Sodium Channel Blockers
Epithelial Sodium Channels
Acid Sensing Ion Channels
Acid Sensing Ion Channel Blockers
Chorda Tympani Nerve
Epithelial Sodium Channel Blockers
Biological Transport, Active
Degenerin Sodium Channels
Extravascular Lung Water
Kidney Tubules, Collecting
Kidney Tubules, Distal
Diuretics, Potassium Sparing
Inhibition by amiloride of sodium-dependent fluid reabsorption in the rat isolated caudal epididymis. (1/2048)The rate of fluid reabsorption was studied in the rat isolated caudal epididymal sac in vitro. 2 Part of the fluid reabsorption was found to be dependent on intraluminal Na+. Amiloride (0.1 mM) completely inhibited this component of fluid reabsorption. 3 The log dose-inhibition curve to amiloride was sigmoid and the IC50 value was found to be 1.6 muM. (+info)
Fluid secretion by the malpighian tubules of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans: the effects of ouabain, ethacrynic acid and amiloride. (2/2048)The effects of three inhibitors of sodium transport on the secretion of fluid by the Malpighian tubules of Glossina morsitans have been observed. The cardiac glycoside, ouabain, affects neither the rate of secretion nor the sodium concentration of the fluid secreted when isolated tubules are bathed by solutions containing a range of sodium and potassium concentrations. Secretion is inhibited, however, by ethacrynic acid and amiloride. The results confirm that fluid secretion by the Malpighian tubules of this insect is dependent on the active transport of sodium ions and show that Na+/k+ exchange pumps are not involved in this process. (+info)
Formal analysis of electrogenic sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate transport in mouse colon epithelium. (3/2048)1. The mammalian colonic epithelium carries out a number of different transporting activities simultaneously, of which more than one is increased following activation with a single agonist. These separate activities can be quantified by solving a set of equations describing these activities, provided some of the dependent variables can be eliminated. Using variations in the experimental conditions, blocking drugs and comparing wild type tissues with those from transgenic animals this has been achieved for electrogenic ion transporting activity of the mouse colon. 2. Basal activity and that following activation with forskolin was measured by short circuit current in isolated mouse colonic epithelia from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) mice. 3. Using amiloride it is shown that CF colons show increased electrogenic sodium absorption compared to wild type tissues. CF mice had elevated plasma aldosterone, which may be responsible for part or all of the increased sodium absorbtion in CF colons. 4. The derived values for electrogenic chloride secretion and for electrogenic potassium secretion were increased by 13 and 3 fold respectively by forskolin, compared to basal state values for these processes. 5. The loop diuretic, frusemide, completely inhibited electrogenic potassium secretion, but apparently only partially inhibited electrogenic chloride secretion. However, use of bicarbonate-free solutions and acetazolamide reduced the frusemide-resistant current, suggesting that electrogenic bicarbonate secretion accounts for the frusemide-resistant current. 6. It is argued that the use of tissues from transgenic animals is an important adjunct to pharmacological analysis, especially where effects in tissues result in the activation of more than one sort of response. (+info)
Regulation of an amiloride-sensitive Na+-permeable channel by a beta2-adrenergic agonist, cytosolic Ca2+ and Cl- in fetal rat alveolar epithelium. (4/2048)1. In cell-attached patches formed on the apical membrane of fetal alveolar epithelium, terbutaline (a specific beta2-adrenergic agonist) increased the open probability (Po) of an amiloride-sensitive Na+-permeable non-selective cation (NSC) channel (control, 0.03 +/- 0.04; terbutaline, 0.62 +/- 0.18; n = 8, P < 0. 00001) by increasing the mean open time 100-fold without any significant change in the mean closed time and without any change in the single channel conductance (control, 27.8 +/- 2.3 pS; terbutaline, 28.2 +/- 2.1 pS; n = 8). 2. The Po of the unstimulated channel increased when the apical membrane was depolarized due to a decrease in the closing rate and an increase in the opening rate, while the Po of the terbutaline-stimulated channel did not depend on the membrane potential. 3. Increased cytosolic [Ca2+] also increased the Po of the channel in a manner consistent with one Ca2+-binding site on the cytosolic surface of the channel. Terbutaline increased the sensitivity of the channel to cytosolic Ca2+ by shifting the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) required for half-maximal activation to a lower [Ca2+]c value, leading to an increase in Po. 4. An increase in the cytosolic Cl- concentration ([Cl-]c) decreased the Po of the channel consistent with two Cl--binding sites by increasing the closing rate without any significant change in the opening rate. Terbutaline increased Po by reducing the effect of cytosolic Cl- to promote channel closing. 5. Taken together, these observations indicate that terbutaline activates a Ca2+-activated, Cl--inhibitable, amiloride-sensitive, Na+-permeable NSC channel in fetal rat alveolar epithelium in two ways: first, through an increase in Ca2+ sensitivity, and second, through a reduction in the effect of cytosolic Cl- to promote channel closing. (+info)
Increased calcium entry into dystrophin-deficient muscle fibres of MDX and ADR-MDX mice is reduced by ion channel blockers. (5/2048)1. Single fibres were enzymatically isolated from interosseus muscles of dystrophic MDX mice, myotonic-dystrophic double mutant ADR-MDX mice and C57BL/10 controls. The fibres were kept in cell culture for up to 2 weeks for the study of Ca2+ homeostasis and sarcolemmal Ca2+ permeability. 2. Resting levels of intracellular free Ca2+, determined with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura-2, were slightly higher in MDX (63 +/- 20 nM; means +/- s.d.; n = 454 analysed fibres) and ADR-MDX (65 +/- 12 nM; n = 87) fibres than in controls (51 +/- 20 nM; n = 265). 3. The amplitudes of electrically induced Ca2+ transients did not differ between MDX fibres and controls. Decay time constants of Ca2+ transients ranged between 10 and 55 ms in both genotypes. In 50 % of MDX fibres (n = 68), but in only 20 % of controls (n = 54), the decay time constants were > 35 ms. 4. Bath application of Mn2+ resulted in a progressive quench of fura-2 fluorescence emitted from the fibres. The quench rate was about 2 times higher in MDX fibres (3.98 +/- 1.9 % min-1; n = 275) than in controls (2.03 +/- 1.4 % min-1; n = 204). The quench rate in ADR-MDX fibres (2.49 +/- 1.4 % min-1; n = 87) was closer to that of controls. 5. The Mn2+ influx into MDX fibres was reduced to 10 % by Gd3+, to 19 % by La3+ and to 47 % by Ni2+ (all at 50 microM). Bath application of 50 microM amiloride inhibited the Mn2+ influx to 37 %. 6. We conclude that in isolated, resting MDX muscle fibres the membrane permeability for divalent cations is increased. The presumed additional influx of Ca2+ occurs through ion channels, but is well compensated for by effective cellular Ca2+ transport systems. The milder dystrophic phenotype of ADR-MDX mice is correlated with a smaller increase of their sarcolemmal Ca2+ permeability. (+info)
Feedback inhibition of rat amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. (6/2048)1. Regulation of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is essential for the control of body sodium homeostasis. The downregulation of the activity of this Na+ channel that occurs when the intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) is increased is known as feedback inhibition. Although intracellular Na+ is the trigger for this phenomenon, its cellular and molecular mediators are unknown. 2. We used the 'cut-open oocyte' technique to control the composition of the intracellular milieu of Xenopus oocytes expressing rat ENaCs to enable us to test several factors potentially involved in feedback inhibition. 3. The effects of perfusion of the intracellular space were demonstrated by an electromicrographic study and the time course of the intracellular solution exchange was established by observing the effect of intracellular pH: a decrease from pH 7.4 to 6.5 reduced the amiloride-sensitive current by about 40 % within 2 min. 4. Feedback inhibition was observed in non-perfused oocytes when Na+ entry induced a large increase in [Na+]i. Intracellular perfusion prevented feedback regulation even though the [Na+]i was allowed to increase to values above 50 mM. 5. No effects on the amiloride-sensitive current were observed after changes in the concentration of Na+ (from 1 to 50 mM), Ca2+ (from 10 to 1000 nM) or ATP (from nominally free to 1 or 5 mM) in the intracellular perfusate. 6. We conclude that feedback inhibition requires intracellular factors that can be removed by intracellular perfusion. Although a rise in [Na+]i may be the trigger for the feedback inhibition of the ENaC, this effect is not mediated by a direct effect of Na+, Ca2+ or ATP on the ENaC protein. (+info)
Shrinkage-induced activation of Na+/H+ exchange in rat renal mesangial cells. (7/2048)Using the pH-sensitive dye 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), we examined the effect of hyperosmolar solutions, which presumably caused cell shrinkage, on intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in mesangial cells (single cells or populations) cultured from the rat kidney. The calibration of BCECF is identical in shrunken and unshrunken mesangial cells if the extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]) is adjusted to match the predicted intracellular [K+]. For pHi values between approximately 6.7 and approximately 7.4, the intrinsic buffering power in shrunken cells (600 mosmol/kgH2O) is threefold larger than in unshrunken cells (approximately 300 mosmol/kgH2O). In the nominal absence of CO2/HCO-3, exposing cell populations to a HEPES-buffered solution supplemented with approximately 300 mM mannitol (600 mosmol/kgH2O) causes steady-state pHi to increase by approximately 0.4. The pHi increase is due to activation of Na+/H+ exchange because, in single cells, it is blocked in the absence of external Na+ or in the presence of 50 microM ethylisopropylamiloride (EIPA). Preincubating cells in a Cl--free solution for at least 14 min inhibits the shrinkage-induced pHi increase by 80%. We calculated the pHi dependence of the Na+/H+ exchange rate in cell populations under normosmolar and hyperosmolar conditions by summing 1) the pHi dependence of the total acid-extrusion rate and 2) the pHi dependence of the EIPA-insensitive acid-loading rate. Shrinkage alkali shifts the pHi dependence of Na+/H+ exchange by approximately 0.7 pH units. (+info)
Effects of arginine vasopressin on cell volume regulation in brain astrocyte in culture. (8/2048)Astrocytes initially swell when exposed to hypotonic medium but rapidly return to normal volume by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD). The role that arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays in hypotonically mediated RVD in astrocytes is unknown. This study was therefore designed to determine whether AVP might play a role in astrocyte RVD. With the use of 3-O-[3H]methyl-D-glucose to determine water space, AVP treatment resulted in significantly increased 3-O-methyl-D-glucose water space within 30 s of hypotonic exposure (P = 0.0001) and remained significantly elevated above baseline (1. 75 microliter/mg protein) at 5 min (P < 0.021). In contrast, in untreated cells, complete RVD was achieved by 5 min. At 30 s, cell volume with AVP treatment was 37% greater than in cells that received no treatment (2.9 vs. 2.26 microliter/mg protein, respectively; P < 0.006). The rate of cell volume increase (dV/dt) over 30 s was highly significant (0.038 vs. 0.019 microliter. mg protein-1. s-1 in the AVP-treated vs. untreated group; P = 0.0004 by regression analysis). Additionally, the rate of cell volume decrease over the next 4.5 min was also significantly greater with vasopressin treatment (-dV/dt = 0.0027 vs. 0.0013 microliter. mg protein-1. s-1; P = 0.0306). The effect of AVP was concentration dependent with EC50 = 3.5 nM. To determine whether AVP action was receptor mediated, we performed RVD studies in the presence of the V1-receptor antagonists benzamil and ethylisopropryl amiloride and the V2-receptor agonist 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). Both V1-receptor antagonists significantly inhibited AVP-mediated volume increase by 40-47% (P < 0.005), whereas DDAVP had no stimulatory effects above control. Taken together, these data suggest that AVP treatment of brain astrocytes in culture appears to increase 3-O-methyl-D-glucose water space during RVD through V1 receptor-mediated mechanisms. The significance of these findings is presently unclear. (+info)
Amiloride is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure and fluid retention caused by various medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, and diabetes. It works by blocking the sodium channels in the kidneys, which helps to reduce the amount of sodium and water that is reabsorbed by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. This, in turn, helps to lower blood pressure and reduce swelling in the body. Amiloride is available in both oral and intravenous forms and is usually taken once or twice a day, depending on the condition being treated. It is generally well-tolerated, but can cause side effects such as dizziness, headache, and an increased risk of potassium levels becoming too high.
A Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter (NHE) is a type of ion transporter protein found in the plasma membrane of cells. It is responsible for regulating the concentration of sodium ions (Na+) and hydrogen ions (H+) inside and outside of cells. NHEs work by exchanging one sodium ion inside the cell for one hydrogen ion outside the cell. This process helps to maintain the proper balance of ions inside and outside of cells, which is essential for many cellular functions, including maintaining cell volume, regulating pH, and transmitting nerve impulses. In the medical field, NHEs are important for understanding a variety of diseases and conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and kidney disease. For example, NHEs play a role in the development of hypertension by regulating the balance of sodium and water in the body. In heart failure, NHEs can contribute to the accumulation of sodium and water in the body, leading to fluid overload and congestion. In kidney disease, NHEs can contribute to the development of kidney failure by disrupting the balance of sodium and water in the body.
Sodium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. In the medical field, sodium is often measured in the blood and urine to assess its levels and monitor its balance in the body. Sodium is primarily responsible for regulating the body's fluid balance, which is essential for maintaining blood pressure and proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, and other organs. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the production of stomach acid. Abnormal levels of sodium in the body can lead to various medical conditions, including hyponatremia (low sodium levels), hypernatremia (high sodium levels), and dehydration. Sodium levels can be affected by various factors, including diet, medications, and underlying medical conditions. In the medical field, sodium levels are typically measured using a blood test called a serum sodium test or a urine test called a urine sodium test. These tests can help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions related to sodium levels, such as kidney disease, heart failure, and electrolyte imbalances.
Epithelial Sodium Channels (ENaC) are a group of ion channels that are found in the apical membrane of epithelial cells. These channels are responsible for regulating the movement of sodium ions across the cell membrane, which plays a crucial role in maintaining the fluid balance in various organs and tissues throughout the body. ENaC channels are composed of three subunits, each of which has a distinct role in channel function. The subunits are designated as alpha, beta, and gamma, and they form a trimeric complex that spans the cell membrane. ENaC channels are activated by a variety of stimuli, including changes in intracellular pH, membrane depolarization, and the binding of certain hormones and neurotransmitters. When activated, the channels allow sodium ions to flow into the cell, which can lead to changes in cell volume and the movement of fluid across the epithelial barrier. ENaC channels play important roles in a number of physiological processes, including the regulation of blood pressure, the maintenance of fluid balance in the kidneys and lungs, and the sensation of taste and smell. Dysregulation of ENaC channel function has been implicated in a number of diseases, including hypertension, cystic fibrosis, and certain forms of deafness.
Sodium channels are a type of ion channel found in the cell membranes of neurons and other excitable cells. These channels are responsible for allowing sodium ions to flow into the cell, which is a key step in the generation of an action potential, or electrical signal, in the cell. Sodium channels are voltage-gated, meaning that they open and close in response to changes in the electrical potential across the cell membrane. When the membrane potential becomes more positive, the channels open and allow sodium ions to flow into the cell. This influx of positive charge further depolarizes the membrane, leading to the generation of an action potential. There are several different types of sodium channels, each with its own unique properties and functions. Some sodium channels are found only in certain types of cells, while others are found in a wide variety of cells throughout the body. Sodium channels play a critical role in many physiological processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses, the contraction of muscles, and the regulation of blood pressure.
Pyrazines are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms. They are commonly found in a variety of natural and synthetic compounds, including some drugs and pesticides. In the medical field, pyrazines have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects. For example, some pyrazines have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, making them potential candidates for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Other pyrazines have been found to have antiviral and antifungal activity, making them potential candidates for the treatment of infections. Pyrazines have also been studied for their potential use as pesticides. Some pyrazines have been found to be effective at controlling pests such as insects and fungi, making them potential candidates for use in agriculture and other industries. Overall, pyrazines are a diverse class of compounds with a range of potential applications in the medical and agricultural fields.
Triamterene is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure and fluid retention (edema). It is a diuretic, which means that it increases the amount of urine that the body produces, helping to lower blood pressure and reduce fluid buildup in the body. Triamterene is often used in combination with other diuretics or with other medications that lower blood pressure, such as ACE inhibitors or calcium channel blockers. It is usually taken once or twice a day, with or without food. Common side effects of triamterene include dizziness, headache, and stomach upset. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking triamterene and to let them know if you experience any side effects.
Bicarbonates, also known as bicarbonate ions or HCO3-, are a type of ion found in the blood and other body fluids. They play an important role in regulating the acid-base balance of the body and maintaining the proper pH of the blood. In the medical field, bicarbonate levels are often measured as part of a routine blood test. Abnormal levels of bicarbonate can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including metabolic acidosis (a condition in which the body produces too much acid), metabolic alkalosis (a condition in which the body produces too little acid), and respiratory acidosis (a condition in which the body is not able to remove enough carbon dioxide from the blood). Bicarbonate is also used in medicine to treat certain conditions, such as metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis. It is given intravenously (through a vein) or by mouth in the form of a salt, such as sodium bicarbonate.
Acid Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels that are activated by protons (hydrogen ions) and are found in the nervous system, including neurons and sensory cells. These channels are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including the detection of changes in pH and the regulation of synaptic transmission. ASICs are expressed in a number of different types of neurons, including sensory neurons that detect touch, pain, and temperature, as well as neurons in the brain and spinal cord. They are also found in sensory cells in the inner ear, which are responsible for detecting sound and balance. When protons bind to ASICs, they cause the channel to open and allow ions to flow across the cell membrane. This can lead to changes in the electrical activity of the neuron and can trigger the release of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals between neurons. ASICs play an important role in a number of physiological processes, including the detection of changes in pH, the regulation of synaptic transmission, and the modulation of pain and other sensory signals. They are also involved in a number of pathological conditions, including chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, and stroke.
Ouabain is a cardiac glycoside that is extracted from the plant Digitalis purpurea, also known as the foxglove plant. It is a potent inhibitor of the sodium-potassium ATPase pump, which is responsible for maintaining the electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane. In the medical field, ouabain is used as a medication to treat heart failure, particularly in cases where other treatments have been ineffective. It works by increasing the strength of the heart's contractions and decreasing the workload on the heart, which can help to improve symptoms and reduce the risk of complications such as heart failure and arrhythmias. However, ouabain can also have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and an irregular heartbeat. It is therefore typically used under close medical supervision and with careful monitoring of the patient's response to the medication.
Sodium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element sodium that are used in medical imaging and treatment. These isotopes have a nucleus that contains an odd number of neutrons, which makes them unstable and prone to decay. During this decay process, the nucleus emits radiation in the form of gamma rays or beta particles. In medical imaging, sodium radioisotopes are often used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. These scans involve injecting a small amount of a radioactive tracer, such as sodium fluoride-18, into the patient's bloodstream. The tracer accumulates in areas of the body where bone metabolism is active, such as in tumors or areas of bone disease. The PET scanner then detects the gamma rays emitted by the tracer and creates detailed images of the body's internal structures. In medical treatment, sodium radioisotopes are used in radiation therapy to treat certain types of cancer. For example, sodium iodide-131 is used to treat thyroid cancer by delivering targeted radiation to the thyroid gland. Other sodium radioisotopes, such as sodium meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), are used to treat neuroblastoma, a type of cancer that affects children. Overall, sodium radioisotopes play an important role in medical imaging and treatment, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions with greater accuracy and precision.
Chlorides are a type of anion that are commonly found in the human body. They are produced when chlorine combines with other elements, such as sodium or potassium, to form compounds. In the body, chlorides are primarily found in the fluid that surrounds cells, known as extracellular fluid, and in the fluid that fills the lungs and other cavities, known as intracellular fluid. Chlorides play an important role in maintaining the balance of fluids in the body and in regulating the pH of the blood. They also help to transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body. Chlorides are an essential component of many bodily functions, including the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which aids in the digestion of food. In the medical field, chlorides are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess the overall health of the body. Abnormal levels of chlorides in the blood can be a sign of a variety of medical conditions, including kidney disease, liver disease, and respiratory disorders.
4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, also known as SITS, is a synthetic compound that is commonly used as a fluorescent dye in biological research. It is a fluorescent probe that is used to study the transport of ions across cell membranes, particularly chloride ions. SITS is also used as a pH indicator and as a fluorescent probe for studying the activity of various enzymes and proteins. In the medical field, SITS has been used to study the function of ion channels and transporters in various diseases, including cystic fibrosis, epilepsy, and hypertension.
'4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid' is a chemical compound that is used in the medical field as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. It is also known by its chemical name, Gadodiamide, and is marketed under the brand name Omniscan. Gadodiamide is a paramagnetic contrast agent that enhances the visibility of certain structures in the body on MRI scans. It works by increasing the relaxation time of water molecules in the tissues, which allows for better visualization of the affected area on the MRI image. Gadodiamide is commonly used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including brain and spinal cord disorders, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. It is administered intravenously and is generally well-tolerated by most patients. However, like all contrast agents, it can cause some side effects, including headache, nausea, and allergic reactions.
Bumetanide is a loop diuretic medication that is used to treat fluid retention (edema) and high blood pressure. It works by blocking the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the kidneys, which helps to increase the amount of urine produced and reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Bumetanide is often used in combination with other diuretics or with other medications to treat heart failure, liver disease, and kidney disease. It is available in oral tablet and intravenous forms. Common side effects of bumetanide include dizziness, headache, nausea, and vomiting.
Potassium is a mineral that is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. It is the most abundant positively charged ion in the body and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating muscle contractions, transmitting nerve impulses, and supporting the proper functioning of the heart. In the medical field, potassium is often measured in blood tests to assess its levels and determine if they are within the normal range. Abnormal potassium levels can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, kidney disease, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as Addison's disease or hyperaldosteronism. Low levels of potassium (hypokalemia) can cause muscle weakness, cramps, and arrhythmias, while high levels (hyperkalemia) can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and even cardiac arrest. Treatment for potassium imbalances typically involves adjusting the patient's diet or administering medications to correct the imbalance.
Sodium chloride, also known as table salt, is a chemical compound composed of sodium and chlorine ions. It is a white, odorless, and crystalline solid that is commonly used as a seasoning and preservative in food. In the medical field, sodium chloride is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and certain types of heart failure. It is also used as a contrast agent in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans. Sodium chloride is available in various forms, including oral solutions, intravenous solutions, and topical ointments. It is important to note that excessive consumption of sodium chloride can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems, so it is important to use it only as directed by a healthcare professional.
Harmaline is a naturally occurring alkaloid found in the plant species Peganum harmala, also known as the Syrian rue or desert rue. It is a psychoactive substance that has been used in traditional medicine for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sedative effects. In the medical field, harmaline has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications, particularly in the treatment of depression and anxiety. It has been shown to have antidepressant-like effects in animal models, and some preliminary studies in humans have suggested that it may be effective in treating depression and anxiety. However, harmaline is also a hallucinogen and can cause psychoactive effects when ingested in large quantities. As such, it is not currently used as a medication in mainstream medicine, and its use is regulated by law in many countries.
Ammonium chloride is a salt that is commonly used in the medical field as a decongestant and expectorant. It works by reducing swelling in the nasal passages and thinning mucus, making it easier to cough up. It is often used to treat conditions such as the common cold, bronchitis, and sinusitis. Ammonium chloride is available over-the-counter in various forms, including nasal sprays, inhalers, and oral solutions. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects such as dry mouth, throat irritation, and stomach upset in some people.
In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.
Lithium is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that is highly reactive and flammable. In the medical field, lithium is primarily used as a mood stabilizer to treat bipolar disorder, a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings, including manic episodes and depression. Lithium works by regulating the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and serotonin, which are involved in mood regulation. It is typically administered as a daily pill or liquid and is considered effective in preventing and treating manic and depressive episodes in people with bipolar disorder. However, lithium can also have side effects, including tremors, weight gain, and kidney problems, and requires careful monitoring by a healthcare provider.
Furosemide is a medication that is used to treat fluid retention (edema) and high blood pressure (hypertension). It is a type of diuretic, which means that it increases the amount of urine that the body produces. This helps to reduce the amount of fluid in the body and lower blood pressure. Furosemide is also used to treat heart failure, liver disease, and some types of kidney disease. It is usually taken by mouth, but it can also be given intravenously (by injection into a vein). Furosemide is a relatively potent diuretic and can cause side effects such as dehydration, low blood pressure, and electrolyte imbalances. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to let them know if you experience any side effects while taking furosemide.
Degenerin sodium channels, also known as DEG/ENaC channels, are a family of ion channels that are found in many different types of cells in the human body. These channels are responsible for allowing sodium ions to flow into cells, which is an important process for maintaining the electrical charge of cells and for regulating the flow of other ions across the cell membrane. DEG/ENaC channels are named for their degenerin domain, which is a structural feature that is shared by many different types of ion channels. These channels are found in a variety of tissues, including the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and the respiratory system. They play a role in a number of different physiological processes, including the sensation of touch, the regulation of blood pressure, and the transmission of nerve impulses. In the medical field, DEG/ENaC channels are the subject of ongoing research, as they have been implicated in a number of different diseases and conditions. For example, mutations in DEG/ENaC channels have been linked to certain types of deafness, as well as to some forms of hypertension and heart disease. Additionally, these channels have been shown to play a role in the development of certain types of cancer, and they are being studied as potential targets for the development of new treatments for these diseases.
HEPES stands for 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid. It is a buffering agent commonly used in biological and medical research, particularly in cell culture media and buffers. HEPES is a zwitterion, meaning it has both positively and negatively charged groups, which allows it to maintain a stable pH in solutions. It is known for its low toxicity and ability to maintain a stable pH over a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. In the medical field, HEPES is often used in cell culture media to maintain optimal growth conditions for cells, and in buffers for various laboratory assays and experiments.
Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It plays a crucial role in regulating the balance of salt and water in the body, and helps to maintain blood pressure and blood volume. Aldosterone acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions. This helps to conserve water and increase blood volume, which in turn raises blood pressure. Aldosterone also stimulates the production of renin, another hormone that helps to regulate blood pressure. In addition to its role in fluid and electrolyte balance, aldosterone also has other effects on the body. It can stimulate the growth of blood vessels and the production of red blood cells, and it can also affect the metabolism of glucose and lipids. Aldosterone is often measured in the blood as a diagnostic tool for conditions such as Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, and primary aldosteronism. It is also used as a treatment for certain types of hypertension and heart failure.
In the medical field, protons are subatomic particles that have a positive charge and are found in the nucleus of an atom. They are one of the two types of particles that make up atomic nuclei, the other being neutrons, which have no charge. Protons are important in medical applications because they can be used in a type of radiation therapy called proton therapy. Proton therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of protons to target and destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. This is because protons have a unique property called the Bragg peak, which allows them to deposit most of their energy at a specific depth in the body before coming to a stop. This makes proton therapy particularly effective for treating certain types of cancer, such as brain tumors and pediatric cancers.
Ion channels are specialized proteins embedded in the cell membrane that regulate the flow of ions across the membrane. These channels are essential for many cellular processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and the regulation of cell volume and pH. Ion channels are selective for specific ions, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, or chloride, and they can be opened or closed by various stimuli, such as changes in voltage, ligand binding, or mechanical stress. When an ion channel opens, it creates a pore in the membrane that allows ions to flow through, either down their electrochemical gradient or against it, depending on the specific channel and the conditions. In the medical field, ion channels play important roles in many diseases and disorders, including neurological disorders such as epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, and cardiac arrhythmias, as well as metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. Understanding the function and regulation of ion channels is therefore crucial for developing new treatments and therapies for these conditions.
The Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase (Na+/K+-ATPase) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in maintaining the electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane in animal cells. It is responsible for actively pumping three sodium ions (Na+) out of the cell and two potassium ions (K+) into the cell, using energy from ATP hydrolysis. This process is essential for many cellular functions, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the maintenance of cell volume. The Na+/K+-ATPase is also involved in the regulation of intracellular pH and the transport of other ions across the cell membrane. It is a ubiquitous enzyme found in all animal cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and neurological disorders.
Nigericin is a natural antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces niger. It is a polypeptide antibiotic that has a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Nigericin is also effective against gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. In the medical field, nigericin is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, particularly in the treatment of skin and wound infections. It is also used as an antifungal agent to treat fungal infections such as candidiasis and aspergillosis. Nigericin has also been studied for its potential use in cancer therapy, as it has been shown to selectively kill cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. However, nigericin is not commonly used in clinical practice due to its potential toxicity and side effects, including skin irritation, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is also not approved by regulatory agencies for use in humans.
Guanidines are organic compounds that contain the guanidinium group, which is composed of a nitrogen atom bonded to three carbon atoms and one hydrogen atom. In the medical field, guanidines are often used as drugs or as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. One example of a guanidine drug is procainamide, which is used to treat certain types of arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats). Another example is hydralazine, which is used to treat high blood pressure. Guanidines are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs, such as the antiviral drug zidovudine (AZT). Guanidines can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the specific compound and how it is used. For example, procainamide can block sodium channels in the heart, which can help regulate heart rate and rhythm. Hydralazine works by relaxing blood vessels, which can help lower blood pressure. It is important to note that guanidines can also have side effects, and their use should be closely monitored by a healthcare provider. Some common side effects of guanidines include nausea, vomiting, headache, and dizziness. In some cases, guanidines can also cause more serious side effects, such as allergic reactions or liver damage.
In the medical field, hydrogen is not typically used as a standalone treatment or medication. However, there is some research being conducted on the potential therapeutic uses of hydrogen gas (H2) in various medical conditions. One area of interest is in the treatment of oxidative stress and inflammation, which are underlying factors in many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hydrogen gas has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a therapeutic agent in these conditions. Another area of research is in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Hydrogen gas has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in animal models of TBI, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a neuroprotective agent in humans. However, it's important to note that the use of hydrogen gas in medicine is still in the early stages of research, and more studies are needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic benefits and risks. As such, hydrogen gas should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical treatments without the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.
Monensin is a polyether antibiotic that is used in veterinary medicine to treat various infections caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as protozoa. It works by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of these microorganisms by disrupting their cell membranes. In the medical field, monensin is primarily used to treat cattle and other livestock, particularly for respiratory and digestive infections caused by bacteria such as Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Escherichia coli. It is also used to treat protozoal infections such as coccidiosis in poultry and sheep. Monensin is available in various forms, including oral drenches, injectable solutions, and feed additives. It is generally well-tolerated by animals, although some may experience mild side effects such as diarrhea, decreased appetite, and weight loss. As with any medication, it is important to follow the recommended dosage and administration guidelines provided by a veterinarian.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
In the medical field, acids are substances that donate hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. They are classified as either strong or weak acids, depending on how completely they ionize in water. Acids can have various effects on the body, depending on their concentration and duration of exposure. For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid that is produced by the stomach to help break down food. However, if the stomach produces too much HCl, it can cause acid reflux, heartburn, and other digestive problems. Other acids that are commonly used in medicine include citric acid, which is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid, and salicylic acid, which is used as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of conditions such as acne and psoriasis. In some cases, acids can be used to treat medical conditions. For example, hydrofluoric acid is used to treat certain types of bone cancer, and lactic acid is used to treat metabolic acidosis, a condition in which the body produces too much acid. However, it is important to note that acids can also be harmful if they are not used properly. Exposure to high concentrations of acids can cause burns, corrosion of tissues, and other serious injuries. Therefore, it is important for medical professionals to use acids with caution and follow proper safety protocols.
Joseph Brand (biologist)
Epithelial sodium channel
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
G protein-gated ion channel
Multiple sclerosis drug pipeline
Epithelial sodium channel blocker
RNA-targeting small molecule drugs
Acid-sensing ion channel
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- Some patients with hypomagnesemia caused by renal magnesium wasting may benefit from certain diuretics that have magnesium-sparing properties, such as spironolactone and amiloride. (medscape.com)
Response to amiloride2
- The greater reduction in potential difference in response to amiloride suggests that absorption of excess salt and perhaps liquid from respiratory epithelial surfaces contributes to the pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. (nih.gov)
- Variable effects on Rt were observed in response to amiloride, and bumetanide. (cdc.gov)
- Midamor (Amiloride/ Furosemide) is a potassium-sparing diuretic (water pill) that prevents your body from absorbing too much salt and keeps your potassium levels from getting too low. (costmedbuy.com)
- Particle effects on Na+ and Cl¯ channels and the Na+,K+,2Cl¯-cotransporter were evaluated using amiloride (apical), 5-nitro-2-[(3-phenylpropyl)amino]benzoic acid (NPPB, apical), and bumetanide (basolateral), respectively. (cdc.gov)
- MMA-SS or GMA-MS exposure potentiated Isc responses (decreases) to amiloride and bumetanide, while not affecting those to NPPB, GMA-MS to a lesser degree than MMA-SS. (cdc.gov)
- Generally, MMASS was more potent in altering responses to amiloride and bumetanide than GMA-MS. Hyperpolarization occurred in the absence of LDH release, but decreases in Vt, Rt, and Isc at higher fume particulate doses accompanied LDH release, to a greater extent for MMA-SS. (cdc.gov)
- In some clinical studies, amiloride activity increased the effects of thiazide diuretics. (medscape.com)
- Superfusion of the luminal surface with amiloride, an inhibitor of active sodium absorption, induced greater reductions in both nasal and airway potential difference in patients than in controls. (nih.gov)
- The target amiloride concentration in the central nervous system required for maximal ASIC inhibition was achieved with a 75-mg intranasal amiloride dose . (bvsalud.org)
- Amiloride usually begins to act within 2 hours after an oral dose. (medscape.com)
- About 50% of a dose of amiloride is excreted in urine and 40% is excreted in stool, within 72 hours. (medscape.com)
- Amiloride should be used alone only when persistent hypokalemia has been documented and only with careful titration of the dose and close monitoring of serum electrolytes. (medscape.com)
- Amiloride is usually used in combination with other diuretics ('water pills') to treat high blood pressure and heart failure in patients who have low amounts of potassium in their bodies or for whom low potassium levels in the body could be dangerous. (medlineplus.gov)
- Amiloride is in a class of medications called diuretics. (medlineplus.gov)
- Used as single agents, potassium-sparing diuretics, including amiloride, result in an increased risk of hyperkalemia (approximately 10% with amiloride). (medscape.com)
- We first developed a PBPK model of amiloride after oral administration and optimized the model using data from five clinical studies. (bvsalud.org)
- Next, we added a nasal compartment to the amiloride oral PBPK model and parameterized using data from previous clinical studies. (bvsalud.org)
- The nasal PBPK model of amiloride could be used to design future clinical studies and allow for successful clinical translation of intranasal amiloride formulation. (bvsalud.org)
- Amiloride is a potassium-conserving drug that possesses weak natriuretic, diuretic and antihypertensive activity. (pediatriconcall.com)
- An additional case-series described combination of inhaled amiloride and tobramycin with eradication of initial colonization in 3 of 4 patients but was unsuccessful in chronically infected patients. (medscape.com)
- Amiloride is a potassium-sparing diuretic that also has some mild hypocalciuric activity. (medscape.com)
- Novel intranasal treatment for anxiety disorders using amiloride, an acid-sensing ion channel antagonist: Pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation. (bvsalud.org)
- To develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for amiloride , an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) antagonist, and to simulate its pharmacokinetics in plasma and the central nervous system following intranasal administration in a virtual human population . (bvsalud.org)
- Bioelectrical studies of human infants' nasal epithelia demonstrate that both transient tachypnea of the newborn and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) involve defective amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport. (medscape.com)
- Amiloride is not an aldosterone antagonist, and its effects are observed even in the absence of aldosterone. (medscape.com)
- An overview of Genetic Toxicology Bacterial Mutagenicity study conclusions related to Amiloride hydrochloride (2016-88-8). (nih.gov)
- Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Amiloride Hydrochloride in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)
- Амилорида Гидрохлорид is Amiloride Hydrochloride in Cyrillic. (e-lactancia.org)
- Airway dehydration and impaired mucociliary clearance in CF is proposed to result in tonic epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity, which drives amiloride -sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption . (bvsalud.org)
- Amiloride is already known to block the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), so the researchers tested whether taste cells with ENaC are responsible for the taste of salt at low concentrations. (nih.gov)
- When administered with a thiazide or loop diuretic, amiloride has been shown to decrease the enhanced urinary excretion of magnesium which occurs when a thiazide or loop diuretic is used alone. (nih.gov)
- The diuretic amiloride was previously reported to inhibit GABARs in frog sensory neurons. (aspetjournals.org)
- Sodium permeable non-voltage-sensitive ion channel inhibited by the diuretic amiloride. (calixar.com)
- 18. Anti-tumour/metastasis effects of the potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride: an orally active anti-cancer drug waiting for its call-of-duty? (nih.gov)
- Amiloride HCl should not be given to patients receiving other potassium-conserving agents, such as spironolactone or triamterene. (nih.gov)
- Triamterene 100 to 200 mg orally twice/day and amiloride 5 to 20 mg orally once/day are both effective because they close sodium channels. (msdmanuals.com)
- Potassium-sparing diuretics (for example, the drugs amiloride, spironolactone and triamterene) should not be taken with certain supplements without consulting your doctor because of a risk of hyperkalaemia (too much potassium in the blood) and associated problems. (besthealthmag.ca)
- Amiloride HCl is a potassium-conserving (antikaliuretic) drug that possesses weak (compared with thiazide diuretics) natriuretic, diuretic, and antihypertensive activity. (nih.gov)
- Amiloride is a potassium-sparing diuretic used in the therapy of edema often in combination with thiazide diuretics. (nih.gov)
- 2. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of amiloride analogs as inhibitors of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). (nih.gov)
- 3. 6-Substituted Hexamethylene Amiloride (HMA) Derivatives as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of the Human Urokinase Plasminogen Activator for Use in Cancer. (nih.gov)
- 4. Disruption of Water Networks is the Cause of Human/Mouse Species Selectivity in Urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA) Inhibitors Derived from Hexamethylene Amiloride (HMA). (nih.gov)
- 5. 6-Substituted amiloride derivatives as inhibitors of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator for use in metastatic disease. (nih.gov)
- 6. 2-Amidino analogs of glycine-amiloride conjugates: inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. (nih.gov)
- Cultures incubated with chrysotile or crocidolite asbestos , but not refractory ceramic fiber 1 (RCF-1), demonstrate localized cleavage of plasminogen, which was inhibited by amiloride. (cdc.gov)
- 19. Amiloride analogs inhibit L-type calcium channels and display calcium entry blocker activity. (nih.gov)
- BERLIN - The first-ever multiarm phase 2 trial of different interventions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) has shown no therapeutic benefit of any of the three drugs tested - fluoxetine (multiple brands), amiloride (multiple brands), or riluzole ( Rilutek , Covis). (medscape.com)
- Amiloride is usually used in combination with other diuretics ('water pills') to treat high blood pressure and heart failure in patients who have low amounts of potassium in their bodies or for whom low potassium levels in the body could be dangerous. (medlineplus.gov)
- Amiloride has potassium-conserving activity in patients receiving kaliureticdiuretic agents. (nih.gov)
- This mechanism accounts in large part for the potassium sparing action of amiloride. (nih.gov)
- Used as single agents, potassium sparing diuretics, including amiloride HCl, result in an increased risk of hyperkalemia (approximately 10% with amiloride). (nih.gov)
- Amiloride HCl should not be used in the presence of elevated serum potassium levels (greater than 5.5 mEq per liter). (nih.gov)
- Potassium supplementation in the form of medication, potassium-containing salt substitutes or a potassium-rich diet should not be used with amiloride HCl except in severe and/or refractory cases of hypokalemia. (nih.gov)
- Potassium-sparing effect of amiloride in a diuretic factorial study in man. (nih.gov)
- Amiloride HCl should be used alone only when persistent hypokalemia has been documented and only with careful titration of the dose and close monitoring of serum electrolytes. (nih.gov)
- The selective activity of amiloride could also be helpful for isolating the contribution of receptors composed of α6 subtypes in heterogeneous native GABAR populations. (aspetjournals.org)
- Detection of high salt concentrations, in contrast, isn't selective for sodium and isn't blocked by amiloride. (nih.gov)
- 7. Screening of 5- and 6-Substituted Amiloride Libraries Identifies Dual-uPA/NHE1 Active and Single Target-Selective Inhibitors. (nih.gov)
- Amiloride is in a class of medications called diuretics. (medlineplus.gov)
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to amiloride, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in amiloride. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your doctor will probably tell you not to take amiloride if you are taking one or more of these medications. (medlineplus.gov)
- In contrast, the identity of the β or γ subtype had little effect on amiloride sensitivity. (aspetjournals.org)
- 1. Systematic evaluation of structure-property relationships and pharmacokinetics in 6-(hetero)aryl-substituted matched pair analogs of amiloride and 5-(N,N-hexamethylene)amiloride. (nih.gov)
- We observed a significant decrease in macroscopic as well as amiloride -sensitive ENaC currents and an increase in airway surface liquid height in CF airway cells . (bvsalud.org)
- Amiloride HCl is not metabolized by the liver but is excreted unchanged by the kidneys. (nih.gov)
- Because amiloride HCl is not metabolized by the liver, drug accumulation is not anticipated in patients with hepatic dysfunction, but accumulation can occur if the hepatorenal syndrome develops. (nih.gov)
- Amiloride has been linked to rare cases of clinically apparent drug induced liver disease. (nih.gov)
- Amiloride has little effect on glomerular filtration rate or renal blood flow. (nih.gov)
- However, human studies of amiloride in the perception of saltiness have been inconclusive. (nih.gov)
- No information is available on the use of amiloride during breastfeeding, so an alternate drug may be preferred. (nih.gov)
- Amiloride HCl has little additive diuretic or antihypertensive effect when added to a thiazide diuretic. (nih.gov)
- Taking zinc supplements with amiloride might increase zinc levels. (nih.gov)
- 12. Pharmacokinetic studies of amiloride and its analogs using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. (nih.gov)
- Similarly, intranasal transfection of αmutENaC mRNA decreased amiloride -sensitive nasal potential difference in CFTRKO mice . (bvsalud.org)
- 10. Hexamethylene amiloride engages a novel reactive oxygen species- and lysosome-dependent programmed necrotic mechanism to selectively target breast cancer cells. (nih.gov)