Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Amino Acids, SulfurKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acids, DiaminoGlutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein PrecursorsCOS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Amino Acids, Acidic: Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Amino Acid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Prepared solutions generally consist of water and electrolytes; glucose, amino acids, and lipids; essential vitamins, minerals ... In situations where there is no suitable emulsifying agent for a person at risk of developing essential fatty acid deficiency, ... The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, salts, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins ... The pathogenesis is due to using linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid component of soybean oil) as a major source of calories. ...
Its protein harbours all essential amino acids. Arthrospira also contain high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), ... These PUFAs contain the γ-Linolenic acid (GLA), an essential Omega-6 Fatty acid. Further ingredients of Arthrospira include ...
... is the most abundant naturally occurring, nonessential amino acid in the human body, and one of the few amino acids ... polar amino acid. It is non-essential and conditionally essential in humans, meaning the body can usually synthesize sufficient ... Lacey, JM; Wilmore, DW (Aug 1990). "Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid?". Nutrition Reviews. 48 (8): 297-309. ... Watford, Malcolm (September 2015). "Glutamine and glutamate: Nonessential or essential amino acids?". Animal Nutrition. 1 (3): ...
These amino acids form the DDE motif that coordinate divalent metal ions (Mg2+ or Mn2+). These metal ions are essential for the ... A loop containing amino acid residues 140-149 is located in the catalytic-core domain and is important for IN function as ... 2. The catalytic core domain (CCD), which encompasses amino acids 51- 212, contains the active site of IN but it can't catalyze ... 3. The C-terminal domain (CTD), which encompasses amino acids 213-288, binds DNA nonspecifically and its interaction with NTD ...
The human enzyme contains 327 amino acids and exists as a homodimer with two identical subunits of 34.5 kDa The N-terminal ... Peltoketo H, Isomaa V, Mäentausta O, Vihko R (Oct 1988). "Complete amino acid sequence of human placental 17 beta- ... Sequence of a tryptic peptide containing an essential cysteine". FEBS Letters. 29 (2): 173-6. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(73)80554-X ... Peltoketo H, Isomaa V, Mäentausta O, Vihko R (Oct 1988). "Complete amino acid sequence of human placental 17 beta- ...
In the laboratory, it can be converted to amino acids. and short dipeptides may have facilitated the formation of complex ... Nucleotides are essential for life, because they compose the genetic information and coding for life. It is often invoked in ... This is converted to 5-hydroxyisourate, which decarboxylates to allantoin and allantoic acid. After hydrolyzing one urea, this ... Pizzarello, Sandra; Weber, A. L. (2004). "Prebiotic amino acids as asymmetric catalysts". Science. 303: 1151. doi:10.1126/ ...
2] [3] Tsumori, H; Minami, T; Kuramitsu, HK (1997). "Identification of essential amino acids in the Streptococcus mutans ... Glucansucrase allows the oral bacteria Streptococcus mutans to metabolize sucrose into lactic acid. This lactic acid lowers the ... Additionally, some amino acids between domains A and B form a calcium binding site near the nucleophilic aspartate. The Ca2+ ... Glucansucrase (also known as glucosyltransferase) is an enzyme in the glycoside hydrolase family GH70 used by lactic acid ...
The degradation of such essential amino acids provides propanoyl-CoA. This compound is further transformed into propanoic acid ... Essential amino acids as valine serve as precursors for the production of the hemolymph toxins of Chrysomelina leaf beetles. ... The amino group in β-alanine is then oxidized to yield either an oxime or the nitro-toxin 3-nitropropanoic acid (3-NPA). The ... 2006). "3-Nitropropionic Acid Is a Suicide Inhibitor of Mitochondrial Respiration That, upon Oxidation by Complex II, Forms a ...
Any of these may be sources of essential amino acids. When proteins are heated they become denatured (unfolded) and change ... a form of non-enzymatic browning involving an amino acid, a reducing sugar and heat. Home cooking has traditionally been a ... In 1956, the "Essentials of an Adequate Diet" brought recommendations which cut the number of groups that American school ... a traditional South American dish where fish is cooked with the acids in lemon or lime juice. Preparing food with heat or fire ...
Other effects of a diet lacking in this essential amino acid are dilated cardiomyopathy and reproductive failure in females. ... Taurine is unusual among biological molecules in being a sulfonic acid, while the vast majority of biologically occurring acids ... While taurine is sometimes called an amino acid, and indeed is an acid containing an amino group, it is not an amino acid in ... Harris Ripps, Wen Shen (2012). "Review: Taurine: A "very essential" amino acid". Molecular Vision. 18: 2673-2686. PMC 3501277 ...
C5a is rapidly metabolised by a serum enzyme carboxypeptidase B to a 72 amino acid form C5a des-Arg without C terminal arginine ... Human polypeptide C5a contains 74 amino acids and has 11kDa. NMR spectroscopy proved that the molecule is composed of four ... C5a is a chemotactic agent and an anaphylatoxin; it is essential in the innate immunity but it is also linked with the adaptive ... predicted to have seven transmembrane helical domains of largely hydrophobic amino acid residues, forming three intra- and ...
This gene is relatively small and only contains 244 amino acids. Dullard protein or CTDnep1 encodes a protein serine/threonine ... Dullard is essential for inhibiting BMP receptor activation during Xenopus neuralization. Dullard is also known as CTDnep1, ... LPIN1 and LPIN2 catalyze the reaction of the conversion of phosphatidic acid to diacylglyerol. The reaction can affect and ... Dullard dephosphorylates the mammalian phospatidic acid phosphatase, lipid. Dullard participates in a unique phosphatase ...
NM-IIB is 228.9 kDa protein composed of 1976 amino acids. NM-IIB has an N-terminal globular head that harbors the catalytically ... The exception to this rule is the alternatively spliced NM-IIB2 isoform, which has a 21 amino acid inserted into loop 2, near ... NM-IIB is essential for normal development of cardiac muscle and for integrity of intercalated discs. Mutations in MYH10 have ... It appears that NM-IIB plays an essential role in maintaining normal adherens junction integrity and structure. A cardiac ...
Like all protein-rich foods, spirulina contains the essential amino acid phenylalanine (2.6-4.1 g/100 g), which should be ... providing the fatty acids, gamma-linolenic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, stearidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, ... containing all essential amino acids. Provided in its typical supplement form as a dried powder, a 100 gram amount of spirulina ... Campanella, L; Russo, MV; Avino, P (April 2002). "Free and total amino acid composition in blue-green algae". Annali di Chimica ...
Selenium is a component of the amino acids selenocysteine and selenomethionine. In humans, selenium is a trace element nutrient ... Selenium exerts its biological functions through selenoproteins, which contain the amino acid selenocysteine. Twenty-five ... Although selenium is an essential trace element, it is toxic if taken in excess. Exceeding the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of ... Although it is toxic in large doses, selenium is an essential micronutrient for animals. In plants, it sometimes occurs in ...
... acetic acid, and alkaline fermentations; to enrich food substrates with protein, essential amino acids, and vitamins; to ... Fermentation lock Food microbiology Industrial fermentation Industrial microbiology Lactic acid bacteria Lactic acid ... Food fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other carbohydrates into alcohol or preservative organic acids and carbon ... The production of organic acids is exploited to preserve and flavor vegetables and dairy products. Food fermentation serves ...
... is rich in proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals. describe feeding azolla to, chickens and egg ... "Feeding deterrence of Azolla in relation to deoxyanthocyanin and fatty acid composition" (PDF). Aquatic Botany. 74 (2): 181-187 ... The only known limiting factor on its growth is phosphorus, another essential mineral. An abundance of phosphorus, due for ... giving the plant access to the essential nutrient. This has led to the plant being dubbed a "super-plant", as it can readily ...
These amino acids are called "essential" because animals cannot make them; only plants and micro-organisms can make them and ... Genetic modifications increased the amount of oleic acid and stearic acid and decreased the amount of linolenic acid. By ... Glyphosate kills plants by interfering with the synthesis of the essential amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. ... link) "Aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, The shikimate pathway - synthesis of chorismate". Metabolic Plant Physiology Lecture ...
Another threo compound is threonine, one of the essential amino acids. The erythro diastereomer is called allo-threonine. If a ... Tartaric acid contains two asymmetric centers, but two of the "isomers" are equivalent and together are called a meso compound ...
... each plant provides an amount of all the essential amino acids. However, the relative abundance of the essential amino acids is ... Essential amino acid High protein diet Feskanich, Diane; Willett, Walter C.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Colditz, Graham A. (1996). " ... Due to the sulphur content of the amino acids methionine and cysteine, excess of these amino acids leads to the production of ... Plant protein is often described as incomplete, suggesting that they lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Apart from ...
TADs are named after their amino acid composition. These amino acids are either essential for the activity or simply the most ... Nine-amino-acid transactivation domain (9aaTAD) defines a novel domain common to a large superfamily of eukaryotic ... Regier JL, Shen F, Triezenberg SJ (Feb 1993). "Pattern of aromatic and hydrophobic amino acids critical for one of two ... Transactivation by the Gal4 transcription factor is mediated by acidic amino acids, whereas hydrophobic residues in Gcn4 play a ...
Lin J, Chen J, Elenbaas B, Levine AJ (May 1994). "Several hydrophobic amino acids in the p53 amino-terminal domain are required ... However, the actual mass of the full-length p53 protein (p53α) based on the sum of masses of the amino acid residues is only ... Tetramerization is essential for the activity of p53 in vivo. C-terminal involved in downregulation of DNA binding of the ... A tandem of nine-amino-acid transactivation domains (9aaTAD) was identified in the AD1 and AD2 regions of transcription factor ...
It is proline rich and composed primarily of non-essential amino acids. There is a region of extreme conservation across ... PRR30 Splice Pattern Human protein PRR30 consists of 412 amino acid residues. It has a molecular weight of 44.7 kdal and an ... translational glycosylation and phosphorylation of proteins from the amino acid sequence. Proteomics, 4(6), 1633-1649. Blom, N ... Nucleic Acids Research, gkt1115. Blom, N., Sicheritz‐Pontén, T., Gupta, R., Gammeltoft, S., & Brunak, S. (2004). Prediction of ...
"Jasmonate-inducible plant enzymes degrade essential amino acids in the herbivore midgut". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (52 ... Linolenic acid is then converted to jasmonic acid via the octadecanoid pathway and jasmonic acid activates defensive genes. ... At 291 amino acids long, the precursor to HypSys in sweet potato is the longest precursor described. The production of multiple ... Jasmonic acid is an essential, albeit late component, in the systemin and wound-signalling pathways. In tomato, the signal is ...
Essential amino acids are in Capitals. K→acetyl-CoA. LYSINE→. *Saccharopine dehydrogenase ... 3e9k: Crystal structure of Homo sapiens kynureninase-3-hydroxyhippuric acid inhibitor complex ... Forty percent of the amino acids are arranged in an alpha helical and twelve percent are arranged in beta sheets. Docking of ... 2005). "[A polymorphism of kynureninase gene in a hypertensive candidate chromosomal region is associated with essential ...
... is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end. Protein biosynthesis is most commonly performed by ribosomes in cells. Peptides can also be synthesized in the laboratory[citation needed]. Protein primary structures can be directly sequenced, or inferred from DNA sequences. Amino acids are polymerised via peptide bonds to form a long backbone, with the different amino acid side chains protruding along it. In biological systems, proteins are produced during translation by a cell's ribosomes. Some organisms can also make short peptides by non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, which often use amino acids other than the standard ...
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20-30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes ...
... s are lairge biological molecules, or macromolecules, consistin o ane or mair chains o amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array o functions athin organisms, includin catalysin metabolic reactions, DNA replication, respondin tae stimuli, an transportin molecules frae ane location tae anither. Proteins differ frae ane anither primarily in thair sequence o amino acids, that is dictatit bi the nucleotide sequence o thair genes, an that uisually results in protein foldin intae a speceefic three-dimensional structur that determines its acteevity. A linear cheen o amino acid residues is cried a polypeptide. A protein conteens at least ane lang polypeptide. Short polypeptides, conteenin less nor 20-30 residues, are rarely conseedert tae be proteins an are commonly cried peptides, or whiles oligopeptides. The individual ...
... s are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells, and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20-30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes ...
... s are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells, and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20-30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes ...
... s are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20-30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes ...
... s are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20-30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes ...
... s (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20-30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. ...
For the Tetris game, see Tetris: The Grand Master. Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase E is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TGM3 gene. Transglutaminases are enzymes that catalyze the crosslinking of proteins by epsilon-gamma glutamyl lysine isopeptide bonds. While the primary structure of transglutaminases is not conserved, they all have the same amino acid sequence at their active sites and their activity is calcium-dependent. The protein encoded by this gene consists of two polypeptide chains activated from a single precursor protein by proteolysis. The encoded protein is involved the later stages of cell envelope formation in the epidermis and hair follicle. Proximal promoter GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000125780 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000027401 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Wang M, Kim IG, Steinert PM, McBride OW (Mar 1995). "Assignment of the human ...
In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be due to functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences.[9] If two sequences in an alignment share a common ancestor, mismatches can be interpreted as point mutations and gaps as insertion or deletion mutations (indels) introduced in one or both lineages in the time since they diverged from one another. In sequence alignments of proteins, the degree of similarity between amino acids occupying a particular position in the sequence can be interpreted as a rough measure of how conserved a particular region or sequence motif is among lineages. The absence of substitutions, or the presence of only very conservative substitutions (that is, the substitution of amino acids whose side chains have similar biochemical properties) in a particular ...
Kamphuis, I.G., Drenth, J. and Baker, E.N. (1985). „Thiol proteases. Comparative studies based on the high-resolution structures of papain and actinidin, and on amino acid sequence information for cathepsins B and H, and stem bromelain". J. Mol. Biol. 182: 317-329. PMID 3889350 ...
பல அமினோ அமிலங்கள் பெப்டைடு இணைப்புகளால் இணைவதால் ஓர் புரதம் அல்லது பல்புரதக்கூறு உருவாகும். இவ்வகை நீண்ட சங்கிலித் தொடர் அமைப்பு புரதத்தின் முதல்நிலை அமைப்பு (primary structure) என்று அழைக்கப்படும். இச்சங்கிலித் தொடர் அமைப்பில் காணப்படும் அணுக்களுக்கிடையே ஏற்படும் இடைத்தாக்கங்களால், சங்கிலியில் ஏற்படும் மடிவுகள் காரணமாக ஏற்படும் அமைப்பு இரண்டாம்நிலை (secondary structure) அமைப்பு ...
ಅಮಿನೊ ಆಮ್ಲಗಳು[ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿ ೧] ಜೈವಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮುಖ್ಯವಾದ ಅಮೈನ್ (-NH2) ಮತ್ತು ಕಾರ್ಬೋಕ್ಸಿಲಿಕ್ ಆಮ್ಲ (-COOH) ಕ್ರಿಯಾ ಗುಂಪುಗಳಿರುವ ಸಾವಯವ ಸಂಯುಕ್ತಗಳು. ಅಲ್ಲದೆ ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಪ್ರತಿ ಅಮಿನೊ ಆಮ್ಲಕ್ಕೂ ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟವಾಗಿರುವ ಪಕ್ಕದ-ಸರಪಳಿ ಸಹ ಇರುತ್ತದೆ.[೧][೨][೩] ಅಮಿನೊ ಆಮ್ಲದ ಪ್ರಮುಖ ಧಾತುಗಳು ಇಂಗಾಲ, ಜಲಜನಕ, ಆಮ್ಲಜನಕ ಮತ್ತು ಸಾರಜನಕಗಳು, ಆದರೆ ಕೆಲವೊಂದು ಅಮಿನೊ ಆಮ್ಲಗಳ ಪಕ್ಕದ-ಸರಪಳಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಬೇರೆ ಧಾತುಗಳಿರುತ್ತವೆ. ಸುಮಾರು ೫೦೦ ಅಮಿನೊ ಆಮ್ಲಗಳು ತಿಳಿದಿದ್ದು ...
Essential amino acid supplements have also been found to be effective in preserving lean body mass in elderly people and ... Conditionally Essential Amino Acids. There are several nonessential amino acids that are classified as conditionally essential. ... Unlike nonessential amino acids, essential amino acids cant be made by your body and must be obtained through your diet. ... What Are Essential Amino Acids?. Amino acids are organic compounds composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, along ...
Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid. Endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of ... Early versus late administration of amino acids in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition ...
L-Threonine, an essential amino acid, has been tried for ALS because, like BCAAs, it affects glutamate metabolism. Open trials ... Branched-Chain Amino Acids. Branched-chain amino acids BCAAs are most well-known as a sports supplement, but have also been ... 1. Testa D, Caraceni T, Fetoni V. Branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol. 1989; ... 8. Testa D, Caraceni T, Fetoni V. Branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol. 1989; ...
L-type amino acid transporter 1 - SLC7 family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and ... LAT1 is a key transporter of essential amino acids [3]. LAT1 is used by many types of cancer cells to meet their high ... Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1 , CD98 , MPE16 , solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light ... cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 5 , solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter ...
ranched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine and valine) are essential amino acids for humans and animals. It has been ... shown that BCAA oxidation is promoted by exercise through activation of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC ... Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) as nutraceuticals for exercise. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) as nutraceuticals for ...
... and if you skim through a calorie counter that lists amino acids you will find that only a few foods (like oil and sugar) are ... Essential amino acid requirements. Stuart Dunn dunns99 at erols.com Wed Dec 15 10:31:29 EST 1999 *Previous message: Essential ... Previous message: Essential amino acid requirements *Next message: Essential amino acid requirements ... amino acid requirements *Next message: Essential amino acid requirements * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] ...
Benefits include lactic acid reduction and reducing muscle fatigue. ... Contains branched chain amino acids, which have been shown to aid in preventing muscle catabolism from exercise ... A synergistic complex of amino acids and antioxidants that helps with fatigue and enhances muscle recovery during and after ... A complex of antioxidants and minerals formulated to help reduce lactic acid induced by exercise ...
Benefits include lactic acid reduction and reducing muscle fatigue. ... Contains branched-chain amino acids, which have been shown to aid in preventing muscle catabolism from exercise ... All this makes AminoWise more than just a branched-chain amino acid supplement; its an advanced, targeted workout essential to ... Seed to Seal and its three pillars-Sourcing, Science, and Standards-are infused into every aspect of our exacting essential oil ...
... an amino acid that is a vital component of proteins in all living organisms. ... This is the first indication that the synthesis of aromatic amino acids can occur outside of the plastids, Widhalm said. ... Phenylalanine is an aromatic amino acid that serves as a building block for many compounds essential to plant structure, ... another essential amino acid.. "Its very unusual that the cell would sacrifice tyrosine to make phenylalanine," Dudareva said ...
What is the difference between Essential and Non Essential Amino Acids? ... However in children taurine is classed as a semi essential amino acid, as their bodies arent developed enough to produce it. ... There are nine essential amino acids, depending on the age of the person that are classed as essential. Then there are others ... However they only become essential, if one of the essential amino acids are either not present, or is poorly absorbed due to a ...
Can you name the Essential and Non-Essential Amino Acids? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and ... There is one amino acid that is conditionally essential. Type "Essential (Conditionally)" for this amino acid. ... Essential and Non-Essential Amino Acids. Random Science or Biology Quiz QUIZ: Can you name the Essential and Non-Essential ... Tags:Biology Quiz, Chemistry Quiz, amino, Amino Acids, biochemistry, essential. Top Quizzes Today. Top Quizzes Today in Science ...
It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids ... amino acid, or more generously as a "conditionally essential" amino acid. Considering its broad distribution, its many ... and although it is one of the few amino acids not incorporated into proteins, taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids ... Amino Acids, Essential / metabolism*, pharmacology. Animals. Brain / metabolism. Ciliary Body / metabolism. Cornea / metabolism ...
... amino acids are the building block of protein. It can aid in weight loss, decrease risk of heart disease and improve imm ... American consumers are taking amino acid supplements for a variety of reasons. "The myriad of uses of amino acids are only now ... The Essential Aminos The majority of amino acids can appear in two forms, known as the L- and D- series. Amino acids in the L- ... This portion is commonly referred to as the essential amino acids. Many studies have shown that amino acids possess health- ...
... amino acid or what) that is crucial to brain function that you can only get from red meat. Have you ever heard of this? Sorry ... Yes, it contains all essential amino acids, but it doesnt contain all conditionally essential amino acids which are the ones ... Amino Acids in Vegan/vegetarian diet - Help! Quinoa is a grain that has a wide range of amino acids (all of the essentials, I ... Amino Acids in Vegan/vegetarian diet - Help! On my carton of Alpro soya milk it says contains all 8 essential amino acids. ...
The total weight of essential amino acids found in whey-maize ogi was 9,625 mg while the total essential amino acid in normal ... amino acid derivatives.. 3.3. Preparation of Standard Amino Acids. Standard amino acids (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 umol) ... Amino Acid Analysis. Amino acids were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) by the method of AOAC [15]. ... and is good for healthy living due to its richness in the essential amino acids especially the branched-chain amino acids which ...
... containing all 9 Essential Amino Acids. Available in 4 mouth-watering flavours. ... Buy Impact EAA for our new and improved blend of Essential Amino Acids, ... Ready-to-mix, essential amino acid powder. Unflavoured Food Supplement.. Ready-to-mix, essential amino acid powder. Tropical ... What are essential amino acids?. Essential amino acids can be defined as amino acids that your body needs, but cant produce ...
Use of essential amino acids. Foodstuffs that lack essential amino acids are poor sources of protein equivalents, as the body ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism ( ... The distinction between essential and non-essential amino acids is somewhat unclear, as some amino acids can be produced from ... The net protein utilization is profoundly affected by the limiting amino acid content (the essential amino acid found in the ...
... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment ... non-essential and essential amino acids. The term non-essential amino acids is slightly misleading ... There are nine essential ... Essential amino acid. An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo ( ... Essential amino acid. An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo ( ...
... we stock only the most reputable Essential Amino Acids brands on the market, youll find a huge range of quality EAAs brought ... From preventing muscle breakdown and encouraging growth to improving and enhancing energy, Essential Amino Acid supplementation ... And our range of Essential Amino Acids is no exception. Stocking only the most reputable brands on the market, youll find a ... From preventing muscle breakdown and encouraging growth to improving and enhancing energy, Essential Amino Acid supplementation ...
The distinction between essential and non-essential amino acids is somewhat unclear, as some amino acids can be produced from ... An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the ... amino acids are sometimes considered a single pool of nutritionally equivalent amino acids as are the aromatic amino acid pair ... amino acids Low-protein diet Orthomolecular medicine Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score Ketogenic amino acid ...
The purpose of this research was to analyze for the determination of essential amino acid in Pangasius bocourti which was aged ... The highest quantities of essential amino acids were Lysine 8.41% and Leucine 8.30%. Other essential amino acid such as ... Essential amino acids; Extracting; EZ-Fasst; GCMS; Pangasius bocourti. Introduction. Essential amino acids are amino acids that ... Quantitative results of essential amino acid are shown in Table 1. Percentage values of essential amino acid among fish groups ...
Chemix EAA is an ultra-premium amino acid formula carefully designed to enhance endurance, improve recovery, reduce muscle ... Chemix EAA contains specific ratios of all nine essential amino acids at a much higher dose compared to most other EAA products ... Chemixs cutting-edge essential amino acid formula contains research-backed ingredients offered at clinical and efficacious ... Looking for a complete essential amino acid product with added immune-boosting benefits? Look no further than Chemix EAA! ...
Support endurance, recovery and general health with amino acids!* ... Essential Amino Acids are the nine amino acids humans cannot ... With full amino acid profile and 5g of BCAAs per serving to support muscle growth & recovery* ... Supplies all nine essential amino acids for muscle building and recovery, including 5g BCAAs* ... Intra-Workout Supplement With All Nine Essential Amino Acids To Support Performance & Endurance* ...
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are ... 07/01/2001 - "Role of essential amino acids in renal failure.". 07/01/1992 - "A new amino acid solution for renal failure, ... Essential Amino Acids. Subscribe to New Research on Essential Amino Acids Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Amino Acids: 10808*Essential Amino Acids: 403*Arginine: 7940 ...
Essential Amino Acids and L-Theanine, Flavor: Cranberry Grape, 285 Gram on Amazon.com ✓ FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders ... Malic Acid, Tartaric Acid, Silicon Dioxide, Calcium Silicate, L-Theanine, Soy Lecithin, Sucralose, Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid ... This item:Isopure Amino Supplement, with BCAAs, Essential Amino Acids and L-Theanine, Flavor: Cranberry Grape… $26.02($0.09 / ... Isopure Amino Supplement, with BCAAs, Essential Amino Acids and L-Theanine, Flavor: Cranberry Grape, 285 Gram ...
  • However in children taurine is classed as a semi essential amino acid, as their bodies aren't developed enough to produce it. (yahoo.com)
  • Review: taurine: a 'very essential' amino acid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • All ocular tissues contain taurine, and quantitative analysis of ocular tissue extracts of the rat eye revealed that taurine was the most abundant amino acid in the retina, vitreous, lens, cornea, iris, and ciliary body. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Nevertheless, considering its broad distribution, its many cytoprotective attributes, and its functional significance in cell development, nutrition, and survival, taurine is undoubtedly one of the most essential substances in the body. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Interestingly, taurine satisfies many of the criteria considered essential for inclusion in the inventory of neurotransmitters, but evidence of a taurine-specific receptor has yet to be identified in the vertebrate nervous system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Meat, along with certain species of fish and seafood, is a rich source of taurine, an important amino acid whose concentration in eggs, milk, and plant foods ranges from negligible to none[Laidlow SA][Pasantes-Morales H]. Taurine is found in high concentrations in the heart, brain, and central nervous system, where it helps stabilize the cellular response to nervous stimulation. (veganforum.com)
  • For instance, taurine (which is not, by strict definition, an amino acid) is essential for cats, but not for dogs. (wikidoc.org)
  • Our bodies need twenty different amino acids, but we are able to make the other twelve kinds from these eight, which we must get from food. (forresthealth.com)
  • There are about 20 different amino acids that are sequenced and folded to combine in boundless ways. (netmeds.com)
  • A table giving the precise pH and concentrations of amino acids, the UV spectra of Gly at various pHs, the UV. (rsc.org)
  • Research by Bohe and colleagues (2003) have found that maintaining high concentrations of amino acids in the blood is more important than increasing intramuscular amino acid concentrations. (performaxlabs.com)