Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Wnt Signaling Pathway: A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Wnt3A Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Wnt1 Protein: A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.Wnt4 Protein: A Wnt protein that is involved in regulating multiple developmental processes such as the formation of the KIDNEY; ADRENAL GLANDS; MAMMARY GLANDS; the PITUITARY GLAND; and the female reproductive system. Defects in WNT4 are a cause of ROKITANSKY KUSTER HAUSER SYNDROME.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Wnt2 Protein: A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is frequently up-regulated in human GASTRIC CANCER and is a tumor marker (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) of gastric and COLORECTAL CANCER.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Orf virus: The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Caliciviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Receptors, Wnt: Cell-surface receptors that specifically bind to WNT PROTEINS and activate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Frizzled Receptors: A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Amino Acids, SulfurLeucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Hafnia alvei: The type species for the genus HAFNIA. It is distinguished from other biochemically similar bacteria by its lack of acid production on media containing sucrose. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Nerve Tissue ProteinsXenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Nucleopolyhedrovirus: A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-6: An LDL-receptor related protein that combines with cell surface FRIZZLED RECEPTORS to form WNT PROTEIN-binding receptors. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in regulation of vascular cell proliferation.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
It encodes a protein showing 98% amino acid identity to mouse Wnt3 protein, and 84% to human WNT3A protein, another WNT gene ... Proto-oncogene protein Wnt-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WNT3 gene. The WNT gene family consists of ... The mouse studies show the requirement of Wnt3 in primary axis formation in the mouse. Studies of the gene expression suggest ... These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate ...
The protein encoded by this gene shows 75% amino acid identity to chicken Wnt14, which has been shown to play a central role in ... Katoh M (2002). "Molecular cloning and expression of mouse Wnt14, and structural comparison between mouse Wnt14-Wnt3a gene ... Protein Wnt-9a (formerly Wnt14) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WNT9A gene. The WNT gene family consists of ... These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate ...
It encodes a protein showing 96% amino acid identity to mouse Wnt3A protein, and 84% to human WNT3 protein, another WNT gene ... Protein Wnt-3a is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WNT3A gene. The WNT gene family consists of structurally related ... Katoh M (2002). "Molecular cloning and expression of mouse Wnt14, and structural comparison between mouse Wnt14-Wnt3a gene ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Saitoh T, Hirai M, Katoh M (Jun 2001). "Molecular cloning and characterization of WNT3A and WNT14 ...
It encodes a protein showing 98%, 98%, and 87% amino acid identity to the mouse, rat and the xenopus Wnt5a protein, ... Neumann S, Coudreuse DY, van der Westhuyzen DR, Eckhardt ER, Korswagen HC, Schmitz G, Sprong H (March 2009). "Mammalian Wnt3a ... because Wnt5a-L is 18 amino acids longer than Wnt5a-S. These 18 amino acids appear to have contrasting roles in cancer. ... Protein Wnt-5a is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WNT5A gene. The WNT gene family consists of structurally related ...
It encodes a protein showing 96% amino acid identity to mouse Wnt3A protein, and 84% to human WNT3 protein, another WNT gene ... Protein Wnt-3a is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WNT3A gene. The WNT gene family consists of structurally related ... Katoh M (2002). "Molecular cloning and expression of mouse Wnt14, and structural comparison between mouse Wnt14-Wnt3a gene ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Saitoh T, Hirai M, Katoh M (Jun 2001). "Molecular cloning and characterization of WNT3A and WNT14 ...
It encodes a protein showing 98% amino acid identity to mouse Wnt3 protein, and 84% to human WNT3A protein, another WNT gene ... Proto-oncogene protein Wnt-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WNT3 gene. The WNT gene family consists of ... The mouse studies show the requirement of Wnt3 in primary axis formation in the mouse. Studies of the gene expression suggest ... These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate ...
The protein encoding this gene shows 75% amino acid identity to chicken Wnt14, which has been shown to play a central role in ... This gene is clustered with another family member, WNT3A, in the chromosome 1q42 region. ... Predicted to work with: Mouse, Rat, Rabbit, Cow, Monkey, Gorilla. * Immunogen. Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Wnt9a ( ... The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) in 2010. Nucleic Acids Res. 38:D142-D148 (2010) . ...
It encodes a protein which shows 98% amino acid identity to mouse Wnt3 protein, and 84% to human WNT3A protein, another WNT ... Data suggest that Wnt3 (zeige WNT3A Antikörper), Wnt3a (zeige WNT3A Antikörper), and Wnt8a (zeige WNT8A Antikörper) bind to ... Wnt-3a (zeige WNT3A Antikörper) and Wnt-3 factors signal through the canonical Wnt (zeige WNT2 Antikörper)/beta-catenin (zeige ... The mouse studies show the requirement of Wnt3 in primary axis formation in the mouse. Studies of the gene expression suggest ...
The protein encoding this gene shows 75% amino acid identity to chicken Wnt14, which has been shown to play a central role in ... Mouse lung normal tissue lysate - total protein (ab29297). Lane 2 : Heart (Mouse) Tissue Lysate. Lane 3 : T47D whole cell ... This gene is clustered with another family member, WNT3A, in the chromosome 1q42 region. ... The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) in 2010. Nucleic Acids Res. 38:D142-D148 (2010) . ...
Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, and more. 100% Guaranteed. ... amino acid identity to the mouse, rat and the xenopus Wnt5A ... The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been ... Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human WNT5A. The exact sequence is proprietary. ... Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post ...
The top Blast hit was adopted as the identity of the cDNA. In instances where the amino acid and nucleotide Blast searches did ... Two proteins were considered to interact if the mLIR was ,2 in two of the three runs or in the single Wnt3A run, and the ... To establish the identity of each cDNA, the closest matching human and mouse genes were determined by Blast searches using both ... based protein-protein Wnt pathway interaction network. This network is comprised of 829 protein-protein interactions between 11 ...
Human, Mouse and more. Compare WNT9A ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... The protein encoded by this gene shows 75% amino acid identity to chicken Wnt14, which has been shown to play a central role in ... Mouse (Murine) Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family, Member 9A (WNT9A) interaction partners ... This gene is clustered with another family member, WNT3A, in the chromosome 1q42 region. ...
Human Dkk-2 protein (6628-DK) is manufactured by R&D Systems, over 95% purity. Reproducible results in bioactivity assays. ... The 226 amino acid (aa), ~35 kDa mature human Dkk-2 shares 96%, 97%, 97%, 97%, 97% and 98% aa identity with mouse, rat, canine ... Recombinant Human Wnt-3a (Catalog # 5036-WN) induces a dose responsive increase in Wnt reporter activity in HEK293 cells (green ... as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, ...
Analogous binding specificity can be engineered into the homologous rat mannose-binding protein A by changing three amino acids ... Structure-based mutational analysis of mouse Wnt3a shows that the linker between the N- and C-terminal domains is required for ... Here we show, despite 90% sequence identity, that D. rerio and M. musculus αE-catenin have striking functional differences. We ... we have determined the 2.4-A crystal structure of the 130-amino acid N-terminal domain of mouse Sec22b (mSec22b), a SNARE ...
Galceran J, Farinas I, Depew MJ, Clevers H, Grosschedl R. Wnt3a-/-like phenotype and limb deficiency in Lef1(-/-)Tcf1(-/-) mice ... and they can interact with amino acid motifs. The functional significance of this structure is its ability to repress ... van de Wetering M, Clevers H. Sequence-specific interaction of the HMG box proteins TCF-1 and SRY occurs within the minor ... The context-dependent regulatory domain in TCF/LEF varies widely, with only 15%-20% identity between them. These comprise of ...
It encodes a protein which shows 94% and 80% amino acid identity to the mouse Wnt5b protein and the human WNT5A protein, ... These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate ... The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. ... Related Protein ROR2; WNT2BB; WNT5B; WNT11R; WNT4B; DVL2; WNT5A; WNT3A; LRP6; WNT16 ...
Folate, or vitamin B9, refers to a broad category of biomolecules that include pterin, para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA), and ... Folate, or vitamin B9, refers to a broad category of biomolecules that include pterin, para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) and ... Chorismate acts as an intermediate for diverse metabolic pathways including folate and amino acid biosynthesis and the genes ... Mestas, J., and Hughes, C. C. (2004). Of mice and not men: differences between mouse and human immunology. J. Immunol. 172, ...
... nonessential amino acids, 15% KOSR, and 10 ng/ml FGF2, respectively. HUESCs and iPS cells were treated for 4 and 6 (iPS) days ... mice humanized mice. Undifferentiated cells and SSEA-1- cells were also injected subcutaneously in the neck (n = 5 in each ... Gene and protein profiles of SSEA-1+ cardiac progenitors. ESCs were treated or not (CTRL) for 4 days with BMP2 (10 ng/ml) and ( ... BMP2 together with Wnt3a constitutes a potent combination of factors to induce the mesoderm (16, 17). We thus used the ...
Mouse Dkk-1 protein (1765-DK) is manufactured by R&D Systems. Over 7 publications. Reproducible results in bioactivity assays. ... Mature mouse Dkk-1 is a 40 kDa glycosylated protein that shares 86%, 96%, 83% and 82% amino acid (aa) sequence identity with ... Recombinant Mouse Dkk-1 inhibits a constant dose of 100 ng/mL of Recombinant Mouse Wnt-3a (Catalog # 1324-WN). The ED50 for ... Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived mouse Dkk-1 protein. Ser30-His272, with a C-terminal 10-His tag ...
1615 and 1613 amino acid residues, respectively. LRP5 and LRP6 share 73% and 64% identity in extracellular and intracellular ... Nevertheless, recent success in purification of the first Wnt protein, mouse Wnt3a, may help to pave the way for comprehensive ... any amino acid), which is present in all other LDLR proteins (Fig. 2) and mediates interactions with the endocytic apparatus ( ... which resemble the defects of mice mutant for Wnt1, Wnt3a and Wnt7a (Pinson et al., 2000). Lrp5-/- mice have normal ...
It encodes a protein of which the homeodomain shares approximately 50% amino acid sequence identity with the homeodomain of ... Wnt-3a regulates somite and tailbud formation in the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 8, 174-189. ... Comparative amino acid sequence analysis. Amino acid sequences of Cdx, Hox and Evx gene products were compared using Lasergene ... mice. Cdx1+/-/Hoxb8lacZ+/- mice were subsequently crossed with Cdx1-null mice or with Cdx1+/-/Cdx2+/- mice. The resulting Cdx1 ...
... amino acid identity. The medium mRNA levels of Wnt-5a in the nontumor and tumor regions in the stomach of 13 gastric cancer ... cases show heterogeneity of weak staining for Wnt-3a or Wnt-4 and that the positivity of the expression of these Wnt proteins ... The Wnt family members can be divided into three distinct types based on their ability to induce transformation of the mouse ... First, specific Wnt and Frizzled can activate calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and protein kinase C (PKC). Second ...
... identity over 427 amino acids, Figure S1). CG8964 is located right next to otk (see http://flybase.org/) on the second ... mouse BP 102, 1∶50; mouse anti c-myc (9E10), 1∶20; mouse anti-Fasciclin III (7G10), 1∶20; mouse anti Wg (4D4), 1∶20 (DSHB, ... Additional experiments showed that co-overexpression of PTK7 with either Wnt3A or with Wnt8 blocked the capability of these ... 2010) The novel mouse mutant, chuzhoi, has disruption of Ptk7 protein and exhibits defects in neural tube, heart and lung ...
The D2R and D3R possess high homology, the two sharing 46% overall amino acid homology and 78% identity in the transmembrane ... Mouse Wnt1 and Dvl-1 constructs were cotransfected or cells were treated with the conditioned medium containing Wnt3a for 16 h ... G protein-coupled receptor kinase. LRP. lipoprotein receptor-related protein. GSK. glycogen synthase kinase. CKI. casein kinase ... lacks the first 86 amino acids, and Arm β-catenin lacks both the N-terminal 86 amino acids and the C-terminal 123 amino acids. ...
... and proteins peptides amino acids , proteins , cytoskeletal proteins , adenomatous polyposis coli protein ... mouse*fruit fly*zebrafish*rat*Caenorhabditis elegans*common platanna*dog*Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c ... Consistently, short hairpin RNA knockdown of APC mimics Wnt3a function. Together, our findings define APC as a key Wnt ... Beta-catenin defines head versus tail identity during planarian regeneration and homeostasis. Kyle A Gurley. Department of ...
Required for LEF1 activation upon WNT1 and WNT3A signaling. DVL1 and PAK1 form a ternary complex with MUSK which is important ... Segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-1Add BLAST. 695. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... proteins_section target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Similar proteinsi. *100% Identity ... section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular amino acids that are over ...
2009) Early mouse caudal development relies on crosstalk between retinoic acid, Shh and Fgf signalling pathways. Development ... Effect of Wnt3a protein and cyclopamine on DV patterning.. RA has been shown to be required at late gastrulation stage for ... 0.1 mM nonessential amino acids (Life Technologies), 0.05 mM β-mercaptoethanol (Sigma-Aldrich), and 103 U/mL LIF (made in-house ... Cyst identity is characterized by markers of DV patterning in optimal synthetic matrix conditions (A). Cyst patterning exhibits ...
The discovery strategy entailed immunization of transgenic mice with the cancer antigen ROR2, harboring transgenic IgH and IgL ... The discovery strategy entailed immunization of transgenic mice with the cancer antigen ROR2, harboring transgenic IgH and IgL ... amino acids 1-403), cynomolgus monkey ROR2 (XP_005582291.1, amino acids 1-403) or mouse ROR2 (NP_038874.3, amino acids 1-402), ... Antibody protein sequences were annotated and assessed for their degree of identity to the closest human or mouse germline V ...
The CHST11 protein contains 352 amino acids, and has an approximate molecular mass of 43 kDa. CHST11 is a single pass type II ... Mouse CHST11 has been shown to be required for cartilage growth plate morphogenesis (Klüppel et al., 2005). Loss of CHST11 ... 2011) show that L-cells stably expressing the Wnt3a ligand had a reduction in CHST11 gene expression, and subsequently a change ... Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure. UniProt/SwissProt. Q9NPF2 [function] [subcellular_location] [family_and_domains] [ ...
  • Here, we enumerate the stable structures that can be adopted by macrocyclic peptides composed of L- and D-amino acids by near-exhaustive backbone sampling followed by sequence design and energy landscape calculations. (bakerlab.org)
  • Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors. (novusbio.com)
  • The CHST11 protein contains 352 amino acids, and has an approximate molecular mass of 43 kDa. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • We use targeted conditional and inducible mouse models and other cellular and molecular approaches to uncover gene-expression and genomic and epigenetic alteration that occur during tumor development and progression and to functionally analyze the biological significance of these changes in oncogenic transformation. (stanford.edu)
  • These studies showed that these three catenin proteins, with molecular weights of approximately 102, 88, and 80 kDa, respectively, interacted with the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we used a strategy combining the genetic manipulation of mouse embryonic stem cells with affinity purification and quantitative mass spectroscopy utilizing stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture to study the interactome of chromatin-bound β-catenin with and without Wnt3a stimulation. (mcponline.org)
  • Our proof-of-principle experiments show that β-catenin can recruit the H3K4me2/1 demethylase LSD1 to regulate the expression of the tumor suppressor Lefty1 in mouse embryonic stem cells. (mcponline.org)
  • The mRNA levels of LSD1 and β -catenin are inversely correlated with the levels of Lefty1 in pancreas and breast tumors, implying that this mechanism is common to mouse embryonic stem cells and cancer cells. (mcponline.org)
  • Using an assay based on neural differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells, GDF11 is shown to induce diencephalic (posterior forebrain), mesencephalic (midbrain) and metencephalic (anterior hindbrain) fates at the expense of telencephalic (anterior forebrain) specification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An important tool to study embryonic development is mouse embryonic stem cells (mESc). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. (genecards.org)
  • Here we provide evidence for BMP4 sufficiency to induce CPEC fate from neural progenitors derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). (jneurosci.org)
  • Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells remain pluripotent in vitro when grown in the presence of the cytokine Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mouse embryonic stem cells (ES), which are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, are valuable for studying pluripotency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), mammalian cell lines, Xenopus embryos and in vitro systems, we find that p120-catenin directly binds the REST-CoREST complex, displacing it from established gene targets to permit their transcriptional activation. (biologists.org)
  • Core transcriptional regulators required for mouse and human embryonic stem cell (ESC) maintenance include Oct4 (also known as POU5F1), Sox2 and Nanog ( Young, 2011 ). (biologists.org)
  • In the absence of a Wnt ligand, the level of cytosolicβ -catenin is kept low as a result of its amino-terminal phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination/proteosome degradation. (biologists.org)
  • D 2 R-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling was agonist- and G protein-independent and did not require receptor phosphorylation or endocytosis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Both PTMs usually occur on disordered regions of protein structure, within which, the location of O -GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation is virtually random with respect to each other, suggesting that negative crosstalk at the structural level is not a common phenomenon. (mcponline.org)
  • As a class, protein kinases are found to be more extensively O -GlcNAcylated than proteins in general, indicating the potential for crosstalk of phosphorylation with O -GlcNAcylation via regulation of enzymatic activity. (mcponline.org)
  • Experimental evidence on regulation of polycomb function by post-translational mechanisms is steadily emerging: Polycomb Group proteins are targeted for ubiquitylation, sumoylation and phosphorylation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we review current insights in covalent modification of Polycomb Group proteins in the context of protein function and present a tentative view of integrated signaling to chromatin in the context of phosphorylation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bighead is a secreted protein that inhibits Wnt by causing the endocytosis and degradation in lysosomes of the Wnt coreceptor Lrp6. (pnas.org)
  • The Wg/Wnt morphogen reception is essential for signal activation, whose activity is mediated through the receptor complex and a scaffold protein Dishevelled (Dsh). (elifesciences.org)
  • Formation of this trimeric complex activates a scaffold protein Dishevelled (Dsh) on the plasma membrane, leading to disruption of the Axin-mediated degradation complex and hence stabilization of Armadillo (Arm), a homolog of vertebrate β-catenin. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here, we report that the zebrafish/human phosphatidylinositol transfer protein Sec14l3/SEC14L2 act as GTPase proteins to transduce Wnt signals from Frizzled to phospholipase C (PLC). (elifesciences.org)
  • Members of the TGF-β superfamily include activins, inhibins, Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs) and Growth of Differentiation Factors (GDFs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • During development, CPECs differentiate from preneurogenic neuroepithelial cells and require bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, but whether BMPs suffice for CPEC induction is unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • The expression of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor, a major allergen protein in rice, is lower in this line than in wild-type rice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Small GTPases are regulated by GAPs (GTPase-activating proteins), GEFs (GDP-GTP exchange factors), and a GDP dissociation inhibitor (de Bettignies, 2001). (sdbonline.org)
  • This invention relates to the differentiation of pluripotent cells (PSCs) into foregut stem cells (FSCs) using a definitive endoderm induction medium comprising a TGFfi ligand, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and a PI3K inhibitor to differentiate the pluripotent cells into definitive endoderm cells and a foregut induction medium comprising a TGFβ ligand to differentiate the definitive endoderm cells into foregut stem cells (FSCs). (patsnap.com)
  • 2. The method according to claim 1 wherein the population of DECs is produced by a method comprising: i) culturing a population of pluripotent cells (PSCs) in a definitive endoderm (DE) induction medium comprising a TGFβ ligand, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and a PI3K inhibitor, and ii) allowing the PSCs to differentiate into DECs. (patsnap.com)
  • 7. The method according to claim 2 wherein the DE induction medium consists of a chemically defined nutrient medium supplemented with a TGFβ ligand, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and a PI3K inhibitor. (patsnap.com)
  • ordered plasma membrane environments appear to be essential for binding of Wnt (zeige WNT2 Antikörper ) proteins to their receptor complexes and stimulation of downstream signaling activity. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Interestingly, the function of Wnt2 in male fertility appears to be evolutionarily conserved, because male mice mutant for Wnt7A, the vertebrate homolog of Drosophila Wnt2, are sterile due to abnormal development of the vas deferens, which corresponds to the fly ejaculatory duct. (prolekare.cz)
  • SDN-1 is the predominant heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan in the early C. elegans embryo, and that loss of HS biosynthesis or of the SDN-1 core protein results in misorientation of the spindle of the ABar blastomere. (sdbonline.org)
  • Wnts are secreted, growth factor-like proteins that are important for the development of many tissues and organs in animals. (prolekare.cz)
  • Mice mutant for PTK7 show an open neural tube, defects in convergent extension movements during gastrulation and polarity defects of inner ear hair cells, which are classical PCP phenotypes in vertebrates - . (prolekare.cz)
  • CHST11 has a highly specific temporal and spatial expression pattern during mouse embryogenesis, and has been detected in notocord, heart valves and myocardium, apical ectodermal ridge during limb generation, neural tube, hair follicles, kidney, and proliferating chondrocytes in the cartilage growth plate during skeletal development (Klüppel et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Nevertheless, how the regionalization of the neural plate occurs in early mouse embryogenesis remains elusive. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, p120-catenin levels further modulate the mRNA and protein levels of Oct4 (also known as POU5F1), Nanog and Sox2, and have an impact upon the differentiation of mESCs towards neural fates. (biologists.org)
  • These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis, adipogenesis etc and in several other developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 ( BMPR2 ) are found in approximately 70% of familial and 10-40% of idiopathic PAH cases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been demonstrated that dysfunction of Sec14-like proteins would cause various human diseases, such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, ataxia, and retinal degeneration syndromes ( Cockcroft, 2012 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Over-expression of Merlin(R325A) and/or Merlin(R335L) in Drosophila wings result in increased proliferation in the adult wing (increase in size), which is rescued by co-over-expression of constitutively active Merlin protein. (sdbonline.org)
  • We report here that the exon junction complex (EJC) activity is indispensable for Wg signaling by maintaining an appropriate level of Dsh protein for Wg ligand reception in Drosophila . (elifesciences.org)
  • Transcriptome analyses in Drosophila wing imaginal discs indicate that the EJC controls the splicing of the cell polarity gene discs large 1 (dlg1 ), whose coding protein directly interacts with Dsh. (elifesciences.org)
  • Around the same time, Semënov and Snyder (1997) cloned and characterized 3 human homologs of the Drosophila Dishevelled gene, one of which encoded DVL1, a 695-amino acid protein (GenBank: AF006011.1). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Upon transfection of Drosophila tissue culture cells, DFz2 confers both the ability to bind Wg at the cell surface and Wg responsiveness, as measured by accumulation of Armadillo protein ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Mouse Wnt-1, Xenopus wnt-3A (Xwnt-3A), Xwnt-8, and Drosophila Wg induce dorsal axis duplication when small amounts, usually 1 to 10 pg, of their corresponding RNAs are injected into the ventral side of early Xenopus embryos ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, β-catenin is stabilized, translocates to the nucleus, and associates with TCF factors and with various proteins that are implicated in chromatin structure and RNA polymerase II regulation ( 1 , 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • In addition, specific Polycomb Group proteins modify other (chromatin) associated proteins via similar post-translational modifications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ourdata suggested that the expression of SOD3 mRNA and protein, as well as content of SOD3 in culturedsupernatant, were time-dependently inhibited in MP-infected A549 cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. (genecards.org)