Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acids, SulfurAmino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Purine-Pyrimidine Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Steroid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processing of STEROIDS resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsAmino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Urea Cycle Disorders, Inborn: Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn: Brain disorders resulting from inborn metabolic errors, primarily from enzymatic defects which lead to substrate accumulation, product reduction, or increase in toxic metabolites through alternate pathways. The majority of these conditions are familial, however spontaneous mutation may also occur in utero.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Argininosuccinic Aciduria: Rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle which leads to the accumulation of argininosuccinic acid in body fluids and severe HYPERAMMONEMIA. Clinical features of the neonatal onset of the disorder include poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, tachypnea, coma, and death. Later onset results in milder set of clinical features including vomiting, failure to thrive, irritability, behavioral problems, or psychomotor retardation. Mutations in the ARGININOSUCCINATE LYASE gene cause the disorder.Hyperammonemia: Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Maple Syrup Urine Disease: An autosomal recessive inherited disorder with multiple forms of phenotypic expression, caused by a defect in the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN). These metabolites accumulate in body fluids and render a "maple syrup" odor. The disease is divided into classic, intermediate, intermittent, and thiamine responsive subtypes. The classic form presents in the first week of life with ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, emesis, neonatal seizures, and hypertonia. The intermediate and intermittent forms present in childhood or later with acute episodes of ataxia and vomiting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p936)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Keto AcidsPhenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Homogentisate 1,2-Dioxygenase: A mononuclear Fe(II)-dependent oxygenase, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of homogentisate to 4-maleylacetoacetate, the third step in the pathway for the catabolism of TYROSINE. Deficiency in the enzyme causes ALKAPTONURIA, an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by homogentisic aciduria, OCHRONOSIS and ARTHRITIS. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.5 and EC 1.99.2.5.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Homocystinuria: Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.alpha-Galactosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose residues in alpha-galactosides including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans, and galactolipids.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous: A clinical syndrome characterized by development, usually in infancy or childhood, of a chronic, often widespread candidiasis of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. It may be secondary to one of the immunodeficiency syndromes, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, or associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity, endocrine disorders, dental stomatitis, or malignancy.Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC 5.4.99.2.Pyruvate Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Hereditary disorders of pyruvate metabolism. They are difficult to diagnose and describe because pyruvate is a key intermediate in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Some inherited metabolic disorders may alter pyruvate metabolism indirectly. Disorders in pyruvate metabolism appear to lead to deficiencies in neurotransmitter synthesis and, consequently, to nervous system disorders.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Crassulaceae: The stonecrop plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that grow in warm, dry regions. The leaves are thick. The flower clusters are red, yellow, or white.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Fabry Disease: An X-linked inherited metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of lysosomal ALPHA-GALACTOSIDASE A. It is characterized by intralysosomal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide and other GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in blood vessels throughout the body leading to multi-system complications including renal, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and skin disorders.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase Deficiency Disease: An inherited urea cycle disorder associated with deficiency of the enzyme ORNITHINE CARBAMOYLTRANSFERASE, transmitted as an X-linked trait and featuring elevations of amino acids and ammonia in the serum. Clinical features, which are more prominent in males, include seizures, behavioral alterations, episodic vomiting, lethargy, and coma. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp49-50)Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Argininosuccinic Acid: This amino acid is formed during the urea cycle from citrulline, aspartate and ATP. This reaction is catalyzed by argininosuccinic acid synthetase.3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide): A ketone oxidoreductase that catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to ACYL-CoA and CO2. The enzyme requires THIAMINE DIPHOSPHATE as a cofactor. Defects in genes that code for subunits of the enzyme are a cause of MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE. The enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.2.4.3.Methylmalonic Acid: A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Australian Capital Territory: A territory of Australia consisting of Canberra, the national capital and surrounding land. It lies geographically within NEW SOUTH WALES and was established by law in 1988.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Isovaleryl-CoA Dehydrogenase: A mitochondrial flavoprotein, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of 3-methylbutanoyl-CoA to 3-methylbut-2-enoyl-CoA using FAD as a cofactor. Defects in the enzyme, is associated with isovaleric acidemia (IVA).Arachidonic AcidsGlutaratesStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Hypophosphatasia: A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pentanoic AcidsDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cystathionine gamma-Lyase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hydroxocobalamin: Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Metal Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Inherited abnormalities of fructose metabolism, which include three known autosomal recessive types: hepatic fructokinase deficiency (essential fructosuria), hereditary fructose intolerance, and hereditary fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency. Essential fructosuria is a benign asymptomatic metabolic disorder caused by deficiency in fructokinase, leading to decreased conversion of fructose to fructose-1-phosphate and alimentary hyperfructosemia, but with no clinical dysfunction; may produce a false-positive diabetes test.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Amidinotransferases: Enzymes of a subclass of TRANSFERASES that catalyze the transfer of an amidino group from donor to acceptor. EC 2.1.4.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.Hyperargininemia: A rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle. It is caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme ARGINASE. Arginine is elevated in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and periodic HYPERAMMONEMIA may occur. Disease onset is usually in infancy or early childhood. Clinical manifestations include seizures, microcephaly, progressive mental impairment, hypotonia, ataxia, spastic diplegia, and quadriparesis. (From Hum Genet 1993 Mar;91(1):1-5; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p51)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein enzyme that is responsible for the catabolism of LYSINE; HYDROXYLYSINE; and TRYPTOPHAN. It catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTARYL-CoA to crotonoyl-CoA using FAD as a cofactor. Glutaric aciduria type I is an inborn error of metabolism due to the deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Porphyria, Erythropoietic: An autosomal recessive porphyria that is due to a deficiency of UROPORPHYRINOGEN III SYNTHASE in the BONE MARROW; also known as congenital erythropoietic porphyria. This disease is characterized by SPLENOMEGALY; ANEMIA; photosensitivity; cutaneous lesions; accumulation of hydroxymethylbilane; and increased excretion of UROPORPHYRINS and COPROPORPHYRINS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Iron Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of iron in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.

Hepatocyte gene therapy in a large animal: a neonatal bovine model of citrullinemia. (1/411)

The development of gene-replacement therapy for inborn errors of metabolism has been hindered by the limited number of suitable large-animal models of these diseases and by inadequate methods of assessing the efficacy of treatment. Such methods should provide sensitive detection of expression in vivo and should be unaffected by concurrent pharmacologic and dietary regimens. We present the results of studies in a neonatal bovine model of citrullinemia, an inborn error of urea-cycle metabolism characterized by deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase and consequent life-threatening hyperammonemia. Measurements of the flux of nitrogen from orally administered 15NH4 to [15N]urea were used to determine urea-cycle activity in vivo. In control animals, these isotopic measurements proved to be unaffected by pharmacologic treatments. Systemic administration of a first-generation E1-deleted adenoviral vector expressing human argininosuccinate synthetase resulted in transduction of hepatocytes and partial correction of the enzyme defect. The isotopic method showed significant restoration of urea synthesis. Moreover, the calves showed clinical improvement and normalization of plasma glutamine levels after treatment. The results show the clinical efficacy of treating a large-animal model of an inborn error of hepatocyte metabolism in conjunction with a method for sensitively measuring correction in vivo. These studies will be applicable to human trials of the treatment of this disorder and other related urea-cycle disorders.  (+info)

Feasibility of DNA based methods for prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection of propionic acidaemia. (2/411)

Propionic acidaemia (PA) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a genetic deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). Defects in the PCCA and PCCB genes that code for the alpha and beta subunits of PCC, respectively, are responsible for PA. A proband with PA was previously shown to carry the c1170insT mutation and the private L519P mutation in the PCCB gene. Here we report the prenatal diagnosis of an affected fetus based on DNA analysis in chorionic villus tissue. We have also assessed the carrier status in this PCCB deficient family, which was not possible with biochemical analysis.  (+info)

B and T cell immunity in patients with lysinuric protein intolerance. (3/411)

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is characterized by defective cellular transport of the dibasic amino acids, secondary dysfunction of the urea cycle, aversion to dietary protein, failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly and osteoporosis. Because several patients have suffered from recurrent respiratory infections and/or severe generalized varicella, and a few have developed systemic lupus, vasculitis or other autoimmune diseases, we have now evaluated the function of patients' immune systems. Serum concentrations of one to three IgG subclasses were decreased in 10 of the 12 patients studied. Antibody titres against diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) were below the detection limit of the assay in four, three and eight of the 11 patients examined, respectively. (Re)vaccination of these 11 patients led to satisfactory responses against tetanus, but two patients still failed to develop measurable antibodies against diphtheria, two against Hib and six against one or more of the three serotypes of 23-valent pneumococcus vaccine. The proportions of T cells of all lymphocytes and the proliferative responses of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were normal. In conclusion, humoral immune responses in some patients with LPI are defective and these patients may benefit from intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.  (+info)

An adult-onset case of argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency presenting with atypical citrullinemia. (4/411)

A 52-year-old heavy drinker presented with repeated episodes of disturbance of consciousness and an increase in serum ammonia level, triggered by excessive alcohol intake. He was diagnosed as having adult-onset citrullinemia with deficiency of hepatic argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) activity. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high-intensity lesions in the central pons and the bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles on T2-weighted images. Although almost all cases of adult-onset citrullinemia have been reported to be enzymologically classified as type II, the serum amino acid pattern and serum level of human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (hPSTI) were atypical for type II in the present case.  (+info)

Efficient mitochondrial import of newly synthesized ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) and correction of secondary metabolic alterations in spf(ash) mice following gene therapy of OTC deficiency. (5/411)

BACKGROUND: The mouse strain sparse fur with abnormal skin and hair (spf(ash)) is a model for the human ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, an X-linked inherited urea cycle disorder. The spf(ash) mouse carries a single base-pair mutation in the OTC gene that leads to the production of OTC enzyme at 10% of the normal level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant adenoviruses carrying either mouse (Ad.mOTC) or human (Ad.hOTC) OTC cDNA were injected intravenously into the spf(ash) mice. Expression of OTC enzyme precursor and its translocation to mitochondria in the vector-transduced hepatocytes were analyzed on an ultrastructural level. Liver OTC activity and mitochondrial OTC concentration were significantly increased (300% of normal) in mice treated with Ad.mOTC and were moderately increased in mice receiving Ad.hOTC (34% of normal). The concentration and subcellular location of OTC and associated enzymes were studied by electron microscope immunolocalization and quantitative morphometry. RESULTS: Cytosolic OTC concentration remained unchanged in Ad.mOTC-injected mice but was significantly increased in mice receiving Ad.hOTC, suggesting a block of mitochondria translocation for the human OTC precursor. Mitochondrial ATPase subunit c [ATPase(c)] was significantly reduced and mitochondrial carbamy delta phosphate synthetase I (CPSI) was significantly elevated in spf(ash) mice relative to C3H. In Ad.mOTC-treated mice, the hepatic mitochondrial concentration of ATPase(c) was completely normalized and the CPSI concentration was partially corrected. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, we conclude that newly synthesized mouse OTC enzyme was efficiently imported into mitochondria following vector-mediated gene delivery in spf(ash) mice, correcting secondary metabolic alterations.  (+info)

The molecular basis of a case of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase deficiency. (6/411)

Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase catalyzes the first step in glutathione synthesis. The enzyme consists of 2 subunits, heavy and light, with the heavy subunit serving as the catalytic subunit. A patient with hemolytic anemia and low red blood cell glutathione levels was found to have a deficiency of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity. Examination of cDNA from the patient and her mother showed that she was homozygous and that her mother was heterozygous for a A-->T transversion at nt1109 producing a deduced amino acid change of His370Leu. The partial genomic structure of the catalytic subunit of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GLCLC) was determined, providing some intron/exon boundaries to make it possible to sequence an affected part of the coding region from genomic DNA. The 1109A-->T mutation was not present in the DNA of 38 normal subjects. In the course of these studies we found a diallelic polymorphism in nt +206 of an intron and another polymorphism that consisted of a duplication of a CAGC at cDNA nt1972-1975 in the 3' untranslated region. The 2 polymorphisms were found to be only in partial linkage disequilibrium.  (+info)

Aberrations of ammonia metabolism in ornithine carbamoyltransferase-deficient spf-ash mice and their prevention by treatment with urea cycle intermediate amino acids and an ornithine aminotransferase inactivator. (7/411)

Sparse fur with abnormal skin and hair (spf-ash) mice are deficient in ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) activity, but their OCT protein is kinetically normal. We administered ammonium chloride to spf-ash mice, in order to analyze ammonia metabolism and to find a rationale for the therapy of OCT deficiency. Ammonia concentration in the liver of spf-ash mice increased to a level much higher than in the control. Ammonium chloride injection caused an increase in ornithine (Orn) 5 min after injection and an increase in the sum of Orn, citrulline (Cit) and arginine (Arg) for at least 15 min in the liver of control mice, but no increase in Orn, Cit and Arg in the liver of spf-ash mice. Treatment of spf-ash mice with Arg 5-20 min prior to the injection of ammonium chloride kept the hepatic ammonia concentration at a level comparable to that without the load. A significant reciprocal relationship between ammonia and Orn concentrations in the liver of spf-ash mice 5 min after an ammonium chloride load with or without Arg strongly suggests that ammonia disposal is dependent on the supply of Orn. In spf-ash mice loaded with tryptone as a nitrogen source, Arg supplementation showed a dramatic decrease in urinary orotic acid excretion in a dose-dependent manner. Similar effects were observed with Cit and Orn at the same dose, and a long-lasting effect with an ornithine aminotransferase inactivator, 5-(fluoromethyl)ornithine, at a much lower dose. The rate of urea formation in liver perfused with ammonium chloride was lower in spf-ash mice than in controls, but with the addition of Orn to the medium it increased to a similar level in control and spf-ash mice. These results indicate that OCT is not saturated with Orn in vivo under physiological conditions and that the administration or enrichment of the urea cycle intermediate amino acids enhances the OCT reaction so that the ammonia metabolism of OCT-deficient spf-ash mice is at least partially normalized.  (+info)

Serine 19 of human 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase is phosphorylated by cGMP protein kinase II. (8/411)

6-Pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) participates in tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor biosynthesis. We previously identified in a PTPS-deficient patient an inactive PTPS allele with an Arg(16) to Cys codon mutation. Arg(16) is located in the protein surface exposed phosphorylation motif Arg(16)-Arg-Ile-Ser, with Ser(19) as the putative phosphorylation site for serine-threonine protein kinases. Purification of recombinant PTPS-S19A from bacterial cells resulted in an active enzyme (k(cat)/K(m) = 6.4 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), which was similar to wild-type PTPS (k(cat)/K(m) = 4.1 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). In assays with purified enzymes, wild-type but not PTPS-S19A was a specific substrate for the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) type I and II. Upon expression in COS-1 cells, PTPS-S19A was stable but not phosphorylated and had a reduced activity of approximately 33% in comparison to wild-type PTPS. Extracts from several human cell lines, including brain, contained a kinase that bound to and phosphorylated immobilized wild-type, but not mutant PTPS. Addition of cGMP stimulated phosphotransferase activity 2-fold. Extracts from transfected COS-1 cells overexpressing cGKII stimulated Ser(19) phosphorylation more than 100-fold, but only 4-fold from cGKI overexpressing cells. Moreover, fibroblast extracts from mice lacking cGKII exhibited significantly reduced phosphorylation of PTPS. These results suggest that Ser(19) of human PTPS may be a substrate for cGKII phosphorylation also in vivo, a modification that is essential for normal activity.  (+info)

*Fatty acid metabolism

Familial types of disorders of fatty acid metabolism are generally classified as inborn errors of lipid metabolism. These ... has to be synthesized from the glucogenic amino acids and a few other gluconeogenic substrates, which do not include fatty ... of several inborn errors of metabolism that result from enzyme defects affecting the ability of the body to oxidize fatty acids ... Miller DN, Bazzano G; Bazzano (1965). "Propanediol metabolism and its relation to lactic acid metabolism". Ann NY Acad Sci. 119 ...

*Hyperprolinemia

List of amino acid metabolism disorders Inborn error of metabolism "Hyperprolinemia". Genetics Home Reference. National ... This enzyme helps to break down the pyrroline-5-carboxylate produced in the previous reaction, converting it to the amino acid ... Hyperprolinemia, also referred to as prolinemia or prolinuria, is a condition which occurs when the amino acid proline is not ... In particular, individuals with conditions that cause elevated levels of lactic acid in the blood, such as lactic acidemia, are ...

*Biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylase

... the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism. Phenylalanine hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of L-phenylalanine to ... Biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAH) are a family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylase enzymes which ... Each AAAH enzyme contains iron and catalyzes the ring hydroxylation of aromatic amino acids using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as ... functional domains and evolution of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (16): 5530-4. doi: ...

*Congenital disorders of amino acid metabolism

Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism are metabolic disorders which impair the synthesis and degradation of amino acids. ...

*List of disorders included in newborn screening programs

1 in 50,000 Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism Tyrosinemia I (TYR I) < 1 in 100,000 Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA) < 1 in ... Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism Tyrosinemia II Argininemia Benign hyperphenylalaninemia Defects of biopterin cofactor ... 1 in 100,000 Inborn errors of organic acid metabolism Glutaric acidemia type I (GA I) > 1 in 75,000 Hydroxymethylglutaryl lyase ... 1 in 100,000 Inborn errors of fatty acid metabolism Long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD) > 1 in 75,000 ...

*List of MeSH codes (C18)

... amino acid metabolism, inborn errors MeSH C18.452.648.066.102 --- albinism MeSH C18.452.648.066.102.090 --- albinism, ocular ... fructose metabolism, inborn errors MeSH C18.452.648.202.251.221 --- fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency MeSH C18.452.648.202. ... pyruvate metabolism, inborn errors MeSH C18.452.648.202.810.444 --- leigh disease MeSH C18.452.648.202.810.666 --- pyruvate ... purine-pyrimidine metabolism, inborn errors MeSH C18.452.648.798.368 --- gout MeSH C18.452.648.798.368.410 --- arthritis, gouty ...

*List of MeSH codes (C16)

... amino acid metabolism, inborn errors MeSH C16.320.565.066.102 --- albinism MeSH C16.320.565.066.102.090 --- albinism, ocular ... fructose metabolism, inborn errors MeSH C16.320.565.202.251.221 --- fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency MeSH C16.320.565.202. ... pyruvate metabolism, inborn errors MeSH C16.320.565.202.810.444 --- leigh disease MeSH C16.320.565.202.810.666 --- pyruvate ... purine-pyrimidine metabolism, inborn errors MeSH C16.320.565.798.368 --- gout MeSH C16.320.565.798.368.410 --- arthritis, gouty ...

*Glycine encephalopathy

List of amino acid metabolism disorders inborn errors of metabolism NKH International Family Network: www.nkh-network.org ... Standard evaluation for inborn errors of metabolism and other causes of this presentation does not reveal any abnormality (no ... After phenylketonuria, glycine encephalopathy is the second most common disorder of amino acid metabolism. The disease is ... making it the second most common disorder of amino acid metabolism, after phenylketonuria. It is caused by a defect in the ...

*List of diseases (I)

Inactive colon Inborn amino acid metabolism disorder Inborn branched chain aminoaciduria Inborn error of metabolism Inborn ... metabolic disorder Inborn renal aminoaciduria Inborn urea cycle disorder Incisors fused Inclusion-cell disease Inclusion ... Infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia Infantile recurrent chronic multifocal osteomyolitis Infantile sialic acid storage ...

*Urocanic aciduria

Inborn errors of metabolism Imidazole Aromatic amino acids Imaeda M, Wada Y (1998). "Urocanic aciduria (urocanase deficiency ... The amino acid histidine, when catalyzed by the enzyme histidase, forms urocanic acid. Disruptions in this pathway, caused by a ... In urocanic aciduria, increased urocanic acid in the urine indicates a deficiency of the enzyme urocanase. With normal to only ... It is a secondary disorder of histidine metabolism. Urocanic aciduria is thought to be relatively benign. Although aggressive ...

*Methylmalonyl CoA epimerase

... a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism in amino acid metabolisms involving branched-chain amino acids valine, ... methylmalonyl-CoA during the degradation of branched-chain amino acids, odd chain-length fatty acids, and other metabolites. In ... Several natural variants in amino acid sequences exist. The structure of the MCEE protein has been resolved by X-ray ... If the fatty acid began with an even number of carbons, this process could break down an entire saturated fatty acid into ...

*Phenylketonuria

... (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism that results in decreased metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine. ... The fact that CGMP is a peptide ensures that the absorption rate of its amino acids is prolonged compared to free amino acids ... This enzyme is necessary to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) to the amino acid tyrosine (Tyr). When PAH activity ... The enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase normally converts the amino acid phenylalanine into the amino acid tyrosine. If this ...

*Histidinemia

... occurs as the result of an inborn error of metabolism that may result in either an inactive or a severely reduced ... Histidase is needed for the metabolism of the amino acid histidine. Although originally thought to be linked to multiple ... However, histidinemia is considered the most prevalent inborn error of metabolism with a reported incidence of 1:8600 (Quebec ... "Experience and problems of newborn mass screening for inborn errors of metabolism in Japan". Acta Paediatr. Jpn. 23 (1): 24-34 ...

*Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency

List of amino acid metabolism disorders Schulze, A (February 2003). "Creatine deficiency syndromes". Molecular and cellular ... the first inborn error of creatine metabolism in man" (Free full text). American Journal of Human Genetics. 58 (5): 914-22. ... which participates in the two-step synthesis of the compound creatine from amino acids glycine, arginine and methionine. ... It is the first observed disorder of creatine metabolism. This disorder usually appears in the first few months of life, when ...

*Tyrosinemia

... or tyrosinaemia is an error of metabolism, usually inborn, in which the body cannot effectively break down the ... amino acid tyrosine. Symptoms include liver and kidney disturbances and intellectual disability. Untreated, tyrosinemia can be ... Alkaptonuria Inborn error of metabolism Ochronosis Charles Scriver, Beaudet, A.L., Valle, D., Sly, W.S., Vogelstein, B., Childs ... fatal.[citation needed]Most inborn forms of tyrosinemia produce hypertyrosinemia (high levels of tyrosine). Mutations in the ...

*Inborn error of metabolism

... amino acid metabolism, organic acid metabolism, or lysosomal storage diseases. In recent decades, hundreds of new inherited ... Inborn Errors of Metabolism at Electronic Scholarly Publishing site Vernon, Hilary (Jun 2015). "Inborn Errors of Metabolism: ... Inborn errors of metabolism form a large class of genetic diseases involving congenital disorders of metabolism. The majority ... detected abnormal amino acid patterns) Guthrie bacterial inhibition assay (detected a few amino acids in excessive amounts in ...

*Cystinuria

It is one of several inborn errors of metabolism included in the Garrod's tetrad. The disease is attributed to deficiency in ... amino acids: Cystine, lysine, ornithine, arginine. Under normal circumstances, this protein allows certain amino acids, ... The other amino acids that are not reabsorbed do not create crystals in urine. The overall prevalence of cystinuria is ... transport and metabolism of amino acids. Blood: Routine hemogram along with blood sugar, urea, and creatinine. Urine: For ...

*Aminoaciduria

This may be caused by congenital disorders of amino acid metabolism, for example, phenylketonuria, or may be secondary to liver ... Crook, Martin Andrew (2012). "Chapter 27: Inborn errors of metabolism". Clinical biochemistry and metabolic medicine (8th ed ... of the filtered amino acids back into the blood. In overflow aminoaciduria, abnormally high concentrations of amino acids in ... the renal tubules are unable to reabsorb the filtered amino acids back into the blood, causing high concentrations of amino ...

*GCSH

... amino acid sequence similarity to the human form. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by ... The chemically determined amino acid sequence revealed that chicken H-protein is composed of 125 amino acids with a lipoic acid ... Amino acid sequence and identification of the N epsilon-lipoyllysine residue". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 261 (19): ... The GCSH is a heat-stable small protein with a covalently attached lipoic acid prosthetic group which interacts with the three ...

*Medical genetics

Measurement of amino acids in plasma or serum is used in the evaluation of disorders of amino acid metabolism such as urea ... In some cases, particularly inborn errors of metabolism, the mechanism of disease is well understood and offers the potential ... These compounds are normally produced during bodily metabolism of amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids, but accumulate in ... Ammonia is an end product of amino acid metabolism and is converted in the liver to urea through a series of enzymatic ...

*Systemic primary carnitine deficiency

Carnitine is an important amino acid for fatty acid metabolism. When carnitine cannot be transported into tissues, fatty acid ... or systemic carnitine deficiency is an inborn error of fatty acid transport caused by a defect in the transporter responsible ... Activation and Transportation of Fatty Acids for Metabolism via Carnitine Shuttle Hmr.fo - Faroe Islands Ministry of Health - ... Carnitine is needed to transport long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria, where they can be broken down to produce acetyl- ...

*Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex

Broquist HP, Trupin JS (1966). "Amino Acid Metabolism". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 35: 231-247. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi. ... and inborn errors". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 573: 137-154. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb14992.x. PMID ... BCKDC catalyzes an irreversible step in the catabolism of the branched-chain amino acids L-isoleucine, L-valine, and L-leucine ... 2-oxobutyrate and 2-oxobutyrate at comparable rates and with similar Km values as for its branched-chain amino acid substrates ...

*Hawkinsinuria

Most other inborn errors of metabolism are caused by loss-of-function mutations, and hence have recessive inheritance ( ... is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder affecting the metabolism of tyrosine. Normally, the breakdown of the amino acid ... The tolerance toward these amino acids normalizes as the patients get older. Then only a chlorine-like smell of the urine ... In rare cases, however, the enzyme is still able to produce the reactive intermediate 1,2-epoxyphenyl acetic acid, but is ...

*William Nyhan

Nyhan WL (1997). "The recognition of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome as an inborn error of purine metabolism" (PDF). J. Inherit. Metab. ... Nyhan's areas of research span a variety of amino acid metabolism disorders, among them 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria, 3- ... "A familial disorder of uric acid metabolism and central nervous system function". Am. J. Med. 36 (4): 561-70. doi:10.1016/0002- ...

*Sarcosine

... an inborn error of sarcosine metabolism. Sarcosinemia can result from severe folate deficiency because of the folate ... Sarcosine is an amino acid derivative that is naturally found in muscles and other body tissues. In the laboratory, it may be ... and N-methylglycine levels in patients with cobalamin and folate deficiency and related inborn errors of metabolism". ... synthesized from chloroacetic acid and methylamine. Sarcosine is found naturally as an intermediate in the metabolism of ...

*Metabolism

... lack all amino acid synthesis and take their amino acids directly from their hosts. All amino acids are synthesized from ... Anthropogenic metabolism Antimetabolite Basal metabolic rate Calorimetry Isothermal microcalorimetry Inborn error of metabolism ... Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle ( ... Amino acid synthesis depends on the formation of the appropriate alpha-keto acid, which is then transaminated to form an amino ...

*Cystathionine beta synthase

Homocystinuria Cysteine Metabolism Amino acid S-Adenosyl-L-methionine Heme GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160200 - ... Inborn errors in CBS result in hyperhomocysteinemia with complications in the cardiovascular system leading to early and ... The heme domain is composed of 70 amino acids and it appears that the heme only exists in mammalian CBS and is absent in yeast ... The human enzyme cystathionine β-synthase is a tetramer and comprises 551 amino acids with a subunit molecular weight of 61 kDa ...
NIH Rare Diseases : 50 lysinuric protein intolerance is a metabolic disorder caused by the bodys inability to digest and use the amino acids lysine, arginine, and ornithine. because the body cannot effectively break down these amino acids, which are found in many protein-rich foods, individuals experience nausea and vomiting after ingesting protein. other features associated with protein intolerance may also occur, including short stature, muscle weakness, impaired immune function, and osteoporosis. a lung disorder called pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may develop in some individuals, as can end-stage renal disease, coma and intellectual disability. symptoms usually develop after infants are weaned and begin to eat solid foods. lysinuric protein intolerance is caused by mutations in the slc7a7 gene. it is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. last updated: 11/15/2010 ...
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), also called hyperdibasic aminoaciduria type 2,cationic aminoaciduria or familial protein intolerance, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting amino acid transport. About 140 patients have been reported, almost half of them of Finnish origin. Individuals from Japan, Italy, Morocco and North Africa have also been reported. Infants with LPI are usually symptom-free when breastfed because of the low protein concentration in human milk, but develop vomiting and diarrhea after weaning. The patients show failure to thrive, poor appetite, growth retardation, enlarged liver and spleen, prominent osteoporosis and osteopenia, delayed bone age and spontaneous protein aversion. Forced feeding of protein may lead to convulsions and coma. Mental development is normal if prolonged episode of hyperammonemia can be avoided. Some patients develop severe pulmonary and renal complications. High levels of plasma glutamine and glycine are observed. It has been ...
LPI is an autosomally recessively inherited amino acid disorder due to defective transport of cationic amino acids lysine, arginine and ornithine in the intestine and kidney tubules. The absence or dysfunction of the transport process leads to low plasma and high urine concentration of the cationic (dibasic) amino acids. Clinical presentation of the disease usually takes place during the weaning period when breast feeding is replaced by cows milk and other high protein diets. Nausea, vomiting and mild diarrhea usually are the first symptoms followed by failure to thrive and growth retardation. Later liver and spleen become enlarged, muscles are hypotonic and osteoporosis can cause bone fractures. High protein intake can lead to hyperammonemia and even to coma, possibly accounting for the mild intellectual deficit found in few cases of LPI. Many patients have spontaneously developed aversion to protein rich food. A pulmonary complication of unknown mechanism, alveolar proteinosis has occurred in few
PAP in LPI is often untreatable and results in death. In this study, we carefully characterized BALF and tissue samples obtained from an LPI patient. The data revealed elevated levels of protein and dying cells in the airways. In addition, large cholesterol crystals and abnormal tubular myelin structures were found. Our primary cell culture assays using Alexa-647 conjugated BSA and apoptotic Jurkat T cells showed that pre-incubation of the LPI BAL cells with SP-D and GM-CSF increased their innate immune functions. Surprisingly, many of these LPI cells, but not the control cells, became elongated and stopped internalizing foreign material; eventually they formed granulomas ex vivo. Notably, treating these cells with GM-CSF ex vivo dramatically increased granuloma formation. However, treating the cells with SP-D reduced GM-CSF-mediated granuloma formation. Therefore, these findings may provide important clues for devising better treatment of PAP in LPI patients.. Although various SLC7A7 mutations ...
My 4-month-old was diagnosed with MSPI (milk soy protein intolerance) at 1 month and my wife is nursing. We have tried the diet for three months now and have had varying degrees of success. The troubling thing is that after seeing our pediatrician almost every week until three months, and seeing a GI specialist, our daughter still has bloody stools. Im concerned about Crohns disease.
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Kit Component:- KN223846G1, MMACHC gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN223846G2, MMACHC gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN223846D, donor vector…
I am so frustrated b/c i cant figure out what is wrong with my four month old.twins (two.months adjusted). They were born 9weeks early and.spent 6wks in the nicu. They got pumped milk, maybe once or twice if at all? formula.early.on (i.cant recall) and towards the end had human.milk.fortifier.added to help with gaining. They were bottle fed and.only after they were discharged did.we really get breastfeeding. By their due date they were 100% breastfed and gaining fine. Initially
I am so frustrated b/c i cant figure out what is wrong with my four month old.twins (two.months adjusted). They were born 9weeks early and.spent 6wks in the nicu. They got pumped milk, maybe once or twice if at all? formula.early.on (i.cant recall) and towards the end had human.milk.fortifier.added to help with gaining. They were bottle fed and.only after they were discharged did.we really get breastfeeding. By their due date they were 100% breastfed and gaining fine. Initially
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism, characterised by defective transport of the cationic amino acids lysine, arginine and ornithine. To date there are few reported necropsy cases. This report describes the necropsy findings in a 21 year old female patient originally diagnosed as having LPI in 1973. Liver function tests deteriorated and immediately before death jaundice, hyperammonaemia, coma, metabolic acidosis, and a severe bleeding diathesis developed. At necropsy, there was micronodular cirrhosis of the liver with extensive fatty change in hepatocytes. The lungs showed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy revealed the presence of a glomerulonephritis with predominant IgA deposition. These necropsy findings reflect the spectrum of lesions reported in LPI, providing further evidence of an association between this condition and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, cirrhosis and glomerulonephritis.. ...
More than 40 mutations in the SLC7A7 gene have been found to cause lysinuric protein intolerance. All of these mutations impair the y+LAT-1 proteins ability to transport amino acids. People with lysinuric protein intolerance who are of Finnish descent typically have the same mutation. This mutation (written as IVS6-2A,T) disrupts the way the genes instructions are used to make the y+LAT-1 protein, causing the protein to be misplaced in the cell.. Mutations in the y+LAT-1 protein disrupt the transportation of amino acids, leading to a shortage of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in the body and an abnormally large amount of these amino acids in urine. The abnormal transportation and shortage of these amino acids in various tissues of the body leads to the signs and symptoms of lysinuric protein intolerance. ...
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 1 (3MGA1) is a genetic disorder in which the body cannot get energy from a substance called leucine. Leucine is one of the amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins in our bodies. Because people with 3MGA1 cant break down leucine for energy to support muscle function and growth, they have a variety of symptoms that are present at birth. These symptoms may include developmental delays, seizures, muscle twitches (dystonia), and muscle weakness.. 3MGA1 is caused by a mutation (change) to the AUH gene, which produces a protein to break down leucine. When there is a mutation to the AUH gene, this protein either isnt produced or isnt functional, so the body cant get energy from leucine. Under normal conditions, the protein is present in the part of the cell that produces energy (the mitochondria), so 3MGA1 is a type of mitochondrial disease. 3MGA1 is also an organic acid condition because it causes harmful 3-methylglutaconic acid build up in the ...
National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation The National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation is the only organization solely dedicated to saving the lives of children and adults with urea cycle disorders and leads the search for a cure. Internationally recognized, NUCDF serves as a lifeline to families and medical professionals around the world seeking life saving information. NUCDF is the driving force stimulating and supporting research for new treatments, improved outcomes, and a Cure. NUCDF efforts include educating UCD patients, families and medical professionals on diagnosis, treatment and management, and providing guidance, resources, information and support to all those affected by urea cycle disorders. The UCD International Patient Registry (www.ucdregistry.org), empowers UCD patients and caregivers to self-report their own unique experiences with UCD and compare them to others with UCD. Participants in the UCD Registry can help improve the understanding of UCDs, improve care, and accelerate ...
Breast feeding is the most nutritious form of nourishment in infants and is recommended for at least the first four months of life. Breast fed infants may develop milk protein intolerance. The management of breast milk protein intolerance differs from that of cows milk protein intolerance in formula fed infants. Because breast milk is considered by many to be nutritionally superior to formula and results in maternal infant bonding mothers are often told to continue breast feeding. Despite the lack of evidence based data to support or refute the modification of the mothers diet, it is suggested that they eliminate their own intake of dairy products strictly and avoid supplementing with a cows milk based formula. We are doing this study because we believe that deletion of dairy from the diet of a breast feeding mother will not cause BMPI to resolve ...
A specific deficiency of methionine adenosyltransferase has been demonstrated in the liver of an infant with hypermethioninemia. Since the enzymatic activity was below that in fetal liver and the metabolic abnormality has persisted (the infant now be
The Neocate hypoallergenic infant formula product range has been designed for infants and children with cows milk allergy, multiple food protein intolerance, and a range of food allergy induced disorders. The formulas are based on 100% free amino acids and do not contain any cows milk protein to reduce the possibility of a food allergic reaction.
Think your baby has milk protein intolerance? Seek timely diagnosis, like exclusion diet and take measures, like switch formula, to keep your baby on the safe side.
When a section of mouse chromosome 7 containing the coat color c gene is deleted by exposing mice to radiation, albino mice are born with a white, hairless coat.
Persistent 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria).. Documented succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency.. Patients will be at least 12 years old.. Be enrolled in the taurine study at CNMC.. EXCLUSION CRITERIA:. Pregnancy or lactation.. Patients with a history of other significant medical disorders.. Patients requiring treatment with drugs known to affect the GABAergic system, including vigabatrin, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines.. Hearing loss. The effect of TMS on hearing is not fully known. Patients will be screened with an Audiometer.. Abnormal platelets or coagulation studies suggesting increased risk for lumbar puncture or TMS. Exclusions for MRI and MRS: pacemakers or other implanted electrical devices, brain stimulators, some types of dental implants, aneurysm clips (metal clips on the wall of a large artery), metallic prostheses (including metal pins and rods, heart valves, and cochlear implants), permanent eyeliner, implanted delivery pump, or shrapnel ...
Persistent 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria).. Documented succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency.. Patients will be at least 12 years old.. Be enrolled in the taurine study at CNMC.. EXCLUSION CRITERIA:. Pregnancy or lactation.. Patients with a history of other significant medical disorders.. Patients requiring treatment with drugs known to affect the GABAergic system, including vigabatrin, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines.. Hearing loss. The effect of TMS on hearing is not fully known. Patients will be screened with an Audiometer.. Abnormal platelets or coagulation studies suggesting increased risk for lumbar puncture or TMS. Exclusions for MRI and MRS: pacemakers or other implanted electrical devices, brain stimulators, some types of dental implants, aneurysm clips (metal clips on the wall of a large artery), metallic prostheses (including metal pins and rods, heart valves, and cochlear implants), permanent eyeliner, implanted delivery pump, or shrapnel ...
Hickey RD, Mao SA, Glorioso J, Elgilani F, Amiot B, Chen H, Rinaldo P, Marler R, Jiang H, DeGrado TR, Suksanpaisan L, OConnor MK, Freeman BL, Ibrahim SH, Peng KW, Harding CO, Ho CS, Grompe M, Ikeda Y, Lillegard JB, Russell SJ, Nyberg SL. Curative ex vivo liver-directed gene therapy in a pig model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. Sci Transl Med. 2016 Jul 27; 8 (349):349ra99 ...
The functional and structural integrity of the brain requires local adjustment of blood flow and regulated delivery of metabolic substrates to meet the metabolic demands imposed by neuronal activation. This process - neurovascular coupling - and ensued alterations of glucose and oxygen metabolism - neurometabolic coupling - are accomplished by concerted communication between neural and vascular cells. Evidence suggests that neuronal-derived nitric oxide (•NO) is a key player in both phenomena. Alterations in the mechanisms underlying the intimate communication between neural cells and vessels ultimately lead to neuronal dysfunction. Both neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling are perturbed during brain aging and in age-related neuropathologies in close association with cognitive decline. However, despite decades of intense investigation, many aspects remain poorly understood, such as the impact of these alterations. In this review, we address neurovascular and neurometabolic derailment in aging and
Impairments in the production of neurotransmitters may lead to depression in some patients, preliminary results show, opening new avenues for research.
Hello mamas! I need some help...My 2 week old lil girl is having some feeding issues. Shes quite gassy and fussy most of her waking time, spits up
Inborn Errors Metabolism: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Essential Vegan Protein Powder, by Valia, is infused with enzymes that assist in the digestion process, making it consumable to those who have a protein intolerance.
This article discusses inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are single gene defects that result in abnormalities in the synthesis or catabolism of proteins, carbohydrates or fats. Individually they are rare but together they are common with a collective incidence in ~ 1 in 3,000 live births.
Finden Sie alle Bücher von O. Sperling, A.De Vries - Inborn Errors of Metabolism in Man (Pt. 2). Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.de können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 3805528353
Inborn errors of calcium and bone metabolism : monograph based upon proceedings of the twelfth symposium of the Society for the Study of Inborn Errors of ...
Glutaric acidemia type 1 (or "glutaric aciduria", "GA1", or "GAT1") is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to completely break down the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine and tryptophan. Excessive levels of their intermediate breakdown products (glutaric acid, glutaryl-CoA, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaconic acid) can accumulate and cause damage to the brain (and also other organs), but particularly the basal ganglia, which are regions that help regulate movement. GA1 causes secondary carnitine deficiency, as glutaric acid, like other organic acids, is detoxified by carnitine. Mental retardation may also occur. The severity of glutaric acidemia type 1 varies widely; some individuals are only mildly affected, while others have severe problems. GA1 can be defined as two clinical entities: GA1 before the encephalopathic crisis and GA1 after the encephalopathic crisis. Babies with glutaric acidemia type 1 often are born with unusually large heads (macrocephaly). Macrocephaly is amongst ...
TEXTBOOKS. Goodman SI, Frerman FE. Organic acidemias due to defects in lysine oxidation: 2-ketoadipic acidemia and glutaric acidemia. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, et al. Eds. The Metabolic Molecular Basis of Inherited Disease. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill Companies. New York, NY; 1995:1451-60.. JOURNAL ARTICLES. Bahr O, Mader I, Zschocke J, et al. Adult onset glutaric aciduria type I presenting with leukoencephalopathy. Neurology. 2002;59:1802-04.. Kolker S, Ramaekers VT, Zschocke J, et al. Acute encephalopathy despite early therapy in a patient with homozygosity for E365K in the glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene. J Pediatr 2001;138:277-79.. Zafeiriou DI, Zschocke J, Augustidou-Savvopoulou P, et al. Atypical and variable clinical presentation of glutaric aciduria type I. Neuropediatrics. 2000;31:303-06.. Kafil-Hussain NA, Monavari A, Bowell R, et al. Ocular findings in glutaric aciduria type I. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2000;37:289-93.. Busquets C, Coll MJ, Merinero B, et al. Prenatal ...
Genetic testing for the GCDH gene, which is associated with glutaric aciduria type I (GA1) and elevated C5-DC on newborn screening (NBS) or acylcarnitine analysis.
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However, much later on an infant suffering from glutaric aciduria II will develop macrocephaly. What will trigger the appearance of the symptoms is infection or conditions like gastrointestinal disturbance. The initial results will show symptoms resembling viral encephalitis or ADEM. The patients diagnose with this condition exhibit deterioration of their condition. In some instances, those that exhibit glutaric aciduria II later in their adult life will show encephalopathy and still other symptoms. It is important to have an MRI for proper imaging and to avoid triggering the condition to move from a slower to faster phase and have an effect on the person suffering from this genetic disorder. This inherited genetic disorder leads to an accumulation of glutaric acid in the brain and body fluids. This also includes its presence in the urine. This is an altogether disease different from other unrelated enzyme deficiencies. Even if there are laboratory testing made like routine blood, urine and CSF ...
Summary: We have investigated the correlation between genotype and phenotype in a large number of patients with glutaric aciduria type I (GA I). The deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase has been confirmed in the Rigshospitalets laboratory in 215 patients since 1975. Most of the patients were of European ancestry. Complete absence of enzyme activity was found in more than half of the patients, while 34% of patients had a residual activity up to 5% and a few patients had a residual activity of 5-15%. In four exceptional cases, a very high residual activity of up to 30% was found. Enzyme studies are thus a reliable method for confirming the diagnosis of GA I, although it may be difficult to distinguish exceptional mild cases from heterozygous carriers for GA I. Three of the patients with very high residual activity are compound heterozygous for the missense mutations R227P and V400M, both of which are associated with residual enzyme activity of 8-10% in homozygous patients. Patients with a ...
Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in failure to process various amino acids and lipids. The classical form results in methylmalonyl CoA mutase deficiency, preventing the Vit B12-dependent conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA, required in Krebs cycle. Patients typically present in early infancy with lethargy, vomiting, dehydration and failure to thrive. Long-term complications include renal failure (CRF), encephalopathy and pancreatitis. 4 cases of optic atrophy (OA) have been reported in classical MMA on appropriate dietary restrictions. The exact etiology is unknown but likely is multi-factorial. With improved survival of patients offered advanced treatment, OA needs to be identified so that prophylactic/therapeutic intervention, when available, can be incorporated into management protocols. The purpose of this observational study is to identify and determine the prevalence of OA in a small cohort of patients with classical MMA.. ...
Cobalamin nonresponsive methylmalonic acidemia (MMA, mut complementation class) results from mutations in the nuclear gene MUT, which codes for the mitochondrial enzyme methylmalonyl CoA mutase (MCM). To better elucidate the spectrum of mutations that cause MMA, the MUT gene was sequenced in 160 patients with mut MMA. Sequence analysis identified mutations in 96% of disease alleles. Mutations were found in all coding exons, but predominantly in exons 2, 3, 6, and 11. A total of 116 different mutations, 68 of which were novel, were identified. Of the 116 different mutations, 53% were missense mutations, 22% were deletions, duplications or insertions, 16% were nonsense mutations, and 9% were splice-site mutations. Sixty-one of the mutations have only been identified in one family. A novel mutation in exon 2, c.322C,T (p.R108C), was identified in 16 of 27 Hispanic patients. SNP genotyping data demonstrated that Hispanic patients with this mutation share a common haplotype. Three other mutations ...
As of March 2016, we compared 17.37 Mb of Sanger DNA sequence generated at PreventionGenetics to NextGen sequence generated in other labs. We detected only 4 errors in our Sanger sequences, and these were all due to allele dropout during PCR. For Proficiency Testing, both external and internal, in the 12 years of our lab operation we have Sanger sequenced roughly 8,800 PCR amplicons. Only one error has been identified, and this was due to sequence analysis error.. Our Sanger sequencing is capable of detecting virtually all nucleotide substitutions within the PCR amplicons. Similarly, we detect essentially all heterozygous or homozygous deletions within the amplicons. Homozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are detectable as PCR failure. Heterozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are usually not detected (see Analytical Limitations). All heterozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 100 nucleotides in length appear to ...
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Methylmalonic acidemia
Propionic Acidaemia Synonyms: propionyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, ketotic hyperglycinaemia. Propionic Acidaemia is a rare metabolic disorder.
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 3 (OPA3) Test Cost INR 30000.00 Surat Pune Jaipur Lucknow Kanpur Nagpur Visakhapatnam Indore Thane Bhopal Patna Vadodara Ghaziabad Ludhiana Coimbatore Madurai Meerut Ranchi Allahabad Trivandrum Pondicherry Mysore Aligarh best offer discount price
According to a study published in Nature Biotechnology, a more efficient delivery of a CRISPR/Cas9 therapeutic to adult mice with the metabolic disease Tyrosinemia type I developed by Wen Xue, PhD, may also prove to be safer for use in humans.
Glutaric acidemia, type IIc is a pan-ethnic autosomal recessive disease caused by pathogenic variants in the gene ETFDH. It is a metabolic disease which prevents the body from properly breaking down proteins and fats. The clinical presentation is highly variable. In the neonatal form of the disease, affected infants may have congenital anomalies, and the disease is usually fatal very early in life. In the later onset form, affected individuals may develop symptoms in childhood or adulthood, or may remain asymptomatic. Symptoms include episodes of metabolic crisis, which include lethargy, vomiting, muscle weakness, and enlarged liver. Life expectancy depends on the severity of disease. Different types of pathogenic ETFDH variants have been correlated with disease severity. Therefore, the phenotype may be somewhat predicted based on the inherited variants.. For information about carrier frequency and residual risk, please see the Expanded Carrier Screen brochure.. ...
MR spectroscopy-based brain metabolite profiling in propionic acidaemia: metabolic changes in the basal ganglia during acute decompensation and effect of liver transplantation : Propionic acidaemia (PA) results from deficiency of Propionyl CoA carboxylase, the commonest form presenting in the neonatal period. Despite best current management, PA is associated with severe neurological sequelae, in particular movement disorders resulting from basal ganglia infarction, although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The role of liver transplantation remains
Obviously its all quite restrictive and thats a problem for school trips and things. Youve got to notify local hospitals in advance and normally get GOSH to fax my regimes and things through so I can get treatment quickly if needed. I cant go on school trips abroad - it would be too difficult for the school.. "Also, I take packed lunches to school, and when we go to restaurants, Mum has to phone ahead to explain. When we go on holiday, we have to take a load of food with us, so I cant stay in a hotel. It does restrict the type of holiday we go on.. "My family cope really well. They couldnt do anything better to adapt, theyre incredible. But MMA really isnt as bad as you might read on the internet.. "Ive been to the British Grand Prix. Id always said to Mum and Dad that I really wanted to see a Formula 1™ race, and when we came to GOSH someone showed us a poster. We filled out an application form and I got selected. I was over the moon. We went on a garage tour and I met drivers ...
A screen positive result means that more tests are needed to know whether or not a baby has tyrosinemia. It does not mean that a baby has Tyrosinemia. Babies identified at a young age through screening can be treated early to help prevent health problems ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [R Pérez-Carro, R Sánchez-Alcudia, B Pérez, R Navarrete, C Pérez-Cerdá, M Ugarte, L R Desviat].
2 members Glutaric Aciduria Type 1 is a rare inherited disorder in which the body is unable to break down completely the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine and tryptophan causing damage to the brain and other... ...
Sorry its been a crazy week, had guests and had showings finally sold our house (building a new one thats almost done) I am doing ok . Yes i have asthma for the person up and my son has some lung stuff going on too. WE have some rare conditions in our family. I have altogether itp, fms, graves, hypoparathyroidism, ibs and a probable neuro muscular disease/metabolic. MY son has glutaric aciduria type 2, and chronic pneumonia and asthma, hypotonia and severe speech delays. my thyroid levels all seem to be in tact, yet, my goiter is still present. I am checked redily on my calcium yet i cant sustain a calcium level of over 6 w/o suppliments. The humidity has brought the worst out in my wheezing. I also noticed blood in urine i have to have checked this week too someitme. I do notice upon excersize sudden race of the heart my o2 drops to lower levels. and I feel it. Is it from being out of shape like my mom says? I find i have a hard time even excersizing but i try to do it safely. Sarah ...
CanadaQBank.com Instructional Tutorial Video Chronic Pancreatitis. Diabetic Ice Cream Shops Test Uk Eye romeohvaldes 21282 views. How Many Carbs Should a Diabetic Eat in a Day? What you eat is closely connected to the amount of sugar in your blood.. The ecirhorse.org website is complimentary to the Equine Cushings and Insulin Resistance outreach group. Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type 1 - Which speciality or department in the hospital treats this? Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatments Arent One-Size-Fits-All. Salmon is one of the best foods for diabetics as it specializes in reducing the risk of heart diseases for those having type2 diabetes which has an added threat of cardiovascular diseases. CONTEXT: The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and obesity and type 2 diabetes is not completely understood. Understanding Diabetes :: Gestational Diabetes Diet Menu Ideas - The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.. Offering photographic and consumer ...
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The greatest challenge of majoring in biology in college was mastering the chemical steps that build up and break down the 20 types of amino acids specified by the genetic code. I could memorize ...
Mutations in human and/or mouse homologs are associated with this disease. Synonyms: Oculocutaneous tyrosinemia; Richner-Hanhart syndrome
RAS-like GTPase Transport Protein: This protein from M. tuberculosis is a member of the Ras super family of proteins. Ras is involved in signal transduction and activating mutations in human Ras are associated with many types of cancer. While originally annotated as an arginine/ornithine transport system ATPase, we show that the protein is most likely a GTPase based on the compound (GDP) bound to the structure. The structure of the GTPase domain of the protein is similar to that of human Ras and several amino acids that line the GTP binding pocket are conserved. Ras-like GTPases use the organic chemical GTP (guanosine-5-triphosphate) as a regulator of function. During the signal transduction reaction, GTP is converted to GDP (guanosine diphosphate). GDP is shown in the figure bound to the active site of the M. tuberculosisRAS-like GTPase crystal structure. Our structure is related in sequence and structure to the methylmalonic acidemia type A protein (PDB ID 2WWW), a protein which is responsible for a
Among the defects in cobalamin metabolism, two complimentary groups, Cbl A and B, affect synthesis of adenosyl cobalamin. Two other groups, Cbl E and G, affect the synthesis of methyl cobalamin, which is an essential cofactor for methionine synthase, and defects result in hyperhomocysteinemia. Also, defects in Cbl C, D, and F affect synthesis of both adenosyl cobalamin and methyl cobalamin, and will therefore result in both methylmalonic acidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia ...
Acidemia, Glutaric Type I. In: Hay, Jr WW, Levin MJ, Deterding RR, Abzug MJ. Hay, Jr W.W., Levin M.J., Deterding R.R., Abzug M.J. Eds. William W. Hay, Jr, et al.eds. Quick Medical Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; . http://accesspediatrics.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2196§ionid=166955028. Accessed October 22, 2017 ...
A recent case report by Traber et al in the Journal of Neuroopthalmology (August 25, 2011 Epub) describes an adult patient with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and sudden onset of bilateral vision loss with optic atrophy. This may not be commonly though of as a frequent adult complication of MMA. However, this sudden onset of vision loss has been described before in adults […]. ...
We got the all-clear today from DDs paediatrician to challenge her CMPI. Her skin-prick allergy test came back showing no sensitivities at all so were not concerned about an allergic reaction at this stage. Any advice? Food ideas?
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Acidemia, methylmalonic information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
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Liver transplantation in propionic acidaemia. Saudubray, J. M.; Touati, G.; Delonlay, P.; Jouvet, P.; Schlenzig, J.; Narcy, C.; Laurent, J.; Rabier, D.; Kamoun, P.; Jan, D.; Revillon, Y. // European Journal of Pediatrics;1999, Vol. 158 Issue 14, pS065 Abstract Despite the improvement in dietary therapy during the past 20 years, the overall outcome of severe forms of propionic acidaemia (PA) remains often disappointing. Good results can be obtained at a very high price in terms of medical attention, family burden and high cost. In most early... ...
Tyrosinemia Carrier DNA Tests - Tyrosine is an amino acid that belongs to the majority of proteins. Many bodies damage down this amino acid as well as it...
Biochemistry, Metabolism:, Hereditary Factors:, Origin:, Pathology:, Strains: AKR, AU, C57BL/6, DBA/2 (212), L (P), LP, P, SIMPSON, PL (PLA, PLB), RF (W), SJL, SM, ST/B (STB), SWR, 129, RIII/S. ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Inborn errors of metabolism at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Inborn errors of metabolism easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
GCDH overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of glutaryl-Coenzyme A dehydrogese (GCDH), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 2
GCDH antibody (glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-GCDH pAb (GTX114427) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Congenital metabolic disorders result from the absence or abnormality of an enzyme or its cofactor, leading to either accumulation or deficiency of a specific metabolite (andandandandand).The major classes of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) and the
Can you name the Human Inborn Errors of Metabolism? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by baobab
Hyperammonaemia is a potentially extremely important indicator of impairment in intermediate metabolism. However, lack of experience in sample handling and confusion about what level is significant, can lead to its devaluation as a test. The aim of this article is to help the non-metabolic specialist to decide when it is appropriate to investigate for hyperammonaemia, to discuss potential investigatory pitfalls and to help in interpretation of results.. ...
GOLDEN VALLEY, Minn., April 19, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Organic Acidemia Association Launches Largest-Ever Study of Organic Acidemias. Research study is open...
Looking for online definition of Glutaric aciduria type 1 in the Medical Dictionary? Glutaric aciduria type 1 explanation free. What is Glutaric aciduria type 1? Meaning of Glutaric aciduria type 1 medical term. What does Glutaric aciduria type 1 mean?
Looking for online definition of 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type IV in the Medical Dictionary? 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type IV explanation free. What is 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type IV? Meaning of 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type IV medical term. What does 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type IV mean?
Argininosuccinic aciduria, also called argininosuccinic acidemia, is an inherited disorder that causes the accumulation of argininosuccinic acid (also known as "ASA") in the blood and urine. Some patients may also have an elevation of ammonia, a toxic chemical, which can affect the nervous system. Argininosuccinic aciduria may become evident in the first few days of life because of high blood ammonia, or later in life presenting with "sparse" or "brittle" hair, developmental delay, and tremors.. An infant with argininosuccinic aciduria may seem lethargic or be unwilling to eat, have poorly controlled breathing rate or body temperature, experience seizures or unusual body movements, or go into a coma. Complications from argininosuccinic aciduria may include developmental delay and mental retardation. Progressive liver damage, skin lesions, and brittle hair may also be seen. Immediate treatment and lifelong management (following a strict diet and using appropriate supplements) may prevent many of ...
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Glutaric acidemia type II
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria, Type III / Optic Atrophy 3, with Cataract [OPA3]: Type III 3-methylglutaconic aciduria is a neuro-ophthalmologic syndrome consisting of early-onset bilateral optic atrophy and later-onset spasticity, extrapyramidal dysfunction, and cognitive deficit. Urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and of 3-methylglutaric acid is increased.. For detailed information about this disease visit : National Institutes of Health (NIH) ,. Carrier Frequency by Ethnicity , ...
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency, Hyperammonemia Due To: Postnatal Diagnosis Routine by Targeted copy number analysis at London North East RGC GOSH in 28 ...
0048] Suitable samples for the methods described herein include any biological fluid, cell, tissue, or fraction thereof, that includes biomolecules indicative of a metabolic state (e.g., a metabolic disorder characterized by altered succinylacetone levels such as Hereditary tyrosinemia type I). A sample can be, for example, a specimen obtained from a subject (e.g., a mammal such as a human) or can be derived from such a subject. For example, a sample can be a tissue section obtained by biopsy, or cells that are placed in or adapted to tissue culture. Exemplary samples therefore include cultured fibroblasts, cultured amniotic fluid cells, and chorionic villus sample. A sample can also be a biological fluid specimen such as urine, blood, plasma, serum, saliva, semen, sputum, cerebral spinal fluid, tears, mucus, and the like. A sample can be further fractionated, if desired, to a fraction containing particular cell types. For example, a blood sample can be fractionated into serum or into fractions ...
Tyrosinemia, Type III (TYR-III) is an inborn error of metabolism, an inherited condition in which an enzyme, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, in the body is either missing or not working well. Tyrosinemia Type III is considered an amino acid condition because the body is unable to break down the amino acid (part of protein), known as tyrosine, when this enzyme is not working properly. This condition is rare and the signs and symptoms of TYR-III can be variable and are not yet well defined.. For more information about Tyrosinemia, Type III, go to Babys First Test: Tyrosinemia, Type III. A listing of contact information for Minnesota inborn errors of metabolism medical specialty providers/clinics serving children affected with or undergoing evaluation for conditions that can be detected through Minnesota Newborn Screening is available upon request. ...
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Search information on Argininosuccinic Aciduria (2766) and 1000s of other diseases, symptoms, drugs, doctors, specialists, and clinics in our trustwo
Most babies with isovaleric acidemia are normal at birth but they are at risk of a serious health condition called a metabolic crisis.. A metabolic crisis is a life-threatening episode caused by low blood sugar and/or the build-up of harmful substances in the blood. Symptoms of a metabolic crisis include:. ...
At least 19 mutations in the PEPD gene have been identified in people with prolidase deficiency, a disorder with a wide variety of signs and symptoms including skin problems and intellectual disability. The PEPD gene mutations identified in people with prolidase deficiency result in the loss of prolidase enzyme activity.. It is not well understood how the absence of prolidase activity results in the various signs and symptoms of prolidase deficiency. Researchers have suggested that accumulation of dipeptides that have not been broken down may lead to cell death. When cells die, their contents are released into the surrounding tissue, which could cause inflammation and lead to the skin problems seen in prolidase deficiency. Impaired collagen breakdown during remodeling of the extracellular matrix may also contribute to the skin problems. The intellectual disability that occurs in prolidase deficiency might result from problems in processing neuropeptides, which are brain signaling proteins that ...
Wu, J. Y., McGill, J., McWhinney, A. C., Neven, S. D. and Cowley, D. M. (2011). Cardiomyopathy as the Initial Presentation of Propionic Acidaemia in a Teenager. In: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. , , (S138-S138). . ...
Victor Feliz De La Cruz, MD and colleagues present a case of glutaric acidemia type II, an inherited disorder that interferes with the bodys ability to break down proteins and fats ...
Metabolic & Genetic Information Center Inborn erros of metabolism METHYLMALONIC ACIDEMIA AND HOMOCYSTEINEMIA, cblX TYPE MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED 3 MRX3
Information, Tools, and Resources to aid Primary Care Physicians in caring for Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) and providing a Medical Home for all of their patients.
Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase antibody (fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (fumarylacetoacetase)) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase pAb (GTX114400) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
RECOMMENDED: If you have Windows errors then we strongly recommend that you download and run this (Windows) Repair Tool.. Read our article and learn more on MedlinePlus: Inborn errors of metabolism. bluebird will also present previously-disclosed data from the Starbeam study including updated data from ALD-101, the.. Feb 18, 2015 · Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) individually are rare but collectively are common. Presentation is usually in the neonatal period or infancy but can.. inborn error of metabolism: Any of multiple rare disorders that are caused by an inherited genetic defect and that alter the bodys ability to derive energy from.. The companys engineered human enzymes are designed to modulate the extremes of amino acid metabolism in the blood to reduce toxic levels of amino acids in inborn errors of metabolism or target tumor metabolism for cancer treatment.. Inborn Errors of Metabolism 156 infancy, not with a specific laboratory abnormality, but with organomegaly, facial ...
Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked. Our study presents the first example of transcriptional vitamin-directed metabolic network rewiring to promote survival under vitamin deficiency. The ability to reroute propionate breakdown according to B12 availability may provide C. elegans with ...
The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) facilitates the search for and dissemination of mass spectra from biologically active metabolites quantified using GC-MS.
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A rare genetic metabolic disorder characterized by lack of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), which is needed to break down the amino acid tyrosine.
Sobi announced that the FDA has approved a new 20mg strength of Orfadin (nitisinone) capsules for the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type-1 (HT-1), a rare genetic disease in infants and children.
Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes the mitochondrial enzyme methylmalonyl Coenzyme A mutase. In humans, the product of this gene is a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme which catalyzes the isomerization of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA, while in other species this enzyme may have different functions. Mutations in this gene may lead to various types of methylmalonic aciduria. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, characterized by thickened ventricular walls and reduced ventricular chamber volume, is a common cause of sudden cardiac death in young people. Most inherited forms result from mutations in genes encoding sarc
Complete information for MMADHC gene (Protein Coding), Methylmalonic Aciduria And Homocystinuria, CblD Type, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Neonatal GA-II is characterized by severe hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, hypotonia, heart disease, hepatomegaly, and, frequently, an odor of "sweaty feet." Often fatal during the first week of life. Milder forms (late-onset glutaric acidemia type II) do not display congenital anomalies, and symptoms usually consist of intermittent episodes of nausea and vomiting, lethargy, weakness, and liver enlargement. Acute episodes of hypoglycemia may be extremely severe, often after infection, exercise, or any form of stress (including surgery). The ethylamonic adipicaciduria form is characterized by distinctive congenital malformations (e.g., pulmonary hypoplasia, facial dysmorphism) and severe hypoglycemia. Vascular lesions of the skin (petechiae, ecchymoses), acrocyanosis and retinal lesions have been described. Prolonged diarrhea may occur. Respiratory failure may precede death. ...
Figure 5 An approach to diagnosis of hyperammonemia in older children OA: organic acidurias, FAO: fatty acid oxidation defects, PC: pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, PDH: pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, ASA: argininosuccinic acid, AS: argininosuccinic aciduria, NAGS: N-acetylglutamate synthetase deficiency, CPS I: carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency, OTC: ornithine transcarbamoylase deficiency, HHH: hyperornithinemia hyperammonemia homocitrullinuria syndrome, LPI: lysinuric protein intolerance. (Click image to enlarge) ...
Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency, Isovaleric acidemia, Glutaric acidemia type I, 3-OH 3-CH3 glutaric aciduria (HMG), Multiple carboxylase deficiency, Methylmalonic acidemia, 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (3MCC), Propionic acidemia, Beta-ketothiolase deficiency, Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD), Long-chain L-3-OH acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD), Trifunctional protein deficiency, Carnitine uptake defect, Citrullinemia, Argininosuccinic acidemia ...
Abbreviations: ACE2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; AdiC, arginine/agmatine antiporter; AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier; AMPK, AMP-dependent kinase; Apc, amino acid, polyamine and organocation; ASC, preference for alanine, serine and cysteine; ASCT, neutral amino acid transporter; ASS, argininosuccinate synthetase; B0AT, broad neutral (0) amino acid transporter; CTNL2, type 2 citrullinaemia; EA, episodic ataxia 1; EAAT, excitatory amino acid transporter; EEG, electroencephalogram; 4F2hc4F2, cell-surface-antigen heavy chain; GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid; GC1, mitochondrial glutamate carrier 1; HAT, heteromeric amino acid transporter; HHH, hyperammonaemia-hyperornithinaemia-homocitrullinuria; IL1, intracellular loop 1; LeuT, leucine transporter; LeuTAa, LeuT from Aquifex aeolicus; LPI, lysinuric protein intolerance; MCT, monocarboxylate transporter; MeAIB, N-methylaminoisobutyric acid; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; NICCD, neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency; OCD, ...
An 8 wk old male Yorkshire terrier was presented with a 2 wk history of recurrent hypoglycemia, lethargy, and seizures. Investigations revealed a marked increase in blood ammonia, low serum cobalamin, and increased levels of urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) excretion. No liver vascular abnormality was detected. The patient was diagnosed with methylmalonic aciduria due to cobalamin malabsorption. The patient responded well to parenteral cobalamin administration, and the urinary MMA levels normalized rapidly following instigation of treatment. Due to the suspected hereditary nature of selective cobalamin deficiency, one sibling of this dog was screened and found to be normal. This is the first reported case of MMA secondary to hypocobalaminemia in Yorkshire terriers, and the second report of this disease in a dog in the United Kingdom. Given the fact that clinical signs of MMA are similar to those seen in dogs with portosystemic shunts and that Yorkshire terriers are predisposed to liver vascular ...
Citrullinemia type I is an autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by a deficiency of the urea cycle enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1). Deficiency of ASS1 shows various clinical manifestations encompassing severely affected patients with fatal neonatal hyperammonemia as well as asymptomatic individuals with only a biochemical phenotype. This is a comprehensive report of all 87 mutations found to date in the ASS1 gene on chromosome 9q34.1. A large proportion of the mutations (n=27) are described here for the first time. Mutations are distributed throughout exons 3 to 15, most of them being identified in exons 5, 12, 13, and 14. The mutation G390R in exon 15 is the single most common mutation in patients with the classical phenotype. Certain mutations clearly link to specific clinical courses but the clinical phenotype cannot be anticipated in all patients. This update presents a survey of the correlation between mutations in the ASS1 gene and the respective clinical courses as ...

Maple syrup urine diseaseMaple syrup urine disease

Markers associated with inborn errors of metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and their relevance to upper levels of intake ... Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a hereditary disorder of branched chain amino/keto acid metabolism, caused by a decreased ... Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder, affecting the metabolism of branched chain amino-acids (Valine, ... Special diet with restricted branched-chain-amino-acids used for treating maple syrup urine disease can lead to specific amino ...
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Maple Syrup Urine Disease DietMaple Syrup Urine Disease Diet

MAPLE syrup urine disease is a rare inborn error of branched-chain. Consumption of branched-chain amino acids in the form of ... Nutrition4me.com.au has been developed to provide extensive information about many aspects of rare inborn errors of metabolism ... ketoacid buildup is by eliminating the problem amino acids from the diet, but they are three of the "essential" amino acids. ... Amino acid.. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare but serious inherited condition. are first referred to a specialist ...
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Metabolites for Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism | China-Mainland | Sigma-AldrichMetabolites for Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrich

Several classic inborn errors of metabolism can be detected by the accumulation of certain amino acids as metabolites in body ... The first inborn errors of metabolism, which have been described in the beginning of the 20th century by Sir Archibald Garrod, ... Inborn errors of metabolism are caused by changes in specific enzymatic reactions and hundreds of different such alterations, ... enzyme and metabolite tests from a single patient sample are needed for the efficient diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism ...
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Search of: N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency OR Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors - List Results - ClinicalTrials.govSearch of: 'N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency' OR 'Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors' - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

Study of Treatment and Metabolism in Patients With Urea Cycle Disorders. *Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors ... 208 Studies found for: N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency OR Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors ... N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency OR Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors (208 records) ... Newborn Screening for Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency. *Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency ...
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Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsAmino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors

... - 25 Studies Found. Status. Study Suspended. Study Name: Ataluren for Nonsense Mutation ... Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors. Date: 2005-10-10. Recruiting. Study Name: A Clinical Trial for Treatment of Aromatic L- ... Condition: Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors. Date: 1999-10-18. Interventions: *Behavioral: Protein and calorie controlled ... Condition: Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors. Date: 2010-06-07. Interventions: Drug: Ataluren (PTC124) Ataluren (PTC124) ...
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Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism Assignment Help & Homework HelpInborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism Assignment Help & Homework Help

Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism are chiefly inherited as autosomal recessive conditions. Amino acid transport defects ... Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism Assignment Help & Homework Help - ... Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism Medical Assignment Help. - Diameties Mellitus and Other Desorder of Metabolism ... Home » Diameties Mellitus and Other Desorder of Metabolism » Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism ...
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NEUROMETABOLIC EFFECTS OF AN INBORN ERROR OF AMINO-ACID-METABOLISM DEMONSTRATED INVIVO BY H-1-NMR  - UCL DiscoveryNEUROMETABOLIC EFFECTS OF AN INBORN ERROR OF AMINO-ACID-METABOLISM DEMONSTRATED INVIVO BY H-1-NMR - UCL Discovery

NEUROMETABOLIC EFFECTS OF AN INBORN ERROR OF AMINO-ACID-METABOLISM DEMONSTRATED INVIVO BY H-1-NMR. MAGNET RESON MED , 3 (1) 150 ... NEUROMETABOLIC EFFECTS OF AN INBORN ERROR OF AMINO-ACID-METABOLISM DEMONSTRATED INVIVO BY H-1-NMR ... NEUROMETABOLIC EFFECTS OF AN INBORN ERROR OF AMINO-ACID-METABOLISM DEMONSTRATED INVIVO BY H-1-NMR. ...
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PKUDOS: Phenylketonuria (PKU) Demographic, Outcomes, and Safety Registry - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govPKUDOS: Phenylketonuria (PKU) Demographic, Outcomes, and Safety Registry - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors. Metabolism, Inborn Errors. Genetic Diseases, Inborn. Metabolic Diseases. ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Phenylketonuria Inborn Amino Acid Metabolism Disorder ... Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn. Brain Diseases, Metabolic. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System ...
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Safety and Tolerability of SYNB1618 in Healthy Adult Volunteers and Adult Subjects With Phenylketonuria - Full Text View -...Safety and Tolerability of SYNB1618 in Healthy Adult Volunteers and Adult Subjects With Phenylketonuria - Full Text View -...

Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors. Metabolism, Inborn Errors. Genetic Diseases, Inborn. Metabolic Diseases. Pharmaceutical ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Phenylketonuria Inborn Amino Acid Metabolism Disorder ... Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn. Brain Diseases, Metabolic. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System ... Hepatitis C antibody positivity, unless a hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid test is performed and the result is negative. ...
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Uremic Hyperhomocysteinemia -A Folate Trial for Possible Prevention of Cardiovascular Events - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...Uremic Hyperhomocysteinemia -A Folate Trial for Possible Prevention of Cardiovascular Events - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...

Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors. Metabolism, Inborn Errors. Genetic Diseases, Inborn. Malabsorption Syndromes. Metabolic ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Inborn Amino Acid Metabolism Disorder ... Folic Acid. Vitamin B Complex. Hematinics. Vitamins. Micronutrients. Growth Substances. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Drug Information available for: Folic acid Vitamin B Complex ... Earlier prescription of folic acid might benefit patients with ...
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Fresenius Kabi Receives FDA approval for Kabiven® and Perikabiven® | Business WireFresenius Kabi Receives FDA approval for Kabiven® and Perikabiven® | Business Wire

Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism. * Cardiopulmonary instability. * Hemophagocytic syndrome. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ... Kabiven and Perikabiven three-chamber bags contain amino acids with electrolytes, dextrose and lipids (Intralipid® 20%). The ... Kabiven and Perikabiven are intravenously infused solutions of lipids, dextrose, amino acids and electrolytes in three-chamber ... Preterm and low birth weight infants have poor clearance of intravenous lipid emulsion and increased free fatty acid plasma ...
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NBS | definition of NBS by Medical dictionaryNBS | definition of NBS by Medical dictionary

... specific amino acids are implicated). Inborn Errors of Organic Acid Metabolism. Organic acid disorders (usually related to an ... Detect congenital errors of amino acid, fatty acid, or organic acid metabolism ... Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism/Disorders of the Urea Cycle. Aminoacidopathies (usually related to an autosomal ... Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism. • Argininemia. Deficiency of or non-functioning enzyme: arginase. Arginine. Less than 1 ...
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Amino Acid Non Ketotic Hyperglycinemia Panel Test for Inborn Errors of Metabolism | Dr Lal PathLabsAmino Acid Non Ketotic Hyperglycinemia Panel Test for Inborn Errors of Metabolism | Dr Lal PathLabs

Dr Lal PathLabs offers test service for Amino Acid Non Ketotic Hyperglycinemia Panel Test for checking Inborn Errors of ... Metabolism. View details of cost of test, pre-test information and report availability on Dr Lal PathLabs. ... Inborn Errors of Metabolism Specimen. 1 mL (0.5 mL min.) CSF in a sterile screw capped vial AND 2 mL (1 mL min.) plasma from 1 ... AMINO ACID, NON-KETOTIC HYPERGLYCINEMIA PANEL QUANTITATIVE, CSF & PLASMA. Report Availability. Sample by Mon / Wed 5 pm; Report ...
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Homoarginine in Cystinuria | Clinical ScienceHomoarginine in Cystinuria | Clinical Science

inborn errors of amino acid metabolism. *inborn errors. *© 1974 The Biochemical Society and the Medical Research Society ... although the values obtained for homoarginine indicate that the defect in amino acid transport also affects this amino acid. ... 6. In the design of models for the tubular reabsorption of amino acids in health and disease, the presence of homoarginine and ... in addition to the normal ninhydrin reaction for amino acids, homoarginine, a guanidino homologue of arginine, was found in the ...
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Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome with stroke-like imaging presentation: clinical, biochemical and...Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome with stroke-like imaging presentation: clinical, biochemical and...

Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors / genetics*, metabolism, physiopathology*. Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic / genetics* ... Brain / metabolism, pathology, physiopathology. Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn / genetics*, metabolism, physiopathology*. ... 0/Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic; 0/Genetic Markers; 0/SLC25A15 protein, human; 1190-49-4/homocitrulline; 372-75-8/ ... Ornithine / metabolism. Pedigree. Saudi Arabia. Sodium Benzoate / therapeutic use. Stroke / genetics, pathology, ...
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Hyperlysinemias | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystHyperlysinemias | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

Genetic Diseases, Inborn [C16.320]. *Metabolism, Inborn Errors [C16.320.565]. *Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors [C16.320. ... Metabolism, Inborn Errors [C18.452.648]. *Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors [C18.452.648.100] ...
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L-Valine BioUltra, ≥99.5% (NT) | Sigma-AldrichL-Valine BioUltra, ≥99.5% (NT) | Sigma-Aldrich

... α-Aminoisovaleric acid, L-2-Amino-3-methylbutanoic acid; Linear Formula: C5H11NO2; find Sigma-94619 MSDS, related peer-reviewed ... Characteristic Metabolites for Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism Inborn errors of metabolism are caused by changes in ... Amino Acids, Amino acids, BioUltra, Biochemicals and Reagents, Cell Biology, Functional Foods, Nutrition Research ... Amino Acids Reference Chart The hydrophobicity index is a measure of the relative hydrophobicity, or how soluble an amino acid ...
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Lethargy with RamiprilLethargy with Ramipril

Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn; Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Urea Cycle Disorders. ...
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Lethargy with OxycodoneLethargy with Oxycodone

Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn; Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Urea Cycle Disorders. ...
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PERIKABIVEN (Amino acids,Electrolytes,Dextrose,Lipids) dosage, indication, interactions, side effects | EMPRPERIKABIVEN (Amino acids,Electrolytes,Dextrose,Lipids) dosage, indication, interactions, side effects | EMPR

Amino acids,Electrolytes,Dextrose,Lipids) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, ... Inborn error of amino acid metabolism. Cardiopulmonary instability (including pulmonary edema, cardiac insufficiency, MI, ... Lipid 20% (Intralipid 20%) emulsion (soybean oil 3.5g), dextrose anhydrous 6.8g, amino acids 2.36g, total nitrogen 375mg, ... To provide a source of calories, protein, electrolytes, and essential fatty acids in adults requiring parenteral nutrition when ...
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Reactome | SLC7A7 Y457* [plasma membrane]Reactome | SLC7A7 Y457* [plasma membrane]

amino acid metabolic disorder 9252. inborn errors of amino acid metabolism Cross References. RefSeq ...
more infohttps://reactome.org/content/detail/R-HSA-5660952

Amino Acid Formulations for Renal Failure (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.comAmino Acid Formulations for Renal Failure (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.com

Professional guide for Amino Acid Formulations for Renal Failure. Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, ... inborn errors of amino acid metabolism ( NephrAmine only); hypersensitivity to 1 or more amino acids in the solution ( ... Amino Acid Formulations for Renal Failure. Pronunciation: a-MEE-noe AS-id. Class: Amino acid combinations ... Elevated plasma amino acid levels (eg, hypermethionemia) and hyperammonemia may occur; consider amino acid formulations ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/ppa/amino-acid-formulations-for-renal-failure.html

Dermatologic Manifestations of Homocystinuria: Background, Pathophysiology, EpidemiologyDermatologic Manifestations of Homocystinuria: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology

Homocystinuria is an inherited autosomal recessive defect in methionine metabolism that is caused by a deficiency in ... Inborn errors of sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism. J Nutr. 2006 Jun. 136(6 Suppl):1750S-1754S. [Medline]. ... 3] Two other enzymes involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism have been mapped: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and L-homocysteine S- ... is the most frequent inborn error of vitamin B-12 metabolism. The gene responsible for cblC, MMACHC, has been identified. ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1115062-overview

PKU - Clinical: Phenylalanine and Tyrosine, PlasmaPKU - Clinical: Phenylalanine and Tyrosine, Plasma

... and was the first successfully treated inborn error of metabolism. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and is ... Tyrosine is a nonessential amino acid that derives from dietary sources, the hydroxylation of phenylalanine, or protein ... which converts the essential amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine. Deficiency of PAH results in decreased levels of tyrosine ... Primary (PKU) and secondary (defects of BH4 metabolism) hyperphenylalaninemia can cause abnormally low levels of tyrosine. ...
more infohttps://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/8380

Couce M - PubMed - NCBICouce M - PubMed - NCBI

Discovery of Biomarker Panels for Neural Dysfunction in Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Couce%20M
  • Each AAAH enzyme contains iron and catalyzes the ring hydroxylation of aromatic amino acids using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as a substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. By using ion-exchange columns coupled to a sensitive automated Sakaguchi reaction, in addition to the normal ninhydrin reaction for amino acids, homoarginine, a guanidino homologue of arginine, was found in the plasma and urine of both normal and cystinuric individuals. (clinsci.org)
  • On the other hand, the clearance of arginine exceeded that for homoarginine in the majority of cystinuric subjects although the values obtained for homoarginine indicate that the defect in amino acid transport also affects this amino acid. (clinsci.org)
  • Renal D-amino acid oxidase mediates chiral inversion of N(G)-nitro-D-arginine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Role of arginine 285 in the active site of Rhodotorula gracilis D-amino acid oxidase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Daily folic acid supplementation was added 1 year later because his plasma folate level was low. (medscape.com)
  • The remethylation pathway comprises 2 intersecting biochemical pathways and results in the transfer of a methyl group (CH 3 ) to homocysteine from methylcobalamin, which receives its methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (an active form of folic acid), or from betaine (trimethylglycine). (medscape.com)
  • In particular, individuals with conditions that cause elevated levels of lactic acid in the blood, such as lactic acidemia, are likely to have elevated proline levels, because lactic acid inhibits the breakdown of proline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe hyperlipidemia or severe disorders of lipid metabolism characterized by hypertriglyceridemia (serum triglyceride >1000mg/dL). (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Findings from experimental studies have indicated that thyroid hormones affect folate metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • This enzyme helps to break down the pyrroline-5-carboxylate produced in the previous reaction, converting it to the amino acid glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino Acids: Biochemistry and Nutrition presents comprehensive coverage of these scientific developments, providing a useful reference for students and researchers in both biomedicine and agriculture. (routledge.com)
  • While emphasizing basic principles and classical concepts of amino acid biochemistry and nutrition, the author includes recent progress in the field. (routledge.com)
  • R3 is primarily either the choline or ethanolamine ester of phosphoric acid. (rxlist.com)
  • Chemical mechanism of D-amino acid oxidase from Rhodotorula gracilis: pH dependence of kinetic parameters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acid injection does not replace dialysis and conventional supportive therapy in patients with renal failure. (drugs.com)
  • when on dialysis their mortality is above 50% related to cardiovascular disease that we might now speculate, with a contribution of potentially toxic levels of the aminoacid homocysteine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Amino acids are filtered by the glomerulus but 95% of the filtered load is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule by an active transport mechanism. (medassignments.com)