A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
Semisynthetic 1-N-ethyl derivative of SISOMYCIN, an aminoglycoside antibiotic with action similar to gentamicin, but less ear and kidney toxicity.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Antibiotic produced by Micromonospora inyoensis. It is closely related to gentamicin C1A, one of the components of the gentamicin complex (GENTAMICINS).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Analog of KANAMYCIN with antitubercular as well as broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties.
Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.
A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.

Tobramycin, amikacin, sissomicin, and gentamicin resistant Gram-negative rods. (1/633)

Sensitivities to gentamicin, sissomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were compared in 196 gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods and in 212 similar organisms sensitive to gentamicin, mainly isolated from clinical specimens. Amikacin was the aminoglycoside most active against gentamicin-resistant organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Providencia spp, and Citrobacter spp being particularly susceptible. Most of the gentamicin-resistant organisms were isolated from the urine of patients undergoing surgery. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against gentamicin-sensitive E coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp were most susceptible to tobramycin.  (+info)

UK-18892, a new aminoglycoside: an in vitro study. (2/633)

UK-18892 is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, a derivative of kanamycin A structurally related to amikacin. It was found to be active against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including many gentamicin-resistant strains. The spectrum and degree of activity of UK-18892 were similar to those of amikacin, and differences were relatively minor. UK-18892 was about twice as active as amikacin against gentamicin-susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both amikacin and UK-18892 were equally active against gentamicin-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. There were no appreciable differences in the activity of UK-18892 and amikacin against Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cross-resistance between these two antimicrobials was also apparent.  (+info)

Bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis. (3/633)

Two long-term therapy trials with high concentrations of antibiotic were carried out to determine the duration of therapy required to achieve bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis in guinea pigs. In the first study, corneas still contained Pseudomonas after 4 days of continual topical therapy with either tobramycin 400 mg/ml, amikacin 250 mg/ml, ticarcillin 400 mg/ml, or carbenicillin 400 mg/ml. In an 11-day trial of topical therapy with tobramycin 20 mg/ml, 34 of 36 corneas grew no Pseudomonas after 6 or more days of therapy. The bacteriologic response to therapy in this model occurred in two phases. About 99.9% or more of the organisms in the cornea were killed in the first 24 hr of therapy. The numbers of bacteria remaining in the cornea declined gradually over the next several days until the corneas were sterile. Optimal antibiotic therapy may include two stages: initial intensive therapy with high concentrations of antibiotic applied frequently to achieve a large rapid decrease in numbers of organisms in the cornea, followed by prolonged, less intensive therapy to eradicate organisms and prevent relapse.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of amikacin in low-clearance unilamellar liposomes after a single or repeated intravenous administration in the rhesus monkey. (4/633)

Liposomal aminoglycosides have been shown to have activity against intracellular infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterium avium. Amikacin in small, low-clearance liposomes (MiKasome) also has curative and prophylactic efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To develop appropriate dosing regimens for low-clearance liposomal amikacin, we studied the pharmacokinetics of liposomal amikacin in plasma, the level of exposure of plasma to free amikacin, and urinary excretion of amikacin after the administration of single-dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) and repeated-dose (20 mg/kg eight times at 48-h intervals) regimens in rhesus monkeys. The clearance of liposomal amikacin (single-dose regimen, 0.023 +/- 0.003 ml min-1 kg-1; repeated-dose regimen, 0.014 +/- 0.001 ml min-1 kg-1) was over 100-fold lower than the creatinine clearance (an estimate of conventional amikacin clearance). Half-lives in plasma were longer than those reported for other amikacin formulations and declined during the elimination phase following administration of the last dose (from 81.7 +/- 27 to 30.5 +/- 5 h). Peak and trough (48 h) levels after repeated dosing reached 728 +/- 72 and 418 +/- 60 micrograms/ml, respectively. The levels in plasma remained > 180 micrograms/ml for 6 days after the administration of the last dose. The free amikacin concentration in plasma never exceeded 17.4 +/- 1 micrograms/ml and fell rapidly (half-life, 1.47 to 1.85 h) after the administration of each dose of liposomal amikacin. This and the low volume of distribution (45 ml/kg) indicate that the amikacin in plasma largely remained sequestered in long-circulating liposomes. Less than half the amikacin was recovered in the urine, suggesting that the level of renal exposure to filtered free amikacin was reduced, possibly as a result of intracellular uptake or the metabolism of liposomal amikacin. Thus, low-clearance liposomal amikacin could be administered at prolonged (2- to 7-day) intervals to achieve high levels of exposure to liposomal amikacin with minimal exposure to free amikacin.  (+info)

Killing kinetics of intracellular Afipia felis treated with amikacin. (5/633)

Afipia felis is a facultative intracellular bacterium which multiplies in macrophages following inhibition of phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion. When A. felis-infected cells are incubated for 72 h with various antibiotics, only aminoglycosides are found to be bactericidal. We therefore studied the killing of intracellular A. felis by amikacin, and its relationship with the restoration of P-L fusion. Amikacin reduced the number of A. felis from 8.5 x 10(5) to 3.5 x 102 cfu/mL within 94 h. P-L fusion was restored after 30-40 h of incubation with amikacin. Both mechanisms may participate in the intracellular killing of bacteria.  (+info)

Effects of isolation housing and timing of drug administration on amikacin kinetics in mice. (6/633)

AIM: To study the influences of social condition and drug administration time on amikacin metabolism in mice. METHODS: Forty Male ICR mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups according to 1) housing condition: individual housing (I, one mouse in a cage) or aggregated housing (A, 10 mice in a cage) and 2) drug administration time: at midday (D) or at midnight (N), i.e. I-D, I-N, A-D, and A-N groups. Amikacin was injected s.c. 15 mg.kg-1 after 4 wk of raising at D or N. Blood samples were taken at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 60 min after medication in each mouse. Plasma amikacin was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The concentration-time data were fitted with one-compartment open model in each mouse and data were analyzed with group t test. RESULTS: The clearance (Cl) of amikacin was larger and the half-life (T1/2) was shorter in A-N group than in A-D or I-N groups respectively. AUC(0-1) in A-N group was less than in I-N group. No differences of kinetic parameters between 2 isolated housing (I-D and I-N) groups were found. CONCLUSION: Aggregated housing and midnight drug administration increased the disposition of amikacin.  (+info)

Biological activity of netilmicin, a broad-spectrum semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic. (7/633)

Netilmicin (Sch 20569) is a new broad-spectrum semisynthetic aminoglycoside derived from sisomicin. Netilmicin was compared to gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin in a variety of in vitro test systems as well as in mouse protection tests. Netilmicin was found to be similar in activity to gentamicin against aminoglycoside-susceptible strains in both in vitro and in vivo tests. Netilmicin was also active against many aminoglycoside-resistant strains of gram-negative bacteria, particularly those known to possess adenylating enzymes (ANT 2') or those with a similar resistance pattern. Netilmicin was found to be markedly less toxic than gentamicin in chronic studies in cats, although gentamicin appeared less toxic in acute toxicity tests in mice. The concentrations of netilmicin and gentamicin in serum were compared in dogs after intramuscular dosing, and the pharmacokinetics including peak concentrations in serum were found to be similar.  (+info)

Randomized prospective study comparing cost-effectiveness of teicoplanin and vancomycin as second-line empiric therapy for infection in neutropenic patients. (8/633)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The current health-care philosophy dictates that new therapies should always be evaluated for their economic impact. Along with acquisition cost, the cost of delivery, monitoring, adverse effects and treatment failure must also be considered when determining the total cost of therapy. These auxiliary costs can be significant and greatly alter the overall cost of a drug treatment. We conducted a prospective randomized study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and cost of vancomycin and teicoplanin therapy in patients with neutropenia, after the failure of empirical treatment with a combination of piperacillin/tazobactam and amikacin. DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventy-six febrile episodes from 66 patients with hematologic malignancies under treatment, neutropenia (neutrophils <500/mm3) and fever (38 degrees C twice or 38.5 degrees C once) resistant to the combination piperacillin/tazobactam and amikacin were included in the study. RESULTS: Primary success of second-line therapy was obtained in 35 cases (46%) with no significant difference between vancomycin (17/38) and teicoplanin arms (18/38). No difference in renal or hepatic toxicity related to the antibiotic therapy was observed. The average cost per patient according to glycopeptide used was $450+/-180 for the teicoplanin group and $473+/-347 for the vancomycin group. Interestingly, in the teicoplanin arm, drug acquisition accounted for 97% of the total cost, while in the vancomycin arm administration and monitoring play an important role in overall costs. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our pharmacoeconomic analysis demonstrates that teicoplanin and vancomycin can be administered in neutropenic hematologic patients with similar efficacy and direct costs.  (+info)

Amikacin is a type of antibiotic known as an aminoglycoside, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis and ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. Amikacin is often used to treat serious infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It may be given intravenously or intramuscularly, depending on the severity and location of the infection. As with all antibiotics, amikacin should be used judiciously to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces kanamyceticus. It works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial cell death. Kanamycin is primarily used to treat serious infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It is also used in veterinary medicine to prevent bacterial infections in animals.

Like other aminoglycosides, kanamycin can cause ototoxicity (hearing loss) and nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) with prolonged use or high doses. Therefore, it is important to monitor patients closely for signs of toxicity and adjust the dose accordingly. Kanamycin is not commonly used as a first-line antibiotic due to its potential side effects and the availability of safer alternatives. However, it remains an important option for treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that are derived from bacteria and are used to treat various types of infections caused by gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria. These antibiotics work by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately leads to bacterial cell death.

Some examples of aminoglycosides include gentamicin, tobramycin, neomycin, and streptomycin. These antibiotics are often used in combination with other antibiotics to treat severe infections, such as sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections.

Aminoglycosides can have serious side effects, including kidney damage and hearing loss, so they are typically reserved for use in serious infections that cannot be treated with other antibiotics. They are also used topically to treat skin infections and prevent wound infections after surgery.

It's important to note that aminoglycosides should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to antibiotic resistance and further health complications.

Gentamicin is an antibiotic that belongs to the class of aminoglycosides. It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including:

* Gram-negative bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis
* Certain Gram-positive bacterial infections, such as those caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

Gentamicin works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately leads to bacterial cell death. It is typically given via injection (intramuscularly or intravenously) and is often used in combination with other antibiotics to treat serious infections.

Like all aminoglycosides, gentamicin can cause kidney damage and hearing loss, especially when used for long periods of time or at high doses. Therefore, monitoring of drug levels and renal function is recommended during treatment.

Netilmicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, which is used to treat various types of bacterial infections. According to the medical definition, Netilmicin is a sterile, pyrogen-free, pale yellow to light brown, clear solution, available for intramuscular and intravenous administration. It is a semisynthetic antibiotic derived from sisomicin that is used against severe infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

The mechanism of action for Netilmicin involves binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and causing bacterial cell death. Similar to other aminoglycosides, Netilmicin is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is excreted unchanged by glomerular filtration in the kidneys.

It's important to note that Netilmicin can cause nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) and ototoxicity (hearing loss or balance problems), so it should be used with caution, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment or hearing issues. Regular monitoring of renal function and auditory function is recommended during treatment with Netilmicin.

Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections. According to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the medical definition of Tobramycin is:

"A semi-synthetic modification of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, NEOMYCIN, that retains its antimicrobial activity but has less nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects. Tobramycin is used in the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, especially Pseudomonas infections in patients with cystic fibrosis."

Tobramycin works by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit of bacterial cells, inhibiting protein synthesis and ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. It is commonly used to treat severe infections caused by susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, and Enterobacter species.

Tobramycin is available in various formulations, such as injectable solutions, ophthalmic ointments, and inhaled powder for nebulization. The choice of formulation depends on the type and location of the infection being treated. As with any antibiotic, it's essential to use Tobramycin appropriately and under medical supervision to minimize the risk of antibiotic resistance and potential side effects.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Capreomycin is an antibiotic drug that is primarily used to treat tuberculosis (TB) that is resistant to other first-line medications. It belongs to a class of drugs called cyclic polypeptides, which work by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Capreomycin is administered via intramuscular injection and is typically used in combination with other anti-TB drugs as part of a multidrug regimen.

The medical definition of 'Capreomycin' is:

A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic derived from Streptomyces capreolus, used in the treatment of tuberculosis, particularly drug-resistant strains. It inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit and is administered intramuscularly.

Ceftazidime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, leading to bacterial cell death. Ceftazidime has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria.

It is often used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis, particularly when they are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ceftazidime is also commonly used in combination with other antibiotics to treat complicated abdominal infections, bone and joint infections, and hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Like all antibiotics, ceftazidime can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions. It may also affect the kidneys and should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function. Ceftazidime is available in both intravenous (IV) and oral forms.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Sisomicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, which is used in the treatment of severe bacterial infections. It works by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit of bacteria, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial cell death. Sisomicin is specifically active against certain Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species.

It is important to note that sisomicin, like other aminoglycosides, can cause serious side effects, including kidney damage and hearing loss, especially when used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. Therefore, it should be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, and regular monitoring of renal function and auditory function is recommended during treatment.

Sisomicin is not commonly used as a first-line antibiotic, but may be reserved for cases where other antibiotics have failed or are not effective against the specific bacteria causing the infection. It is typically given by injection into a vein (intravenously) or muscle (intramuscularly), and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on various factors, such as the patient's kidney function, the severity of the infection, and the susceptibility of the bacteria to sisomicin.

"Pseudomonas aeruginosa" is a medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely found in the environment, such as in soil, water, and on plants. It's an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it usually doesn't cause infection in healthy individuals but can cause severe and sometimes life-threatening infections in people with weakened immune systems, burns, or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants due to its intrinsic resistance mechanisms and the acquisition of additional resistance determinants. It can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, dermatitis, and severe bloodstream infections known as sepsis.

The bacterium produces a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, proteases, and pigments like pyocyanin and pyoverdine, which aid in iron acquisition and help the organism evade host immune responses. Effective infection control measures, appropriate use of antibiotics, and close monitoring of high-risk patients are crucial for managing P. aeruginosa infections.

Dibekacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is primarily used in Japan for the treatment of severe bacterial infections. It works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial cell death. Dibekacin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis.

Like other aminoglycosides, dibekacin can cause serious side effects, such as kidney damage, hearing loss, and balance problems. It is usually given by injection into a vein or muscle, and the dosage is carefully monitored to minimize these risks. Dibekacin is not approved for use in the United States, but it may be available through special access programs in some cases.

Labyrinthine fluids, also known as endolymph and perilymph, are fluids that fill the inner ear structures, specifically the bony labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is divided into two main parts: the cochlea, responsible for hearing, and the vestibular system, responsible for balance.

Endolymph is a clear, plasma-like fluid found within the membranous labyrinth, which is a series of interconnected tubes and sacs that lie inside the bony labyrinth. Endolymph plays a crucial role in the functioning of both the cochlea and vestibular system by creating an electrochemical gradient necessary for the conversion of mechanical sound vibrations into electrical signals in the cochlea, as well as facilitating the detection of head movements and maintaining balance in the vestibular system.

Perilymph, on the other hand, is a clear, colorless fluid that fills the space between the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth. It is similar in composition to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serves as a protective cushion for the delicate inner ear structures. Perilymph also helps maintain the electrochemical gradient required for sound transduction in the cochlea.

Disorders related to these labyrinthine fluids, such as endolymphatic hydrops or perilymph fistula, can lead to hearing and balance problems.

Piperacillin is a type of antibiotic known as a semisynthetic penicillin that is used to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die.

Piperacillin has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is often used in combination with other antibiotics, such as tazobactam, to increase its effectiveness against certain types of bacteria.

Piperacillin is typically administered intravenously in a hospital setting and is used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, sepsis, and abdominal or urinary tract infections. As with all antibiotics, it should be used only when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Imipenem is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of carbapenems. It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, sepsis, and skin infections. Imipenem works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial death.

Imipenem is often combined with another medication called cilastatin, which helps to prevent the breakdown of imipenem in the body and increase its effectiveness. The combination of imipenem and cilastatin is available under the brand name Primaxin.

Like other antibiotics, imipenem should be used with caution and only when necessary, as overuse can lead to antibiotic resistance. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.

Kanamycin Kinase is not a widely recognized medical term, but it is a concept from the field of microbiology. It refers to an enzyme produced by certain bacteria that catalyzes the phosphorylation of kanamycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic. The phosphorylation of kanamycin inactivates its antibacterial activity, making it less effective against those bacteria that produce this kinase. This is one mechanism by which some bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Ticarcillin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of drugs called penicillins. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Ticarcillin has activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The drug works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial death. It is often administered intravenously in a hospital setting due to its poor oral bioavailability. Common side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as allergic reactions, including rash and itching.

It's important to note that the use of ticarcillin should be based on the results of bacterial culture and sensitivity testing to ensure its effectiveness against the specific bacteria causing the infection. Additionally, healthcare providers should monitor renal function during treatment, as ticarcillin can affect kidney function in some patients.

'Acinetobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and healthcare settings. They are known for their ability to survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels, as well as their resistance to many antibiotics.

Some species of Acinetobacter can cause healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients who are hospitalized, have weakened immune systems, or have been exposed to medical devices such as ventilators or catheters. These infections can include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and meningitis.

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most common species associated with human infection and is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making it a significant public health concern. Infections caused by Acinetobacter can be difficult to treat and may require the use of last-resort antibiotics.

Preventing the spread of Acinetobacter in healthcare settings is important and includes practices such as hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and contact precautions for patients with known or suspected infection.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Perilymph is a type of fluid found in the inner ear, more specifically within the bony labyrinth of the inner ear. It fills the space between the membranous labyrinth and the bony labyrinth in the cochlea and vestibular system. Perilymph is similar in composition to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and contains sodium, chloride, and protein ions. Its main function is to protect the inner ear from damage, maintain hydrostatic pressure, and facilitate the transmission of sound waves to the hair cells in the cochlea for hearing.

Cephalothin is a type of antibiotic known as a first-generation cephalosporin. It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and urinary tract infections.

Cephalothin works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which are essential for their survival. It binds to specific proteins in the bacterial cell wall, causing the wall to become unstable and ultimately leading to the death of the bacterium.

Like other antibiotics, cephalothin is only effective against certain types of bacteria, and it should be used under the direction of a healthcare professional. It is important to take the full course of treatment as directed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of developing antibiotic resistance.

Common side effects of cephalothin include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. More serious side effects may include allergic reactions, kidney damage, and seizures. It is important to inform your healthcare provider of any medical conditions you have or medications you are taking before starting treatment with cephalothin.

Pseudomonas infections are infections caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa or other species of the Pseudomonas genus. These bacteria are gram-negative, opportunistic pathogens that can cause various types of infections, including respiratory, urinary tract, gastrointestinal, dermatological, and bloodstream infections.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, or those who are hospitalized for extended periods. The bacteria can also infect wounds, burns, and medical devices such as catheters and ventilators.

Pseudomonas infections can be difficult to treat due to the bacteria's resistance to many antibiotics. Treatment typically involves the use of multiple antibiotics that are effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In severe cases, intravenous antibiotics or even hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, contact precautions for patients with known Pseudomonas infections, and proper cleaning and maintenance of medical equipment.

Thienamycins are a group of antibiotics that are characterized by their beta-lactam structure. They belong to the class of carbapenems and are known for their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many that are resistant to other antibiotics. Thienamycins inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which leads to bacterial cell death.

Thienamycin itself is not used clinically due to its instability, but several semi-synthetic derivatives of thienamycin have been developed and are used in the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Examples of thienamycin derivatives include imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem. These antibiotics are often reserved for the treatment of severe infections that are unresponsive to other antibiotics due to their potential to select for resistant bacteria and their high cost.

Aztreonam is a monobactam antibiotic, which is a type of antibacterial drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria. It works by interfering with the ability of bacterial cells to form cell walls, leading to their death. Aztreonam is specifically active against certain types of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

Aztreonam is available in various forms, including injectable solutions and inhaled powder, for use in different clinical settings. It is often used to treat serious infections that have not responded to other antibiotics or that are caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Like all antibiotics, aztreonam can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people, particularly those with a history of allergies to other antibiotics. It is important to use aztreonam only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Clofazimine is an antimycobacterial medication used mainly in the treatment of leprosy (Hansen's disease) and also has some activity against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections. It is an oral riminophenazine dye that accumulates in macrophages and bacterial cells, where it inhibits mycobacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Its side effects include skin discoloration, gastrointestinal symptoms, and potential eye toxicity.

"Serratia" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile bacilli that are commonly found in the environment, such as in water and soil. Some species, particularly "Serratia marcescens," can cause healthcare-associated infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bloodstream infections. These infections often occur in patients with compromised immune systems or who have been hospitalized for extended periods of time. Serratia species are resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Around 16% of amikacin crosses the placenta; while the half-life of amikacin in the mother is 2 hours, it is 3.7 hours in the ... The concentration of amikacin in the renal cortex becomes ten times that of amikacin in the plasma; it then most likely ... Amikacin is derived from kanamycin A: While amikacin is only FDA-approved for use in dogs and for intrauterine infection in ... Amikacin in the eye can be accompanied by cephazolin. Despite its use there amikacin (and all aminoglycosides) are toxic to ...
M. salmoniphilum is susceptible to amikacin. Whipps CM, Butler WR, Pourahmad F, Watral VG, Kent ML. (2007). "Molecular ...
"Drug interactions between amikacin and ampicillin". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2018. Retrieved 22 ...
... or amikacin) plus metronidazole •Ampicillin plus gentamicin (or amikacin) plus clindamycin •Ampicillin plus an expanded- ... Centers with significant gentamicin resistance patterns should consider amikacin in place of gentamicin. The use of oral ...
Ramirez MS, Tolmasky ME (December 2017). "Amikacin: Uses, Resistance, and Prospects for Inhibition". Molecules. 22 (12): 2267. ...
cefepime, ceftazidime, imipenem, meropenem or piperacillin-tazobactam; plus ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, ...
Susceptible to amikacin, imipenem, cefoxitin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. ...
Susceptible to amikacin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin and ethambutol. Resistant to isoniazid. Differential ...
It is susceptible to amikacin, clarithromycin, and rifampin. Kim BJ, Hong SH, Yu HK, Park YG, Jeong J, Lee SH, Kim SR, Kim K, ...
M. saopaulense is susceptible to amikacin, kanamycin, and clarithromycin. Nogueira CL, Whipps CM, Matsumoto CK, Chimara E, Droz ...
Sensitive to compounds such as prothionamide, cycloserine, clarithromycin, gentamicin, amikacin. Resistant to compounds such as ...
The most frequently used aminoglycosides include gentamicin, amikacin and streptomycin. These antibiotics are usually used in ...
It is susceptible to amikacin, clarithromycin, ethambutol, linezolid, and rifabutin. It has also been recovered from African ...
April 2012). "Comparison of the next-generation aminoglycoside plazomicin to gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin". Expert ...
c. Third choice: gentamicin or amikacin (both aminoglycosides) +/- amoxicillin or vancomycin (all injectable). Aminoglycosides ... amikacin]) Antibiotics directed against Gram-positive bacteria need to be included in instances and institutions where ...
Aminoglycosides such as tobramycin, gentamicin, and amikacin are other choices for therapy.[citation needed] This ability to ...
... is antagonistic to the microbiologic effects of the antibiotics gentamicin and amikacin. The activity of rifampicin ...
A new combination drug therapy (sulfonamide, ceftriaxone, and amikacin) has also shown promise. The prognosis of nocardiosis is ...
Aminoglycosides such as amikacin have been found to be very effective, as well. Quinolones can be an effective alternative. A ...
"In vivo bacterial regrowth-inhibition effect of cefbuperazone and amikacin in puerperal uterine cavity". Journal of ...
Minocycline is usually substituted when a sulfa cannot be given; high-dose imipenem and amikacin have also been used in severe ...
... gentamicin and amikacin. Intermittent fever Relapsing fever Undulant fever Remittent fever Neutropenic fever Ogoina D (August ...
"Refractory Craniofacial Actinomycetoma Due to Streptomyces somaliensis That Required Salvage Therapy with Amikacin and Imipenem ...
"Phase I Pharmacokinetics of Liposomal Amikacin (MiKasome) in Human Subjects: Dose Dependence and Urinary Clearance". Abstr ...
Sampi K, Hattori M (1992). "[Comparative study of cefpiramide + amikacin versus piperacillin + amikacin in granulocytopenic ...
... kanamycin and amikacin. Reports from 2009 stated that there was a high mortality rate among the thread-sail filefish, ...
For drug-resistant TB, a combination of antibiotics such as amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin should be used. The most common ...
"Clofazimine Prevents the Regrowth of Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium avium Type Strains Exposed to Amikacin and ... as well as the drugs amikacin and clarithromycin. However, in the United States, clofazimine is considered an orphan drug, is ...
Antibiotics that have been used to successfully treat C. violaceum include pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and co- ...
The type strain isolates were susceptible in vitro to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, tobramycin, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, ...
Around 16% of amikacin crosses the placenta; while the half-life of amikacin in the mother is 2 hours, it is 3.7 hours in the ... The concentration of amikacin in the renal cortex becomes ten times that of amikacin in the plasma; it then most likely ... Amikacin is derived from kanamycin A: While amikacin is only FDA-approved for use in dogs and for intrauterine infection in ... Amikacin in the eye can be accompanied by cephazolin. Despite its use there amikacin (and all aminoglycosides) are toxic to ...
Bioackumulering. Amikacin har låg potential att bioackumuleras.. Toxicitet. Amikacin har mycket hög kronisk toxicitet (OECD 201 ... PEC/PNEC comparisons do not indicate amikacin as posing a threat to the environment. However, due to the concern raised on the ... PEC/PNEC comparisons do not indicate amikacin as posing a threat to the environment. However, due to the concern raised on the ... Utredningsrapport för Arikayce liposomal (amikacin), 23 July 2020, EMA/473660/2020.. Fara. Persistens: DT50, whole system (12 ...
... DOI link for A Research Note on Transport Properties of ... Kinetic curves of release of the amikacin, having abnormal character is shown. The analysis of the obtained data showed that a ...
Amikacin is not useful for birds with abscesses and exudates. Absorption: Amikacin is rapidly and well absorbed from ... Amikacin is the least nephrotoxic of the aminoglycosides (others include gentamicin, neomycin, and dihydrostreptomycin). To ... Amikacin is a semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides are used primarily for the treatment of infections ... Storage/Stability: Amikacin is stable for at least 2 years at room temperature.. Note 1.3 grams of amikacin sulfate is ...
The (WCAG) defines requirements for designers and developers to improve accessibility for people with disabilities. ARIKAYCEhcp.com is fully conformant with WCAG 2.1 level AA. Fully conformant means that the content fully conforms to the accessibility standards without any exceptions.. ...
Amikacin inhibits bacterial growth by binding to the 30S subunit of bacterial ribosomes and inhibiting protein synthesis. Use ...
Measurement of serum amikacin levels is indicated in most cases in which amikacin is used for therapy, especially in patients ... encoded search term (Amikacin Level) and Amikacin Level What to Read Next on Medscape ... Amikacin trough levels of more than 10 mcg/mL have been associated with significant ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. [2] Desired ... Amikacin is a semisynthetic analogue of kanamycin and is highly active against most gram-negative bacteria, Nocardia, and ...
Measurement of serum amikacin levels is indicated in most cases in which amikacin is used for therapy, especially in patients ... encoded search term (Amikacin Level) and Amikacin Level What to Read Next on Medscape ... Amikacin trough levels of more than 10 mcg/mL have been associated with significant ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. [2] Desired ... Amikacin is a semisynthetic analogue of kanamycin and is highly active against most gram-negative bacteria, Nocardia, and ...
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Amikacin. Amikacin is highly bactericidal against M. tuberculosis in vitro. It is given as a single daily dose of 15 mg/kg by ... The major side effect of amikacin is nephrotoxicity. The dose or administration frequency of amikacin should be adjusted if ... Amikacin. Quinolones. Rifabutin. Clofazimine. Combination of beta-Lactam Antibiotics and beta-Lactamase Inhibitors. The New ... Whenever possible, amikacin concentrations in serum should be measured to assure adequate but not excessive levels. It is ...
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Amikacin. *Rifabutin. *Ethionamide. *Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS). Pyrazinamide is tested by the MGIT 960 method. ...
INT was updated with a new value for Amikacin: from --- to R ... MIC was updated with a new value for Amikacin: from --- to > ... MIC was updated with a new value for Amikacin: from --- to >64 ... MIC was updated with a new value for Amikacin: from --- to >64 ... MIC was updated with a new value for Amikacin: from --- to >64 ...
amikacin. *gentamicin. *tobramycin. If youve recently had treatment with one of these antibiotics, be sure to tell your doctor ...
Were investigating treprostinil palmitil inhalation powder (TPIP), a dry powder formulation of treprostinil palmitil, as a potential therapy for rare pulmonary disorders, including pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension. TPIP is an investigational product that has not been approved for any indication in any jurisdiction.. Find available clinical trials. ...
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Treatment Outcome in Patients with Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Lung Disease: The Impact of Tigecycline and Amikacin. ...
Amikacin. ≥256. ≥256. ≥256. Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. ≥32. ≥32. ≥32. Tetracycine. ≥256. ≥256. 8. ...
Amikacin Oral Inhalation. *Amikin®see Amikacin Injection. *Amiloride. *Amiloride and Hydrochlorothiazide. * ...
Amikacin Sulfate API is a potent antibiotic belonging to the aminoglycoside class, renowned for its broad-spectrum activity ... In the dynamic landscape of pharmaceuticals, the sourcing of Alendronate Sodium API and Amikacin Sulfate API holds paramount ... Home » BUSINESS » Unveiling the Power of Alendronate Sodium API and Amikacin Sulfate API: A Comprehensive Guide to Active ... The efficacy of Amikacin Sulfate makes it indispensable in critical care settings, combating life-threatening infections with ...
CONCLUSION: Amikacin use in the long-term MDR-TB treatment led to a higher risk of occurrence of the more severe forms of ... BACKGROUND: Amikacin and kanamycin are mainly used for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), especially in ... We aimed to compare the cumulative incidence of hearing loss among patients treated for MDR-TB with amikacin or kanamycin-based ... Comparing amikacin and kanamycin-induced hearing loss in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment under programmatic ...
Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is frequently used for the treatment of neonatal late-onset sepsis, for which ... Amikacin could be detected in saliva and a saliva compartment was appended to a 2-compartment plasma model. First-order ... TDM of amikacin using saliva samples results in target attainment comparable to plasma samples and may be beneficial for ( ... Amikacin concentrations in saliva and plasma were quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A population ...
The disk diffusion method was used to assess susceptibility to the following antimicrobial agents: amikacin; tobramicin; ... and amikacin (47,2%; n = 25) (Table 1). According to the results of MICs, one isolate was intermediate and all isolates were ...
From April 1st, 2013, to March 31st, 2014, 44 hemodialysis units took part in the surveillance of vascular access-related bloodstream infections (VARBSIs) in hemodialysis (HD) patients, for a combined total of 54,878 patient-periods (Table 1). Participating units reported 157 VARBSIs in 149 patients. Patient-periods involving a fistula accounted for 44.9% of patient-periods. The VARBSI incidence rate was 0.10 cases per 100 patient-periods for patients with an arteriovenous (AV) fistula, 0.22 for patients with a synthetic fistula (graft), 0.38 for patients with a permanent catheter and 6.20 for patients with a temporary catheter. In 2013-2014, incidence rates were stable for patients with a graft and for patients with a temporary catheter compared to 2009-2013, while incidence rates decreased significantly for patients with an AV fistula as well as patients with a permanent catheter. In 2013-2014, three HD units opened up and joined the program; one HD unit carried out the surveillance but could not
Amikacin. Tetracycline can interfere with the activity of folic acid, potassium, and vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, ... Amikacin Liposomal-Neb.Accessr. Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium, ...
  • BACKGROUND: Amikacin and kanamycin are mainly used for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), especially in developing countries where the burden of MDR-TB is highest. (uu.nl)
  • We aimed to compare the cumulative incidence of hearing loss among patients treated for MDR-TB with amikacin or kanamycin-based regimens, and to identify the most-at-risk patients, based on the real-life clinical practice experiences in Namibia. (uu.nl)
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients treated with amikacin or kanamycin-based regimens in four public sector MDR-TB treatment sites in Namibia between June 2004 and March 2014. (uu.nl)
  • Patients using amikacin had a greater risk of developing the more severe forms of hearing loss than those using kanamycin (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95 % CI: 1.5-10.8). (uu.nl)
  • CONCLUSION: Amikacin use in the long-term MDR-TB treatment led to a higher risk of occurrence of the more severe forms of hearing loss compared to kanamycin use. (uu.nl)
  • MDR-TB treatment programmes should consider replacing amikacin with kanamycin and strengthen the routine renal, serum therapeutic drug levels and audiometric monitoring in the most-at-risk patients treated with aminoglycosides. (uu.nl)
  • Extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis is defined as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis that is also resistant to any one of the fluoroquinolones and to at least one of three injectable second-line antibiotics (amikacin, capreomycin or kanamycin). (who.int)
  • Amikacin liposome inhalation suspension is the first drug approved under the US limited population pathway for antibacterial and antifungal drugs (LPAD pathway). (wikipedia.org)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for amikacin liposome inhalation suspension fast track, breakthrough therapy, priority review, and qualified infectious disease product (QIDP) designations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FDA granted approval of Arikayce to Insmed, Inc. The safety and efficacy of amikacin liposome inhalation suspension, an inhaled treatment taken through a nebulizer, was demonstrated in a randomized, controlled clinical trial where patients were assigned to one of two treatment groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • One group of patients received amikacin liposome inhalation suspension plus a background multi-drug antibacterial regimen, while the other treatment group received a background multi-drug antibacterial regimen alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the sixth month of treatment, 29 percent of patients treated with amikacin liposome inhalation suspension had no growth of mycobacteria in their sputum cultures for three consecutive months compared to 9 percent of patients who were not treated with amikacin liposome inhalation suspension. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pregnant woman taking amikacin with another aminoglycoside has a possibility of causing congenital deafness in her child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amikacin is a semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic. (poultrydvm.com)
  • Amikacin Sulfate API is a potent antibiotic belonging to the aminoglycoside class, renowned for its broad-spectrum activity against gram-negative bacteria. (thecityclassified.com)
  • Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is frequently used for the treatment of neonatal late-onset sepsis , for which therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is advised. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin and amikacin may thus be introduced as a treatment regimen for typhoid fever. (who.int)
  • A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to develop an integrated pharmacokinetic model of amikacin in plasma and saliva and for the identification of covariates. (bvsalud.org)
  • This summary information comes from assessment report for Arikayce liposomal (amikacin). (janusinfo.se)
  • Assessment report for Arikayce liposomal (amikacin), 23 July 2020, EMA/473660/2020. (janusinfo.se)
  • Acetylsalicylic acid:Acetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Amikacin which could result in a higher serum level. (poultrydvm.com)
  • Amoxicillin: The serum concentration of Amikacin can be decreased when it is combined with Amoxicillin. (poultrydvm.com)
  • Immunoassay techniques are the preferred methods of measurement of serum amikacin levels and produce comparable results with other testing techniques such as gas chromatography and microbiological assays. (medscape.com)
  • Serum amikacin levels are used to guide therapy to ensure adequate but not excessive levels. (medscape.com)
  • Conclusions: Rise in BUN and serum creatinine was highly significant when the amikacin was combined with cefotaxime during i.p. administration as well as during follow-up. (ijbcp.com)
  • Conclusion: Amikacin can be considered very persistent. (janusinfo.se)
  • Conclusion: We conclude that the non-ototoxic dose of amikacin administered before the ototoxic dose of the same antibiotic had a statistically significant protective effect on the two more basal turns of the guinea pig cochlea. (scielo.br)
  • In conclusion, the sourcing of Alendronate Sodium API and Amikacin Sulfate API is a critical aspect of pharmaceutical manufacturing, with far-reaching implications for patient care and public health. (thecityclassified.com)
  • Amikacin is the least nephrotoxic of the aminoglycosides (others include gentamicin, neomycin, and dihydrostreptomycin). (poultrydvm.com)
  • Amphotericin B: Amphotericin B may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Amikacin. (poultrydvm.com)
  • In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the nephrotoxic effects of amikacin, cefotaxime, and their combination. (ijbcp.com)
  • Note 1.3 grams of amikacin sulfate is equivalent to 1 gram of amikacin. (poultrydvm.com)
  • In the dynamic landscape of pharmaceuticals, the sourcing of Alendronate Sodium API and Amikacin Sulfate API holds paramount importance. (thecityclassified.com)
  • The efficacy of Amikacin Sulfate makes it indispensable in critical care settings, combating life-threatening infections with precision and efficacy. (thecityclassified.com)
  • The production of Amikacin Sulfate API demands excellence in manufacturing practices to ensure purity, potency, and safety. (thecityclassified.com)
  • Furosemide:The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furosemide is combined with Amikacin. (poultrydvm.com)
  • furosemide, amikacin. (medscape.com)
  • Amikacin is an antibiotic medication used for a number of bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amikacin 500 MG Injection is a potent antibiotic medication used to treat severe bacterial infections. (prioritypharmaceuticals.com)
  • Background: Amikacin and cefotaxime are excreted by renal mechanisms and have ability to influence the structure and/or function of kidneys. (ijbcp.com)
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring of amikacin in preterm and term neonates with late-onset sepsis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Amikacin trough levels of more than 10 mcg/mL have been associated with significant ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Aim: The objective of the present study was to determine the occurrence of self-protection of hair cells against the ototoxicity of amikacin in guinea pigs. (scielo.br)
  • Amikacin is rapidly and well absorbed from intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) routes of administration. (poultrydvm.com)
  • Amikacin 500 MG Injection is administered by a healthcare professional through either an intravenous (IV) line or intramuscular (IM) injection. (prioritypharmaceuticals.com)
  • Amikacin concentrations in saliva and plasma were quantified with liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry . (bvsalud.org)
  • The isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and amikacin, showing minimum inhibitory concentrations 0.01-4 g/mL and 0.005-3.5 g/mL respectively. (who.int)
  • Group A (control group) received i.p. 2 ml/kg/day of normal saline, Group B received i.p. 15 mg/kg/day of amikacin, Group C received i.p. 100 mg/kg/day of cefotaxime, and Group D received i.p. amikacin and cefotaxime daily for 4 weeks. (ijbcp.com)
  • [ 6 ] In critically ill patients with serious gram-negative infections, higher loading doses and closer monitoring of amikacin levels are required to achieve a peak-to-MIC ratio of greater than 8-10. (medscape.com)
  • Carbenicillin, cefazolin, and amikacin as an empiric therapy for febrile granulocytopenic cancer patients. (ijbcp.com)
  • Amikacin, like other aminoglycosides, can be given in multiple daily doses (conventional) or once-daily dose (pulse). (medscape.com)
  • Amikacin should be used in smaller doses in the elderly, who often have age-related decreases in kidney function, and children, whose kidneys are not fully developed yet. (wikipedia.org)
  • showed that the strains of MDR the antibiotic doses of both gentamicin and S. enterica serovar Typhi involved in an amikacin were 10 g/disk. (who.int)
  • However, due to the concern raised on the conduct of the OECD 201 study which was shown to be the most sensitive to the effects of amikacin, available data do not allow to conclude definitively on the potential risk of amikacin to the environment. (janusinfo.se)
  • A total of 464 S. enterica serovar Typhi rovar Typhi isolates showing resistance to isolates were tested for susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and the 3rd-generation cepha- gentamicin and amikacin by the agar dilu- losporins is a cause of concern for physi- tion as well as the disk diffusion method, cians in developing countries [ 5-7 ]. (who.int)
  • It may pass into breast milk, so breastfeeding is usually avoided while receiving treatment with Amikacin. (prioritypharmaceuticals.com)
  • TDM of amikacin using saliva samples results in target attainment comparable to plasma samples and may be beneficial for (premature) neonates with late-onset sepsis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Results: In groups A and B, the cells were normal in all cochleae, in group C there were extensive lesions of the two more basal turns, in group D there was a significant reduction of lesions in the two more basal turns compared to group C, which had received the ototoxic dose of amikacin alone. (scielo.br)
  • Amikacin can also be used to treat non-tubercular mycobacterial infections and tuberculosis (if caused by sensitive strains) when first-line drugs fail to control the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amikacin 500 MG Injection is used to treat serious bacterial infections caused by susceptible organisms. (prioritypharmaceuticals.com)
  • Junge, R. E., and D. M. MacCoy Amikacin therapy for pseudomonas cellulitis in an Amazon parrot. . (poultrydvm.com)
  • Q: What are the possible side effects of Amikacin 500 MG Injection? (prioritypharmaceuticals.com)
  • Common side effects of Amikacin 500 MG Injection may include pain or swelling at the injection site, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, or allergic reactions. (prioritypharmaceuticals.com)
  • PEC/PNEC comparisons do not indicate amikacin as posing a threat to the environment. (janusinfo.se)
  • Amikacin works by blocking the function of the bacteria's 30S ribosomal subunit, making it unable to produce proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • group D, amikacin, 20 mg/kg/day for 30 days followed by 400 mg/kg/day for 12 days. (scielo.br)
  • [ 8 ] In one study, pharmacokinetic dosing with maintenance of trough levels below 1 mcg/mL significantly reduced the incidence of nephropathy with amikacin. (medscape.com)
  • while the half-life of amikacin in the mother is 2 hours, it is 3.7 hours in the fetus. (wikipedia.org)