A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
Mercaptoethylamines are specialized chemical compounds containing a sulfhydryl (-SH) group and an amino (-NH2) group, linked to a two-carbon ethylene chain, which are used in various pharmaceutical and industrial applications due to their ability to act as reducing agents, chelating agents, or precursors for other chemical reactions.
Decreased salivary flow.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.
Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.

Evaluation of uroprotective efficacy of amifostine against cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis. (1/192)

The role of amifostine in the prevention of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) was evaluated in the rat model. Urinary bladders from control rats that received no drugs (group I) were compared with those from rats receiving cyclophosphamide alone at a dose of 150 mg/kg (group II), and two other groups receiving amifostine at 100 mg/kg (group III) and 200 mg/kg (group IV), 15 min prior to cyclophosphamide. Bladders were assessed macroscopically and histologically at 24 h and after 7 days. All the animals that received cyclophosphamide alone developed severe HC. On the basis of the scores of macroscopic and histologic changes, animals that received amifostine showed excellent uroprotection. Only 2/6 rats in group III and 1/6 rats in group IV developed mild HC at 24 h. None of the rats in either of these groups showed any evidence of HC at 7 days. It is concluded that amifostine protects the urothelium against cyclophosphamide-induced HC.  (+info)

The sulfhydryl containing compounds WR-2721 and glutathione as radio- and chemoprotective agents. A review, indications for use and prospects. (2/192)

Radio- and chemotherapy for the treatment of malignancies are often associated with significant toxicity. One approach to reduce the toxicity is the concomitant treatment with chemoprotective agents. This article reviews two sulfhydryl compounds, namely the agent WR-2721 (amifostine), a compound recently registered for use in human in many countries, and the natural occurring compound glutathione (GSH). GSH is not registered as a chemoprotective agent. WR-2721 is an aminothiol prodrug and has to be converted to the active compound WR-1065 by membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase. WR-1065 and GSH both act as naturally occurring thiols. No protective effect on the tumour has been found when these compounds are administered intravenously. There is even in vitro evidence for an increased anti-tumour effect with mafosfamide after pretreatment with WR-2721, and in vivo after treatment with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Randomized clinical studies have shown that WR-2721 and GSH decrease cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and that WR-2721 reduces radiation radiotherapy-induced toxicity. Side-effects associated with WR-2721 are nausea, vomiting and hypotension, GSH has no side-effects. An exact role of WR-2721 and GSH as chemoprotectors is not yet completely clear. Future studies should examine the protective effect of these drugs on mucositis, cardiac toxicity, neuro- and ototoxicity, the development of secondary neoplasms and their effect on quality of life.  (+info)

Direct amifostine effect on renal tubule cells in rats. (3/192)

Clinical trials indicate that amifostine offers protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. It is unclear whether a direct pharmacological t on renal tubular cells is involved. We investigated the effect of amifostine pretreatment on the tubular apparatus and evaluated its nephroprotective potential. A total of 32 rats were treated by i.p. administration of 0.9% saline solution (group 1), 5 mg/kg cisplatin (group 2), 25 mg/kg amifostine (group 3), and 25 mg/kg amifostine followed by 5 mg/kg cisplatin (group 4) after 30 min. We recorded elevation of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in 24 h pooled urine as a specific marker for tubular lesions, renal leakage of magnesium as an unspecific nephrotoxicity marker, and survival over a 10-day observation period. A significant (P < 0.002) increase in urinary NAG after treatment was documented only in cisplatin-treated group 2 [day 2 (mean+/-SE), 93+/-2.1 units/gram creatinine; day 4, 70.6+/-16 units/gram creatinine; normalization at day 8]. Treatment with amifostine before cisplatin administration resulted in a slight urinary NAG leakage (day 2, 2.8+/-1.8 units/gram creatinine; day 4, 13.8+/-13 units/gram creatinine; normalization at day 6). No increase in urinary enzyme levels was seen in the other groups, and there were no significant differences in urinary magnesium between all groups. Four of eight rats in the cisplatin-treated group and one of eight rats in the amifostine plus cisplatin-treated group died.  (+info)

Randomized study of a short course of weekly cisplatin with or without amifostine in advanced head and neck cancer. EORTC Head and Neck Cooperative Group. (4/192)

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents available for the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer. In a previous phase II study with weekly administration of cisplatin, a response rate of 51% was achieved. However, only in a minority of the patients the planned high dose intensity of 80 mg/m2/week could be reached because of toxicity, mainly thrombocytopenia and ototoxicity. Amifostine is a cytoprotective drug that can diminish the toxicity of alkylating agents and platinum compounds. Therefore the effect of amifostine on toxicity and activity of weekly cisplatin was investigated in a randomized study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer were eligible. Patients were randomized to weekly cisplatin 70 mg/m2 for six cycles preceded by amifostine 740 mg/m2, or cisplatin only. Cisplatin was administered in hypertonic saline (3% NaCl) as a one-hour infusion; amifostine was administered as a 15-minute infusion directly before the administration of cisplatin. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients were entered in the study. The median number of cisplatin administrations was 6 (range 2-6), equal in both arms. In both treatment arms the median dose intensity of cisplatin achieved was the planned 70 mg/m2/week. In the cisplatin only arm 6 out of 206 cycles were complicated by thrombocytopenia grade 3 or 4 versus 1 of 184 cycles in the amifostine arm (P = 0.035). Hypomagnesaemia grade 2 + 3 was significantly less observed in the amifostine arm (P = 0.04). Neurotoxicity analyzed by serial vibration perception thresholds (VPT) showed a diminished incidence of subclinical neurotoxicity in the amifostine arm (P = 0.03). No protective effect on renal and ototoxicity could be shown. Hypotension was the main side effect of amifostine but only of relevance in one patient. The antitumor activity of cisplatin was preserved as 63% of the evaluable patients in the amifostine arm responded compared to 50% of the evaluable patients in the cisplatin alone arm. CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that in combination with weekly administered cisplatin amifostine reduced the risk of thrombocytopenia, hypomagnesemia as well as subclinical neurotoxicity, but did not result in a higher dose intensity of cisplatin. Addition of amifostine did not compromise the antitumor effect of cisplatin.  (+info)

Randomized phase II study of high-dose paclitaxel with or without amifostine in patients with metastatic breast cancer. (5/192)

PURPOSE: To determine whether the neurotoxicity of paclitaxel 250 mg/m(2) given over 3 hours every 3 weeks could be reduced by pretreatment with amifostine 910 mg/m(2). Secondary objectives included comparing myelosuppression, myalgias, and response rates of the two groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty women with metastatic breast cancer were randomized to receive either paclitaxel alone (arm 1) or paclitaxel preceded by amifostine (arm 2). All were assessable for toxicity, and 37 were assessable for response. At baseline and after each cycle, all patients completed questionnaires for neurologic symptoms and had standardized neurologic examinations, including objective assessments of power and vibration sense. In addition, standard follow-up assessments for other toxicities and tumor response were undertaken. Changes from baseline after courses 1, 2, and 3 were assessed. The sample size was sufficient to detect a 50% improvement in the expected determination in sensory change. RESULTS: There were no differences observed in any of the measures of neurotoxicity. Other toxicity was similar in arms 1 and 2, including hair loss (95% v 90%), neurosensory changes (100% v 100%), fatigue/lethargy (85% v 90%), myalgia (95% v 90%), and grade 4 neutropenia (47% v 60%). Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, hypotension, and sneezing were more common in the amifostine arm. Response rates (22.2% v 36.8%) and paclitaxel pharmacokinetics were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: There was no protection from paclitaxel-related neurotoxicity or hematologic toxicity in this study. These results suggest that the mechanism of action of paclitaxel-related toxic effects is not amenable to the cytoprotective action of amifostine.  (+info)

American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guidelines for the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy protectants. (6/192)

PURPOSE: Because toxicities associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy can adversely affect short- and long-term patient quality of life, can limit the dose and duration of treatment, and may be life-threatening, specific agents designed to ameliorate or eliminate certain chemotherapy and radiotherapy toxicities have been developed. Variability in interpretation of the available data pertaining to the efficacy of the three United States Food and Drug Administration-approved agents that have potential chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-protectant activity-dexrazoxane, mesna, and amifostine-and questions about the role of these protectant agents in cancer care led to concern about the appropriate use of these agents. The American Society of Clinical Oncology sought to establish evidence-based, clinical practice guidelines for the use of dexrazoxane, mesna, and amifostine in patients who are not enrolled on clinical treatment trials. METHODS: A multidisciplinary Expert Panel reviewed the clinical data regarding the activity of dexrazoxane, mesna, and amifostine. A computerized literature search was performed using MEDLINE. In addition to reports collected by individual Panel members, all articles published in the English-speaking literature from June 1997 through December 1998 were collected for review by the Panel chairpersons, and appropriate articles were distributed to the entire Panel for review. Guidelines for use, levels of evidence, and grades of recommendation were reviewed and approved by the Panel. Outcomes considered in evaluating the benefit of a chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-protectant agent included amelioration of short- and long-term chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-related toxicities, risk of tumor protection by the agent, toxicity of the protectant agent itself, quality of life, and economic impact. To the extent that these data were available, the Panel placed the greatest value on lesser toxicity that did not carry a concomitant risk of tumor protection. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mesna: (1) Mesna, dosed as detailed in these guidelines, is recommended to decrease the incidence of standard-dose ifosfamide-associated urothelial toxicity. (2) There is insufficient evidence on which to base a guideline for the use of mesna to prevent urothelial toxicity with ifosfamide doses that exceed 2.5 g/m(2)/d. (3) Either mesna or forced saline diuresis is recommended to decrease the incidence of urothelial toxicity associated with high-dose cyclophosphamide use in the stem-cell transplantation setting. Dexrazoxane: (1) The use of dexrazoxane is not routinely recommended for patients with metastatic breast cancer who receive initial doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. (2) The use of dexrazoxane may be considered for patients with metastatic breast cancer who have received a cumulative dosage of 300 mg/m(2) or greater of doxorubicin in the metastatic setting and who may benefit from continued doxorubicin-containing therapy. (3) The use of dexrazoxane in the adjuvant setting is not recommended outside of a clinical trial. (4) The use of dexrazoxane can be considered in adult patients who have received more than 300 mg/m(2) of doxorubicin-based therapy for tumors other than breast cancer, although caution should be used in settings in which doxorubicin-based therapy has been shown to improve survival because of concerns of tumor protection by dexrazoxane. (5) There is insufficient evidence to make a guideline for the use of dexrazoxane in the treatment of pediatric malignancies, with epirubicin-based regimens, or with high-dose anthracycline-containing regimens. Similarly, there is insufficient evidence on which to base a guideline for the use of dexrazoxane in patients with cardiac risk factors or underlying cardiac disease. (6) Patients receiving dexrazoxane should continue to be monitored for cardiac toxicity. Amifostine: (1) Amifostine may be considered for the reduction of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemoth  (+info)

The potential of amifostine: from cytoprotectant to therapeutic agent. (7/192)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Amifostine is an inorganic thiophosphate cytoprotective agent known chemically as ethanethiol, 2-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]dihydrogen phosphate. It is a pro-drug of free thiol that may act as a scavenger of free radicals generated in tissues exposed to cytotoxic drugs, and binds to reactive metabolites of such drugs. Amifostine was originally developed as a radioprotective agent in a classified nuclear warfare project. Following declassification of the project it was evaluated as a cytoprotective agent against toxicity of the alkylating drugs and cisplatin. In fact, pretreatment with amifostine was well tolerated and reduced the cumulative hematologic, renal and neurological toxicity associated with cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and vinblastine therapy of advanced and metastatic solid tumors. The objective of this review is to focus the importance of amifostine as a myeloprotective and cytoprotective drug during treatment with chemotherapeutics, presenting the most recent results, and to discuss the application of amifostine in the therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes. EVIDENCE AND INFORMATION SOURCES: The material analyzed in this study includes data published or under publication by the authors as full papers or clinical protocols. Articles and abstracts published in Journals covered by Medline constitute the other source of information. STATE OF THE ART AND PERSPECTIVES: Amifostine, formerly known as WR-2721, is an organic thiophosphate that was developed to protect normal tissues selectively against the toxicities of chemotherapy and radiation. Amifostine is a pro-drug that is dephosphorylated at the tissue site to its active metabolite by alkaline phosphatase. Differences in the alkaline phosphatase concentrations of normal versus tumor tissues can result in greater conversion of amifostine in normal tissues. Once inside the cell the free thiol provides an alternative target to DNA and RNA for the reactive molecules of alkylating or platinum agents and acts as a potent scavenger of the oxygen free radicals induced by ionizing radiation and some chemotherapies. Preclinical animal studies demonstrated that the administration of amifostine protected against a variety of chemotherapy-related toxicities including cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity, cyclophosphamide- and bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity, and the cytotoxicities (including cardiotoxicity) induced by doxorubicin and related chemotherapeutic agents. Amifostine was shown to protect a variety of animal species from lethal doses of radiation. Studies in tumor-bearing animals demonstrated that the administration of amifostine results in cytoprotection without loss of antitumor activity. Multiple phase I studies were carried out with amifostine in combination with chemotherapy for various neoplasms. Appropriate doses of amifostine resulted to be 740-910 mg/m(2) in a single dose regimen, and 340 mg/m(2) in a multiple dose regimen. Amifostine afforded not only hematologic protection, but also other organ protection from cytotoxic agents such as nephrotoxicity, mucositis and peripheral neuropathy from cisplatin. Many studies have been performed to investigate cytoprotective efficacy of amifostine. In brief, amifostine gives hematologic protection from cyclophosphamide, carboplatin, mitomycin C, fotemustine and radiotherapy; renal and peripheral nerve protection from cisplatin; mucosa, skin, and salivary gland from radiotherapy. In phase I/II studies these properties have been confirmed, together with a generally good tolerability of the drug, hypotension being the most common side effect. It has been observed that amifostine possibly enhances the anti-tumor effect of carboplatin, nitrogen mustard, melphalan, and cisplatin combined with 5-FU or vinblastine. For all these characteristics, amifostine is at present broadly used as supportive treatment during chemotherapy, in lymphomas and solid tumors, and its spec  (+info)

Amifostine inhibits hematopoietic progenitor cell apoptosis by activating NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors. (8/192)

We investigated the involvement of NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors that reportedly can inhibit apoptosis in various cell types in the antiapoptotic mechanism of the cytoprotectant amifostine. In the nontumorigenic murine myeloid progenitor 32D cells incubated with amifostine, we detected a reduction of the IkappaBalpha cytoplasmic levels by Western blotting and a raising of nuclear NF-kappaB/Rel complexes by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Amifostine inhibited by more than 30% the growth factor deprivation-induced apoptosis, whereas its effect failed when we blocked the NF-kappaB/Rel activity with an NF-kappaB/Rel-binding phosphorothioate decoy oligodeoxynucleotide. In human cord blood CD34(+) cells, the NF-kappaB/Rel p65 subunit was detectable (using immunofluorescence analysis) mainly in the cytoplasm in the absence of amifostine, whereas its presence was appreciable in the nuclei of cells incubated with the cytoprotectant. In 4 CD34(+) samples incubated for 3 days in cytokine-deficient conditions, cell apoptosis was reduced by more than 30% in the presence of amifostine (or amifostine plus a control oligo); the effect of amifostine was abolished in cultures with the decoy oligo. These findings indicate that the inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor cell apoptosis by amifostine requires the induction of NF-kappaB/Rel factors and that the latter can therefore exert an antiapoptotic activity in the hematopoietic progenitor cell compartment. Furthermore, the identification of this specific mechanism underlying the survival-promoting activity of amifostine lends support to the possible use of this agent in apoptosis-related pathologies, such as myelodysplasias.  (+info)

Amifostine is a medication that is used to protect tissues from the harmful effects of radiation therapy and certain chemotherapy drugs. It is an organic thiophosphate compound, chemically known as (3-Aminopropyl)amidophosphoric acid, and is administered intravenously.

Amifostine works by scavenging free radicals and converting them into non-reactive substances, which helps to prevent damage to normal cells during cancer treatment. It is particularly useful in protecting the kidneys from cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and reducing xerostomia (dry mouth) caused by radiation therapy in head and neck cancers.

The medication is typically given as a slow intravenous infusion over 15 minutes before cancer treatment, and its use should be monitored carefully due to potential side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hypotension, and allergic reactions. Healthcare professionals must consider the benefits and risks of amifostine therapy on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the patient's overall health status, cancer type, and treatment plan.

Radiation-protective agents, also known as radioprotectors, are substances that help in providing protection against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. They can be used to prevent or reduce damage to biological tissues, including DNA, caused by exposure to radiation. These agents work through various mechanisms such as scavenging free radicals, modulating cellular responses to radiation-induced damage, and enhancing DNA repair processes.

Radiation-protective agents can be categorized into two main groups:

1. Radiosensitizers: These are substances that make cancer cells more sensitive to the effects of radiation therapy, increasing their susceptibility to damage and potentially improving treatment outcomes. However, radiosensitizers do not provide protection to normal tissues against radiation exposure.

2. Radioprotectors: These agents protect both normal and cancerous cells from radiation-induced damage. They can be further divided into two categories: direct and indirect radioprotectors. Direct radioprotectors interact directly with radiation, absorbing or scattering it away from sensitive tissues. Indirect radioprotectors work by neutralizing free radicals and reactive oxygen species generated during radiation exposure, which would otherwise cause damage to cellular structures and DNA.

Examples of radiation-protective agents include antioxidants like vitamins C and E, chemical compounds such as amifostine and cysteamine, and various natural substances found in plants and foods. It is important to note that while some radiation-protective agents have shown promise in preclinical studies, their efficacy and safety in humans require further investigation before they can be widely used in clinical settings.

Mercaptoethylamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a sulfhydryl (-SH) group and an amino (-NH2) group, bonded to a carbon atom in an ethylamine structure. The general formula for mercaptoethylamines is R-CH2-CH2-SH, where R represents the organic group attached to the sulfur atom.

In medical terms, mercaptoethylamines are not commonly used as a term. However, one compound that falls under this category is 2-Mercaptoethylamine (MEA), which has been studied in the context of medicine and biochemistry. MEA is a reducing agent and a nucleophile, and it has been used in research to investigate its potential as an antioxidant or a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions.

It's worth noting that mercaptans (compounds containing a sulfhydryl group) can have a strong odor, which may be why some people associate the term "mercapto" with unpleasant smells. However, in the context of medicine and biochemistry, mercaptoethylamines are primarily studied for their chemical properties and potential therapeutic uses.

Xerostomia is a medical term that describes the subjective feeling of dryness in the mouth due to decreased or absent saliva flow. It's also commonly referred to as "dry mouth." This condition can result from various factors, including medications, dehydration, radiation therapy, Sjögren's syndrome, and other medical disorders. Prolonged xerostomia may lead to oral health issues such as dental caries, oral candidiasis, and difficulty with speaking, chewing, and swallowing.

Radiation injuries refer to the damages that occur to living tissues as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. These injuries can be acute, occurring soon after exposure to high levels of radiation, or chronic, developing over a longer period after exposure to lower levels of radiation. The severity and type of injury depend on the dose and duration of exposure, as well as the specific tissues affected.

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness, is the most severe form of acute radiation injury. It can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, and skin burns. In more severe cases, it can lead to neurological damage, hemorrhage, infection, and death.

Chronic radiation injuries, on the other hand, may not appear until months or even years after exposure. They can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, skin changes, cataracts, reduced fertility, and an increased risk of cancer.

Radiation injuries can be treated with supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes replacement, antibiotics, wound care, and blood transfusions. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or control bleeding. Prevention is the best approach to radiation injuries, which includes limiting exposure through proper protective measures and monitoring radiation levels in the environment.

'Radiation injuries, experimental' is not a widely recognized medical term. However, in the field of radiation biology and medicine, it may refer to the study and understanding of radiation-induced damage using various experimental models (e.g., cell cultures, animal models) before applying this knowledge to human health situations. These experiments aim to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms' biological processes, tissue responses, and potential therapeutic interventions. The findings from these studies contribute to the development of medical countermeasures, diagnostic tools, and treatment strategies for accidental or intentional radiation exposures in humans.

Cytoprotection refers to the protection of cells, particularly from harmful agents or damaging conditions. This can be achieved through various mechanisms, such as:

1. Activation of cellular defense pathways that help cells resist damage.
2. Inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation, which can cause cellular damage.
3. Enhancement of cell repair processes, enabling cells to recover from damage more effectively.
4. Prevention of apoptosis (programmed cell death) or promotion of cell survival signals.

In the medical context, cytoprotective agents are often used to protect tissues and organs from injury due to various factors like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, ischemia-reperfusion injury, or inflammation. These agents can include antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs, growth factors, and other compounds that help maintain cellular integrity and function.

Testicular diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the testicles, the male reproductive organs located in the scrotum. These diseases can affect either one or both testicles and may cause pain, swelling, or impact fertility. Here are some examples of testicular diseases:

1. Testicular cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the testicle. It is a relatively rare cancer but is highly treatable if detected early.
2. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency that occurs when the spermatic cord, which supplies blood to the testicle, becomes twisted, cutting off the blood flow.
3. Epididymitis: An infection or inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube that stores and carries sperm from the testicle.
4. Orchitis: An infection or inflammation of the testicle itself. It can occur on its own or as a complication of mumps.
5. Hydrocele: A fluid-filled sac that forms around the testicle, causing swelling.
6. Varicocele: Enlarged veins in the scrotum that can cause pain and affect fertility.
7. Inguinal hernia: A condition where a portion of the intestine or fat protrudes through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, often appearing as a bulge in the groin or scrotum.
8. Testicular trauma: Injury to the testicle, which can result from accidents, sports injuries, or other causes.
9. Undescended testicles: A condition where one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth.

It is essential for men to perform regular self-examinations to check for any unusual lumps, swelling, or pain in the testicles and seek medical attention if they notice any changes.

Microradiography is a radiographic technique that uses X-rays to produce detailed images of small specimens, such as microscopic slides or individual cells. In this process, the specimen is placed in close contact with a high-resolution photographic emulsion, and then exposed to X-rays. The resulting image shows the distribution of radiopaque materials within the specimen, providing information about its internal structure and composition at a microscopic level.

Microradiography can be used for various applications in medical research and diagnosis, including the study of bone and tooth microstructure, the analysis of tissue pathology, and the examination of mineralized tissues such as calcifications or osteogenic lesions. The technique offers high resolution and contrast, making it a valuable tool for researchers and clinicians seeking to understand the complex structures and processes that occur at the microscopic level in living organisms.

Stomatitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the mucous membrane of any of the soft tissues in the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, and cheek lining. It can cause discomfort, pain, and sores or lesions in the mouth. Stomatitis may result from a variety of causes, such as infection, injury, allergic reaction, or systemic diseases. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, mouth rinses, or changes in oral hygiene practices.

Samarium is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Sm and atomic number 62. It is a silvery-white metallic element that belongs to the lanthanide series in the periodic table.

However, samarium-153 (Sm-153) is a radioactive isotope of samarium that has medical applications. It is used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of painful bone metastases, particularly in patients with prostate or breast cancer. Sm-153 is combined with a chelating agent to form a complex that can be injected into the patient's bloodstream. The chelating agent helps to ensure that the samarium is distributed throughout the body and is not taken up by healthy tissues. Once inside the body, Sm-153 emits beta particles, which can destroy cancer cells in the bones and relieve pain.

Therefore, while samarium is not a medical term itself, it does have medical applications as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of bone metastases.

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Examples include: Amifostine, approved by the FDA in 1995, which helps prevent kidney damage in patients undergoing cisplatin ... "Chemoprotective Agents: Amifostine, Mesna, Dexrazoxane - What is Chemotherapy? - Chemocare". chemocare.com. Retrieved 2016-10- ... "Common Side Effects of Ethyol (Amifostine) Drug Center". RxList. Retrieved 2019-03-25. Chemoprotective entry in the public ...
Amifostine (WR2721), the first selective-target and broad-spectrum radioprotector, upregulates DNA repair Filgrastim (Neupogen ... Kouvaris, J. R.; Kouloulias, V. E.; Vlahos, L. J. (2007). "Amifostine: The First Selective-Target and Broad-Spectrum ... suggested to be comparable to amifostine Thrombomodulin Activated protein C Chelation therapy, a countermeasure for treating ...
Amifostine protects the gums and salivary glands from the effects of radiation.[citation needed] There is no evidence that ... While not specifically a chemotherapy, amifostine is often administered intravenously by a chemotherapy clinic prior to IMRT ...
Bjelogrlic SK, Radic J, Radulovic S, Jokanovic M, Jovic V (December 2007). "Effects of dexrazoxane and amifostine on evolution ...
Some drugs (amifostine, N-acetylcysteine) containing thiol groups may protect from such harmful alkylation. 2-alkenal reductase ...
The terminology is used loosely and thiophosphates include P-S single bonds as illustrated by the drug amifostine. P-S single ... Selected organothiophosphates Echothiophate used for treatment of glaucoma Amifostine, which is used in cancer chemotherapy ...
Kuna, Pavel (2004). "Acute toxicity and radioprotective effects of amifostine (WR-2721) or cystamine in single whole body ...
... of intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase in the tumor vasculature and stroma provides a strong basis for explaining amifostine ...
AFRRI has contributed significantly to the development of Amifostine, Neupogen, Neulasta, Nplate, and Leukine, a series of ...
Examples of drugs that would be classified as Type II DMFs include Amifostine, Caffeine, Desonide Micro, Ibuprofen Softgels, ...
Administration of amifostine has been used in attempts to prevent cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, but the American Society of ...
Multiple mitigation strategies are being explored clinically and pre-clinically, including hydration regimens, amifostine, ...
Another systematic review showed, that there is some low-quality evidence to suggest that amifostine prevents the feeling of ...
... was more effective at protecting from ionizing radiation-induced gastrointestinal epithelial apoptosis than amifostine (the ...
Acetyl-L-carnitine All-trans retinoic acid Amifostine Amitriptyline Calcium magnesium Cannabinoids Diethyldithiocarbamate ...
... amifostine MeSH D02.705.539.094 - azinphosmethyl MeSH D02.705.539.170 - chlorpyrifos MeSH D02.705.539.199 - coumaphos MeSH ... amifostine MeSH D02.886.309.094 - azinphosmethyl MeSH D02.886.309.170 - chlorpyrifos MeSH D02.886.309.199 - coumaphos MeSH ...
... cyclosilicate V03AF01 Mesna V03AF02 Dexrazoxane V03AF03 Calcium folinate V03AF04 Calcium levofolinate V03AF05 Amifostine ...
... amifostine - amikacin - aminocamptothecin - aminoglutethimide - aminoglycoside antibiotic - aminolevulinic acid - aminopterin ...
... amifostine (INN) Amigesic amiglumide (INN) amikacin (INN) amikhelline (INN) Amikin amilomotide (INN) amiloride (INN) Amin-Aid ...
... amifostine, clofarabine and the latest pralatrexate (approved in 2009). Notable cancer researchers who worked at the institute ...
Amifostine is believed to radioprotect normal tissue via Warburg-type effects. Common side effects of amifostine include ... Additional data have shown that amifostine-mediated tumor protection, in any clinical scenario, is unlikely. Amifostine is an ... Contraindications to receiving amifostine include hypersensitivity to amifostine and aminothiol compounds like WR-1065. Ethyol ... Amifostine is also indicated to reduce the incidence of xerostomia in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer ...
Amifostine Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before receiving amifostine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to amifostine, any other medications, or any ... Amifostine comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse in a ... Amifostine may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: *nausea ...
Article Amifostine: Mechanisms of Action Underlying Cytoprotection and Chemoprevention was published on June 1, 2000 in the ... Amifostine: Mechanisms of Action Underlying Cytoprotection and Chemoprevention. * D.J. Grdina, , Y. Kataoka, and J.S. Murley, ... Grdina, D, Kataoka, Y, Murley, J. Amifostine: Mechanisms of Action Underlying Cytoprotection and Chemoprevention. Drug ... Grdina,, D.J., Kataoka,, Y. and Murley,, J.S.. "Amifostine: Mechanisms of Action Underlying Cytoprotection and Chemoprevention ...
Amifostine (Ethyol®), a medication, may reduce side effects from chemotherapy and radiation therapy in children with cancer. ... What is amifostine?. Amifostine (also called Ethyol®) is a medicine that may help reduce some side effects that can occur after ... Amifostine is a liquid given by the vein (IV) for 5-15 minutes. It can also be injected just under the skin (called a ... Special instructions for amifostine. *If you are taking medicine for high blood pressure, you should stop taking it 24 hours ...
Germany-Amifostine (Ethyol) used as cytoprotective therapy can reduce the occurrence of xero-stomia, loss of taste, and ... ZUHL, Germany-Amifostine (Ethyol) used as cytoprotective therapy can reduce the occurrence of xero-stomia, loss of taste, and ... ZUHL, Germany Amifostine (Ethyol) used as cytoprotective therapy can reduce the occurrence of xero-stomia, loss of taste, and ... At 5 years after treatment, the survival rate in the amifostine group is a little bit better than in the control group, and we ...
Amifostine hydrate , C5H17N2O4PS , CID 83996 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
days 0-3. Amifostine IV is administered over 5 minutes on days 1-5. Radiation therapy is. administered once daily on days 1-5. ... Determine the toxicity of amifostine in these patients.. OUTLINE: This is an open label study. Patients receive paclitaxel by ... OBJECTIVES: I. Assess the efficacy and role of amifostine as a cytoprotection agent with. concurrent chemoradiotherapy in ... A Pilot Study of Amifostine and Concomitant Cisplatin, Paclitaxel and Radiotherapy in Previously Irradiated, Recurrent Head and ...
In this setting, patients could receive amifostine before surgery to assess levels of amifostine and OAZ in both the tumor and ... suppresses the uptake and radioprotective activity of amifostine derivatives. Selective exclusion of amifostine derivatives by ... Selective Exclusion by the Polyamine Transporter as a Mechanism for Differential Radioprotection of Amifostine Derivatives1 ... Amifostine is a prodrug that is dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase to its active component (12). The dephosphorylated ...
Find information on Amifostine (Ethyol) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing ... www.drugguide.com/ddo/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51036/all/amifostine. Vallerand AHA, Sanoski CAC, Quiring CC. Amifostine. Daviss ... Vallerand, A. H., Sanoski, C. A., & Quiring, C. (2023). Amifostine. In Daviss Drug Guide (18th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. https ... TY - ELEC T1 - amifostine ID - 51036 A1 - Sanoski,Cynthia A, AU - Vallerand,April Hazard, AU - Quiring,Courtney, BT - Daviss ...
This page or action requires Javascript to work, please enable Javascript in your browser or use a browser where this is supported so that functionality can be served and is provided as requested. For further assistance, please have a look at the noscript help page ...
Post your question or story about Amifostine and connect with others who have experience with the same medications. No ... Recently active Amifostine forums and community discussion threads. ... Home › Drugs: A › Amifostine › Discussions Amifostine Forums. Recently active Amifostine forums and community discussion ... Subcutaneous Amifostine The article on amifostine says it can ONLY be administered intravenously but this is NOT TRUE. ...
Amifostine Submit Updates Kuo et al., Kinetic Characterization and Inhibitor Screening for the Proteases Leading to ... Amifostine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all ...
Find information on Amifostine (Ethyol) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing ... "Amifostine." Daviss Drug Guide, 18th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2023. Nursing Central, nursing.unboundmedicine.com/ ... nursingcentral/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51036/11.0/amifostine. Vallerand AHA, Sanoski CAC, Quiring CC. Amifostine. Daviss Drug ... Vallerand, A. H., Sanoski, C. A., & Quiring, C. (2023). Amifostine. In Daviss Drug Guide (18th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. https ...
Amifostine is a prodrug that is dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase in tissues to a pharmacologically active free thiol ... Amifostine. V Various → V03 All other therapeutic products → V03A All other therapeutic products → V03AF Detoxifying agents for ... Amifostine is a prodrug that is dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase in tissues to a pharmacologically active free thiol ...
Supplier of Amifostine Injection in Thane, Amifostine Injection Supplier Maharashtra, Amifostine Injection Manufacturing ... Amifostine Injection Manufacturer Exporter & Supplier in Thane India- G J Pharmaceuticals LLP is a best Manufacturer Exporter ...
Dive into the research topics of Blood thiols following amifostine and mesna infusions, a pediatric oncology group study. ... Blood thiols following amifostine and mesna infusions, a pediatric oncology group study. ...
Blood thiols following amifostine and mesna infusions, a pediatric oncology group study. / Souid, Abdul Kader; Fahey, Robert C ... Blood thiols following amifostine and mesna infusions, a pediatric oncology group study. In: Drug Metabolism and Disposition. ... Blood thiols following amifostine and mesna infusions, a pediatric oncology group study. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 2001; ... Amifostine administration during mesna infusion caused transient increase in mesna levels. Both agents increased blood cysteine ...
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above. ...
Due to lack of high-quality, consistent evidence, the ASCO guidelines do not recommend any agents for prevention of CIPN. The guidelines strongly recommend that clinicians should not offer, and should discourage use of, acetyl-l-carnitine for the prevention of CIPN in patients with cancer. The guidelines also include a moderate recommendation against offering the following agents for the prevention of CIPN ...
Acyclovir reference guide for safe and effective use from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (AHFS DI).
Amifostine reduces the incidence of acute and late radiotherapy-associated xerostomia among patients with head and neck cancer ... "The efficacy of amifostine in the prevention of oral mucositis should be evaluated in new, well-designed, sufficiently powered ... "In our review, we could not demonstrate any evidence to support the use of amifostine for the prevention or the treatment of ... Amifostine is an intravenously-administered organic thiophosphate, believed to function as a free radical scavenger that ...
Pharmacokinetics of amifostine: Effects of dose and method of administration. L. M. Shaw, H. S. Bonner, L. Schuchter, J. ... Dive into the research topics of Pharmacokinetics of amifostine: Effects of dose and method of administration. Together they ...
... Article ... 1995). 1106 Amifostine (A), cisplatin (C), Vinblastine (V): A highly active regimen for non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) . ... 1995). 1106 Amifostine (A), cisplatin (C), Vinblastine (V): A highly active regimen for non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) . ...
Although patients did not receive a full dose of amifostine due to side effects, varying doses of amifostine had no apparent ... Differences in gender, tumor stage, amifostine dose, age, number of days after neck dissection, and smoking history (pack years ... The nonparametric Cuzicks test for histologic parameters with varied amifostine treatment showed no significance among the ... of HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with three different levels of amifostine ...
Amifostine 7. View Price - 179. Amikacin 966. View Price View Price 180. Amikacin (250mg). 1. View Price - ...
Amifostine reduces the mean yield of chromatid breaks in normal cells and in cells from cancer prone patients when present ... When amifostine was present during irradiation, the mean yield of radiation-induced chromatid breaks as visualized by the G(2) ... Radioprotective effect of amifostine on cells from cancer prone patients and healthy individuals studied by the G2 and PCC ... G(2) chromosomal radiosensitivity in the presence or absence of amifostine was studied in healthy donors, cancer patients, ...
A Phase I trial: dose escalation of melphalan in the "BEAM" regimen using amifostine cytoprotection.﻽. Phillips GL, ... A Phase I TRial Dose Escalation of Melphalan in the "BEAM" Regimen Using Amifostine Cytoprotection. ... regimen with escalating dose melphalan using amifostine cytoprotection and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-- ...
The hepatoprotective action of amifostine. Evaluation in a light and electron microscope. ... The hepatoprotective action of amifostine. Evaluation in a light and electron microscope ... amifostine). Pathological changes corresponding to a VOD picture of varying intensification were found in the liver samples ... amifostine). Pathological changes corresponding to a VOD picture of varying intensification were found in the liver samples ...
Intrarectal Amifostine During External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Produces Significant Improvements in Quality ... The first 18 patients received 1 g of amifostine, and the next 12 patients received 2 g. Toxicity was assessed at baseline, ... Intrarectal Amifostine During External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Produces Significant Improvements in Quality ... Intrarectal Amifostine During External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Produces Significant Improvements in Quality ...
  • ZUHL, Germany-Amifostine (Ethyol) used as cytoprotective therapy can reduce the occurrence of xero-stomia, loss of taste, and fibrosis associated with radiochemotherapy for head and neck cancer. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The purpose of the study was to draw upan experimental model of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) induced by dactinomycin (ACT) and to investigate the possible hepatoprotective effects of Ethyol (amifostine). (viamedica.pl)
  • The effect of amifostine on submandibular gland histology after radiat" by Jacqueline C Junn, James J Sciubba et al. (lvhn.org)
  • The effect of amifostine on submandibular gland histology after radiation. (lvhn.org)
  • Radioprotective effect of amifostine on cells from cancer prone patients and healthy individuals studied by the G2 and PCC assays. (bvsalud.org)
  • Another 14 patients received the same regimen plus amifostine 500 mg given prior to carboplatin as a short infusion over approximately 10 minutes. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Mesna alone and mesna plus amifostine prevented cellular glutathione depletion. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • To assess the role of the polyamine transport system in radioprotection by amifostine derivatives, human DU-145 prostate cancer cells were transfected with a cDNA that encodes antizyme (OAZ), a polyamine-inducible protein that suppresses polyamine transport under control of a minimal heat shock promoter. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the precise mechanisms of radioprotection caused by amifostine remain unclear, the results obtained using premature chromosome condensation reveal that amifostine does not act on cells only as a free radical scavenger and as a repair enhancer of DNA damage . (bvsalud.org)
  • The Pediatric Oncology Group study for metastatic Ewing's sarcoma used amifostine and mesna with the alkylating agents. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Amifostine administration during mesna infusion caused transient increase in mesna levels. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Amifostine (ethiofos) is a cytoprotective adjuvant used in cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy involving DNA-binding chemotherapeutic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amifostine is used protect the kidneys from harmful effects of the chemotherapy drug cisplatin in patients that receive this medication for the treatment of ovarian cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When amifostine is used to protect the kidneys against the harmful effects of cisplatin, it is usually given over 15 minutes starting 30 minutes before you receive your chemotherapy treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amifostine is also sometimes used to prevent and decrease side effects associated with certain chemotherapy medications or radiation treatment and in the treatment of some types of blood cell diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dr. Buentzel concluded that amifostine could reduce the typical acute chemotherapy-related toxicities and should be able to reduce radiation-induced acute toxicities but must be administered within an interval of no more than 60 minutes following the end of radiotherapy. (cancernetwork.com)
  • These were the first data to show a reduction of mucositis from amifostine given prior to chemotherapy. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Amifostine (WR-2721), a phosphoaminothioate, is capable of providing marked protection from both radiation- and selected chemotherapy-induced damage for a wide variety of tissues in both rodents and humans (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Amifostine is a Cytoprotective Adjuvant used during chemotherapy and radiation treatments. (medschat.com)
  • Only one drug, Amifostine, has been approved to date by the federal Food and Drug Administration, to help protect normal tissue from the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation, and researchers would like to develop new and improved agents. (news-medical.net)
  • Amifostine is an organic thiophosphate prodrug which is hydrolysed in vivo by alkaline phosphatase to the active cytoprotective thiol metabolite, WR-1065. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amifostine is an intravenously-administered organic thiophosphate, believed to function as a free radical scavenger that inhibits up-regulation of inflammatory pathways and "thus, may allow compliance with the planned treatment regimens while preserving the patient's quality of life," the authors wrote. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • Although patients did not receive a full dose of amifostine due to side effects, varying doses of amifostine had no apparent evident cytoprotective effects in three groups of cancer patients treated with primary chemoradiation. (lvhn.org)
  • Purpose: To test whether intrarectal amifostine limits symptoms of radiation proctitis, measured by using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity score and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) score. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Methods and Materials: Patients with localized prostate cancer received amifostine as a rectal suspension 30-45 minutes before daily three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Amifostine is also indicated to reduce the incidence of xerostomia in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The time interval between amifostine administration and the end of daily irradiation was less than 60 minutes, and no cytoprotectant was given on days of radiotherapy alone. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Amifostine reduces the incidence of acute and late radiotherapy-associated xerostomia among patients with head and neck cancer , for example. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Evaluate the efficacy of paclitaxel and carboplatin with amifostine on progression free survival and overall survival in patients with metastatic or recurrent epithelial endometrial carcinoma not amenable to surgery or radiotherapy. (knowcancer.com)
  • Inside cells, amifostine detoxifies reactive metabolites of platinum and alkylating agents, as well as scavenges free radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amifostine metabolites WR-1065 and the disulfide WR-33278are thiol-containing polyamine analogues with potent radio- and chemoprotective properties. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Amifostine is used therapeutically to reduce the incidence of neutropenia-related fever and infection induced by DNA-binding chemotherapeutic agents including alkylating agents (e.g. cyclophosphamide) and platinum-containing agents (e.g. cisplatin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Amifostine was originally indicated to reduce the cumulative renal toxicity from cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was followed by a controlled, phase II dose-intensification study to evaluate the role of intensified carboplatin dosage with amifostine protection and concomitant radiochemotherapy in locally advanced pharyngeal cancer. (cancernetwork.com)
  • OUTLINE: Patients receive paclitaxel IV over 3 hours, then amifostine IV over 10 minutes, followed fifteen minutes later by carboplatin IV over 30-60 minutes on day 1. (knowcancer.com)
  • The team's review of studies published between 1966 and 2010 found many studies to included "major flaws" in methodology (such as lack of controls or randomization), and differences between studies in doses and timing of amifostine administration, cancer therapy modalities, and "the complex pathophysiology of mucosal injury," that might explain inconsistent and conflicting results, the authors reported. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • Conclusions: Higher doses of amifostine produced significant improvements in acute and late bowel QoL (up to 1 year after therapy), measured using the EPIC score. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • They gave the embryos different doses of ionizing radiation as well as treatment by either Amifostine, which acted as a control agent, or CD60_DF1. (news-medical.net)
  • Determine the toxicity of amifostine in these patients. (knowcancer.com)
  • Amifostine is a prodrug that is dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase to its active component (12) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Amifostine is a prodrug that is dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase in tissues to a pharmacologically active free thiol metabolite. (rxreasoner.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Assess the efficacy and role of amifostine as a cytoprotection agent with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in advanced, previously irradiated or metastatic head and neck cancer. (knowcancer.com)
  • Some studies suggest that amifostine exerts differential cytoprotection in normal versus neoplastic tissues, but this finding remains controversial. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Additional data have shown that amifostine-mediated tumor protection, in any clinical scenario, is unlikely. (wikipedia.org)
  • At 5 years after treatment, the survival rate in the amifostine group is a little bit better than in the control group, and we have no sign of tumor protection. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Differences in gender, tumor stage, amifostine dose, age, number of days after neck dissection, and smoking history (pack years) exposure were not significant between the three groups, although there was a difference between groups in the primary subsite (P = 0.006). (lvhn.org)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to amifostine, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in amifostine injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor will tell you to stop taking your blood pressure medicine 24 hours before you receive amifostine injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Subcutaneous injection of amifostine has been shown to have the same cyctoprotective effect in the presence of radiation with reduced severity of side effects. (medschat.com)
  • In our review, we could not demonstrate any evidence to support the use of amifostine for the prevention or the treatment of oral mucositis in any cancer setting," reported the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • The conflicting results, insufficient data, and methodological flaws "did not allow any guideline related to the use of amifostine in the prevention of oral mucositis," they wrote. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • The efficacy of amifostine in the prevention of oral mucositis should be evaluated in new, well-designed, sufficiently powered, randomized, controlled trials," they concluded. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • Amifostine is also used to decrease dryness in the mouth caused by radiation treatment after surgery for head and neck cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When amifostine is used to reduce the severe dry mouth caused by radiation treatment, it is usually given over 3 minutes starting 15-30 minutes before your radiation treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Selective exclusion of amifostine derivatives by the polyamine transporter could account for differential radio- or chemoprotection in normal versus neoplastic tissues in specific situations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Amifostine can be administered intravenously or subcutaneously after reconstitution with normal saline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amifostine comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse in a medical facility. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The article on amifostine says it can ONLY be administered intravenously but this is NOT TRUE. (medschat.com)
  • radiaation therapy ## Manufacturing formula of Amifostine suppository & one of the article of this topic. (medschat.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of amifostine on submandibular gland histology in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. (lvhn.org)
  • All patients received 500 mg of amifostine. (cancernetwork.com)
  • We conducted a retrospective submandibular gland histologic slide review of HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with three different levels of amifostine exposure. (lvhn.org)
  • To investigate whether amifostine is effective at reducing the yield of chromatid breaks when present during G(2)-phase irradiation of human normal cells and cells from cancer prone patients , as well as to study the mechanisms underlying the radioprotective effect of amifostine . (bvsalud.org)
  • G(2) chromosomal radiosensitivity in the presence or absence of amifostine was studied in healthy donors , cancer patients , ataxia -telangietasia (A-T) patients and five human lymphoblastoid cell lines with genes predisposing to cancer . (bvsalud.org)
  • Amifostine reduces the mean yield of chromatid breaks in normal cells and in cells from cancer prone patients when present during G(2) irradiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The first 18 patients received 1 g of amifostine, and the next 12 patients received 2 g. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Your doctor will give you medicine to reduce nausea while you receive amifostine. (stjude.org)
  • The staff will check calcium and magnesium levels in the blood throughout the day and for up to one (1) week after you receive amifostine. (stjude.org)
  • You should not breast-feed during your treatment with amifostine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amifostine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. (c19early.org)
  • The nonparametric Cuzick's test for histologic parameters with varied amifostine treatment showed no significance among the three groups. (lvhn.org)
  • Amifostine is believed to radioprotect normal tissue via Warburg-type effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amifostine may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition to preventing cytotoxicity, amifostine derivatives display anticarcinogenic (7, 8) and antimutagenic (9) properties in rodent model systems as well as hematopoiesis-promoting effects (10, 11) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • If you are taking medicine for high blood pressure, you should stop taking it 24 hours before you receive amifostine. (stjude.org)
  • Your doctor or nurse will ask you to lie down while you receive IV amifostine and for one (1) hour after receiving the drug. (stjude.org)
  • Drinking large amounts of fluid will help you feel better while you receive amifostine. (stjude.org)
  • Amifostine is a liquid given by the vein (IV) for 5-15 minutes. (stjude.org)
  • Amifostine IV is administered over 5 minutes on days 1-5. (knowcancer.com)
  • They found that CD60_DF1 given before and even immediately after - up to 30 minutes - exposure to X-rays reduced organ damage by one-half to two-thirds, which was as good as the level of protection given by Amifostine. (news-medical.net)
  • Recently active Amifostine forums and community discussion threads. (medschat.com)
  • Post your question or story about Amifostine and connect with others who have experience with the same medications. (medschat.com)
  • chromatid breaks were scored directly in G(2) or G(0) phase using premature chromosome condensation , the presence of amifostine did not affect the yields obtained. (bvsalud.org)
  • www.drugguide.com/ddo/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51036/all/amifostine. (drugguide.com)
  • Nursing Central , nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51036/11.0/amifostine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The nurse will check your blood pressure while you are receiving IV amifostine. (stjude.org)