Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.
Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of proline residues within proteins. EC
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sulfur-sulfur bond isomerases that catalyze the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. Specific protein disulfide-isomerase isoenzymes also occur as subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE.
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Members of a family of highly conserved proteins which are all cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE). They bind the immunosuppressant drugs CYCLOSPORINE; TACROLIMUS and SIROLIMUS. They possess rotamase activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs that bind to them.
A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-
A carbon-carbon double bond isomerase that catalyzes the movement double bond from C3 to C2 of an unsaturated acyl-CoA. The enzyme plays a key role in allowing acyl-CoA substrates to re-enter the beta-oxidation pathway.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.
The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of a sulfur-sulfur bond. EC 5.3.4.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. A deficiency in humans causes nonspherocytic hemolytic disease (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC, CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC). EC
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

Aminoacyl-CoAs as probes of condensation domain selectivity in nonribosomal peptide synthesis. (1/434)

In nonribosomal biosynthesis of peptide antibiotics by multimodular synthetases, amino acid monomers are activated by the adenylation domains of the synthetase and loaded onto the adjacent carrier protein domains as thioesters, then the formation of peptide bonds and translocation of the growing chain are effected by the synthetase's condensation domains. Whether the condensation domains have any editing function has been unknown. Synthesis of aminoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) molecules and direct enzymatic transfer of aminoacyl-phosphopantetheine to the carrier domains allow the adenylation domain editing function to be bypassed. This method was used to demonstrate that the first condensation domain of tyrocidine synthetase shows low selectivity at the donor residue (D-phenylalanine) and higher selectivity at the acceptor residue (L-proline) in the formation of the chain-initiating D-Phe-L-Pro dipeptidyl-enzyme intermediate.  (+info)

Characterization of yrpC gene product of Bacillus subtilis IFO 3336 as glutamate racemase isozyme. (2/434)

Glr, the glutamate racemase of Bacillus subtilis (formerly Bacillus natto) IFO 3336 encoded by the glr gene, and YrpC, a protein encoded by the yrpC gene, which is located at a different locus from that of the glr gene in the B. subtilis genome, share a high sequence similarity. The yrpC gene complemented the D-glutamate auxotrophy of Escherichia coli WM335 cells defective in the glutamate racemase gene. Glutamate racemase activity was found in the extracts of E. coli WM335 clone cells harboring a plasmid, pYRPC1, carrying its gene. Thus, the yrpC gene encodes an isozyme of glutamate racemase of B. subtilis IFO 3336. YrpC is mostly found in an inactive inclusion body in E. coli JM109/pYRPC1 cells. YrpC was solubilized readily, but glutamate racemase activity was only slightly restored. We purified YrpC from the extracts of E. coli JM109/pYRPC2 cells using a Glutathione S-transferase Gene Fusion System to characterize it. YrpC is a monomeric protein and contains no cofactors, like Glr. Enzymological properties of YrpC, such as the substrate specificity and optimum pH, are also similar to those of Glr. The thermostability of YrpC, however, is considerably lower than that of Glr. In addition, YrpC showed higher affinity and lower catalytic efficiency for L-glutamate than Glr. This is the first example showing the occurrence and properties of a glutamate racemase isozyme.  (+info)

BimC motor protein KLP61F cycles between mitotic spindles and fusomes in Drosophila germ cells. (3/434)

KLP61F in Drosophila is a member of the BimC family of kinesins and, as for other family members [1], is required for spindle assembly [2] [3]. KLP61F is a bipolar homotetramer that cross-links spindle microtubules [4]. It is not known, however, whether the function of KLP61F is dedicated to mitosis or whether KLP61F interacts exclusively with microtubules. Previous work suggested that KLP61F functions during interphase in proliferating germ cells [3]. Cytokinesis is incomplete in germ cells and a branched cortical structure known as a fusome extrudes through intercellular bridges called ring canals. Here I show that, in germ cells, KLP61F cycles between spindles during mitosis and fusomes during interphase. Inspection of fusome-deficient hu-li tai shao (hts) mutants indicated that KLP61F gains fusome-dependent interactions near telophase that mediate its incorporation into these structures. KLP61F proved to be maintained in fusomes by microtubule-independent, detergent-resistant interactions. Inspection of KLP61F mutants indicated that KLP61F is required to recruit fusome material to spindle midbodies near telophase and for normal fusome organization. These observations suggest that KLP61F is bifunctional in germ cells, with microtubule-dependent functions in spindle assembly and microtubule-independent functions in fusome organization. Cytological analyses with antibodies against phosphorylated Eg5 peptide [4] suggest that cycling of KLP61F might reflect phosphorylation.  (+info)

Occurrence of free D-amino acids and aspartate racemases in hyperthermophilic archaea. (4/434)

The occurrence of free D-amino acids and aspartate racemases in several hyperthermophilic archaea was investigated. Aspartic acid in all the hyperthermophilic archaea was highly racemized. The ratio of D-aspartic acid to total aspartic acid was in the range of 43.0 to 49.1%. The crude extracts of the hyperthermophiles exhibited aspartate racemase activity at 70 degrees C, and aspartate racemase homologous genes in them were identified by PCR. D-Enantiomers of other amino acids (alanine, leucine, phenylalanine, and lysine) in Thermococcus strains were also detected. Some of them might be by-products of aspartate racemase. It is proven that D-amino acids are produced in some hyperthermophilic archaea, although their function is unknown.  (+info)

Active site titration of gramicidin S synthetase 2: evidence for misactivation and editing in non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis. (5/434)

The catalytic competence of gramicidin S synthetase 2 (GS2) was determined by following the kinetics of PP(i) generation using active site titration measurements with [gamma-(32)P]ATP. The initial 'burst' of product formation can be correlated to the generation of the aminoacyl adenylate:enzyme complexes at the four amino acid activation domains and the subsequent aminoacylation of carrier domains, followed by a slow linear turnover of substrate due to breakdown of the intermediate. Simultaneous activation of all four amino acid substrates at a saturating concentration displayed a consumption of 8.3 ATP/GS2. In the presence of single amino acids, a binding stoichiometry higher than the anticipated two ATP per active site was obtained, implying misactivation at non-cognate domains. Breakdown of acyladenylate intermediates reflects a possible corrective mechanism by which the enzyme controls the fidelity of product formation.  (+info)

Predictive, structure-based model of amino acid recognition by nonribosomal peptide synthetase adenylation domains. (6/434)

BACKGROUND: Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are large modular proteins that selectively bind, activate and condense amino acids in an ordered manner. Substrate recognition and activation occurs by reaction with ATP within the adenylation (A) domain of each module. Recently, the crystal structure of the A domain from the gramicidin synthetase (GrsA) with L-phenylalanine and adenosine monophosphate bound has been determined. RESULTS: Critical residues in all known NRPS A domains have been identified that align with eight binding-pocket residues in the GrsA A domain and define sets of remarkably conserved recognition templates. Phylogenetic relationships among these sets and the likely specificity determinants for polar and nonpolar amino acids were determined in light of extensive published biochemical data for these enzymes. The binding specificity of greater than 80% of the known NRPS A domains has been correlated with more than 30 amino acid substrates. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis presented allows the specificity of A domains of unknown function (e.g. from polymerase chain reaction amplification or genome sequencing) to be predicted. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for altering of A domain specificity by site-directed mutagenesis, which has significant potential for engineering the biosynthesis of novel natural products.  (+info)

Purification and properties of ornithine racemase from Clostridium sticklandii. (7/434)

Ornithine racemase has been purified to homogeneity from Clostridium sticklandii, as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This is the first racemase known to be highly specific to ornithine. This PLP-dependent enzyme has an M(r) of 92, 000, with a K(m) for L-ornithine of 0.77 +/- 0.05 mM and a k(cat) of 980 +/- 20 s(-1).  (+info)

Differences in genotypes of Helicobacter pylori from different human populations. (8/434)

DNA motifs at several informative loci in more than 500 strains of Helicobacter pylori from five continents were studied by PCR and sequencing to gain insights into the evolution of this gastric pathogen. Five types of deletion, insertion, and substitution motifs were found at the right end of the H. pylori cag pathogenicity island. Of the three most common motifs, type I predominated in Spaniards, native Peruvians, and Guatemalan Ladinos (mixed Amerindian-European ancestry) and also in native Africans and U.S. residents; type II predominated among Japanese and Chinese; and type III predominated in Indians from Calcutta. Sequences in the cagA gene and in vacAm1 type alleles of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA) of strains from native Peruvians were also more like those from Spaniards than those from Asians. These indications of relatedness of Latin American and Spanish strains, despite the closer genetic relatedness of Amerindian and Asian people themselves, lead us to suggest that H. pylori may have been brought to the New World by European conquerors and colonists about 500 years ago. This thinking, in turn, suggests that H. pylori infection might have become widespread in people quite recently in human evolution.  (+info)

Gramicidin S or Gramicidin Soviet is an antibiotic that is effective against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as some fungi. It is a derivative of gramicidin, produced by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus brevis. Gramicidin S is a cyclodecapeptide, constructed as two identical pentapeptides joined head to tail, formally written as cyclo(-Val-Orn-Leu-D-Phe-Pro-)2. That is to say, it forms a ring structure composed of five different amino acids, each one used twice within the structure. Another interesting point is that it utilizes two amino acids uncommon in peptides: ornithine as well as the atypical stereoisomer of phenylalanine. It is synthesized by gramicidin S synthetase. Gramicidin S biosynthetic pathway consists of two-enzyme of nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs), gramicidin S synthetase I (GrsA) and gramicidin S synthetase II (GrsB), to give a product as a cyclic decapeptide. Within the biosynthetic pathway, there are total of five modules that specifically ...
It is generally agreed that many proteins are structurally dynamic; sampling many conformations while in solution and also adopting new conformations upon complexation with a ligand. Many of these flexible enzymes are of biological interest, and hindering their function via binding of competitive inhibitors would open up valuable therapeutic avenues. Unfortunately due to the conformation-dependent nature of ligand binding, the act of discovering a new small molecule that will bind these particular proteins is analogous to aiming at a moving target. The following work focuses on one particular enzyme, glutamate racemase. Glutamate racemase is an essential and non-redundant enzyme in all species of bacteria, and inhibition of this enzyme results in cell wall degradation, followed by imminent cell death. Inhibitors of glutamate racemase could act as novel antibiotics against a target to which there are no current antibiotics, and thus no known resistance. My studies focus on three interdependent ...
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 23613764. PLoS ONE 2013;8(4):e60955. Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan transmitted to humans by blood-feeding insects, blood transfusion or congenitally. Previous research led us to discover a parasite proline racemase (TcPRAC) and to establish its validity as a target for the design of new chemotherapies against the disease, including its chronic form. A known inhibitor of proline racemases, 2-pyrrolecarboxylic acid (PYC), is water-insoluble. We synthesized soluble pyrazole derivatives, but they proved weak or inactive TcPRAC inhibitors. TcPRAC catalytic site is too small and constrained when bound to PYC to allow efficient search for new inhibitors by virtual screening. Forty-nine intermediate conformations between the opened enzyme structure and the closed liganded one were built by calculating a transition path with a method we developed. A wider range of chemical compounds could dock in the partially opened intermediate active site models ...
Amino Acid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.
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Intracellular pH must be kept close to neutrality to be compatible with cellular functions, but the mechanisms of pH homeostasis and the responses to intracellular acidification are mostly unknown. In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we found that intracellular acid stress generated by weak organic acids at normal external pH induces expression of several chaperone genes, including ROF2, which encodes a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase of the FK506-binding protein class. Loss of function of ROF2, and especially double mutation of ROF2 and the closely related gene ROF1, results in acid sensitivity. Over-expression of ROF2 confers tolerance to intracellular acidification by increasing proton extrusion from cells. The activation of the plasma membrane proton pump (H+-ATPase) is indirect: over-expression of ROF2 activates K+ uptake, causing depolarization of the plasma membrane, which activates the electrogenic H+ pump. The depolarization of ROF2 over-expressing plants explains their tolerance to ...
Cyclophilin A (CypA) is the main member of the immunophilin superfamily that has peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. CypA participates in protein folding, cell signaling, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Further, CypA plays critical roles in the replication of several viruses. Upon influenza virus infection, CypA inhibits viral replication by interacting with the M1 protein. In addition, CypA is incorporated into the influenza virus virions. Finally, Cyclosporin A (CsA), the main inhibitor of CypA, inhibits influenza virus replication through CypA-dependent and -independent pathways. This review briefly summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles of CypA during influenza virus infection.
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides (By similarity).
cytoplasm, nucleus, FK506 binding, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, protein dimerization activity, chaperone-mediated protein folding, protein folding
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunophilin protein family, which play a role in immunoregulation and basic cellular processes involving protein folding and trafficking. This encoded protein is a cis-trans prolyl isomerase that binds to the immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin. It is thought to mediate calcineurin inhibition. It also interacts functionally with mature hetero-oligomeric progesterone receptor complexes along with the 90 kDa heat shock protein and P23 protein. This gene has been found to have multiple polyadenylation sites. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunophilin protein family, which play a role in immunoregulation and basic cellular processes involving protein folding and trafficking. This encoded protein is a cis-trans prolyl isomerase that binds the immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin. It is thought to function as an ER chaperone and may also act as a component of membrane cytoskeletal scaffolds. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008 ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
Professor Rudnick is a graduate of Antioch College, where he received a B.S. in Chemistry in 1968. He performed graduate studies in the enzymology of amino acid racemases in the laboratory of Robert H. Abeles in the Graduate Department of Biochemistry at Brandeis University, receiving a Ph.D. in Biochemistry in 1974. His graduate studies led to an understanding of the structure and mechanism of proline racemase that was confirmed by the crystal structure of a homologous protein in 2006. From 1973-1975, Professor Rudnick performed postdoctoral research on lactose permease with H. Ronald Kaback at the Roche Institute of Molecular Biology. This work provided a greater understanding of binding and transport reactions using photoaffinity reagents and substrate analogs. In 1975, he left Roche to become an Assistant Professor in the Department of Pharmacology at Yale, and was promoted to Associate Professor in 1980 and Professor in 1991 ...
Accepted name: alanine racemase. Reaction: L-alanine = D-alanine. Other name(s): L-alanine racemase. Systematic name: alanine racemase. Comments: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9024-06-0. References:. 1. Marr, A.G. and Wilson, P.W. The alanine racemase of Brucella abortus. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 49 (1954) 424-433.. 2. Wood, W.A. Amino acid racemases. Methods Enzymol. 2 (1955) 212-217.. 3. Wood, W.A. and Gunsalus, I.C. D-Alanine formation: a racemase in Streptococcus faecalis. J. Biol. Chem. 190 (1951) 403-416.. ...
PIN1 was recently identified as a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase). It binds to and isomerizes specific pSer/Thr-Pro motifs and catalytically induces conformational changes after phosphorylation. PIN1 plays an important role in several ce
Cyclophilin antibody for detecting human peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
Peptidyl-prolyl Cis-trans Isomerase (cyclophilin); Catalyzes The Cis-trans Isomerization Of Peptide Bonds N-terminal To Proline Residues; Plays A Role In Determining Prion Variants; Binds To Hsp82p And Contributes To Chaperone Activity; Protein Abundance Increases In Response To DNA Replication Stress
PTM-dependent Induction (Phosphorylation of T329 on Alpha-globin transcription factor CP2 (Tcfcp2)) of the Alpha-globin transcription factor CP2 (Tcfcp2) DOC_WW_Pin1_4 motif - Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) WW domain ...
PTM-dependent Induction (Phosphorylation of S213 on Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3)) of the Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) DOC_WW_Pin1_4 motif - Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1) WW domain ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Although the precise molecular composition of the MPTP is currently undergoing investigation, its core components are thought to be the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and cyclophilin D, a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase that interacts with ANT.129 Other components may include VDAC and the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, which are located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. In healthy mitochondria, the close association of VDAC and ANT create a macromolecular complex that shuttles adenine nucleotides between the ATP-producing matrix and ATP-consuming cytosol. MPTP opening can be triggered under stress conditions, however, by increases in Ca2+, oxidative stress, depletion of adenine nucleotides, increases in inorganic phosphate, and depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane, stimuli that operate during ischemia-reperfusion.129 Although proapoptotic (Bax and Bak) and antiapoptotic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) Bcl-2 proteins have been ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The immunosuppressive and toxic effects of FK-506 are mechanistically related. T2 - Pharmacology of a novel antagonist of FK-506 and rapamycin. AU - Dumont, Francis J.. AU - Staruch, Mary Jo. AU - Koprak, Samuel L.. AU - Siekierka, John J.. AU - Lin, C. Shirley. AU - Harrison, Richard. AU - Sewell, Tonya. AU - Kindt, Victoria M.. AU - Beattie, Thomas R.. AU - Wyvratt, Matthew. AU - Sigal, Nolan H.. PY - 1992/9/1. Y1 - 1992/9/1. N2 - FK-506 inhibits Ca2+-dependent transcription of lymphokine genes in T cells, and thereby acts as a powerful immunosuppressant. However, its potential therapeutic applications may be seriously limited by several side effects, including nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. At present, it is unclear whether these immunosuppressive and toxic effects result from interference with rehted biochemical processes. FK-506 is known to interact with FK-binding protein-12 (FKBP-12), an abundant cytosolic protein with cis.trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity ...
Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases) are a well conserved class of enzymes found throughout nature in microorganisms, plants and animals. They are characterized by their ability to catalyze the conversion of cis- and trans- peptidyl-proline bonds in proteins and consequently are able to exert control over target protein structure and function.
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1T7U8 (DAPF_MYCVP), Diaminopimelate epimerase. Mycolicibacterium vanbaalenii (strain DSM 7251 / JCM 13017 / NRRL B-24157 /PYR-1) (Mycobacterium vanbaalenii)
Nigeria ihanganye nibibazo bitoroshye byumutekano aho abantu barenga 13000 bishwe kuva aho umutwe wa Boko Haram ufatiye intwaro muri 2009.. Mbere yamatora yumukuru wigihugu ateganijwe kuwa 28 zukwezi kwa gatatu, BBC irabanyuriramo muri make uko umutekano wifashe muri icyo gihugu.. ...
Muri iki cyumweru turimo gusoza abastar nyarwanda bari hirya no hino ku isi, babinyujije ku mbuga koranyambaga bakoresha basangije abakunzi babo ndetse nabafana babo muri rusange amafoto atandukanye. Hano twabakusanyirije amwe mu mafoto yabaatar nyarwanda yakunzwe cyane muri iki cyumweru kuri Instagram.. Asinah. ...
Active Recombinant human FKBP12 protein is an Escherichia coli Full length protein, | 95% purity, | 1.000 Eu/µg endotoxin level and validated in FuncS, SDS-PAGE. Specific activity is | 300 nmoles/min…
Buy our Recombinant Human FKBP12 protein. Ab56524 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in WB, SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides…
Human FKBP5 qPCR primer pairs, confirmed in positive organizations; screened the primer with high specificity and high sensitivity.
Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP ...
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One of the rate-limiting steps in protein folding has been shown to be the cis-trans isomerization of proline residues, which is catalyzed by a range of peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerases. To characterize the interaction between model peptides and the periplasmic peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase SurA from E. coli, we employed a chemical cross-linking strategy that has been used previously to elucidate the interaction of substrates with other folding catalysts. The interaction between purified SurA and model peptides was significant in that it showed saturation and was abolished by denaturation of SurA; however the interaction was independent of the presence of proline residues in the model peptides. From results obtained by limited proteolysis we conclude that an N-terminal fragment of SurA, comprising 150 amino acids that do not contain the active sites involved in the peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerization, is essential for the binding of peptides by SurA. This was confirmed by probing the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitochondria. T2 - FKBP38 and mitochondrial degradation. AU - Shirane, Michiko. AU - Nakayama, Keiichi. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - FK506-binding protein 38 (FKBP38) is a membrane chaperone that is localized predominantly to mitochondria and contains a COOH-terminal tail anchor. FKBP38 also harbors an FKBP domain that confers peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, but it differs from other FKBP family members in that this activity is dependent on the binding of Ca2+-calmodulin. FKBP38 inhibits apoptosis by recruiting the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL to mitochondria. Mice deficient in FKBP38 die soon after birth manifesting a defect in neural tube closure that results in part from unrestrained apoptosis. We recently found that FKBP38 and Bcl-2 translocate from mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum during mitophagy, a form of autophagy responsible for the elimination of damaged mitochondria. FKBP38 and Bcl-2 thus escape the degradative fate of most ...
Escherichia coli synthesizes at least three [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzymes that catalyze the production or consumption of hydrogen gas and occupy a central place in cellular energy metabolism (4, 17). Multiple accessory proteins are required for the assembly of the bimetallic catalytic cluster of these enzymes, including the proteins encoded by the hyp genes and slyD (3, 7, 12). SlyD, which contributes to the insertion of nickel into the hydrogenase precursor proteins and cellular nickel accumulation (18), consists of a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) domain as well as a molecular chaperone domain and a C-terminal tail rich in metal-binding residues (10, 14, 15). A combination of in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that both the metal-binding domain and the chaperone activity of SlyD are essential components of its function in hydrogenase production (13), but the role of SlyDs PPIase activity in the hydrogenase maturation pathway was unknown.. The crystal structure of Methanococcus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is cyclophilin involved in the immunosuppressive and nephrotoxic mechanism of action of cyclosporin A?. AU - Sigal, N. H.. AU - Dumont, F.. AU - Durette, P.. AU - Siekierka, John. AU - Peterson, L.. AU - Rich, D. H.. AU - Dunlap, B. E.. AU - Staruch, M. J.. AU - Melino, M. R.. AU - Koprak, S. L.. AU - Williams, D.. AU - Witzel, B.. AU - Pisano, J. M.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - In this report we have approached two questions relating to the mechanism of action of cyclosporin A (CsA). First, we address whether the major cytosolic protein for CsA, cyclophilin, is directly involved in mediating the immunosuppressive activity of this drug, and, in particular, whether inhibition of this proteins peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity results in inhibition of murine T cell activation. Second, we ask whether the nephrotoxicity observed with CsA is related to inhibition of PPIase-dependent pathways in cells other than lymphocytes. Using a series of 61 cyclosporin ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium causing many kinds of infections from mild respiratory tract infections to life-threatening states as sepsis. It produces many toxins and has a remarkable ability to acquire resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Many S. aureus strains have acquired resistance to commonly used antibiotics and some strains are becoming multi-resistant. Methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the principal cause of severe nosocomial infections which can be fatal to compromised patients. Whole genome sequencing of two MRSA strains in 2001 was regarded as a way to find targets for novel antibiotics against infections caused by MRSA [1].. PrsA protein is found ubiquitously in Gram-positive bacteria, including S. aureus [Swiss-Prot:P60747], but not in Gram-negative ones [2, 3]. By sequence homology PrsA contains a parvulin-type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) domain and flanking N- and C-terminal domains. PPIases are enzymes that ...
A database search of the ASK1 sequence outside its kinase domain showed that a short amino acid sequence in the NH2-terminal part contains a motif for an FK506-binding protein (FKBP)-type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, of which the functional importance is unknown (Fig. 1A). The kinase domain of ASK1 has sequence similarity with members of the MAPKKK family including MEKK1 (30.0%) in mammal and SSK2 (32.3%) and STE11 (30.4%) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Phylogenetic comparison suggested that ASK1 is distantly related to RAF-1, KSR1, TAK1, and TPL-2 mammalian MAPKKKs but most closely related to the SSK2 or SSK22 family of yeast MAPKKKs, which are upstream regulators of yeast HOG1 MAPK (13).. Despite differences in the overall structures of ASK1 and SSK2 or SSK22 (13), it was of interest to examine whether ASK1 might act as a functional kinase in yeast and thereby complement the loss of SSK2 or SSK22. We used yeast strain TM257-H1 (ssk2Δ ssk22Δ sho1Δ) (13, 14), which grows in a normal YPD ...
1ID8: The B(12)-binding subunit of glutamate mutase from Clostridium tetanomorphum traps the nucleotide moiety of coenzyme B(12).
Dr. Muganga yize muri Kaminuza ya Havard no mu ya Alberta muri Canada ari naho yakuye Impamyabumenyi yIkirenga.. Inzego zumutekano zimushinja ibyaha birimo ubugambanyi, ariko abasanzwe bakurikirana politiki ya Uganda, bakemeza ko itabwa muri yombi rye rifitanye isano nibikorwa amazemo iminsi byo gushaka ko izina ryubwoko bwe bwa Banyarwanda rihinduka, rikaba Abavandimwe.. Uyu mwarimu afite inkomoko mu Rwanda nubwo yavukiye muri Uganda. Umuryango we wari warahungiye muri Uganda mu myaka ya 1950 aba ari naho avukira.. Uyu mugabo yari aherutse gutangiza ubukangurambaga bwo guhindura izina ryubwoko bwabo. Icyo gihe yavuze ko impamvu ari uko kwitwa Abanyarwanda bituma dufatwa nkabanyamahanga, tukimwa ibyangombwa birimo indangamuntu, ndetse no kugira ngo abana bacu binjire mu nzego zumutekano bikaba bitoroshye.. Bivugwa ko Dr. Muganga yari umuntu ufitanye imikoranire nabantu barwanya ubutegetsi bwu Rwanda aho yabaga muri Canada.. ...
(2,2-L-Serine)-gramicidin S | C48H84N12O12 | CID 195883 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The structurally unrelated drugs cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK-506 are powerful immunosuppressants, used prophylactically following transplant surgery to prev
Knijnenburg AD, Tuin AW, Spalburg E, de Neeling AJ, Mars-Groenendijk RH, Noort D, Otero JM, Llamas-Saiz AL, van Raaij MJ, van der Marel GA, Overkleeft HS, Overhand ...
Mu nkuru zacu zashize arizo:Biratangaje: Umunsi w’amateka mu buzima bwa Cristiano Ronaldo wageze, nyuma yo gusezererwa mu irushanwa rya Confederation, ndetse Amakuru mashya : Cristiano Ronaldo yibarutse abana babiri b’impanga (isomere) twabagejejeho ko uyu mugabo Cristiano Ronaldo aherutse kwibaruka impanga zabana babiri, gusa akaba agiye nawe kubabona ku nshuro ye yambere nyuma yo kuva mu marushanwa ya Confederation, igitangaje nuko umwana umwe muri izi mpanga yahisemo kumwita izina rya Mateo Ronaldo. Igitangaje muri ibi nuko na Lionel Messi afite umwana umwe muri babiri afite witwa Mateo Messi, aba bagabo bombi bafatwa nkabahangana cyane ku isi bakaba bafite abana bitiranwa, gusa amakuru dukesha inshuti za hafi za Ronaldo nuko iri zina rya Mateo yarivanye ku mwana wa Lionel Messi mu rwego rwo kwereka isi ko nta bukeba buri hagati yabo bombi ndetse ko ari ninshuti mu buzima busanzwe.. ...
Finalmente se conocieron las causas del fallecimiento de Carrie Fisher, la actriz conocida por interpretar a la princesa Leia en la saga Star Wars ...
Tudey, uar wurld os follid woth fuud. Wholi sumi eri hielthy, ot siims loki tiinegirs eri muri fucasid un thi anhielthy fuuds. Yis, thiri eri ethlitoc prugrems; tiins eri stoll nut ietong thi roght fuuds thiy shuald bi. Thiy git thi sompli, iesy tu dipind un, luw cust fuuds whoch must lokily eri frum fest fuud ristearents. Tiinegirs uftin pock thi iesy chuoci, whoch os why thi ubisoty reti os rosong on uar steti, oncladong hiert ettecks end doebitis. Evin thuagh ot siims loki thi anhielthy chuocis eri muri dipindint whin yuari on e rash end niid e qaock boti tu iet, nut cerong ebuat thi natrotoun, tiinegirs dunt rielozi thet ot woll effict thim on thi lung ran, lotirelly ...
The Biodesign Institute at ASU addresses todays critical global challenges in healthcare, sustainability and security. Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.
SEBANANI André ni umwe mu bahanzi bishwe muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994 ariko akaba ari umwe mu bahanzi bakiri mu mitima ya benshi kubera ubuhanga yari afite haba mu kuririmba ndetse no gukina ikinamico. SEBANANI André yavutse mu 1952, avukira mu cyahoze ari Komini Kigoma Perefegitura Gitarama, ubu akaba ari Akarere ka Nyanza,.... ...
z roke dečkove je božji volek odletel pa na polja pisani je cvetki obsedel. čuri muri, božji volek, tam je domek tvoj, zdaj pa zleti in pokaži, kje je domek moj! poletel je božji volek k soncu pod nebo, dolgo je za njim strmelo dečkovo oko. ...

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