which are consumed as part of a normal diet, support an organisms abilities to resist stressors of ... An essential mineral vital in more than 300 enzyme-catalyzed reactions including ATP, DNA and RNA synthesis and metabolism. It ... The basic building block of a carbohydrate is a sugar molecule, composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates are an ...
Isoleucine is an amino acid thats essential for human and animal health. Its also used medically to treat burn victims, and ... Isoleucine is an amino acid that is essential for the diet of humans and animals. It must be obtained from external food ... Isoleucine is present in only one form in proteins, and this is L-isoleucine. The molecule has the capability to exist as ... Some plant sources provide most of these necessary amino acids, and, if one eats many different plant-based foods, this should ...
The lure of protein as a builder of muscles and a source of vitality dates back to the early Greeks, who believed that meat ... contains the essential amino acids in optimal proportions to support growth and tissue maintenance. Plant proteins tend to have ... During digestion, food proteins are broken down by the addition of one molecule of water across each peptide bond. Amino acids ... assuming a mixed protein diet from animal and vegetable sources. This translates to about 56 grams (almost 2 ounces) of protein ...
The majority of these individuals have been raised on a diet of animal proteins because it... ... The average American consumes about 100 grams of protein per day which is two to three times more than the body needs. ... When 2 or more vegetable source proteins are combined they provide all the essential amino acids and represent a complete ... This leads to undigested protein molecules being absorbed which can cause inflammatory reactions in the body. In an effort to ...
These amino acids are referred as essential amino acids as they are essential in the diet. ... Proteins are not just large molecules but also randomly arranged chains of amino acids. There are 20 amino acids, which make up ... The effects of dietary proteins on health probably are approximately the same for animal protein and plant protein. Animal ... Proteins play many roles in our body. Proteins are involved in forming structures, digesting foods, catalyzing reactions, ...
The lure of protein as a builder of muscles and a source of vitality dates back to the early Greeks, who believed that meat ... contains the essential amino acids in optimal proportions to support growth and tissue maintenance. Plant proteins tend to have ... During digestion, food proteins are broken down by the addition of one molecule of water across each peptide bond. Amino acids ... amino acids, continues unabated. But our needs for protein can easily be met by diet, any additional amount conveys no special ...
Proteins are essential in our diets, and since we cannot synthesize all the amino acids necessary for survival (22 in all), we ... moving molecules, and catalyzing metabolic reactions. They differ based on their sequence of amino acids. ... An incomplete protein source is one that is low in one or more essential amino acids. For example, some key plant proteins are ... Being referred to as an incomplete protein, many plant proteins arent necessarily void of any essential amino acid, they are ...
Animals must ingest proteins in their diet. *Some (8-10 of the 20) AAs are called essential amino acids *most essential AAs are ... Joining amino acids. *Condensation reaction *between the acid group of one amino acid and the amine group of another ... Plants can manufacture AAs, using nitrogen from the soil converted into amino groups ... Amino acids and proteins. *Proteins are unbranched molecules made of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds ...
The Importance of Green Leaves to the Planet/Health Vital Life Energy Vitamins and Minerals Essential Fatty Acids Proteins ... And unlike the storage proteins of most seeds, which tend to be somewhat short of one or more essential amino acid, green ... When first changing from an animal based to a plant based diet, people often wonder where they will obtain their minerals, ... The chlorophyll molecule itself is very soothing and healing and is useful in healing wounds. It is also a wonderful de¬ ...
Our bodies use the essential amino acid phenylalanine to make the non-essential amino acid tyrosine, if the precursor is ... Proteins do an immense array of functions within organisms, as well as catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, ... in addition they transport molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence ... What are proteins?. Protein is made up of amino acids, humans cannot make 9 out of the 20 common amino acids, its a necessity ...
... keeping up with a running schedule while also staying true to a plant-based diet has its challenges, as well as its benefits. ... keeping up with a running schedule while also staying true to a plant-based diet has its challenges, as well as its benefits. ... These proteins, found in plant seeds, egg whites, and milk, store metal ions and amino acids for use at a later time. A few of ... To begin, proteins are essential for all living organisms. Protein molecules live and function within cells and are important ...
To help you sort through the options to discover which type of protein is best for you, I walk you through the essential health ... benefits of protein, which ingredients to avoid, and how to find a clean, high-quality source. ... One easy way to get more protein in your diet is by using protein powders. ... There are over 20 different types of amino acids that can be combined to form a protein molecule. The specific sequence of ...
... a non-protein amino acid of great importance in the formation of a host of essential amino acids. In this way, the third ... nitrogen atom of canavanine enters into the reactions of nitrogen metabolism of the plant. As homoserine, its carbon skeleton ... Every time a canavanine molecule runs through the canaline-urea cycle, the two terminal nitrogen atoms are released as urea. ... Tobacco hornworm larvae fed a diet containing 2.5 mM canaline showed massive developmental aberrations, and most larvae so ...
Essential Amino Acids: The nine amino acids that cannot be manufactured by the body and must be consumed in the diet.. Fat: A ... Protein: General term used to describe molecules composed of specific sequences of amino acids. Protein is the bodys primary ... containing compounds or amino acids derived directly or indirectly from plant food. The process of protein metabolism accounts ... Catabolic: Chemical reactions in the body where larger units are broken down into smaller subunits. As an example, muscle ...
Protein. The building blocks of protein are called amino acids. Each protein source varies in the level and type of amino acids ... Every day, chemical reactions in your body produce unruly oxygen molecules called free radicals. Free radicals can make a mess ... Plant-based proteins like tofu and legumes (lentils, chickpeas, black beans) are also good options. Nuts and nut butters can be ... Autoimmune and diet-related diseases like diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure are taking a serious toll on American ...
  • Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, which transfers thiol esters, the action of N-acetyltransferase, which is part of the pathway that metabolizes tryptophan, and the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fish is the best source of omega-3 and the 28g of fish in the EAT diet provides 284mg of omega-3 fatty acids vs. an RDA of 1.6g for adult males (Ref 3). (zoeharcombe.com)
  • Having too many of a certain type of fatty acids instead of another type (omega-6 versus omega-3 fatty acids) has been implicated in cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. (uga.edu)
  • Tart cherry, omega-3 fatty acids and MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) are among the most researched for such contributions to recovery formulations. (naturalproductsinsider.com)
  • Fulvic acid (not to be confused with folic acid) is rapidly being recognized as one of the key elements in many outstanding health and scientific breakthroughs of the 21st century. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • What Is Folic Acid Or Folate Deficiency Anemia? (glutenfreeworks.com)
  • Citric Acid Cycle What are the reactants? (docplayer.net)
  • The citric acid cycle: 1) occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion and results in NADH and FADH2. (docplayer.net)
  • therefore, most likely evolved before the citric acid cycle and electron B. Energy-Investment Steps 1. (docplayer.net)
  • These techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell , such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle). (bionity.com)
  • The other product of transamidation is a keto acid that enters the citric acid cycle. (wikidoc.org)
  • All of the amino acids in the human body, except glycine, are either right-hand or left-hand versions of the same molecule, meaning that in some amino acids the positions of the carboxyl group and the R -group are switched. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Glycine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycine was discovered in 1820 by Henri Braconnot when he hydrolyzed gelatin by boiling it with sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In aqueous solution, glycine itself is amphoteric: at low pH the molecule can be protonated with a pKa of about 2.4 and at high pH it loses a proton with a pKa of about 9.6 (precise values of pKa depend on temperature and ionic strength). (wikipedia.org)
  • The predominant pathway in animals and plants is the reverse of the glycine synthase pathway mentioned above. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the third pathway of glycine degradation, glycine is converted to glyoxylate by D-amino acid oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principal function of glycine is as a precursor to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most proteins incorporate only small quantities of glycine, a notable exception being collagen, which contains about 35% glycine due to its periodically repeated role in the formation of collagen's helix structure in conjunction with hydroxyproline. (wikipedia.org)
  • As stated earlier, some are deficient in certain amino acids but when combined with a variety of healthy foods, namely other protein sources, they can become powerful additions to any diet. (personalfitnesspa.com)
  • Some foods are high in certain amino acids, but their digestibility and the anti-nutritional factors present in these foods make them of limited value in human nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there are a vast number of different biomolecules, many are complex and large molecules (called polymers ) that are composed of similar repeating subunits (called monomers ). (bionity.com)
  • Catabolic processes start with large molecules, breaking them down into smaller parts and thus releasing energy in the form of reducing power. (simplemed.co.uk)
  • It is necessary to liberate the pantothenic acid from the bound forms in the digestive process prior to absorption. (dsm.com)
  • This is because vitamin B12 is a very large molecule and its absorption is complex and involves few steps - each of which can go wrong, making it difficult to absorb. (success-street.com)
  • Transamination, or the transfer of an amine (or NH2) group from an amino acid to a keto acid by an aminotransferase (also known as a "transaminase"), was first noted in 1930 by D. M. Needham, after observing the disappearance of glutamic acid added to pigeon breast muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its reproductive cycle, including the sexual phase and the overwintering of eggs, can be easily completed on host plants under laboratory conditions, and the relatively large size of individuals facilitates physiological studies. (wikipedia.org)