Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Netilmicin: Semisynthetic 1-N-ethyl derivative of SISOMYCIN, an aminoglycoside antibiotic with action similar to gentamicin, but less ear and kidney toxicity.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Capreomycin: Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Sisomicin: Antibiotic produced by Micromonospora inyoensis. It is closely related to gentamicin C1A, one of the components of the gentamicin complex (GENTAMICINS).Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Dibekacin: Analog of KANAMYCIN with antitubercular as well as broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties.Labyrinthine Fluids: Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)Piperacillin: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Kanamycin Kinase: A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Ticarcillin: An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Perilymph: The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Aztreonam: A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.Clofazimine: A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)Serratia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.

Tobramycin, amikacin, sissomicin, and gentamicin resistant Gram-negative rods. (1/633)

Sensitivities to gentamicin, sissomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were compared in 196 gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods and in 212 similar organisms sensitive to gentamicin, mainly isolated from clinical specimens. Amikacin was the aminoglycoside most active against gentamicin-resistant organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Providencia spp, and Citrobacter spp being particularly susceptible. Most of the gentamicin-resistant organisms were isolated from the urine of patients undergoing surgery. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against gentamicin-sensitive E coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp were most susceptible to tobramycin.  (+info)

UK-18892, a new aminoglycoside: an in vitro study. (2/633)

UK-18892 is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, a derivative of kanamycin A structurally related to amikacin. It was found to be active against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including many gentamicin-resistant strains. The spectrum and degree of activity of UK-18892 were similar to those of amikacin, and differences were relatively minor. UK-18892 was about twice as active as amikacin against gentamicin-susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both amikacin and UK-18892 were equally active against gentamicin-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. There were no appreciable differences in the activity of UK-18892 and amikacin against Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cross-resistance between these two antimicrobials was also apparent.  (+info)

Bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis. (3/633)

Two long-term therapy trials with high concentrations of antibiotic were carried out to determine the duration of therapy required to achieve bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis in guinea pigs. In the first study, corneas still contained Pseudomonas after 4 days of continual topical therapy with either tobramycin 400 mg/ml, amikacin 250 mg/ml, ticarcillin 400 mg/ml, or carbenicillin 400 mg/ml. In an 11-day trial of topical therapy with tobramycin 20 mg/ml, 34 of 36 corneas grew no Pseudomonas after 6 or more days of therapy. The bacteriologic response to therapy in this model occurred in two phases. About 99.9% or more of the organisms in the cornea were killed in the first 24 hr of therapy. The numbers of bacteria remaining in the cornea declined gradually over the next several days until the corneas were sterile. Optimal antibiotic therapy may include two stages: initial intensive therapy with high concentrations of antibiotic applied frequently to achieve a large rapid decrease in numbers of organisms in the cornea, followed by prolonged, less intensive therapy to eradicate organisms and prevent relapse.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of amikacin in low-clearance unilamellar liposomes after a single or repeated intravenous administration in the rhesus monkey. (4/633)

Liposomal aminoglycosides have been shown to have activity against intracellular infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterium avium. Amikacin in small, low-clearance liposomes (MiKasome) also has curative and prophylactic efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To develop appropriate dosing regimens for low-clearance liposomal amikacin, we studied the pharmacokinetics of liposomal amikacin in plasma, the level of exposure of plasma to free amikacin, and urinary excretion of amikacin after the administration of single-dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) and repeated-dose (20 mg/kg eight times at 48-h intervals) regimens in rhesus monkeys. The clearance of liposomal amikacin (single-dose regimen, 0.023 +/- 0.003 ml min-1 kg-1; repeated-dose regimen, 0.014 +/- 0.001 ml min-1 kg-1) was over 100-fold lower than the creatinine clearance (an estimate of conventional amikacin clearance). Half-lives in plasma were longer than those reported for other amikacin formulations and declined during the elimination phase following administration of the last dose (from 81.7 +/- 27 to 30.5 +/- 5 h). Peak and trough (48 h) levels after repeated dosing reached 728 +/- 72 and 418 +/- 60 micrograms/ml, respectively. The levels in plasma remained > 180 micrograms/ml for 6 days after the administration of the last dose. The free amikacin concentration in plasma never exceeded 17.4 +/- 1 micrograms/ml and fell rapidly (half-life, 1.47 to 1.85 h) after the administration of each dose of liposomal amikacin. This and the low volume of distribution (45 ml/kg) indicate that the amikacin in plasma largely remained sequestered in long-circulating liposomes. Less than half the amikacin was recovered in the urine, suggesting that the level of renal exposure to filtered free amikacin was reduced, possibly as a result of intracellular uptake or the metabolism of liposomal amikacin. Thus, low-clearance liposomal amikacin could be administered at prolonged (2- to 7-day) intervals to achieve high levels of exposure to liposomal amikacin with minimal exposure to free amikacin.  (+info)

Killing kinetics of intracellular Afipia felis treated with amikacin. (5/633)

Afipia felis is a facultative intracellular bacterium which multiplies in macrophages following inhibition of phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion. When A. felis-infected cells are incubated for 72 h with various antibiotics, only aminoglycosides are found to be bactericidal. We therefore studied the killing of intracellular A. felis by amikacin, and its relationship with the restoration of P-L fusion. Amikacin reduced the number of A. felis from 8.5 x 10(5) to 3.5 x 102 cfu/mL within 94 h. P-L fusion was restored after 30-40 h of incubation with amikacin. Both mechanisms may participate in the intracellular killing of bacteria.  (+info)

Effects of isolation housing and timing of drug administration on amikacin kinetics in mice. (6/633)

AIM: To study the influences of social condition and drug administration time on amikacin metabolism in mice. METHODS: Forty Male ICR mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups according to 1) housing condition: individual housing (I, one mouse in a cage) or aggregated housing (A, 10 mice in a cage) and 2) drug administration time: at midday (D) or at midnight (N), i.e. I-D, I-N, A-D, and A-N groups. Amikacin was injected s.c. 15 mg.kg-1 after 4 wk of raising at D or N. Blood samples were taken at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 60 min after medication in each mouse. Plasma amikacin was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The concentration-time data were fitted with one-compartment open model in each mouse and data were analyzed with group t test. RESULTS: The clearance (Cl) of amikacin was larger and the half-life (T1/2) was shorter in A-N group than in A-D or I-N groups respectively. AUC(0-1) in A-N group was less than in I-N group. No differences of kinetic parameters between 2 isolated housing (I-D and I-N) groups were found. CONCLUSION: Aggregated housing and midnight drug administration increased the disposition of amikacin.  (+info)

Biological activity of netilmicin, a broad-spectrum semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic. (7/633)

Netilmicin (Sch 20569) is a new broad-spectrum semisynthetic aminoglycoside derived from sisomicin. Netilmicin was compared to gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin in a variety of in vitro test systems as well as in mouse protection tests. Netilmicin was found to be similar in activity to gentamicin against aminoglycoside-susceptible strains in both in vitro and in vivo tests. Netilmicin was also active against many aminoglycoside-resistant strains of gram-negative bacteria, particularly those known to possess adenylating enzymes (ANT 2') or those with a similar resistance pattern. Netilmicin was found to be markedly less toxic than gentamicin in chronic studies in cats, although gentamicin appeared less toxic in acute toxicity tests in mice. The concentrations of netilmicin and gentamicin in serum were compared in dogs after intramuscular dosing, and the pharmacokinetics including peak concentrations in serum were found to be similar.  (+info)

Randomized prospective study comparing cost-effectiveness of teicoplanin and vancomycin as second-line empiric therapy for infection in neutropenic patients. (8/633)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The current health-care philosophy dictates that new therapies should always be evaluated for their economic impact. Along with acquisition cost, the cost of delivery, monitoring, adverse effects and treatment failure must also be considered when determining the total cost of therapy. These auxiliary costs can be significant and greatly alter the overall cost of a drug treatment. We conducted a prospective randomized study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and cost of vancomycin and teicoplanin therapy in patients with neutropenia, after the failure of empirical treatment with a combination of piperacillin/tazobactam and amikacin. DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventy-six febrile episodes from 66 patients with hematologic malignancies under treatment, neutropenia (neutrophils <500/mm3) and fever (38 degrees C twice or 38.5 degrees C once) resistant to the combination piperacillin/tazobactam and amikacin were included in the study. RESULTS: Primary success of second-line therapy was obtained in 35 cases (46%) with no significant difference between vancomycin (17/38) and teicoplanin arms (18/38). No difference in renal or hepatic toxicity related to the antibiotic therapy was observed. The average cost per patient according to glycopeptide used was $450+/-180 for the teicoplanin group and $473+/-347 for the vancomycin group. Interestingly, in the teicoplanin arm, drug acquisition accounted for 97% of the total cost, while in the vancomycin arm administration and monitoring play an important role in overall costs. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our pharmacoeconomic analysis demonstrates that teicoplanin and vancomycin can be administered in neutropenic hematologic patients with similar efficacy and direct costs.  (+info)

*Sisomicin

... amikacin and sisomicin combined with carbenicillin in the treatment of infections in neutropenic patients with malignancies". ...

*Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae

In a separate study, CRE were treated with colistin, amikacin, and tigecycline, and emphasizes the importance of using ...

*Amikacin

Around 16% of amikacin crosses the placenta; while the half-life of amikacin in the mother is 2 hours, it is 3.7 hours in the ... The concentration of amikacin in the renal cortex becomes ten times that of amikacin in the plasma; it then most likely ... Amikacin is derived from kanamycin A: While amikacin is only FDA-approved for use in dogs and for intrauterine infection in ... Amikacin in the eye can be accompanied by cephazolin. Despite its use there amikacin (and all aminoglycosides) are toxic to ...

*Hospital-acquired pneumonia

cefepime, ceftazidime, imipenem, meropenem or piperacillin-tazobactam; plus ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, ...

*Mycobacterium mucogenicum

Susceptible to amikacin, imipenem, cefoxitin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. ...

*Mycobacterium murale

Susceptible to amikacin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin and ethambutol. Resistant to isoniazid. Differential ...

*Mycobacterium bohemicum

Sensitive to compounds such as prothionamide, cycloserine, clarithromycin, gentamicin, amikacin. Resistant to compounds such as ...

*Plazomicin

Tobramycin and Amikacin". Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 10 (4): 459-73. doi:10.1586/eri.12.25. PMID 22512755. García ...

*Treatment of infections after exposure to ionizing radiation

c. Third choice: gentamicin or amikacin (both aminoglycosides) +/- amoxicillin or vancomycin (all injectable). Aminoglycosides ... amikacin]) Antibiotics directed against Gram-positive bacteria need to be included in instances and institutions where ...

*Pseudomonas

Aminoglycosides such as tobramycin, gentamicin, and amikacin are other choices for therapy. This ability to thrive in harsh ...

*Rifampicin

... is antagonistic to the microbiologic effects of the antibiotics gentamicin and amikacin. Rifampicin inhibits ...

*Nocardiosis

A new combination drug therapy (sulfonamide, ceftriaxone, and amikacin) has also shown promise. The prognosis of nocardiosis is ...

*Enterobacter

Aminoglycosides such as amikacin have been found to be very effective, as well. Quinolones can be an effective alternative. A ...

*Cefbuperazone

"In vivo bacterial regrowth-inhibition effect of cefbuperazone and amikacin in puerperal uterine cavity". Journal of ...

*Nocardia

Minocycline is usually substituted when a sulfa cannot be given; high-dose imipenem and amikacin have also been used in severe ...

*Streptomyces somaliensis

"Refractory Craniofacial Actinomycetoma Due to Streptomyces somaliensis That Required Salvage Therapy with Amikacin and Imipenem ...

*Pharmacokinetics

"Phase I Pharmacokinetics of Liposomal Amikacin (MiKasome) in Human Subjects: Dose Dependence and Urinary Clearance". Abstr ...

*Cefpiramide

Sampi K, Hattori M (1992). "[Comparative study of cefpiramide + amikacin versus piperacillin + amikacin in granulocytopenic ...

*Netilmicin

... and amikacin are the drugs most often used in clinical trials of once-daily dosing regimens. Ugeskrift for Lægerer. ... amikacin), and it is more expensive; thus, its potential value is limited. Drug Intelligence & Clinical Pharmacy: Vol. 17, No. ...

*Chromobacterium violaceum

Antibiotics that have been used to successfully treat C. violaceum include pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and co- ...

*Mycobacterium cosmeticum

The type strain isolates were susceptible in vitro to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, tobramycin, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, ...

*Dicloxacillin

... vancomycin and amikacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. strains". Annals of Clinical Microbiology and ...

*Spectrum

... vancomycin and amikacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. strains". Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 5: 25. ...

*Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection

... amikacin, ethambutol, streptomycin, clarithromycin or azithromycin. NTM infections are usually treated with a three-drug ... and in some situations amikacin. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide are not effective for the therapy of MAC. Therapy should continue ...
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Background: Data on aminoglycoside (AG) pharmacokinetics (PK) in intermittent hemodialysis (iHD) is outdated; current practice employs more efficient iHD modalities. Once-daily AG are used to optimize treatment of resistant organisms including non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM). Currently recommended amikacin dosing (3-5 mg/kg post-iHD) is unlikely to obtain IDSA-recommended target Cmax for NTM (20-30mg/L). Recently, experts have suggested gentamicin dosed pre-iHD can attain maximal peak to optimize PK/PD goals; using iHD to decrease overall exposure to avoid toxicity. No PK data has described pre-iHD dosing strategy for high-dose amikacin, so it remains uncommonly practiced. Methods: We describe a high-dose strategy of IV amikacin and PK monitoring (efficacy and toxicity) in 2 cases of peritoneal dialysis peritonitis caused by NTM. Amikacin was dosed at 7mg/kg on iHD days, given 4 hours pre-iHD to allow distribution. Amikacin levels were drawn: prior to iHD (peak); 4 hours post-iHD (trough); ...
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Disclosed herein are methods of treating pulmonary disorders comprising administering to the patient an effective dose of a nebulized liposomal amikacin formulation for at least one treatment cycle, wherein: the treatment cycle comprises an administration period of 15 to 75 days, followed by an off period of 15 to 75 days; and the effective dose comprises 100 to 2500 mg of amikacin daily during the administration period.
This trial is investigating the efficacy of inhaled liposomal amikacin [ARIKAYCE] in patients with treatment-refractory non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung
Hypotheses for toxicity include dilution errors, raised post-injection intraocular pressure, concomitant use of high concentrations of subconjunctival amikacin, and variations in vitreous concentration. Local variation in concentration may play a part if the agent is directly injected into the posterior vitreous space instead of the gel itself. Another possibility for macular predilection is that this is the dependent part in the supine patient during pars plana injection.. Large studies offer alternatives to aminoglycosides on the basis of culture sensitivities.3-5, 9 Suggestions include ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. Sensitivities of Gram negative organisms to ceftazidime range from 61% to 100% according to published studies.3-5, 9 It appears that in most studies 2 mg (0.1 ml of 20 mg/ml solution) of ceftazidime has in vitro effectiveness equipotent to or greater than 0.4 mg amikacin.3-5, 9 Primate studies have shown that intravitreal ceftazidime is non-toxic at doses of 2.25 ...
Amikacin is an antibiotic that fights bacteria. Amikacin is used to treat severe or serious bacterial infections. Amikacin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Amikacin Inj (Amikacin) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
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Amikacin sulfate, a active ingredient of samu AMIKACIN injection, is a semi-synthetic aminoglycosides antibiotics derived from Kanamycin. Amikacin, like other aminoglycoside antibiotics, is a bactericidal agent that exerts its action at the level of bacterial ribosome. Amikacin has been shown to be effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and many aminoglycoside-resistant strains due to its ability to resist degradation by aminoglycoside inactivating enzymes known to affect Gentamicin, Tobramycin and Kanamycin. Amikacin is a broad spectrum bactericidal antibiotic agent well absorbed following intravenous, subcutaneous or intramuscular injection and rapidly transmitted to skin and soft tissue, so it maintains a high therapeutic blood level. Amikacin has few side effects such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity ...
Amikacin (a-mi-KAY-sin) Treats infections. Belongs to a class of drugs called aminoglycoside antibiotics. Brand Name(s): amikacin sulfate NovaPlus
Pharmacokinetics and lung delivery of PDDS-aerosolized amikacin (NKTR-061) in intubated and mechanically ventilated patients with nosocomial pneumonia : Aminoglycosides aerosolization might achieve better diffusion into the alveolar compartment than intravenous use. The objective of this multicenter study was to evaluate aerosol-delivered amikacin penetration into the alveolar epithelial lining fluid (ELF) using a new vibrating mesh nebulizer (Pulmonary Drug Delivery System (PDDS), Nektar Therapeutics), which delivers high doses to the lungs.
Amikacin is shown for the treatment of diseases brought on by powerless living beings, for example, Gram negative: amikacin is dynamic in vitro against Pseudomonas species, Escherichia coli, Proteus (indolpositivo, indolnegativo)
Amikacin Sulfate NikP is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Amikacin Sulfate NikP is available on the Drugs.com website.
The primary endpoint was achieved in 50% (6/12) and 16.7% (3/18) of patients in the q12h and q24h groups, respectively. Clinical cure rates, in the 48 patients getting ≥7 days of therapy, were 93.8% (15/16), 75.0% (12/16), and 87.5% (14/16) in the q12h, q24h, and placebo groups, respectively (p = 0.467). By the end of aerosol therapy, the mean number of antibiotics per patient per day was 0.9 in the q12h, 1.3 in the q24h, and 1.9 in the placebo groups, respectively (p = 0.02 for difference between groups). BAY41-6551 was well tolerated and attributed to two adverse events in one patient (mild bronchospasm). ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major causative microorganisms of ventilator-associated pneumonia often resistant to antibiotics. In experimental models, nebulization of antibiotics delivers high lung tissue concentrations of antibiotics in infected lungs and increases lung bacterial killing. The aim of the study is to assess the efficiency of nebulized ceftazidime and amikacin in the treatment of pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in ventilated patients ...
Lysosomal phospholipidosis of proximal tubular cells is an early index of aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity and has been documented both biochemically and morphometrically in animals and humans...
XDR-TB is defined as tuberculosis that is resistant to the two most important antituberculosis drugs (isoniazid and rifampin), along with […] a member of the fluoroquinolone class and at least one of three others (capreomycin, kanamycin and amikacin). ...
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Amikacin is an antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It it often employed to treat severe infections resistant to other antibioti
De Cock, R.F.W., Allegaert, K., Sherwin, C.M.T., Nielsen, E.I., De Hoog, M. et al. (2014). A neonatal amikacin covariate model can be used to predict ontogeny of other drugs eliminated through glomerular filtration in neonates. Pharmaceutical Research, 31(3), 754-767.. ...
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Question - Complained about stomach pain. Treatment with Amikacin. Had urine test. What are the findings?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Pain in my stomach, Ask a General & Family Physician
284 medications are known to interact with amikacin. Includes Acetylsalicylic Acid (aspirin), Adrenalin (epinephrine), Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate).
... adalah salah satu obat antibiotik aminoglikosida yang memiliki fungsi membunuh dan menghambat perkembangan bakteri penyebab infeksi. Karena itu,
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To the editor: Amikacin, a semisynthetic derivative of kanamycin A, was approved for unrestricted clinical use in 1976 and is considered the antibiotic of choice for use against infections with gentamicin-resistant, gram-negative bacilli (1, 2). In a recent issue, Betts and colleagues (3) have reported data on the use of amikacin as the primary empiric aminoglycoside in a large university hospital. The authors have concluded that "because it is not possible to identify patients infected with gentamicin-resistant organisms until 48 hours after therapy is initiated, it is rational to use an antibiotic agent that is likely to be effective against ...
File Title: Delivery of Aerosolized Liposomal Amikacin as a Novel Approach for the Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in an Experimental Model of Pulmonary Infection ...
DESCRIPTION WARNINGS Patients treated with parenteral aminoglycosides should be under close clinical observation because of the potential ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity associated with their use. Safety for treatment perio...
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4-amino-N-[5-amino-2-[4-amino-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl ]oxy-4-[6-(aminomethyl)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-oxan-2-yl]oxy-3-hydroxy-cyclo hexyl]-2-hydroxy- ...
According to a new study, failing metal-on-metal hip implants generate toxic nano-particles that release Cobalt 2+ ions, which not only cause inflammation in surrounding tissue, but have the potential to cause long-term damage to the genetic material of cells. According to a report published by Medicalxpress.com, this "genotoxicity" could ... Read More. ...
Product Number , 33369880. CAS Number , 37517-28-5. EC , 253-538-5. Molecular Formula , C22H43N5O13. Molecular Weight , 585.61. Storage Temp , +4°C. Harmonized Tariff code , 29419000. Signal Word , ...
Study met primary endpoint of culture conversion (p< 0.0001)Positive top-line results from global Phase 3 controlled study in patients with NTM, a rare, progressive, destructive lung infection Company plans to pursue accelerated approval and reques
This is a beta test version of the Everyone Healthy Database.Any medical information published or self diagnosed conditions on this website is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice and you should not take any action or change your current treatment before consulting with a certified health care professional ...
A comparative study of in vitro activity of amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin, tobramycin and isepamicin was done. A total of 200 clinical isolates of Gram ...
Drugs with less than 10 isolates are removed from the chart and from the graph. The following drugs had some data removed: rifampim, amikacin. ...
A 4 months old boy presented with fever and cough for 7 days. His chest X-Ray had shown right upper and mid zone consolidation for which he had received ceftriaxone-sulbactum and amikacin for 7 days but there was no response.
Tgl Development Pte Ltd is located at Northstar @ AMK, 7030 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 5, Tel 6254 7269, view Tgl Development Pte Ltd location, products and services on Streetdirectory Map
Sestanek vseh članov AMK Goričko. Vse člane AMK Starodobnih vozil Goričko vabimo na sestanek ob koncu leta 2017, ki bo v nedeljo 10.dec.2017 ob 10.00uri v gostilni Bežan-Žökš pri Gradu.. PRIDIMO Z OLDTIMERJI, KER GREMO OB 12,00uri NA OTVORITEV KROŽIŠČA V MOTOVILCE. Vabljeni. XI. Mednarodni oldtimer vikend Goričko 2017. 17. junij od 8. 00 - 10. 00 ure zbiranje in zajtrk v Kuzmi pri osnovni šoli. Ob 10. 00 start, vožnja v smeri Sotine na Kompas shop Kuzma (postanek), v Avstrijo do Jennersdorfa(postanek), nato preko Madžarske v Martinje (postanek), Grad, Bodonce(postanek). in cilj v Polani, gostišče Lovenjakov dvor. www. lovenjakov-dvor. si. Naše oldtimerke so praznovale 08. marec 2017-Dan žena Danes 08. marca so praznovale naše prijateljice, žene, sopotnice oldtimerke. Bil sem počaščen, da sem lahko bil z še nekaj mojimi klubskimi prijetelji na začetku večera in jim, kot sem že omenil za današnji dan, ki je nekaj posebnega - je dan, posvečen dekletom, ženam, materam, ...
Objective- To compare the in vitro elution characteristics of amikacin and cefazolin from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) alone and in combination.. Study Design- A prospective, controlled, experimental study.. Methods- Three aliquots of 6 g sterile PMMA were measured and to them added (1) 750 mg amikacin; (2) 1050 mg cefazolin; and (3) 750 mg amikacin and 1050 mg cefazolin. Ten beads of each antimicrobial/PMMA combination were placed in 5 mL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 and room temperature with constant agitation. PBS was sampled at 15 time points between 1 hour and 30 days. Amikacin concentrations were determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay and cefazolin concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography.. Results- Amikacin and cefazolin eluted at concentrations greater than 8 and 4 times, respectively, above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for susceptible bacteria over 30 days. Co-elution of the antibiotics resulted in a greater rate and proportion of ...
Amikacin synovial fluid concentrations indicated suspected tourniquet failure on 3 occasions (2 synovitis, 1 no-synovitis) on 3 different horses. Data from both trials in these 3 horses were excluded from further analysis. Observed time to maximal concentration (Tmax; mean ± SD = 54 ± 13.42 min) was reached earlier in synovitis joints (5/5, 30 min) than in no-synovitis joints (1/5, 30 min and 4/5, 1 h; P = .0476) (P = .0161). Mean observed maximal concentration (Cmax) was higher in synovitis joints (144.48 ± 43.17 μg/mL) than in no-synovitis joints (60.02 ± 28.81 μg/mL; P = .0301). The recommended Cmax: minimum inhibitory concentration ratio of 8 was achieved in 3/5 of the successfully perfused joints with induced synovitis, but this ratio was not achieved in any of the clinically normal joints. ...
Bayer today announced that INHALE, a global Phase III clinical study program investigating Amikacin Inhale in addition to standard of care in intubated and mechanically ventilated patients with Gram-negative pneumonia, did not demonstrate superiority vers
Drug information on brand Kacin (100mg) 100mg/1vial (1Vial Injection) (Amikacin). It is manufactured by Modern Laboratories. Find out its price,dose and the nearest pharmacy to buy it.
Drug information on brand Amicap (500mg) 500mg/1vial (1Vial Injection) (Amikacin). It is manufactured by Pax Healthcare. Find out its price,dose and the nearest pharmacy to buy it.
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Question - Prostatitis with Ecoli,amikacin and cifran right treatment ?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Chronic prostatitis, Ask a Urologist
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Product Number , 83231030. CAS Number , 39831-55-5. EC , 254-648-6. Molecular Formula , C22H43N5O13.2H2SO4. Molecular Weight , 781.77. Storage Temp , +4°C. Harmonized Tariff code , Signal Word , ...
Researchers have identified that the combination of aztreonam, amikacin and polymyxin B may possess the ability to eradicate a previously immune strain of Escherichia coli, MCR1_NJ.
OBS! Ta alltid odlingsprov från relevanta lokaler innan antibiotikabehandling påbörjas, till exempel blod, sputum, sår och urin.. Vid svår sepsis tillägg av Nebcina under första dygnet i dosen 5-7 mg/kg×1 om Kreatinin-clearance ,80; 4,5-2,2 mg/kg×1 om Kreatinin-clearance 80-41; 2,2-1 mg/kg×1 om Kreatinin-clearance 40-20; vikt ~ lean body mass. Serumkonc. av tobramycin, som ges 1 gång/dygn, bestäms 8 tim. efter given dos och bör då uppgå till 1,5-4,0 mg/L.. Doseringsanvisningarna förutsätter vuxen patient med normal njurfunktion. Kreatinin clearance (ml/min) = F x (140-ålder) x vikt/S-kreatinin; F≈1,2 för män; F≈1,0 för kvinnor.. Vid ökad risk för ESBL-bildande tarmbakterier (utlandsresa, utlandsvård, känt bärarskap): Meropenem 1g x 4 + amikacin (Biklin) 20-25 mg/kg x 1. Vid fasciit/myosit kontakta infektionsläkare för ställningstagande till ev i.v. immunoglobulin. Vid meningit alltid tilläggsbehandling med betametason (Betapred) 8 mg x 4.. Högre doser och ...
67814-76-0 - DDXRHRXGIWOVDQ-MGAUJLSLSA-L - Isepamicin sulfate [JAN] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Polytechnics in Finland Higher education is provided by universities and polytechnics (ammattikorkeakoulu, AMK). The Finnish polytechnic system was buil...
Vanaf vandaag is onder het kopje Resources ook een nieuwe kop Mishandeling te vinden.. Hieronder vindt je relevante info over AMK meldingen en Huiselijk geweld meldingen. Ook met de lokale Westfriese organisaties erbij.. Gebruik het menu boven in beeld hiervoor.. ...
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Through a retrospective evaluation of 26 patients with NTM lung diseases, we demonstrated that the addition of inhaled AMK therapy was safe and effective for patients with difficult-to-treat NTM lung diseases. The therapy could be administered therapy for ,3 months in most patients (88.5%) without severe adverse events. Among 23 patients who successfully inhaled AMK once a day for ,3 months, 15 patients (65.2%) showed at least one instance of a negative sputum culture, with 10 patients (43.5%) showing sputum conversion after treatment. Moreover, eight patients with CLA-resistant MAC were administered inhaled AMK therapy for ,3 months, with three patients (37.5%) achieving sputum conversion post treatment. Furthermore, HRCT findings improved in seven of the 23 MAC patients, with concurrent improvement of clinical symptoms.. Three reports have described inhaled AMK therapy for NTM lung disease [17-19]. A recent report showed that 40% of the patients with NTM lung diseases who were administered ...
MONMOUTH JUNCTION, N.J., June 17 /PRNewswire/ -- Transave, Inc., today reported interim results from a multi-cycle Phase II open label clinical trial in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients on its lead investigational drug, ARIKACE™ (liposomal amikacin for inhalation). The data indicated that ARIKACE, delivered once daily for 28 consecutive days followed by 56 days off-treatment for four cycles demonstrated statistically significant improvement in lung function that was sustained during the 56 days off study drug. ARIKACE was well-tolerated during the four cycles. Results were presented today at the 33rd European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) Conference in Valencia, Spain, by Predrag Minic, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Head of Pediatrics Pulmonology Department, Mother and Child Health Institute, Belgrade, Serbia, and co-lead investigator of the study. The open label study is an extension of a previously reported randomized, placebo controlled Phase II study, and was designed to evaluate ARIKACE ...
http://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=0896-8608&volume=22 S2&spage=S66&epage=&date=2002&atitle=Intraperitoneal+ciprofloxacin+and+ticarcillin/clavulanate+has+comparable+clinical+outcome+compared+to+intraperitoneal+amikacin+and+ceftazidime+in+treatment+of+Pseudomonas+CAPD+ ...
Chan, E., Zhou, S., Srikumar, S., Duan, W. (2006). Use of in vitro critical inhibitory concentration, a novel approach to predict in vivo synergistic bactericidal effect of combined amikacin and piperacillin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a systemic rat infection model. Pharmaceutical Research 23 (4) : 729-741. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-006-9783- ...
This eMedTV segment describes various cephalexin drug interactions. Cephalexin can interact with drugs like amikacin, neomycin, and metformin to raise the amount of medicine in your body and make certain vaccines less effective, among other things.
Adult and Child ,13 years: Tuberculosis: Initial treatment: PO 15 mg/kg/day as a single daily dose; Retreatment: PO 25 mg/kg/day as a single dose for 2 months with at least 1 other drug, then decrease to 15 mg/kg/day as single daily dose ...
So, as is usual with me, its the night before the AMK and I have the fear. I have the fear so bad, Im pretty numb with it to be honest. I am about 99% certain I wont be able to beat last times score, so Im just psyching myself up to telling my family and friends Ive gone down. It doesnt even really feel like therell be an exam tomorrow. Ive got PBL in the morning with a new facilitator whos pretty strict and pro-science/anti-fluffy stuff so hopefully hell impart some pearls of wisdom as theres literally 15 minutes between finishing the session with him and the coach leaving to take us to the exam venue. Before an AMK youd usually find me pretty spaced out doing last minute cramming in my room, on the walk to the coach, going up the stairs to the exam hall, to the very last minute. People tell me its not good and if I dont know it by now I never will, but I know for a fact that I got at least one mark last time because of last second cramming - an odd sentence I read in a ...
Amikacin/Ketoconazole/Silver Sulfadiazine/Triamcinolone Otic Ointment may be prescribed for Dogs and Cats. Amikacin/Ketoconazole/Silver Sulfadiazine/Triamcinolone preparation information is provided by Wedgewood Pharmacy.
Twenty-seven RCTs were included in the review. The total number of participants was not reported, but was more than 3,802.. Clinical response (27 RCTs) was statistically significantly higher for meropenem than imipenem plus cilastatin (RR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06).. Bacteriologic response (22 RCTs) was statistically significantly higher for meropenem than imipenem plus cilastatin (RR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.08).. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality over the course of treatment between meropenem and imipenem plus cilastatin (9 RCTs; RR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.35).. There were statistically significantly fewer adverse events with meropenem than with imipenem plus cilastatin (18 RCTs; RR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.97). The most commonly reported adverse events were those identified by laboratory tests, such as thrombocytosis and increased hepatic enzymes. Other adverse events included diarrhoea, injection site inflammation, nausea or vomiting, rash and seizure.. No evidence of ...
Resistance of gram-negative aerobic bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics differs by region and country. Resistance to aminoglycosides was higher in Southern Europe than in Central and Northern Europe. Reports of the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to gentamicin and tobramycin have ranged from as low as 49.8% and 77.7%, in Greece, to as high as 96.6% and 99.2%, respectively, in the United Kingdom [3]. It was reported that 54% of gram-negative bacilli in Turkey are resistant to gentamicin, 35% to tobramycin, and only 0.9% to amikacin in 1988 [4]. Consistent to this finding, resistance to amikacin (25.4%) of P. aeruginosa was still lower than to gentamicin (57.5%) or tobramycin (58.4%). However, this data suggests that resistance to amikacin increases progressively in Turkey.. Isolates in tracheal aspirates were highly resistant whereas isolates obtained from bronchial lavage fluids were relatively quite susceptible. In our hospital, tracheal aspiration is generally a procedure performed in ...
Results Most common blood culture isolates in decreasing order of frequency were Klebsiella (42.4%), Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (11.2%), Enterobacter (9.4%), Escherichia coli (9.1%), Pseudomonas (5.4%) and Acinetobacter (4.7%). Gram negative organisms were predominant in early and late onset neonatal sepsis as well as in inborn and outborn babies. Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococci were uncommon. Candida species were isolated in early onset sepsis and in babies weighing more than 1500 gm. Most gram negative organisms were resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin and cephalosporins. Sensitivity of amikacin, levofloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam against Gram negative organisms ranged from 25% to 75%. Incidence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus and Vancomycin resistant Enterococci was 33% and 20% respectively. Most Candida isolates were sensitive to antifungals. The most effective first line antibiotic combinations were amikacin with levofloxacin and amikacin with ...
Objectives: Complete resection +/- adjuvant radiotherapy is the primary treatment for chordomas. However, resection of lumbar or high sacral chordomas may require sacrifice of nerve roots and result in significant loss of neurological function, while some other patients may be medically inoperable or refuse surgery. In these cases, protons may allow conformal delivery of high doses while sparing nearby spinal cord, small bowel, rectum, and other critical organs. We report our experience with definitive proton-based radiotherapy for chordomas.. Methods: 11 patients with spinal chordomas (2 cervical, 1 lumbar, 6 involving up to S2, 2 up to S3) underwent core biopsy (10) or incisional biopsy (1) followed by definitive proton-based radiotherapy from 1997-2008. All patients had newly diagnosed disease at the time of radiotherapy. Results: Median age was 67 years (30-82). Mean total dose was 77.3 Gy RBE (76.6-77.4 Gy RBE), delivered using primarily protons (mean dose 46.8 Gy RBE ) with a component of ...
Backgrounds: Low-Z inhomogeneities such as lung and air column create dose perturbation in proton beam therapy (PBT) for lung and liver treatments. Without proper inhomogeneity correction, dose perturbation causes inaccurate patient treatment. The impact of low-Z material on proton dose distributions is studied and compared with those obtained from the treatment planning system.. Material and methods: Urie et al [1] in 1984 showed that low-Z bulk inhomogeneity can be corrected by scaling the range shift, DR, by equivalent density, Ρeq for a thickness, t, as:. ΔR = (1-t Ρeq/Ρw). This concept is revisited by measurement at our center for 208 MeV beam with a maximum range of 28 cm. Measurements were made in a solid water-cork (Ρ=0.25g/cm3) slab phantom mimicking tissue-lung with parallel plate ion chamber embedded in the phantom. Measurements were made in reference condition (10 cm aperture, 16 cm range, 10 cm SOBP). The slab phantom was scanned and data transferred to the CMS treatment ...
Insmed Incorporated (Nasdaq:INSM) announced the closing of a $115.1 million underwritten public offering of 10,235,000 shares of common stock, including 1,335,000 shares of common stock which were issued pursuant to the exercise of the underwriters option to purchase additional shares, at a price of $11.25 per share to the public. The net proceeds to Insmed from this offering were approximately $108 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other estimated offering expenses payable by Insmed.. Insmed intends to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund further clinical development of ARIKAYCE™, or liposomal amikacin for inhalation, to treat nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease patients and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, to fund its efforts to obtain regulatory approvals and commercialize ARIKAYCE for NTM patients and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in CF patients, to invest in increased third-party manufacturing ...
A total of 661 E. coli isolates were evaluated, 96.7/95.0% of which were susceptible to ceftolozane-tazobactam (MIC50/90, 0.25/1μg/mL) by CLSI/EUCAST interpretive guidelines. Meropenem (MIC50/90, ≤0.06/≤0.06μg/mL; 99.7/99.7% susceptible [CLSI/EUCAST]), colistin (MIC50/90, ≤0.5/≤0.5μg/mL; 99.8% susceptible [EUCAST]), amikacin (MIC50/90, 2/8μg/mL; 99.1/97.7% susceptible), and piperacillin-tazobactam (MIC50/90, 2/16μg/mL; 91.5/86.9% susceptible) showed good activity against E. coli, followed by cefepime (MIC50/90, ≤0.5/,16μg/mL; 67.4/66.2% susceptible), ceftazidime (MIC50/90, 0.25/,16μg/mL; 71.0/65.7% susceptible), and gentamicin (MIC50/90, ≤1/,8μg/mL; 71.6/71.2% susceptible) (Table 2). Among ESBL non-CRE phenotype isolates of E. coli, resistance rates to cefepime, ceftazidime, gentamicin, and levofloxacin were elevated (Table 2). Meropenem (MIC50/90, ≤0.06/≤0.06μg/mL; 100.0/100.0% susceptible) and amikacin (MIC50/90, 4/8μg/mL; 97.5/94.9% susceptible) retained potent ...
This article from the March 2018 issue of the European Respiratory Journal was originally published with errors in the stated concentrations of anti-tuberculosis drugs used in the drug susceptibility testing for the study.. The sentence that originally stated:. "Phenotypic DST was also performed on all culture isolates on solid Löwenstein-Jensen media for levofloxacin at 1.0 µg·mL−1 and SLI agents at the following concentrations: 30 µg·mL−1 for kanamycin, and 40 µg·mL−1 for amikacin and capreomycin.". Should be amended to state:. "Phenotypic DST was also performed on all culture isolates on liquid DST (MGIT960) for levofloxacin at 1.5 µg·mL−1 and SLI agents at the following concentrations: 2.5 µg·mL−1 for kanamycin and capreomycin, and 1.0 µg·mL−1 for amikacin.". The original article has been corrected and republished online. ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
A prospective study of nosocomial sepsis was performed in the NICU of Surgiscope Pvt. Hospital to determine the organisms causing nosocomial infection in neonates and their resistance patterns; also studied were risk factors, clinical presentation, hematologic parameters, and outcomes over a 12-month period. A total of 363 neonates were admitted to the ICU. A total of 250 blood samples were sent for culture and sensitivity testing in suspicious cases of nosocomial infection. All patients were on antibiotics. Of these, 36.8% (92 of 250) had a positive result on culture. Isolated bacteria were mostly gram-negative bacilli (80.43%) with a marked predominance of Klebsiella (n = 32 [43.2%]) followed by Escherichia coli (n = 18 [24.32%]), Pseudomonas (n = 16 [21.62%]), and acinetobacter (n = 5 [6.75%]). Resistance to gentamicin was 100% for all organisms. Resistance to amikacin was 100% for E coli, Pseudomonas, and acinetobacter and 40% for Klebsiella. Resistance of these gram-negative rods ranged ...
Resistance to H (Isoniazid), R (Rifampin), any fluoroquinolone and one of the three second line injectable drugs (Capreomycin, Amikacin & Kanamycin) is defined as XDR or extensive drug resistance. ...
A patient admitted to an ICU is on central venous line for the last one week. He is on ceftazidime and amikacin. After 7 days of antibiotics he develops a spike of fever an his blood culture is positive for gram positive cocci in chains, which are catalase negative. Following this, vancomycin was started but the culture remained positive for the same organism even after 2 weeks of therapy. The most likely organism causing infection is ...
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ABSTRACT , Background: Bacterial persisters are a quasi-dormant sub-population of cells that are tolerant to antibiotic treatment. EBX-002 is a combination of the aminoglycoside amikacin with a bacterial metabolite as a potentiator. This product is being developed with the goal of reducing recurrent infections in the treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). Methods: MICs were determined by standard broth microdilution methods (CLSI M7). E. coli cultures in planktonic stationary phase were used to select for bacterial persisters. Experiments were conducted with and without a pre-selection step utilizing the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin. Using the time-kill method (CLSI M26), a panel of 10 E. coli UTI amikacin-sensitive clinical isolates were evaluated, varying the concentration of amikacin and metabolite. Cells were enumerated after 4 hr of exposure to the amikacin/metabolite combinations. Finally, the potentiator effect was similarly examined in other UTI relevant ...
Abstract:. The dissemination of AAC(6)-I-type acetyltransferases have rendered amikacin and other aminoglycosides all but useless in some parts of the world. Antisense technologies could be an alternative to extend the life of these antibiotics. External guide sequences are short antisense oligoribonucleotides that induce RNase P-mediated cleavage of a target RNA by forming a precursor tRNA-like complex. Thirteen-nucleotide external guide sequences complementary to locations within five regions accessible for interaction with antisense oligonucleotides in the mRNA that encodes AAC(6)-Ib were analyzed. While small variations in the location targeted by different external guide sequences resulted in big changes in efficiency of binding to native aac(6)-Ib mRNA, most of them induced high levels of RNase P-mediated cleavage in vitro. Recombinant plasmids coding for selected external guide sequences were introduced into Escherichia coli harboring aac(6)-Ib, and the transformant strains were ...
A randomized blinded placebo controlled trial was conducted to assess the clinical, biochemical and histological effects of a hyaluronan, sodium chondroitin sulfate and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine combination (PG) administered through an intra-articular (IA) route for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) at the time of injury. OA was induced in one carpal joint of each of 16 horses. Horses were designated placebo or IA PG treated. All horses were treated with 125 mg amikacin sulfate IA and 5 mL physiological saline in the middle carpal joint bilaterally on study Days 0 (after induction of OA), 7, 14 and 28, except the OA affected joint of the IA PG horses, which received 5 mL PG plus 125 mg of amikacin sulfate on similar days ...
Looking for online definition of netilmicin in the Medical Dictionary? netilmicin explanation free. What is netilmicin? Meaning of netilmicin medical term. What does netilmicin mean?
Drugs acting on bacterial protein biosynthesis  Proteins are very essential for most of the bacterial metabolic functions as well as for cell integrity.  Bacterial cell uses ribosomes to synthesize proteins.  Targeting protein biosynthesis will produce bactericidal agents in most of the cases.  Why targeting the bacterial protein synthesis will be selective:  Different diffusion rates between bacterial and mammalian cells.  Structural differences between bacterial and mammalian ribosomes Aminoglycosides  They have amino sugar linked together with glycosidic     bonds. The first one discovered was streptomycin; obtained from streptomyces bacteria in 1939. Most of them are natural products such as kanamycin, neomycin, gentamicin, netilmicin and tobramycin. Some are semisynthetics such as amikacin which is synthesized from kanamycin A. They are highly polar compounds, because of that they are not orally bioavailable, either given parenterally , topically or for ...
Fifty-one (25.5%) of the 200 specimens were positive for the organism with urine (30%) being the most common source of isolation. Biochemical characterization grouped the isolates into eight biotypes with biotypes B III (25.59%), B II (23.53%) and B I (21.57%) being the most prevalent. Antimicrobial susceptibility results of isolates revealed 13 antibiotype patterns based on resistance to the antimicrobial agents investigated. The resistance pattern, cefotaxime, gentamicin and tetracycline (CTXR GENR TETR) was the most common (21.6%) amongst the isolates. Over 40% of the isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance to five or more antibiotics, especially environmental isolates. However, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the susceptibility of isolates to ciprofloxacin (98%), amikacin (90.2%) and netilmicin (80.4%) compared with other drugs used in the study. Conclusion ...
Although the electricity itself remains confined within the wire, the magnetic field induced moves outside. What makes this treatment so remarkable is that living tissue is essentially transparent to magnetic fields. When a varying electromagnetic field is placed close to a conductive medium such as the human body, it will induce electrical currents.. BT may be new to the reader, but it has been applied clinically almost from the moment we learned to send electricity over wire. It is standard practice in eastern Europe where it has been studied systematically for many years. Positive results are documented in a lengthy list of conditions, and thousands of studies have been performed.. How significant is BT? In 1992 Dr. Andrew Bassett, who helped pioneer the first FDA approved bioelectromagnetic device, wrote:. "In the decade to come bioelectromagnetics will assume a therapeutic importance equal to, or greater than, that of pharmacology and surgery today. With proper interdisciplinary effort, ...
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Local drug delivery devices offer a promising method for delivering vancomycin and amikacin for musculoskeletal wounds. However, current local delivery devices such as beads and sponges do not necessarily allow for full coverage of a wound surface with eluted antibiotics and do not address the need for reducing the antibiotic diffusion distance to help prevent contamination by bacteria or other microorganisms. We blended chitosan/polyethylene glycol (PEG) pastes/sponges to increase biocompatibility and improve antibiotic coverage within the wound.. ...
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I am about to start the last week of being a fresher. Its quite a scary thought. Im not really ready for it to be the end of the year. Not because Im not looking forward to the exam at the end, rather Im having a blast! Ive worked so hard to get here, and its amazing. The placements I get to go on, the skills Im learning, the science. Im having such a good time, I dont want a break for 3 months. As for the exam, well I really dont have the motivation. I seem to swing wildly between thinking "Ill be fine, I can do it", to "I dont need to do it because Ive passed the AMK, so I dont need to work too much for it", to "OMG I have no idea what Im doing about anything, all the work Ive done has been focussing on the wrong things and Ive now run out of time to cover it all properly and I dont even know where to begin ...
A total of 183 patients were colonized or infected with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates at a hospital in Spain during 2007-2010; prevalence increased over this period from 2.8% to 15.3%. To characterize these isolates, we performed molecular epidemiologic and drug resistance analysis. Genotyping showed that 104 (56.8%) isolates belonged to a single major clone (clone B), which was identified by multilocus sequence typing as sequence type (ST) 175. This clone was initially isolated from 5 patients in 2008, and then isolated from 23 patients in 2009 and 76 patients in 2010. PCR analysis of clone B isolates identified the bla(VIM-2) gene in all but 1 isolate, which harbored bla(IMP-22). ST175 isolates were susceptible to only amikacin (75%) and colistin (100%). Emergence of the ST175 clone represents a major health problem because it compromises therapy for treatment of P. aeruginosa nosocomial infections ...
After 3 weeks of quadruple therapy, first-line DST showed resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol. The patient was transferred to the regional infectious diseases unit (Dept of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine (Monsall Unit), North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester, UK) and hospitalised to commence treatment for MDR-TB with pyrazinamide, moxifloxacin, amikacin, prothionamide, cycloserine and azithromycin (fig. 1). Pericardial involvement was confirmed by echocardiogram and review of CT images. Corticosteroids were therefore added according to national guidelines [4] and reduced over a period of 8 weeks.. At week 5, DST showed resistance to fluoroquinolones and the injectable agents streptomycin, amikacin, capreomycin and kanamycin, confirming XDR-TB [2], plus additional resistance to all injectables and ethambutol, which is associated with poorer outcomes [5, 6]. The isolate was susceptible to pyrazinamide, prothionamide, linezolid and the macrolides azithromycin and ...
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BUFFALO, N.Y. - The golden age of antibiotics may be drawing to a close.. The recent discovery of E. coli carrying mcr-1 and ndm-5 - genes that make the bacterium immune to last-resort antibiotics - has left clinicians without an effective means of treatment for the superbug.. But in a new study, University at Buffalo researchers have assembled a team of three antibiotics that, together, are capable of eradicating the deadly bacterium. The groundbreaking research was recently published in mBio, a journal for the American Society of Microbiology.. The researchers found that a novel combination of aztreonam, amikacin and polymyxin B - a last-resort antibiotic - was able to kill E. coli carrying mcr-1 and ndm-5 genes within 24 hours while also preventing regrowth. Traditional combinations of these antibiotics were unable to kill the E. coli and resulted in rapid resistance.. "The threat of gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli carrying mcr-1, is worrisome," says Zackery Bulman, PharmD, first ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aminoglycoside Resistance. T2 - The Emergence of Acquired 16S Ribosomal RNA Methyltransferases. AU - Doi, Yohei. AU - Wachino, Jun ichi. AU - Arakawa, Yoshichika. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Aminoglycoside-producing Actinobacteria are known to protect themselves from their own aminoglycoside metabolites by producing 16S ribosomal RNA methyltransferase (16S-RMTase), which prevents them from binding to the 16S rRNA targets. Ten acquired 16S-RMTases have been reported from gram-negative pathogens. Most of them posttranscriptionally methylate residue G1405 of 16S rRNA resulting in high-level resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and plazomicin. Strains that produce 16S-RMTase are frequently multidrug-resistant or even extensively drug-resistant. Although the direct clinical impact of high-level aminoglycoside resistance resulting from production of 16S-RMTase is yet to be determined, ongoing spread of this mechanism will further limit treatment options for ...
Over five years, a total of 646 P. aeruginosa isolates was acquired from different clinical specimens and their resistance to the commonly used anti-pseudomonal antibiotics was determined. The majority of the isolates were from respiratory (60.99%) and urinary sources (23.22%) while the least came from transudates and exudates (2.01%). Most of the samples were acquired from older adults (77.55%), most of whom were admitted (67.03%). Amikacin was found to be the most effective drug with a resistance rate of 7.5%, followed by piperacillin/tazobactam (8.5%) and gentamicin (13.5%). On the other hand, 26.7% of the isolates were resistant to levofloxacin. Almost 100% of the isolates were screened positive for AmpC production, which may suggest inducible resistance against expanded spectrum beta-lactamase. Furthermore, for the last three years, P. aeruginosa isolates from this area have been noted to have decreasing resistance only to aztreonam and gentamicin. Also, for five years, a mean MAR index of 0.17 was
2. 19 Aminoglycoside Antibiotics 34. Li, X. , L. Zhang, G. A. McKay, and K. Poole. 2003. Role of the acetyltransferase AAC(6p)-Iz modifying enzyme in aminoglycoside resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51:803-811. 35. , M. Tod, Y. Cohen, and O. Petitjean. 1995. Aminoglycosides. Med. Clin. N. Am. 79:761-87. 36. , T. A. Smith, R. J. Zheng, P. Nordmann, and J. S. Blanchard. 2003. Aminoglycoside resistance resulting from tight drug binding to an altered aminoglycoside acetyltransferase. 1999. Semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotics: development and enzymatic modifications. J. Infect. Chemother. 5:1-9. Kotra, L. , J. Haddad, and S. Mobashery. 2000. Aminoglycosides perspectives on mechanisms of action and resistance and strategies to counter resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:3249-3256. 2. 19 Aminoglycoside Antibiotics 34. Li, X. , L. Zhang, G. A. McKay, and K. Poole. 2003. Role of the acetyltransferase AAC(6p)-Iz modifying enzyme in aminoglycoside ...
Sisomicin (bactoCeaze or Ensamycin) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, isolated from the fermentation broth of a new species of the genus Micromonospora. It is a newer broad-spectrum aminoglycoside most structurally related to gentamicin. Sisomicin is the most predictably active aminoglycoside against gram-positive bacteria. Like most other aminoglycosides, Sisomicin is bactericidal for sensitive clinical isolates. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) have been found to be equivalent or very close to the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Like other aminoglycosides, most clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa remain susceptible to sisomicin. Resistance to sisomicin may be enzymatically or non-enzymatically mediated. Sisomicin is inactivated by the same enzymes as gentamicin but it is active against many, not all, organisms that resist gentamicin by non-enzymatic mechanisms. Some studies show that sisomicin has been effective in the treatment of infections that either had failed ...

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  • We describe a high-dose strategy of IV amikacin and PK monitoring (efficacy and toxicity) in 2 cases of peritoneal dialysis peritonitis caused by NTM. (confex.com)
  • Amikacin clearance with current iHD modalities was much more efficient than prior reports. (confex.com)
  • High-dose, pre-iHD administration strategy successfully improved PK/PD parameters, allowing high Cmax, while decreasing overall amikacin exposure on non-iHD days. (confex.com)
  • Pre-iHD amikacin 7mg/kg achieved IDSA-recommended Cmax for treatment of NTM peritonitis. (confex.com)
  • Amikacin was dosed at 7mg/kg on iHD days, given 4 hours pre-iHD to allow distribution. (confex.com)
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  • Culture proved bacterial meningitis where the prescribed therapy includes the use of systemic and intraventricular amikacin therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Amikacin is most often used for treating severe infections with multidrug-resistant , aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, especially Pseudomonas , Acinetobacter , Enterobacter , E. coli , Proteus , Klebsiella , and Serratia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Amikacin is shown for the treatment of diseases brought on by powerless living beings, for example, Gram negative: amikacin is dynamic in vitro against Pseudomonas species, Escherichia coli, Proteus (indolpositivo, indolnegativo), Providencia sp, Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia sp, Acinetobacter (Mima-Herellea above) freundii and Citrobacter sp. (medicinesmexico.com)
  • The in vitro studies show that amikacin sulfate, in mix with a beta-lactam, anti-infection acts synergistically against numerous gram-negative life forms that are of clinical significance, as Proteus rettgeri, Providencia stuartii, Serratia marcescens or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (medicinesmexico.com)
  • The aim of the study is to assess the efficiency of nebulized ceftazidime and amikacin in the treatment of pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in ventilated patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The only Gram-positive bacteria that amikacin strongly affects are Staphylococcus and Nocardia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-positive: Amikacin is dynamic in vitro against Staphylococcus species makers and non-makers of penicillinase, including methicillin-safe strains. (medicinesmexico.com)
  • Avoid other medications that may increase your risk for these serious side effects if taken together with amikacin . (webmd.com)
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  • There is no oral form available, as amikacin is not absorbed orally. (wikipedia.org)
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  • Sikander A. K. Lodhi, G. Ashok Kumar Reddy, and C. Aruna Sunder, "Postoperative Nocardia Endophthalmitis and the Challenge of Managing with Intravitreal Amikacin," Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine , vol. 2016, Article ID 2365945, 6 pages, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of amikacin? (cigna.com)
  • Amikacin can harm your kidneys, and may also cause nerve damage or hearing loss, especially if you have kidney disease or use certain other medicines. (cigna.com)
  • In general, amikacin should be avoided in infants. (wikipedia.org)