The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain ALKALOIDS. Lycopodium oil is obtained from L. clavatum.
Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.
Halogenated hydrocarbons refer to organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms, where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by halogens such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.
Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
'Allyl compounds' are organic substances that contain the allyl group (CH2=CH-CH2-) as a functional component, which can be found in various forms such as allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, and allyl esters.
A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.
A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.

Reaction specificity of native and nicked 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase. (1/218)

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) decarboxylase is a stereospecific pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alpha-decarboxylase that converts L-aromatic amino acids into their corresponding amines. We now report that reaction of the enzyme with D-5-hydroxytryptophan or D-Dopa results in a time-dependent inactivation and conversion of the PLP coenzyme to pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate and PLP-D-amino acid Pictet-Spengler adducts, which have been identified by high performance liquid chromatography. We also show that the reaction specificity of Dopa decarboxylase toward aromatic amines depends on the experimental conditions. Whereas oxidative deamination occurs under aerobic conditions (Bertoldi, M., Moore, P. S., Maras, B., Dominici, P., and Borri Voltattorni, C. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 23954-23959; Bertoldi, M., Dominici, P., Moore, P. S., Maras, B., and Borri Voltattorni, C. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 6552-6561), half-transamination and Pictet-Spengler reactions take place under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, we examined the reaction specificity of nicked Dopa decarboxylase, obtained by selective tryptic cleavage of the native enzyme between Lys334 and His335. Although this enzymatic species does not exhibit either decarboxylase or oxidative deamination activities, it retains a large percentage of the native transaminase activity toward D-aromatic amino acids and displays a slow transaminase activity toward aromatic amines. These transamination reactions occur concomitantly with the formation of cyclic coenzyme-substrate adducts. Together with additional data, we thus suggest that native Dopa decarboxylase can exist as an equilibrium among "open," "half-open," and "closed" forms.  (+info)

Effect of the ratio between essential and nonessential amino acids in the diet on utilization of nitrogen and amino acids by growing pigs. (2/218)

In 36 growing pigs (30 to 60 kg), N balance and amino acid (AA) composition of weight gain were measured to evaluate the interactive effect of the ratio between N from essential amino acids (EAA(N)) to nonessential amino acids (NEAA(N)) and total N level (T(N)) in the diet on N retention and utilization of N, EAA(N), NEAA(N), and AA. Nine diets composed from ordinary feedstuffs and supplemented with crystalline AA were used (three EAA(N):NEAA(N) ratios of 38:62, 50:50, and 62:38 at three T(N) levels of 18.8, 22.9, and 30.0 g/kg). Pigs were fed restrictedly, at a level of 2.8 x energy for maintenance. In all diets, EAA (including arginine) supply was according to or slightly above the recommended ratios to lysine. Measurements were done in four blocks of nine pigs each. In a concomitant slaughter experiment, the AA composition of deposited body protein was determined to estimate AA utilization. The effects of T(N) and EAA(N):NEAA(N) and their interaction for N retention and utilization were significant. Nitrogen retention increased with higher T(N) in the diet. Increasing EAA(N):NEAA(N) from 38:62 to 50:50 improved N retention only at the two lower T(N) levels. Increasing EAA(N): NEAA(N) above 50:50 failed to improve N retention significantly at any of the three T(N) levels. Lowering T(N) improved the utilization of total and digested N and of EAA(N) and NEAA(N). The increase in EAA(N): NEAA(N) consistently resulted in a lower utilization of EAA(N), but this was compensated by a higher utilization of NEAA(N). The utilization of T(N) was improved by increasing EAA(N):NEAA(N) from 38:62 to 50:50 at the two lower T(N) levels and was relatively unaffected by EAA(N):NEAA(N) at the highest T(N). However, a lower utilization of N was observed at a ratio of 62:38 at a T(N) level of 22.9 g/kg. The effects were similar for utilization of individual EAA and NEAA. Utilization of alanine, aspartic acid, and glycine was close to or >100% at the highest EAA(N):NEAA(N), which was expected because all of these AA are synthesized in pigs. Also, the utilization of arginine was >100% in most of the treatments, which confirms the semiessential character of this AA for maintenance. We concluded that the required ratio of EAA(N):NEAA(N) for optimal N retention and utilization is approximately 50:50. The EAA(N):NEAA(N) is more important at lower dietary protein levels. This study indicates that EAA(N): NEAA(N) can be increased up to 70:30 without lowering the utilization of N. Thus, deaminated EAA(N) was efficiently utilized for the synthesis of NEAA(N).  (+info)

Effects of branched-chain-enriched amino acids and insulin on forearm leucine kinetics. (3/218)

Although amino acid mixtures enriched in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and deficient in aromatic amino acids (AAA) are often used together with insulin and glucose in clinical nutrition, their physiological effects on muscle protein anabolism are not known. To this aim, we studied forearm leucine kinetics in post-absorptive volunteers, before and after the systemic infusion of BCAA-enriched, AAA-deficient amino acids along with insulin and the euglycaemic clamp. The results were compared with the effects of insulin infusion alone. A compartmental leucine forearm model was employed at steady state. Hyperaminoacidaemia with hyperinsulinaemia (to approximately 80-100 micro-units/ml) increased the leucine plasma concentration (+70%; P<0.001), inflow into the forearm cell (+150%; P<0.01), disposal into protein synthesis (+100%; P<0.01), net intracellular retention (P<0.01), net forearm balance (by approximately 6-fold; P<0.01) and net deamination to alpha-ketoisocaproate (4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate) (+9%; P<0.05). Leucine release from forearm proteolysis and outflow from the forearm cell were unchanged. In contrast, hyperinsulinaemia alone decreased plasma leucine concentrations (-35%; P<0.001) and leucine inflow (-20%; P<0.05) and outflow (-30%; P<0.01) into and out of forearm cell(s), it increased net intracellular leucine retention (P<0.03), and it did not change leucine release from forearm proteolysis (-20%; P=0.138), net leucine deamination to alpha-ketoisocaproate, leucine disposal into protein synthesis or net forearm protein balance. By considering all data together, leucine disposal into protein synthesis was directly correlated with leucine inflow into the cell (r=0.71; P<0.0001). These data indicate that the infusion of BCAA-enriched, AAA-deficient amino acids along with insulin is capable of stimulating forearm (i.e. muscle) protein anabolism in normal volunteers by enhancing intracellular leucine transport and protein synthesis. These effects are probably due to hyperaminoacidaemia and/or its interaction with hyperinsulinaemia, since they were not observed under conditions of hyperinsulinaemia alone.  (+info)

Fluorescent neoglycolipids. Improved probes for oligosaccharide ligand discovery. (4/218)

A second generation of lipid-linked oligosaccharide probes, fluorescent neoglycolipids, has been designed and synthesized for ligand discovery within highly complex mixtures of oligosaccharides. The aminolipid 1,2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DHPE), which has been used extensively to generate neoglycolipids for biological and structural studies, has been modified to incorporate a fluorescent label, anthracene. This new lipid reagent, N-aminoacetyl-N-(9-anthracenylmethyl)-1, 2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (ADHP), synthesized from anthracenaldehyde and DHPE gives an intense fluorescence under UV light. Fluorescent neoglycolipids derived from a variety of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides by conjugation to ADHP, by reductive amination, can be detected and quantified by spectrophotometry and scanning densitometry, and resolved by TLC and HPLC with subpicomole detection. Antigenicities of the ADHP-neoglycolipids are well retained, and picomole levels can be detected using monoclonal carbohydrate sequence-specific antibodies. Among O-glycans from an ovarian cystadenoma mucin, isomeric oligosaccharide sequences, sialyl-Lea- and sialyl-Lex-active, could be resolved by HPLC as fluorescent neoglycolipids, and sequenced by liquid secondary-ion mass spectrometry. Thus the neoglycolipid technology now uniquely combines high sensitivity of immuno-detection with a comparable sensitivity of chemical detection. Principles are thus established for a streamlined technology whereby an oligosaccharide population is carried through ligand detection and ligand isolation steps, and sequence determination by mass spectrometry, enzymatic sequencing and other state-of-the-art technologies for carbohydrate analysis.  (+info)

Structure of the Bordetella pertussis 1414 endotoxin. (5/218)

The endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) of Bordetella pertussis, the agent of whooping cough, consists of a lipid A linked to a highly branched dodecasaccharide containing several acid and amino sugars. The elucidation of the polysaccharide structure was accomplished by first analyzing the structures of fragments obtained by hydrolysis and nitrous deamination and then piecing the fragments together. The fine structure of the antigenic distal pentasaccharide, presented here, was determined by chemical analyses as well as by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The complete structure was reconstituted and confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The following structure was derived from the combined experimental data:The detailed structure combined with previously reported serological data now allows the synthesis of its epitopes for potential vaccines.  (+info)

Electrospray mass spectrometry and fragmentation of N-linked carbohydrates derivatized at the reducing terminus. (6/218)

Derivatives were prepared from N-linked glycans by reductive amination from 2-aminobenzamide, 2-aminopyridine, 3-aminoquinoline, 2-aminoacridone, 4-amino-N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)benzamide, and the methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Their electrospray and collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation spectra were examined with a Q-TOF mass spectrometer. The strongest signals were obtained from the [M + Na]+ ions for all derivatives except sugars derivatized with 4-amino-N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)benzamide which gave very strong doubly charged [M + H + Na]2+ ions. The strongest [M + Na]+ ion signals were obtained from the butyl ester of 4-aminobenzoic acid and the weakest from 2-aminopyridine. The most informative spectra were recorded from the [M + Li]+ or [M + Na]+ ions. These spectra were dominated by ions produced by sequence-revealing glycosidic cleavages and "internal" fragments. Linkage-revealing cross-ring cleavage ions were reasonably abundant, particularly from high-mannose glycans. Although the nature of the derivative was found to have little effect upon the fragmentation pattern, 3-aminoquinoline derivatives gave marginally more abundant cross-ring fragments than the other derivatives. [M + H]+ ions formed only glycosidic fragments with few, if any, cross-ring cleavage ions. Doubly charged molecular ions gave less informative spectra; singly charged fragments were weak, and molecular ions containing hydrogen ([M + 2H]2+ and [M + H + Na]2+) fragmented as the [M + H]+ singly charged ions with no significant cross-ring cleavages.  (+info)

Bisulfite genomic sequencing: systematic investigation of critical experimental parameters. (7/218)

Bisulfite genomic sequencing is the method of choice for the generation of methylation maps with single-base resolution. The method is based on the selective deamination of cytosine to uracil by treatment with bisulfite and the sequencing of subsequently generated PCR products. In contrast to cytosine, 5-methylcytosine does not react with bisulfite and can therefore be distinguished. In order to investigate the potential for optimization of the method and to determine the critical experimental parameters, we determined the influence of incubation time and incubation temperature on the deamination efficiency and measured the degree of DNA degradation during the bisulfite treatment. We found that maximum conversion rates of cytosine occurred at 55 degrees C (4-18 h) and 95 degrees C (1 h). Under these conditions at least 84-96% of the DNA is degraded. To study the impact of primer selection, homologous DNA templates were constructed possessing cytosine-containing and cytosine-free primer binding sites, respectively. The recognition rates for cytosine (>/=97%) and 5-methylcytosine (>/=94%) were found to be identical for both templates.  (+info)

1-Oxo-2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydroacronycine: a useful synthon in the acronycine series for the introduction of amino substituents at 6-position and for the conversion into isopropylfuroacridones. (8/218)

Thermic aromatic nucleophilic displacement of the methoxy group at C-6 of (+/-)-1-oxo-2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydroacronycine (2) by an amine is a reaction that gives a facile entry to acronycine derivatives bearing an amino substituent at this position. The introduction of the amino substituents was confirmed with a long-range 1H-15N correlation NMR spectrum at natural abundance. Under basic conditions, compound 2 can also be rearranged to the corresponding isopropylfuroacridone 12, in 80% yield.  (+info)

Amination is a chemical process or reaction that involves the addition of an amino group (-NH2) to a molecule. This process is often used in organic chemistry to create amines, which are compounds containing a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons.

In the context of biochemistry, amination reactions play a crucial role in the synthesis of various biological molecules, including amino acids, neurotransmitters, and nucleotides. For example, the enzyme glutamine synthetase catalyzes the amination of glutamate to form glutamine, an essential amino acid for many organisms.

It is important to note that there are different types of amination reactions, depending on the starting molecule and the specific amino group donor. The precise mechanism and reagents used in an amination reaction will depend on the particular chemical or biological context.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "Palladium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. It's used in various applications, including jewelry, dental work, electronics, and chemical reactions. If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Amines are organic compounds that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons. They are derived from ammonia (NH3) by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with alkyl or aryl groups. The nomenclature of amines follows the substitutive type, where the parent compound is named as an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon, and the functional group "amine" is designated as a suffix or prefix.

Amines are classified into three types based on the number of carbon atoms attached to the nitrogen atom:

1. Primary (1°) amines: One alkyl or aryl group is attached to the nitrogen atom.
2. Secondary (2°) amines: Two alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.
3. Tertiary (3°) amines: Three alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.

Quaternary ammonium salts have four organic groups attached to the nitrogen atom and a positive charge, with anions balancing the charge.

Amines have a wide range of applications in the chemical industry, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, and solvents. They also play a significant role in biological systems as neurotransmitters, hormones, and cell membrane components.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rhodium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Rh and atomic number 45. It is a rare, silvery-white, hard, corrosion-resistant, and chemically inert transition metal. It is found in small quantities in platinum or nickel ores along with some other rare metals.

It's primarily used in industrial applications, such as being a key component in catalytic converters in automobiles, which helps to reduce harmful emissions. It's also used in jewelry, electronics, and scientific instruments due to its properties of resistance to corrosion and heat.

If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, please let me know!

Acyclic hydrocarbons, also known as aliphatic hydrocarbons, are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms. They are characterized by the absence of aromatic rings or cyclic structures in their molecular structure. Instead, they contain open chains of carbon atoms that are saturated (containing only single bonds) or unsaturated (containing double or triple bonds).

Acyclic hydrocarbons can be further classified into several subcategories based on the nature and arrangement of their carbon-carbon bonds. These include:

* Alkanes: saturated acyclic hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbon atoms (e.g., methane, ethane, propane, butane)
* Alkenes: unsaturated acyclic hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond (e.g., ethene, propene, butene)
* Alkynes: unsaturated acyclic hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon triple bond (e.g., ethyne, propyne, butyne)

Acyclic hydrocarbons are important components of fossil fuels such as natural gas, crude oil, and coal. They are also used in the production of a wide range of chemicals, materials, and consumer products, including plastics, synthetic fibers, solvents, and fuels.

Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond in their molecular structure. The general chemical formula for alkenes is CnH2n, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The double bond in alkenes can undergo various reactions, such as addition reactions, where different types of molecules can add across the double bond to form new compounds. The relative position of the double bond in the carbon chain and the presence of substituents on the carbon atoms can affect the physical and chemical properties of alkenes.

Alkenes are important industrial chemicals and are used as starting materials for the synthesis of a wide range of products, including plastics, resins, fibers, and other chemicals. They are also found in nature, occurring in some plants and animals, and can be produced by certain types of bacteria through fermentation processes.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

Alanine Dehydrogenase (ADH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion between alanine and pyruvate with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH). This reaction plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly in the catabolism of alanine.

In humans, there are multiple isoforms of ADH that are expressed in different tissues and have different functions. The isoform known as ALDH4A1 is primarily responsible for the conversion of alanine to pyruvate in the liver. Deficiencies or mutations in this enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder called 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria, which is characterized by elevated levels of 4-hydroxybutyric acid in the urine and neurological symptoms.

"Lycopodium" is a term that has different meanings in various scientific and medicinal contexts. Medically, it often refers to a homeopathic remedy prepared from the spores of the plant Lycopodium clavatum, also known as club moss. This plant is a type of evergreen shrub native to Europe and some parts of North America. The spores are used in homeopathy due to their alleged healing properties, although there is limited scientific evidence supporting these claims.

It's important to note that the medical use and effectiveness of homeopathic remedies like Lycopodium are still a subject of debate within the medical community, and they should not be used as a substitute for evidence-based medical treatments unless recommended by a licensed healthcare professional.

Physicochemical processes refer to interactions and changes that occur at the interface of physical and chemical systems in a living organism or biological sample. These processes are crucial in understanding various biological phenomena, including cellular functions, metabolic pathways, and drug actions. They involve the transformation of energy and matter, as well as the formation and breaking of chemical bonds.

Examples of physicochemical processes include:

1. Membrane transport: The movement of molecules across biological membranes through passive diffusion or active transport.
2. Enzyme kinetics: The study of how enzymes catalyze biochemical reactions, including the rate of reaction and the factors that affect it.
3. Protein folding: The process by which a protein molecule assumes its three-dimensional structure, which is critical for its function.
4. Acid-base equilibria: The balance between acids and bases in biological systems, which affects various physiological processes such as pH regulation.
5. Oxidation-reduction reactions: The transfer of electrons between molecules, which plays a crucial role in energy metabolism and other cellular functions.
6. Conformational changes: The alterations in the shape or structure of biological macromolecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, that are critical for their function.
7. Phase transitions: The transformation of matter from one physical state to another, such as the melting of lipid membranes or the denaturation of proteins.

Understanding physicochemical processes is essential in developing medical interventions, including drugs and therapies, as well as in diagnosing and treating various diseases.

Halogenated hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and one or more halogens, such as fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), or iodine (I). These compounds are formed when halogens replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule.

Halogenated hydrocarbons can be further categorized into two groups:

1. Halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons: These include alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes with halogen atoms replacing hydrogen atoms. Examples include chloroform (trichloromethane, CHCl3), methylene chloride (dichloromethane, CH2Cl2), and trichloroethylene (C2HCl3).
2. Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons: These consist of aromatic rings, such as benzene, with halogen atoms attached. Examples include chlorobenzene (C6H5Cl), bromobenzene (C6H5Br), and polyhalogenated biphenyls like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

Halogenated hydrocarbons have various industrial applications, including use as solvents, refrigerants, fire extinguishing agents, and intermediates in chemical synthesis. However, some of these compounds can be toxic, environmentally persistent, and bioaccumulative, posing potential health and environmental risks.

Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GLDH or GDH) is a mitochondrial enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly within liver and kidney tissues. It catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate, which links amino acid metabolism with the citric acid cycle and energy production. This enzyme is significant in clinical settings as its levels in blood serum can be used as a diagnostic marker for diseases that damage liver or kidney cells, since these cells release GLDH into the bloodstream upon damage.

Iridium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element with the symbol Ir and atomic number 77. It's a transition metal that is part of the platinum group. Iridium has no known biological role in humans or other organisms, and it is not used in medical treatments or diagnoses.

However, iridium is sometimes mentioned in the context of geological time scales because iridium-rich layers in rock formations are associated with major extinction events, such as the one that marked the end of the Cretaceous period 65 million years ago. The leading hypothesis for this association is that large asteroid impacts can create iridium-rich vapor plumes that settle onto the Earth's surface and leave a distinct layer in the rock record.

Phosphines are a class of organic compounds characterized by a phosphorus atom bonded to three organic groups and a hydrogen atom, with the general formula of PRR'R''H. They are important in various chemical reactions as reducing agents and catalysts. In medicine, phosphines have no direct medical application. However, certain phosphine compounds have been studied for their potential use as pharmaceuticals, such as phosphinic acids which have shown promise as protease inhibitors used in the treatment of diseases like HIV and HCV. It is important to note that some phosphines are highly toxic and should be handled with care.

Aziridines are a class of organic compounds that contain a three-membered ring consisting of two carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atom is bonded to two alkyl or aryl groups, and the third carbon atom is bonded to a hydrogen atom or another organic group.

Aziridines are important intermediates in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other industrial chemicals. They can be prepared by the reaction of alkyl or aryl halides with nitrogen nucleophiles such as ammonia or primary amines, followed by intramolecular cyclization.

Aziridines are also useful building blocks in organic synthesis due to their high reactivity towards various nucleophilic reagents. They can undergo ring-opening reactions with a wide range of nucleophiles, including water, alcohols, amines, and carboxylic acids, leading to the formation of new carbon-heteroatom bonds.

It is important to note that aziridines themselves are toxic and should be handled with care. However, their derivatives have found significant applications in medicinal chemistry as antitumor agents, anti-inflammatory drugs, and enzyme inhibitors.

"Green Chemistry Technology," also known as "Sustainable Chemistry," refers to the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. It aims to minimize negative impacts on human health and the environment, while maximizing economic benefits. This is achieved through the application of principles such as preventing waste, designing safer chemicals, using renewable feedstocks, and minimizing energy use. Green Chemistry Technology involves the development and implementation of novel chemical reactions, catalysts, and processes that are inherently safer and more environmentally benign than traditional methods.

Cyclization is a chemical process that involves forming a cyclic structure or ring-shaped molecule from a linear or open-chain compound. In the context of medicinal chemistry and drug design, cyclization reactions are often used to synthesize complex molecules, including drugs, by creating rings or fused ring systems within the molecule's structure.

Cyclization can occur through various mechanisms, such as intramolecular nucleophilic substitution, electrophilic addition, or radical reactions. The resulting cyclized compounds may exhibit different chemical and biological properties compared to their linear precursors, making them valuable targets for drug discovery and development.

In some cases, the cyclization process can lead to the formation of stereocenters within the molecule, which can impact its three-dimensional shape and how it interacts with biological targets. Therefore, controlling the stereochemistry during cyclization reactions is crucial in medicinal chemistry to optimize the desired biological activity.

Overall, cyclization plays a significant role in the design and synthesis of many pharmaceutical compounds, enabling the creation of complex structures that can interact specifically with biological targets for therapeutic purposes.

Amino acid oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the reversible oxidation and reduction reactions involving amino acids. They play a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids by catalyzing the interconversion of L-amino acids to their corresponding α-keto acids, while simultaneously reducing a cofactor such as NAD(P)+ or FAD.

The reaction catalyzed by these enzymes can be represented as follows:

L-amino acid + H2O + Coenzyme (Oxidized) → α-keto acid + NH3 + Coenzyme (Reduced)

Amino acid oxidoreductases are classified into two main types based on their cofactor requirements and reaction mechanisms. The first type uses FAD as a cofactor and is called amino acid flavoprotein oxidoreductases. These enzymes typically catalyze the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to form α-keto acids, ammonia, and reduced FAD. The second type uses pyridine nucleotides (NAD(P)+) as cofactors and is called amino acid pyridine nucleotide-dependent oxidoreductases. These enzymes catalyze the reversible interconversion of L-amino acids to their corresponding α-keto acids, while simultaneously reducing or oxidizing NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+.

Amino acid oxidoreductases are widely distributed in nature and play important roles in various biological processes, including amino acid catabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and the biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of amino acid oxidoreductases is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these diseases.

Allyl compounds are organic compounds that contain the allyl group, which is a functional group with the formula CH2=CH-CH2-. The allyl group consists of a methylene bridge (CH2-) flanked by a carbon-carbon double bond (-CH=). Allyl compounds can be derived from allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, or other allyl halides and can participate in various chemical reactions due to the reactivity of the double bond. They are used in organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals.

Boron is a chemical element with the symbol B and atomic number 5. It is a metalloid that is light-colored, hard, and highly resistant to corrosion. In its crystalline form, boron is nearly as hard as diamond.

In medicine, boron compounds have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, particularly in the treatment of cancer. For example, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a type of radiation therapy that involves the use of boron-containing compounds to selectively deliver radiation to cancer cells.

Boron is also an essential micronutrient for plants and some animals, including humans. However, excessive exposure to boron can be toxic to humans and other organisms. Therefore, it is important to maintain appropriate levels of boron in the body and environment.

Styrene is an organic compound that is primarily used in the production of polystyrene plastics and resins. In a medical context, styrene is not a term that is typically used to describe a specific disease or condition. However, exposure to high levels of styrene has been linked to potential health effects, including neurological damage, irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and possible increased risk of cancer.

Styrene is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) based on evidence from animal studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health risks associated with exposure to styrene in humans.

If you have further questions about styrene or its potential health effects, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or toxicologist who can provide more detailed and personalized advice based on your specific situation and concerns.

Styrene is not typically referred to as "Styrenes" in a medical context. Instead, it is simply called Styrene. Here is a medical definition for it:

Styrene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C8H8. It is a colorless oily liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell and taste. Styrene is used in the manufacture of polystyrene plastics and resins, as well as in rubber and latex manufacturing.

In terms of its health effects, styrene is classified as a possible carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Exposure to high levels of styrene can cause neurological symptoms such as headache, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating. Long-term exposure has been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including leukemia and lymphoma. However, the evidence for these associations is not conclusive, and more research is needed to fully understand the health effects of styrene exposure.

Boron compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element boron (symbol: B) combined with one or more other elements. Boron is a naturally occurring, non-metallic element found in various minerals and ores. It is relatively rare, making up only about 0.001% of the Earth's crust by weight.

Boron compounds can take many forms, including salts, acids, and complex molecules. Some common boron compounds include:

* Boric acid (H3BO3) - a weak acid used as an antiseptic, preservative, and insecticide
* Sodium borate (Na2B4O7·10H2O) - also known as borax, a mineral used in detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes
* Boron carbide (B4C) - an extremely hard material used in abrasives, ceramics, and nuclear reactors
* Boron nitride (BN) - a compound with properties similar to graphite, used as a lubricant and heat shield

Boron compounds have a variety of uses in medicine, including as antiseptics, anti-inflammatory agents, and drugs for the treatment of cancer. For example, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental form of radiation therapy that uses boron-containing compounds to selectively target and destroy cancer cells.

It's important to note that some boron compounds can be toxic or harmful if ingested, inhaled, or otherwise exposed to the body in large quantities. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a trained medical professional.

... reductive amination and the Mannich reaction. Many alkyl amines are produced industrially by the amination of alcohols using ... Amination is the process by which an amine group is introduced into an organic molecule. This type of reaction is important ... Amination can occur in a number of ways including reaction with ammonia or another amine such as an alkylation, ... When the amine is used as an electrophile, the reaction is called electrophilic amination. Electron-rich organic substrates ...
Amination-catalysts. Amination catalysts Johnson Matthey offers amination catalysts for oxo-alcohol production and for ... Our amination catalysts are used for a variety of speciality amines production and downstream of our oxo-alcohol catalysts. ...
The DPEphos ligand is superior to DPPF in the case of palladium-catalyzed benzylic amination of benzylic esters.. R. Kuwano, Y ... A protocol for the dehydrative amination of alcohols in water using a water-soluble calix[4]resorcinarene sulfonic acid as a ... Halogen bonding induces an intermolecular Csp3-H amination and even enables a hydrogen atom transfer relay strategy to access ... Nickel nanoparticles catalyse the reductive amination of aldehydes by transfer hydrogenation with isopropanol at 76 C.. F. ...
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US-2835565-A chemical patent summary.
The Gabriel reagent is widely used as a nucleophilic aminating agent since its reactivity is reliable and its handling is easy.1) A variety of aminating agents analogous to the Gabriel reagent have been reported. The potassium salt of imide 1 reacts with alkyl halide to give imide 2. 2 is treated with base or acid to give either N-Boc-amine 3 or N-methoxycarbonylamine 4, respectively. Moreover, 1 also serves as an acid nucleophile in the Mitsunobu reaction to allow for the conversion of hydroxy groups to amino groups. Therefore, 1 is a useful reagent to give monoprotected amines.2) Fukuyama and co-workers have demonstrated various reactions using the N-substituted sulfonamide 5.3) Smooth reactions of 5 occur with alkyl halides under basic conditions and alcohols under Mitsunobu conditions to provide o-nitrobenzenesulfonyl (o-Ns) amines 6. The various o-Ns amines (Alloc, Boc, Cbz) 6 obtained from these reactions can be selectively deprotected, under the appropriate conditions, to afford the
Iron porphyrin catalysed light driven C-H bond amination and alkene aziridination with organic azides Y. Du, C. Zhou, W. To, H ... Herein is described an iron(III) porphyrin catalysed sp3 C-H amination and alkene aziridination with selectivity by using ... Iron porphyrin catalysed light driven C-H bond amination and alkene aziridination with organic azides† ...
Palladium catalyzed amination of vinyl chlorides: a new entry to imines, enamines and 2-amino-1,3-butadienes. Download Prime ... Palladium catalyzed amination of vinyl chlorides: a new entry to imines, enamines and 2-amino-1,3-butadienes. Chem Commun (Camb ... Palladium Catalyzed Amination of Vinyl Chlorides: a New Entry to Imines, Enamines and 2-amino-1,3-butadienes. Chem Commun (Camb ... Palladium catalyzed amination of vinyl chlorides: a new entry to imines, enamines and 2-amino-1,3-butadienes.. Chem Commun ( ...
Isotope Effects Reveal the Mechanism of Enamine Formation in l-Proline-Catalyzed α-Amination of Aldehydes. Overview of ...
... Yizhe ... A metal-free sequential dual oxidative amination of C(sp3)-H bonds under ambient conditions affords imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines in ...
Bifunctional thiourea-modified polymers of intrinsic microporosity for enantioselective α-amination of 3-aryl-2-oxindoles in ... Bifunctional thiourea-modified polymers of intrinsic microporosity for enantioselective α-amination of 3-aryl-2-oxindoles in ...
Copper-catalyzed amination of aryl and alkenyl electrophiles Responsibility. Kevin H. Shaughnessy, Engelbert Ciganek, and ... The metal-catalyzed amination of aryl and alkenyl electrophiles has developed into a widely used methodology for the synthesis ... Copper-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl and Alkenyl Electrophiles is intended to provide organic chemists with an accessible, but ... Optimal experimental conditions for the amination of aryl and alkenyl halides with all classes of nitrogen nucleophiles are ...
A method for the nucleophilic amination of methoxy arenes was established by using sodium hydride (NaH) in the presence of ... Kaga, A., Hayashi, H., Hakamata, H., Oi, M., Uchiyama, M., Takita, R. & Chiba, S. (2017). Nucleophilic amination of methoxy ... Nucleophilic amination of methoxy arenes promoted by a sodium hydride/iodide composite. ... Nucleophilic amination of methoxy arenes promoted by a sodium hydride/iodide composite. Angewandte Chemie International Edition ...
Rational pptimization of lewis-acid catalysts for the direct amination of alcohols, part 1 - activity descriptors for metal ... Rational pptimization of lewis-acid catalysts for the direct amination of alcohols, part 1 - activity descriptors for metal ... the last descriptor allowed a qualitative description of catalytic activity trends for the model amination reaction of benzyl ...
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1 Free 3D amination Models for download, files in Blender, 3ds Max, Obj, Fbx, C4d, Maya with highly detailed, low poly, rigged ... 1 files 3D Amination Models found for free download. These Amination 3d models with high detailed, lowpoly, rigged, animated, ...
Home Research Item Mechanistic Investigations into Amination of Unactivated Arenes via Cation Radical Accelerated Nucleophilic ... Mechanistic Investigations into Amination of Unactivated Arenes via Cation Radical Accelerated Nucleophilic Aromatic ... Mechanistic Investigations into Amination of Unactivated Arenes via Cation Radical Accelerated Nucleophilic Aromatic ... Mechanistic Investigations into Amination of Unactivated Arenes via Cation Radical Accelerated Nucleophilic Aromatic ...
A continuous flow method for the direct conversion of alcohols to amines via a hydrogen borrowing approach is reported.
Palladium-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl Nonaflates K. W. Anderson, Mendez-Perez, M. , Priego, J. , and Buchwald, S. L. "Palladium ... Use of ligands 2-4 and 6 allows for the catalytic amination of electron-rich and -neutral aryl nonaflates with both primary and ... With use of Xantphos 5, the catalytic amination of a variety of functionalized aryl nonaflates resulted in excellent yields of ... The first detailed study of the palladium-catalyzed amination of aryl nonaflates is reported. ...
Here, the authors report a cobalt-triphos complex as molecularly-defined non-noble metal catalyst for the reductive amination ... Homogeneous cobalt-catalyzed reductive amination for synthesis of functionalized primary amines Despite their higher abundance ...
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... a new protocol has been developed that improves the reaction rate and overall efficiency of the direct reductive amination of ... a new protocol has been developed that improves the reaction rate and overall efficiency of the direct reductive amination of ...
Amination at 373 K showed DRIFT peaks corresponding to C=N vibration and NH2 scissoring. At an amination temperature of 573 K, ... Amination at 373 K showed DRIFT peaks corresponding to C=N vibration and NH2 scissoring. At an amination temperature of 573 K, ... Amination at 373 K showed DRIFT peaks corresponding to C=N vibration and NH2 scissoring. At an amination temperature of 573 K, ... Amination at 373 K showed DRIFT peaks corresponding to C=N vibration and NH2 scissoring. At an amination temperature of 573 K, ...
Chocolate from the West of England: An eggs-amination. Dan Norris, Mayor of the West of England. As you tuck into your Easter ...
Enzymes Get Closer to Traditional Organic Chemistry - The Case of Reductive Amination. * By Emilia ... Figure 1: Scheme for classic reductive amination reaction. Here is where biocatalysis steps in. The team developed a reactive ... Figure 2: Biocatalytic reductive amination strategy proposed by the Turner Lab. The rationale behind the experimental design ... They draw inspiration from a common synthetic method known as reductive amination (Figure 1). Under this approach, an aldehyde ...
  • In the critically acclaimed drama Breaking Bad, main character Walter White uses the reductive amination reaction to produce his high purity methamphetamine, relying on phenyl-2-propanone and methylamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reductive amination (also known as reductive alkylation) is a form of amination that involves the conversion of a carbonyl group to an amine via an intermediate imine. (wikipedia.org)
  • They draw inspiration from a common synthetic method known as reductive amination (Figure 1). (chembites.org)
  • Johnson Matthey offers amination catalysts for oxo-alcohol production and for speciality amine production under its HTC™ and PRICAT™ brands. (matthey.com)
  • Both reactive manifolds can meet at this point, and the aldehyde (1) can be converted to the alkylated amine product (7) directly via an enzyme-catalyzed reductive amination using a reductive aminase and the biological reductant NADPH as a source of electrons. (chembites.org)
  • While we have shown before that the ammonium ions rapidly react with methanol to produce methylammonium ions, these results show that also methoxy groups formed from methanol at strong Brønsted acid sites under reaction conditions are very low, it is concluded that the contribution of the methoxy group amination to the amine formation is very small. (utwente.nl)
  • A protocol for the dehydrative amination of alcohols in water using a water-soluble calix[4]resorcinarene sulfonic acid as a reusable multifunctional catalyst allows an environmentally benign synthesis of benzylic and allylic amines. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Potential elementary reaction steps in solid acid catalyzed amination of light alcohols are critically compared using hydrogen mordenite as (model) catalyst and the open mechanistic questions have been addressed. (utwente.nl)
  • Veefkind, VA & Lercher, JA 1999, ' on the elementary steps of acid zeolite catalyzed amination of light alcohols ', Applied catalysis A: general , vol. 181, no. 2, pp. 245-255. (utwente.nl)
  • Additively manufactured catalytic static mixers were used for the intensified reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones inside a continuous flow reactor. (vapourtec.com)
  • A classic named reaction is the Mignonac reaction (1921) involving reaction of a ketone with ammonia over a nickel catalyst for example in a synthesis of 1-phenylethylamine starting from acetophenone: Nowadays, one-pot reductive amination fulfil by acid-metal catalysts that act as a hydride transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reductive amination is predominantly used for the synthesis of the amino acid glutamate starting from α-ketoglutarate, while biochemistry largely relies on transamination to introduce nitrogen in the other amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metal-catalyzed amination of aryl and alkenyl electrophiles has developed into a widely used methodology for the synthesis of natural products, active pharmaceutical ingredients, agricultural chemicals, and materials for molecular electronics. (stanford.edu)
  • Chiral amines are broadly used compounds in pharmaceutical industry and organic synthesis, and reductive amination reactions have been the most appreciated methods for their syntheses. (sustech.edu.cn)
  • Synthesis of N-Substituted 3-Amino-4-halopyridines: A Sequential Boc-Removal/Reductive Amination Mediated by Brønsted and Lewis Acids. (acs.org)
  • Our amination catalysts are used for a variety of speciality amines production and downstream of our oxo-alcohol catalysts. (matthey.com)
  • In this work, based on the Xiao's racemic transfer hydrogenative reductive amination in 2010 and our recent work in novel chiral pyridine ligands, chiral half-sandwich iridium catalysts were rationally designed and synthesized. (sustech.edu.cn)
  • C-H amination is the most powerful method to directly add nitrogen functionalities into a variety of arenes including biology- and materials-oriented molecules. (rsc.org)
  • Recent developments in aromatic C-H amination chemistry have enabled the conversion of unactivated arenes into a range of arylamine derivatives without using directing groups or excess amounts of arenes. (rsc.org)
  • A method for the nucleophilic amination of methoxy arenes was established by using sodium hydride (NaH) in the presence of lithium iodide (LiI). (ntu.edu.sg)
  • A mechanistic investigation into the amination of electron-neutral and electron-rich arenes using organic photoredox catalysis is presented. (unc.edu)
  • This approach, known as direct reductive amination (Borch reaction), employs reducing agents that only react slowly (or not at all) with the ketone/aldehyde precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • When applied to a broad series of triflate and triflimide salts, the last descriptor allowed a qualitative description of catalytic activity trends for the model amination reaction of benzyl alcohol with aniline. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Adding alkyl groups to amines constitutes an essential step en route to many pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, resins, and polymers, but current methods require large amounts of compounds, high temperatures, long reaction times, or the use of toxic or expensive reagents. (chembites.org)
  • abstract = "The amination of a diamond surface was investigated by treatment of chlorinated diamond in an ammonia environment at various temperatures. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Pd-Catalyzed intramolecular allylic C-H amination of 1,1-disubstituted alkenyl amines with various allylic tethers (X = O, NMs, CH 2 ) was developed. (figshare.com)
  • Optimal experimental conditions for the amination of aryl and alkenyl halides with all classes of nitrogen nucleophiles are presented. (stanford.edu)
  • X. Huang and Buchwald, S. L. " New Ammonia Equivalents for the Pd-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl Halides " , Org. (mit.edu)
  • In this perspective, we discuss recent developments in the radical C-H amination of aromatic molecules. (rsc.org)
  • Halogen bonding induces an intermolecular Csp 3 -H amination and even enables a hydrogen atom transfer relay strategy to access privileged pyrrolidine structures directly from alkanes. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Copper-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl and Alkenyl Electrophiles is intended to provide organic chemists with an accessible, but detailed, introduction to this important class of transformations. (stanford.edu)
  • Nonetheless, it is remarkable to witness the synergy between biological systems and organic chemical platforms like reductive amination. (chembites.org)
  • In biochemistry, dehydrogenase enzymes can catalyze the reductive amination of α-keto acids and ammonia to yield α-amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particularly noteworthy is the use of substrates containing a labile allylic moiety and new simple catalytic systems capable of promoting highly chemo- and regioselective allylic C-H amination by overcoming significant challenges. (figshare.com)
  • At an amination temperature of 573 K, most of the nitrogen on the surface was present as imines. (elsevierpure.com)
  • However, one-step transfer hydrogenative direct asymmetric reductive amination (THDARA) that could expand the scope, simplify the operation and eliminate the use of additives has been challenging. (sustech.edu.cn)
  • This method is sometimes called indirect reductive amination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sponge iron was produced from steel mill and amination industry wastes, and valuable mineral products were extracted from sources as flue dusts and uranium tailings. (cdc.gov)
  • A metal-free sequential dual oxidative amination of C(sp 3 )-H bonds under ambient conditions affords imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines in very good yields. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Amination can occur in a number of ways including reaction with ammonia or another amine such as an alkylation, reductive amination and the Mannich reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cobalt-rhodium heterobimetallic nanoparticles catalyze a tandem reductive amination of aldehydes with nitroaromatics without any additives under mild conditions (1 atm H 2 and 25 C). This procedure can be scaled up to the gram scale, and the catalyst can be reused more than six times without loss of activity. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • A rapid construction of enantioenriched benzo-fused quinolizidines, indolizidines, and their analogues by ruthenium-catalyzed asymmetric cascade hydrogenation/reductive amination of quinolinyl- and quinoxalinyl-containing ketones has been developed. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Rapid Construction of Structurally Diverse Quinolizidines, Indolizidines, and Their Analogues via Ruthenium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Cascade Hydrogenation/Reductive Amination. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In this case, an alternative to reductive amination. (galchimia.com)
  • Most organic chemists have probably carried out at least one reductive amination during their career. (galchimia.com)
  • The usual sequence for the introduction of a dialkylaminomethyl group on an (hetero)aromatic ring involves the use of an aldehyde, which in turn can be prepared from a bromide derivative by metallation and trapping with DMF, with an amine under reductive amination conditions. (galchimia.com)
  • Awarded for the development of new biocatalysts for asymmetric reductive amination, from fundamental understanding of mechanism and structure to applications on an industrial scale. (rsc.org)
  • Dichotomy of Atom-Economical Hydrogen-Free Reductive Amidation vs Exhaustive Reductive Amination. (acs.org)
  • The work described here developed a high-yield synthesis of chemically stable interstrand cross-links resulting from a reductive amination reaction between an abasic site and the noncanonical nucleobase 2-aminopurine in duplex DNA. (nih.gov)
  • M. H. Ali and Buchwald, S. L. " An Improved Method for the Palladium-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl Iodides " , J. Org. (mit.edu)
  • A new protocol for palladium-catalyzed Buchwald-Hartwig amination of aryl chlorides and bromides with benzophenone imine as ammonia surrogate is described. (huji.ac.il)
  • A previously unaddressed transformation of M/NHC complexes under typical conditions of the Buchwald-Hartwig amination is disclosed. (ananikovlab.ru)
  • The Buchwald-Hartwig amination ( BHA ) reaction is an important to form arylnitrogen bonds, specially, to produce aniline which is employed as precursor for pharmaceutical compounds. (usp.br)
  • Yangjian Quan, Zuowei Xie, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China, and colleagues have developed a reaction for the selective B-H amination of ortho -carboranes using ammonia. (chemistryviews.org)
  • The present invention relates to a process for preparing alkanolamines by homogeneously catalyzed alcohol amination of diols by means of ammonia with elimination of water in the presence of a complex catalyst which comprises at least one element selected from groups 8, 9 and 10 of the Periodic Table and also at least one phosphorus donor ligand. (justia.com)
  • The economically attractive amination of diols by means of ammonia to form alkanolamines has not been described for these systems. (justia.com)
  • It is an object of the present invention to provide a process for preparing alkanolamines by alcohol amination of diols by means of ammonia with elimination of water. (justia.com)
  • Here we report the directed evolution of an iron-containing enzymatic catalyst-based on a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-for the highly enantioselective intermolecular amination of benzylic C-H bonds. (sdsc.edu)
  • Experimental and theoretical studies of the C-H amination reaction mediated by the iron dipyrrinato complex (AdL)FeCl(OEt2) provided a model for diastereoinduction and allowed for systematic variation of the catalyst to enhance selectivity. (researcher-app.com)
  • Grossman, O, Rueck-Braun, K & Gelman, D 2008, ' Trans-spanned palladium catalyst for mild and efficient amination of aryl halides with benzophenone imine ', Synthesis , no. 4, pp. 537-542. (huji.ac.il)
  • Depending on the structures of the NHC and azanide, the N-NHC coupling can make a significant contribution to the M/NHC catalyst decomposition in the Buchwald-Hartwig and other amination reactions conducted in the presence of strong bases. (ananikovlab.ru)
  • The catalytic cycle has four steps: amination step ( tsN ), deprotonation step ( tsH ), reductive elimination step ( RE ) and the final step is oxidative addition step ( OA ). (usp.br)
  • According to the researchers, the work provides a new pathway for the direct, efficient, and regioselective B-H amination of ortho -carboranes. (chemistryviews.org)
  • In these studies, the amination is carried out at 100-180° C. (justia.com)
  • Sponge iron was produced from steel mill and amination industry wastes, and valuable mineral products were extracted from sources as flue dusts and uranium tailings. (cdc.gov)

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