Names: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Confusion: A mental state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking, and perceptual disorientation.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Decapoda (Crustacea): The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Anus, Imperforate: A congenital abnormality characterized by the persistence of the anal membrane, resulting in a thin membrane covering the normal ANAL CANAL. Imperforation is not always complete and is treated by surgery in infancy. This defect is often associated with NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS; MENTAL RETARDATION; and DOWN SYNDROME.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Trichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Ancylostoma: A genus of nematode intestinal parasites that consists of several species. A. duodenale is the common hookworm in humans. A. braziliense, A. ceylonicum, and A. caninum occur primarily in cats and dogs, but all have been known to occur in humans.

Subtype-dependence of NMDA receptor channel open probability. (1/89)

NMDA receptor-mediated calcium transients play a critical role in synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and excitotoxicity. NMDA receptors are heteromeric complexes of NR1A combined with NR2A, NR2B, NR2C, and/or NR2D subunits. The NR2 subunits determine a variety of electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the NMDA receptor complex. In this report, we provide evidence for the first time that there is also a significant difference in peak channel open probability (P(o)) between NMDA receptors composed of NR1A/NR2A and those of NR1A/NR2B subunits. First, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing NMDA receptors revealed that NR1A/NR2A-mediated peak current densities are approximately four times larger than those of NR1A/NR2B. We show that this fourfold difference is unlikely caused by differences in receptor surface expression, since these levels were similar for the two subtypes by Western blot analysis. To determine whether P(o) contributed to the difference in peak current densities, we used two different open channel antagonists, MK-801 and 9-aminoacridine, in a variety of experimental paradigms. Our results indicate that peak P(o) is significantly higher (twofold to fivefold) for NR1A/NR2A than NR1A/NR2B, with estimated values of approximately 0.35 and 0.07, respectively. These results suggest that a change in the relative expression levels of NR2A and NR2B can regulate peak amplitude of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials and therefore may play a role in mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity.  (+info)

Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of frameshift-inducing agent ICR191 in mismatch repair-deficient colon cancer cells. (2/89)

BACKGROUND: Deficiency of DNA mismatch repair is a common feature of cancers exhibiting instability of microsatellite DNA sequences. Cancers with microsatellite instability are recognizable by their high rate of spontaneous frameshift mutations within microsatellite sequences, their resistance to killing by cytotoxic agents, and their localization to specific tissues, e.g., the proximal colon and stomach. We hypothesized that the mismatch repair deficiency of these cancers would make them vulnerable to environmental or chemical frameshift-inducing agents. This study was undertaken to test whether exogenous frameshift-inducing agents selectively induce mutations in mismatch repair-deficient cells of mutagen-exposed tissues like the colon and whether cytotoxic doses of these agents would preferentially kill those cells. METHODS: Cytotoxicity of the acridine mutagen 6-chloro-9-[3-(2-chloroethylamino)propylamino]-2-methoxy-acridine (ICR191), a DNA frameshift inducer, was determined in the mismatch repair-deficient human colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 versus the repair-reconstituted derivative HCT116+C3. Vulnerability to the mutagenic effects of ICR191 was determined by transfection of HCT116 or HCT116+C3 cells with a frameshift reporter vector, followed by treatment of the cells with ICR191. Alternatively, the reporter vector was reacted ex vivo with ICR191, and the derivatized vector was then transfected into HCT116 or HCT116+C3 cells. RESULTS: ICR191 proved to be fivefold to 10-fold more potent in inducing mutations in mismatch repair-deficient HCT116 cells than in mismatch repair-proficient HCT116+C3 cells. Moreover, at cytotoxic doses of ICR191, repair-deficient HCT116 cells proved to be fivefold more vulnerable to killing than did HCT116+C3 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Frameshift-inducing mutagens can selectively induce mutations in mismatch repair-deficient cells versus mismatch repair-proficient cells. Environmental exposures may, therefore, favor development of cancers with microsatellite instability in tissues like the gut. Frameshift-inducing agents can, however, also preferentially kill mismatch repair-deficient cancer cells and, thus, may be promising as model therapeutic compounds.  (+info)

Acridinecarboxamide topoisomerase poisons: structural and kinetic studies of the DNA complexes of 5-substituted 9-amino-(N-(2-dimethylamino)ethyl)acridine-4-carboxamides. (3/89)

For a series of antitumor-active 5-substituted 9-aminoacridine-4-carboxamide topoisomerase II poisons, we have used X-ray crystallography and stopped-flow spectrophotometry to explore relationships between DNA binding kinetics, biological activity, and the structures of their DNA complexes. The structure of 5-F-9-amino-[N-(2-dimethylamino)ethyl]-acridine-4-carboxamide bound to d(CGTACG)(2) has been solved to a resolution of 1.55 A in space group P6(4). A drug molecule intercalates between each of the CpG dinucleotide steps, its protonated dimethylamino group partially occupying positions close to the N7 and O6 atoms of guanine G2 in the major groove. A water molecule forms bridging hydrogen bonds between the 4-carboxamide NH and the phosphate group of the same guanine. Intercalation unwinds steps 1 and 2 by 12 degrees and 8 degrees, respectively compared with B-DNA, whereas the central TpA step is overwound by 10 degrees. Nonphenyl 5-substituents, on average, decrease mean DNA dissociation rates by a factor of three, regardless of their steric, hydrophobic, H-bonding, or electronic properties. Cytotoxicity is enhanced on average 4-fold and binding affinities rise by 3-fold, thus there is an apparent association between kinetics, affinity, and cytotoxicity. Taken together, the structural and kinetic studies imply that the main origin of this association is enhanced stacking interactions between the 5-substituent and cytosine in the CpG binding site. Ligand-dependent perturbations in base pair twist angles and their consequent effects on base pair-base pair stacking interactions may also contribute to the stability of the intercalated complex. 5-Phenyl substituents modify dissociation rates without affecting affinities, and variations in their biological activity are not correlated with DNA binding properties, which suggests that they interact directly with the topoisomerase protein.  (+info)

Simultaneous measurement of deltapH and electron transport in chloroplast thylakoids by 9-aminoacridine fluorescence. (4/89)

Electron transport and the electrochemical proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane are two fundamental parameters of photosynthesis. A combination of the electron acceptor, ferricyanide and the DeltapH indicator, 9-aminoacridine, was used to measure simultaneously electron transport rates and DeltapH solely by changes in the fluorescence of 9-aminoacridine. This method yields values for the rate of electron transport that are comparable with those obtained by established methods. Using this method a relationship between the rate of electron transport and DeltapH at various uncoupler concentrations or light intensities was obtained. In addition, the method was used to study the effect of reducing the disulfide bridge in the gamma-subunit of the chloroplast ATP synthase on the relation of electron transport to DeltapH. When the ATP synthase is reduced and alkylated, the threshold DeltapH at which the ATP synthase becomes leaky to protons is lower compared with the oxidized enzyme. Proton flow through the enzyme at a lower DeltapH may be a key step in initiation of ATP synthesis in the reduced enzyme and may be the way by which reduction of the disulfide bridge in the gamma-subunit enables high rates of ATP synthesis at low DeltapH values.  (+info)

Anacardic acid-mediated changes in membrane potential and pH gradient across liposomal membranes. (5/89)

We have previously shown that anacardic acid has an uncoupling effect on oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria using succinate as a substrate (Life Sci. 66 (2000) 229-234). In the present study, for clarification of the physicochemical characteristics of anacardic acid, we used a cyanine dye (DiS-C3(5)) and 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) to determine changes of membrane potential (DeltaPsi) and pH difference (DeltapH), respectively, in a liposome suspension in response to the addition of anacardic acid to the suspension. The anacardic acid quenched DiS-C3(5) fluorescence at concentrations higher than 300 nM, with the degree of quenching being dependent on the log concentration of the acid. Furthermore, the K(+) diffusion potential generated by the addition of valinomycin to the suspension decreased for each increase in anacardic acid concentration used over 300 nM, but the sum of the anacardic acid- and valinomycin-mediated quenching was additively increasing. This indicates that the anacardic acid-mediated quenching was not due simply to increments in the K(+) permeability of the membrane. Addition of anacardic acid in the micromolar range to the liposomes with DeltaPsi formed by valinomycin-K(+) did not significantly alter 9-AA fluorescence, but unexpectedly dissipated DeltaPsi. The DeltaPsi preformed by valinomycin-K(+) decreased gradually following the addition of increasing concentrations of anacardic acid. The DeltaPsi dissipation rate was dependent on the pre-existing magnitude of DeltaPsi, and was correlated with the logarithmic concentration of anacardic acid. Furthermore, the initial rate of DeltapH dissipation increased with logarithmic increases in anacardic acid concentration. These results provide the evidence for a unique function of anacardic acid, dissimilar to carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone or valinomycin, in that anacardic acid behaves as both an electrogenic (negative) charge carrier driven by DeltaPsi, and a 'proton carrier' that dissipates the transmembrane proton gradient formed.  (+info)

Molecular rearrangements of the extracellular vestibule in NMDAR channels during gating. (6/89)

Many N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) channel blockers that have therapeutic potential can be trapped in the closed state. Using a combination of the substituted cysteine accessibility method and open channel blockers, we found that the M3 segment forms the core of the extracellular vestibule, including a deep site for trapping blockers. The M3 segment, as well as more superficial parts of the extracellular vestibule, undergo extensive remodeling during channel closure, but do not define the activation gate, which is located deeper in the pore. Rather, the pore walls lining the extracellular vestibule constrict during channel closure. This movement is essential for coupling ligand binding to activation gate opening and accounts for the different mechanisms of open channel block, including trapping.  (+info)

Staggering of subunits in NMDAR channels. (7/89)

Functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are heteromultimers formed by NR1 and NR2 subunits. The M3 segment, as contributed by NR1, forms the core of the extracellular vestibule, including binding sites for channel blockers, and represents a critical molecular link between ligand binding and channel opening. Taking advantage of the substituted cysteine accessibility method along with channel block and multivalent coordination, we studied the contribution of the M3 segment in NR2C to the extracellular vestibule. We find that the M3 segment in NR2C, like that in NR1, contributes to the core of the extracellular vestibule. However, the M3 segments from the two subunits are staggered relative to each other in the vertical axis of the channel. Compared to NR1, homologous positions in NR2C, including those in the highly conserved SYTANLAAF motif, are located about four amino acids more externally. The staggering of subunits may represent a key structural feature underlying the distinct functional properties of NMDARs.  (+info)

9-Aminoacridine: an efficient reagent to improve human and plant chromosome banding patterns and to standardize chromosome image analysis. (8/89)

BACKGROUND: Successful automated chromosome analysis requires the development of new techniques to increase and standardize chromosome length and improve banding patterns. METHODS: Human and plant cells were pretreated with the DNA intercalator 9-aminoacridine (9-AMA), and chromosomes were stained with GTG and aceto-orcein banding techniques and investigated by an image analysis system. RESULTS: The human optimal chromosome spreads with the 850 G-band resolution level, suitable for image analysis, were obtained by 9-AMA pretreatment for 1 h at a final concentration of 0.5-1 microg/ml, as compared with 600-700 bands after ethidium bromide treatment and about 400 bands without pretreatment. The best results for plant chromosomes were obtained after pretreatment with 1-2 microg/ml of 9-AMA for 12-24 h. The chromosomes elongated approximately 1.5-fold, and the resolution of chromosome banding patterns increased, reaching approximately 140 bands per haploid set in the case of camomile. CONCLUSIONS: 9-AMA is an efficient reagent for the standardization and increasing the resolution of chromosome banding patterns in human and plant chromosomes. It is extremely important for chromosome investigation in small plants.  (+info)

Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-A38401, 9-Aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
The synthesis of a new bifunctional compound in which two aminoacridine chromophores are linked by the bicyclic depsipeptidic backbone of des-N-tetramethylTriostin A is described. The molecule, bis-[(9-acridinyl)-D-seryl-L-alanyl-L-cysteinyl-L-valine] dilactone disulphide, structurally analogous to the antibiotic anti-tumour drug Triostin A, is shown to possess a high affinity to DNA and to act as a bis-intercalator on the basis of spectroscopic, viscosimetric and thermal-denaturation studies. This model constitutes the first attempt of a synergic association between a peptidic moiety that mimics a naturally occurring drug and aminoacridine, the two parts themselves each exhibiting a high affinity for the DNA target. ...
A faintly yellow solution with strong bluish violet fluorescence; used as a topical antiseptic and as a fluorescent stain in histology. SYN: 5 aminoacridine hydrochloride, 9 aminoacridine hydrochloride
Aminoacridine derivative that is a potent intercalating antineoplastic agent. It is effective in the treatment of acute leukemias and malignant lymphomas, but has poor activity in the treatment of solid tumors. It is frequently used in combination with other antineoplastic agents in chemotherapy protocols. It produces consistent but acceptable myelosuppression and cardiotoxic effects. [PubChem]
This thesis describes the synthesis and radiohalogenation of compounds of potential use for tumor targeting.. The first section describes the synthesis and radioiodination of DNA intercalating compounds. The compounds are derivatives of 9-aminoacridine, and the anthracyclins daunorubicin and doxorubicin. The precursor compounds were labeled with 125I (T1/2 = 60 days), which is an Auger emitting nuclide. 125I decaying in the close vicinity of DNA is known to have a much higher cell killing effect than 125I decaying in the cytoplasm and some of the labeled compounds prepared in this thesis are currently being tested for use in targeted radionuclide therapy for cancer.. The second section describes the radiobromination of closo-carboranes by subjecting the corresponding iodinated compounds to palladium-catalyzed halogen exchange using [76Br]bromide. The 76Br isotope (T1/2 = 16.2 h) is a positron emitting nuclide that is suitable for PET studies. Via the halogen exchange reaction good to excellent ...
The goal of the work presented here was to study and quantify the contribution of each cause to the measured excess-head. Chemo-osmotic and thermo-osmotic permeabilities were obtained by experiments and using theoretical models. Theoretical models are based on the reproduction of the interactions occurring between the charged surface of clay minerals and pore solution and their upscaling at the representative elementary volume macroscopic scale. Chemical osmosis phenomenon is related to anionic exclusion and the determination of the chemo osmotic efficiency requires the resolution of an electrical interactions model. A triple-layer-model which considers diffuse layers overlapping was improved during this thesis to be able to take into account the effect of multi-ionic solutions, i.e. nearest than the natural waters composition, and, thus, to constrain better the chemo-osmotic efficiency. Thermo-osmosis process is poorly characterized so that no satisfactory macroscopic expression to calculate ...
The I 9.2 cell line is a caspase-8 mutant of the wild-type Jurkat cell line A3 (see ATCC CRL-2570). Wild-type A3 cells were made neomycin resistant and treated with three cycles of exposure to the frameshifting mutagen ICR-191 to isolate clones harboring recessive mutations that were resistant to killing by Fas antibody.  Ref ICR-191 treated clones were serially diluted in 96-well plates in the presence of Fas Antibody for 3 to 5 weeks. Ref  Two of these ICR-191 treated clones have been deposited at the ATCC . They are I 9.2 (ATCC CRL-2571), a clone with a mutation in the cysteine protease caspase-8/FLICE and I 2.1 (ATCC CRL-2572), a clone with a mutation in the adaptor FADD.  
The effect of three accelerators of hemolysis-acetylphenylhydrazine, 9-aminoacridine, and phenothiazone-upon protein and lipid monolayers has been examined. These compounds, in low concentration, cause marked expansion of monolayers of plasma albumin, but have no apparent effect upon cholesterol films. It is suggested that these accelerators may affect the protein component of the erythrocyte membrane, thus enhancing the action of hemolytic agents.. ...
We investigated the effect of Helianthus tuberosus agglutinin (HTA) on neutrophil migration in vivo and in vitro. The role of resident cells in this effect was analyzed. Peritonitis was induced by injecting stimuli into rat (150-200 g) peritoneal cav
Quinacrine dihydrochloride is the dihydrochloride salt of the 9-aminoacridine derivative quinacrine with potential antineoplastic and antiparasitic activities. Quinacrine may inhibit the transcription and activity of both basal and inducible nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which may result in the induction of tumor suppressor p53 transcription, the restoration of p53-dependent apoptotic pathways, and tumor cell apoptosis. Continuous NF-kappaB signaling, present in many tumors and in chronic inflammatory processes, promotes the expression of antiapoptotic proteins and cytokines while downregulating the expression of proapoptotic proteins, such as p53. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus) .
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel acridine-based compounds that exhibit an anti-pancreatic cancer activity are catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerase II. AU - Oppegard, Lisa M.. AU - Ougolkov, Andrei V.. AU - Luchini, Doris N.. AU - Schoon, Renee A.. AU - Goodell, John R.. AU - Kaur, Harneet. AU - Billadeau, Daniel D.. AU - Ferguson, David M. AU - Hiasa, Hiroshi. PY - 2009/1/14. Y1 - 2009/1/14. N2 - We have identified a small library of novel substituted 9-aminoacridine derivatives that inhibit cell proliferation of pancreatic cancer cell lines by inducing apoptosis [Goodell, J.R. et al., 2008. J. Med. Chem. 51, 179-182.]. To further investigate their antiproliferative activities, we have assessed the antiproliferative activity of these acridine-based compounds against several pancreatic cancer cell lines. All four compounds used in this study inhibited the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro. In addition, we have employed a xenograft tumor model and found that these compounds also ...
A native species of river banks and floodplains in our area, but also escaped from cultivation and widespread along railroads and roadsides, in fields and fencerows, at old homesites and vacant lots, and in other disturbed places; found in both wet and dry ground.. This sunflower was once grown commonly for its crisp tubers, produced on the rhizomes, which can be eaten raw or cooked. Fragmentary specimens lacking information on habit of underground parts are easily confused with H. annuus, but the latter has larger heads (on all but very small plants) and a tendency to relatively broader leaves.. ...
Two new epoxy steroids, 5α,8α-epidioxy-22β,23β-epoxyergosta-6-en-3β-ol (1) and 5α,8α-epidioxy-22α,23α-epoxyergosta-6-en-3β-ol (2), and ten known steroids including (24R)-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6-en-3β-ol (3), (22E,24R)-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (4), (22E,24R)-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol (5), β-sitosterol (6), sitost-5-en-3β-ol acetate (7), 7α-hydroxysitosterol (8), schleicheol 2 (9), (24R)-24-ethyl-5α-cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (10), 7α-hydroxystigmasterol (11), and stigmasterol (12) were isolated from Helianthus tuberosus grown in Laizhou salinized land of coastal zone of Bohai Sea, China. The structures of these compounds were unambiguously established by 1D, 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. The new compounds 1 and 2 exhibited weak antibacterial activity and no antifungal activity.
Helianthus tuberosus is a PERENNIAL growing to 2.4 m (7ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in October, and the seeds ripen in November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
A method for treating central nervous system or peripheral nervous system cholinergic deficit states such as Alzheimers disease in a mammal, said method comprising administering to said mammal an amount of a monoamine acridine derivative effective in the treatment of a cholinergic deficit state and for a time sufficient to achieve a suitable blood level to treat said cholinergic deficit state. The preferred monoamine acridine derivative is 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-aminoacridine. A unit dosage pharmaceutical composition of matter comprising an effective amount of said monoamine acridine derivative sufficient to treat said cholinergic deficit state and a pharmaceutically acceptable inert carrier therefor is also described.
Diffuse scattering in decagonal phases is due to deviations from strict aperiodic and periodic order in the quasiperiodic plane and along the unique direction, respectively. Results from X-ray (synchrotron) and neutron diffraction experiments, mainly carried out with decagonal Al-Ni-Co, are presented. Most prominent are diffuse maxima, diffuse streaks, phason affected reflection profiles, and diffuse layers perpendicular to the unique axis. Disorder models in decagonal qc-structures, in particular lamellar domain-like ordering in super-space are outlined. The terms structure and phase in context with disordered structures are discussed. ...
Although inherited and somatic mutations are known to cause disease, the causes of these mutations are generally undefined. Mutational spectrometry, the study of quantitative patterns of mutations (1) , permits the comparison of inherited and somatic mutations observed in vivo over identical DNA sequences to patterns of mutation induced in cells in vitro by suspect agents or conditions. Concordance of significant subsets of mutational hot spots is a form of evidence indicating shared mutational mechanisms.. The patterns of point mutation in the third exon of the HPRT gene have been observed after treatment of human lymphoblastoid cells by several mutagenic agents. These include benzo(a)pyrene (2) , benzopyrene diol epoxides (3) , chromium VI (4) , UV light (5) , X-rays (6) , hyperbaric oxygen, hydrogen peroxide (7) , the intercalating mutagen ICR-191 (8) , and the SN1 methylating agents MNNG 3 and MNU (8 , 9) . Reports of human inherited and somatic point mutations in the HPRT gene (10, 11, 12, ...
A large cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle with an electron dense granular core, up to 150-200 nm in diameter, found in neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus. [ISBN:01950657191, NIF_Subcellular:sao2031592629]
Despite the fact that both Gouauxs (Yamashita et al., 2005; Singh et al., 2007; Piscitelli et al., 2010) and Javitchs (Shi et al., 2008; Quick et al., 2009) groups have used structural and functional approaches to clarify the debate on the LeuT substrate stoichiometry and elucidate the mechanism of LeuT transport and inhibition, these approaches have not been enough to establish a consensus. Even more surprising is the fact that the same or very similar techniques have produced very different results. Crystallography has shown mixed results. One group detected density in the proposed second binding site corresponding to a detergent molecule (Quick et al., 2009), whereas the other group modeled structural water molecules to account for the excess of electron density in the extracellular vestibule of LeuT (Yamashita et al., 2005). From a crystallographic perspective, there could be two different ways to shed light on these intriguing results. The first one would be to screen for other ...
The serotonin transporter (SERT) controls synaptic serotonin levels and is the primary target for antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. (S)-citalopram) and tricyclic antidepressants (e.g. clomipramine). In addition to a high affinity binding site, SERT possesses a low affinity allosteric site for antidepressants. Binding to the allosteric site impedes dissociation of antidepressants from the high affinity site, which may enhance antidepressant efficacy. Here we employ an induced fit docking/molecular dynamics protocol to identify the residues that may be involved in the allosteric binding in the extracellular vestibule located above the central substrate binding (S1) site. Indeed, mutagenesis of selected residues in the vestibule reduces the allosteric potency of (S)-citalopram and clomipramine. The identified site is further supported by the inhibitory effects of Zn(2+) binding in an engineered site and the covalent attachment of ...
This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. ...
Biomass Accumulation and Nutrient Uptake of Jerusalem Artichoke Helianthus tuberosus L.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Fig. 6 Proposed substrate transport mechanism in LeuT.. (1) Under apo state conditions, LeuT preferentially assumes an outward-facing open conformation with relatively high Gibbs free energy. (2) HDX is decreased upon Na+ binding, suggesting stabilization of the protein backbone in basically the same transporter conformation as for apo state, presumably the outward-facing open. (3) According to crystal structures (5), binding of a transportable hydrophobic amino acid (for example, leucine) prompts occlusion of the extracellular vestibule. EL4 and the water-mediated salt bridge between Arg30 and Asp404 prevent water access to the substrate binding site. On the basis of HDX data, it appears that the substrate-bound, outward-facing occluded state represents the thermodynamically most favorable LeuT conformation in the transport cycle. (4) As shown for MhsT (11) and supported by the results herein, the concurrent unwinding of the intracellular halves of TMs 1 and 5 creates a solvent pathway for ...
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Some of the more frequent questions that people ask me center on obtaining seed from Jerusalem artichokes for breeding. Many crops that are propagated from tubers have a reduced capability for sexual reproduction. You will see this theme come up again and again in this blog, but the details differ from one species to another ...
Although several proteins have been implicated in secretory vesicle tethering, the identity and mechanical properties of the components forming the physical vesicle-plasma membrane link remain unknown. Here we present the first experimental measurements of nanomechanical properties of secretory vesicle-plasma membrane tethers using combined AFM force clamp and TIRF microscopy on membrane sheets from PC12 cells expressing the vesicle marker ANF-eGFP. Application of pulling forces generated tether extensions composed of multiple steps with variable length. The frequency of short (|10 nm) tether extension events was markedly higher when a fluorescent vesicle was present at the cantilever tip and increased in the presence of GTPγS, indicating that these events reflect specifically the properties of vesicle-plasma membrane tethers. The magnitude of the short tether extension events is consistent with extension lengths expected from progressive unfolding of individual helices of the exocyst complex,
We also have native perennial sunflowers in the garden, probably Jerusalem artichoke (H. tuberosus). Im not sure, but I think this is just one plant! It grows over 2 metres tall, and has small (for a sunflower) yellow flowers in the autumn. The roots are massive tubers, which are apparently edible, though I havent tried it ...
Helianthus pauciflorus X H. tuberosus Nutt., Helianthus rigidus subsp. laetiflorus (Cass.) Desf., Helianthus scaberrimus Elliott ...
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Commons Wikispecies Helianthus é um género botânico pertencente à família Asteraceae. Todas são nativas da América do Norte, com a excepção de três espécies nativas da América do Sul. Entretanto, as espécies Helianthus annuus (girassol) e Helianthus tuberosus (tupinambo) são cultivadas na Europa e em outras partes do mundo. As plantas deste gênero crescem de 60 cm a 4 m de altura. As folhas são pecioladas, serrilhadas e frequentemente pegajosas. As inferiores são ovadas ou cordiformes e opostas, as superiores são alternadas e mais estreitas. Espécies de Helianthus são aproveitadas por larvas de algumas espécies de Lepidopteras como fonte alimentar. Além das híbridas, o gênero é composto por aproximadamente 300 espécies. As principais são: Helianthus acuminatus Helianthus agrestis Helianthus alexandri Helianthus alienus Helianthus altissimus Helianthus ambiguus Helianthus ambulans Helianthus amplexicaulis Helianthus angustifolius Helianthus anomalus Helianthus annuus ...
Previous studies suggested that teniposide is a strong clastogen, and that the DNA breakage effect of this drug is mediated by the nuclear enzyme topoisomerase II. Ripley et al found evidence for a correspondence between sites of acridine-induced frameshift mutations in bacteriophage T4 and sites of in Vitro DNA cleavage by T4 topoisomerase II. To identify the sequence specificity of teniposide-induced deletion and insertion mutations in mammalian cells, the CHO-D422 cell line, which is hemizygous at the aprt locus, was employed in this study. Sixty-eight teniposide-induced and 42 spontaneous aprt mutants were analyzed at the DNA sequence level. Compared with the spectrum of spontaneous mutations in which two thirds of the mutations are base substitutions, two thirds of teniposide-induced mutations are deletions and insertions of different sizes. Significant site correspondence between teniposide-induced deletion/insertion mutations and in vitro DNA double strand cleavages by purified mammalian
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) certainly are a main element of the immune system suppressive network defined in cancer and several additional pathological conditions. tumor-free mice. Manifestation of NOX2 subunits in MDSC was managed by the STAT3 transcription element. In the lack of NOX2 activity MDSC dropped the capability to suppress T-cell reactions and quickly differentiated Read More. ...
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Practical applications: Unsaturated lactones are structural elements often found in natural products, which have medicinal value. Benzolactones derived from anacardic acid reported in this work have some structural similarity with lactones such as massoia lactone having medicinal value. Therefore with this idea in mind, the unsaturated benzolactones reported in this work will be tested for their anti pathogenic activity. 3-Propylphenol is used in combination with racemic 1-octen-3-ol and p-cresol to prepare a kairomone for tsetse fly traps. Results from this work describe the suitability of anacardic acid for synthesizing 3-propylphenol. The fact that 3-propylphenol can be synthesized from anacardic acid, a component of cashew nut shell liquid is of particular interest since most of the areas affected with tsetse flies are suitable for growing cashew plants. This means the raw materials (CNSL) for synthesis of 3-propylphenol will be obtained from within the same region where the kairomone is to ...
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Aminacrine Hydrochloride Manufacturer,Aminacrine Hydrochloride SupplierAminacrine Hydrochloride Manufacturer,Aminacrine Hydrochloride Supplier

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Updating medicine ingredient names - list of affected ingredients | Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA)Updating medicine ingredient names - list of affected ingredients | Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA)

Aminacrine hydrochloride. aminoacridine hydrochloride. Amlodipine besylate. amlodipine besilate. Amoxycillin. amoxicillin. ...
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СПИСОК ЛЕКАРСТВ С ПЕРЕЧИСЛЕНИЕМ ИХ ДЕЙСТВИЯ И ИНГРЕДИЕНТОВ (УКРАДЕНО С ПРОСТОРОВ ИНЕТА) (Болезни)СПИСОК ЛЕКАРСТВ С ПЕРЕЧИСЛЕНИЕМ ИХ ДЕЙСТВИЯ И ИНГРЕДИЕНТОВ (УКРАДЕНО С ПРОСТОРОВ ИНЕТА) (Болезни)

ACTIVE INGRED: Mafenide hydrochloride, aminacrine hydrochloride, malachite green. MEDICATIONS AVAILABLE IN THE UK: Esha Exit ... ACTIVE INGRED: 1.66mg Aminacrine hydrchloride and 0.025mg methylene blue. Broad Spectrum Antibiotic by Aquarium Science. Treats ... ACTIVE INGRED: Mafenide hydrochloride, aminacrine hydrochloride, malachite green. Fungus Ade by Wardley. Treats: fungal ...
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Business HorizonsBusiness Horizons

Aminacrine Antiseptic Cream Betamethasone and Clotrimazole Cream Betamethasone and Gentamycin Cream Betamethasone and ...
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Novel acridine-based compounds that exhibit an anti-pancreatic cancer activity are catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerase...Novel acridine-based compounds that exhibit an anti-pancreatic cancer activity are catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerase...

TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel acridine-based compounds that exhibit an anti-pancreatic cancer activity are catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerase II. AU - Oppegard, Lisa M.. AU - Ougolkov, Andrei V.. AU - Luchini, Doris N.. AU - Schoon, Renee A.. AU - Goodell, John R.. AU - Kaur, Harneet. AU - Billadeau, Daniel D.. AU - Ferguson, David M. AU - Hiasa, Hiroshi. PY - 2009/1/14. Y1 - 2009/1/14. N2 - We have identified a small library of novel substituted 9-aminoacridine derivatives that inhibit cell proliferation of pancreatic cancer cell lines by inducing apoptosis [Goodell, J.R. et al., 2008. J. Med. Chem. 51, 179-182.]. To further investigate their antiproliferative activities, we have assessed the antiproliferative activity of these acridine-based compounds against several pancreatic cancer cell lines. All four compounds used in this study inhibited the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro. In addition, we have employed a xenograft tumor model and found that these compounds also ...
more infohttps://experts.umn.edu/en/publications/novel-acridine-based-compounds-that-exhibit-an-anti-pancreatic-ca

Metronidazole - WikipediaMetronidazole - Wikipedia

... aminacrine hydrochloride, and allantoin in the treatment of symptomatic trichomoniasis". Sexually transmitted diseases. 24 (3 ...
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Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Aminacrine Current Synonym true false 2154292015 Aminoacridine Current Synonym true false 2155313015 Aminacrine Current Synonym ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=6602005

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Aminacrine Current Synonym true false 3650314017 Product containing aminoacridine Current Synonym true false ...
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Acridin-9-amine;2-oxopropanoic Acid (CAS No. 25332-08-5) Suppliers @ ChemicalRegister.comAcridin-9-amine;2-oxopropanoic Acid (CAS No. 25332-08-5) Suppliers @ ChemicalRegister.com

Synonyms: UNII-CCJ8I8TG3H, Aminacrine pyruvate, AGN-PC-0BIP5S, CCJ8I8TG3H, acridin-9-amine;2-oxopropanoic acid, Pyruvic acid, ...
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Trichomoniasis: Background, Pathophysiology, EtiologyTrichomoniasis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology

... aminacrine hydrochloride, and allantoin in the treatment of symptomatic trichomoniasis. Sex Transm Dis. 1997 Mar. 24(3):156-60 ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/230617-overview

9-Aminoacridine mutagenesis of bacteriophage T4 intracellular DNA<...9-Aminoacridine mutagenesis of bacteriophage T4 intracellular DNA<...

TY - JOUR. T1 - 9-Aminoacridine mutagenesis of bacteriophage T4 intracellular DNA. AU - Altman, Sidney. AU - Warner, V.. PY - 1975/12. Y1 - 1975/12. N2 - Most of the intracellular T4 DNA made in the presence of 9-aminoacridine is of lower molecular weight than mature T4 DNA and does not get packaged into phage particles. Using a T4 DNA transformation assay, we have examined this intracellular T4 DNA for its content of 9-aminoacridine-induced revertants of certain rII gene frameshift mutations. The proportion of acridine-induced revertants in the intracellular DNA population is close to that found in the phage progeny made in the presence of 9-aminoacridine. Thus, the generation of low molecular weight T4 DNA in the presence of 9-aminoacridine is not, in itself, also a mutagenic process.. AB - Most of the intracellular T4 DNA made in the presence of 9-aminoacridine is of lower molecular weight than mature T4 DNA and does not get packaged into phage particles. Using a T4 DNA transformation assay, ...
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US Patent Application for METHOD FOR PROTECTION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTICANCER DRUGS FROM INACTIVATION BY NITRIC OXIDE Patent...US Patent Application for METHOD FOR PROTECTION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTICANCER DRUGS FROM INACTIVATION BY NITRIC OXIDE Patent...

Aminacrine H H H H NH2 H 6 3-amino-10-methyl-6-haloacridinium H NH2 H Halogen H CH3 7 3-nitro-9-aminoacridine H NO2 H H NH2 H ... Aminacrine, 3-Amino-10-methyl-6-haloacridinium, 3-Nitro-9-aminoacridine, 9-Amino-2,3-dimethoxy-6-nitroacridine-10-oxides, and ... Aminacrine, 3-Amino-10-methyl-6-haloacridinium, 3-Nitro-9-aminoacridine, 9-Amino-2,3-dimethoxy-6-nitroacridine-10-oxides, and ... Aminacrine, 3-Amino-10-methyl-6-haloacridinium, 3-Nitro-9-aminoacridine, 9-Amino-2,3-dimethoxy-6-nitroacridine-10-oxides, and ...
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EleotridFAQsEleotridFAQs

Treated with aminacrine (desperate measures while waiting for more medication to arrive) and once again slight improvement ...
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List of MeSH codes (D03) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D03) - Wikipedia

... aminacrine MeSH D03.494.046.250.225 --- amsacrine MeSH D03.494.046.250.450 --- ethacridine MeSH D03.494.046.250.650 --- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D03)

メチルセルロース (350-550mPas) | 9004-67-5メチルセルロース (350-550mPas) | 9004-67-5

Methyl cellulose is also incompatible with aminacrine HCl, chlorocresol, mercuric chloride, phenol resorcinol, tannic acid and ...
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Trichomoniasis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management | Sexually Transmitted InfectionsTrichomoniasis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management | Sexually Transmitted Infections

... aminacrine hydrochloride, and allantoin in the treatment of symptomatic trichomoniasis. Sex Transm Dis1997;24:156-60. ...
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Order from Pillstree Super Pharmacy online in DLF Phase 5, Gurgaon | DunzoOrder from Pillstree Super Pharmacy online in DLF Phase 5, Gurgaon | Dunzo

Burnol contains Aminacrine Hydrochloride and Cetrimide. Aminacrine is an antimicrobial agent which prevents infections during ...
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CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

a) Aminacrine hydrochloride, benzocaine, bismuth subnitrate, calomel, camphor, cholesterol, ergot fluid extract, ... d) After May 7, 1991, any such OTC drug product that contains aminacrine hydrochloride, bismuth subnitrate, calomel, camphor, ...
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FAQs on Dwarf Ram Cichlid Disease/HealthFAQs on Dwarf Ram Cichlid Disease/Health

Aminacrine hydrochloride + 0.025mg Methylene blue). I have a feeling that perhaps hes picked something up from the pond water ...
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National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1994National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1994

AMINACRINE 50185 AMINO ACIDS 50190 AMINOACETIC ACID 50195 AMINOBENZOIC ACID 50200 AMINOCAPROIC ACID 50203 AMINOGLUTETHIMIDE ...
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National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1997National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1997

AMINACRINE 50185 AMINO ACIDS 50190 AMINOACETIC ACID 50195 AMINOBENZOIC ACID 50200 AMINOCAPROIC ACID 50203 AMINOGLUTETHIMIDE ...
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WO2009125202A1 - Polymer films 
        - Google PatentsWO2009125202A1 - Polymer films - Google Patents

... aminacrine), texaphyrins, cyanines (e.g. merocyanine 540), anthracyclins (e.g. adriamycin and epirubicin), pheophorbides, ...
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MANAGEMENT OF INFECTION GUIDANCE FOR PRIMARY CARE 1 AimsMANAGEMENT OF INFECTION GUIDANCE FOR PRIMARY CARE 1 Aims

... aminacrine hydrochloride, and allantoin in the treatment of symptomatic trichomoniasis. Sex Transm Dis 1997;24:156-160. In this ...
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