Amifostine: A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.MercaptoethylaminesCommunity Pharmacy Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Databases, Pharmaceutical: Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.Pharmacological Processes: The metabolism of drugs and their mechanisms of action.Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides: Modified oligonucleotides in which one of the oxygens of the phosphate group is replaced with a sulfur atom.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Universal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Ophthalmoplegia, Chronic Progressive External: A mitochondrial myopathy characterized by slowly progressive paralysis of the levator palpebrae, orbicularis oculi, and extraocular muscles. Ragged-red fibers and atrophy are found on muscle biopsy. Familial and sporadic forms may occur. Disease onset is usually in the first or second decade of life, and the illness slowly progresses until usually all ocular motility is lost. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1422)Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Nova Scotia: A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NEW BRUNSWICK; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Halifax. The territory was granted in 1621 by James I to the Scotsman Sir William Alexander and was called Nova Scotia, the Latin for New Scotland. The territory had earlier belonged to the French, under the name of Acadia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p871 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p384)Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.MonographPrince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)Consensus Development Conferences, NIH as Topic: Articles on conferences sponsored by NIH presenting summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus on a subject of interest. This heading is used for NIH consensus conferences as a means of scientific communication. In indexing it is viewed as a type of review article and as a tag for any article appearing in any publication of the NIH Office of Medical Applications of Research (OMAR).Consensus Development ConferenceConsensus Development Conference, NIHResearch Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tMucositis: An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).Consensus Development Conferences as Topic: Presentations of summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus--often with findings and recommendations--on a subject of interest. The Conference, consisting of participants representing the scientific and lay viewpoints, is a significant means of evaluating current medical thought and reflects the latest advances in research for the respective field being addressed.Amyloidosis: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.Mucinoses: Mucoid states characterized by the elevated deposition and accumulation of mucin (mucopolysaccharides) in dermal tissue. The fibroblasts are responsible for the production of acid mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in the ground substance of the connective tissue system. When fibroblasts produce abnormally large quantities of mucopolysaccharides as hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, or heparin, they accumulate in large amounts in the dermis.Melphalan: An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.Amyloidosis, Familial: Diseases in which there is a familial pattern of AMYLOIDOSIS.Paraproteinemias: A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Prealbumin: A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)

Evaluation of uroprotective efficacy of amifostine against cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis. (1/192)

The role of amifostine in the prevention of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) was evaluated in the rat model. Urinary bladders from control rats that received no drugs (group I) were compared with those from rats receiving cyclophosphamide alone at a dose of 150 mg/kg (group II), and two other groups receiving amifostine at 100 mg/kg (group III) and 200 mg/kg (group IV), 15 min prior to cyclophosphamide. Bladders were assessed macroscopically and histologically at 24 h and after 7 days. All the animals that received cyclophosphamide alone developed severe HC. On the basis of the scores of macroscopic and histologic changes, animals that received amifostine showed excellent uroprotection. Only 2/6 rats in group III and 1/6 rats in group IV developed mild HC at 24 h. None of the rats in either of these groups showed any evidence of HC at 7 days. It is concluded that amifostine protects the urothelium against cyclophosphamide-induced HC.  (+info)

The sulfhydryl containing compounds WR-2721 and glutathione as radio- and chemoprotective agents. A review, indications for use and prospects. (2/192)

Radio- and chemotherapy for the treatment of malignancies are often associated with significant toxicity. One approach to reduce the toxicity is the concomitant treatment with chemoprotective agents. This article reviews two sulfhydryl compounds, namely the agent WR-2721 (amifostine), a compound recently registered for use in human in many countries, and the natural occurring compound glutathione (GSH). GSH is not registered as a chemoprotective agent. WR-2721 is an aminothiol prodrug and has to be converted to the active compound WR-1065 by membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase. WR-1065 and GSH both act as naturally occurring thiols. No protective effect on the tumour has been found when these compounds are administered intravenously. There is even in vitro evidence for an increased anti-tumour effect with mafosfamide after pretreatment with WR-2721, and in vivo after treatment with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Randomized clinical studies have shown that WR-2721 and GSH decrease cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and that WR-2721 reduces radiation radiotherapy-induced toxicity. Side-effects associated with WR-2721 are nausea, vomiting and hypotension, GSH has no side-effects. An exact role of WR-2721 and GSH as chemoprotectors is not yet completely clear. Future studies should examine the protective effect of these drugs on mucositis, cardiac toxicity, neuro- and ototoxicity, the development of secondary neoplasms and their effect on quality of life.  (+info)

Direct amifostine effect on renal tubule cells in rats. (3/192)

Clinical trials indicate that amifostine offers protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. It is unclear whether a direct pharmacological t on renal tubular cells is involved. We investigated the effect of amifostine pretreatment on the tubular apparatus and evaluated its nephroprotective potential. A total of 32 rats were treated by i.p. administration of 0.9% saline solution (group 1), 5 mg/kg cisplatin (group 2), 25 mg/kg amifostine (group 3), and 25 mg/kg amifostine followed by 5 mg/kg cisplatin (group 4) after 30 min. We recorded elevation of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in 24 h pooled urine as a specific marker for tubular lesions, renal leakage of magnesium as an unspecific nephrotoxicity marker, and survival over a 10-day observation period. A significant (P < 0.002) increase in urinary NAG after treatment was documented only in cisplatin-treated group 2 [day 2 (mean+/-SE), 93+/-2.1 units/gram creatinine; day 4, 70.6+/-16 units/gram creatinine; normalization at day 8]. Treatment with amifostine before cisplatin administration resulted in a slight urinary NAG leakage (day 2, 2.8+/-1.8 units/gram creatinine; day 4, 13.8+/-13 units/gram creatinine; normalization at day 6). No increase in urinary enzyme levels was seen in the other groups, and there were no significant differences in urinary magnesium between all groups. Four of eight rats in the cisplatin-treated group and one of eight rats in the amifostine plus cisplatin-treated group died.  (+info)

Randomized study of a short course of weekly cisplatin with or without amifostine in advanced head and neck cancer. EORTC Head and Neck Cooperative Group. (4/192)

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents available for the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer. In a previous phase II study with weekly administration of cisplatin, a response rate of 51% was achieved. However, only in a minority of the patients the planned high dose intensity of 80 mg/m2/week could be reached because of toxicity, mainly thrombocytopenia and ototoxicity. Amifostine is a cytoprotective drug that can diminish the toxicity of alkylating agents and platinum compounds. Therefore the effect of amifostine on toxicity and activity of weekly cisplatin was investigated in a randomized study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer were eligible. Patients were randomized to weekly cisplatin 70 mg/m2 for six cycles preceded by amifostine 740 mg/m2, or cisplatin only. Cisplatin was administered in hypertonic saline (3% NaCl) as a one-hour infusion; amifostine was administered as a 15-minute infusion directly before the administration of cisplatin. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients were entered in the study. The median number of cisplatin administrations was 6 (range 2-6), equal in both arms. In both treatment arms the median dose intensity of cisplatin achieved was the planned 70 mg/m2/week. In the cisplatin only arm 6 out of 206 cycles were complicated by thrombocytopenia grade 3 or 4 versus 1 of 184 cycles in the amifostine arm (P = 0.035). Hypomagnesaemia grade 2 + 3 was significantly less observed in the amifostine arm (P = 0.04). Neurotoxicity analyzed by serial vibration perception thresholds (VPT) showed a diminished incidence of subclinical neurotoxicity in the amifostine arm (P = 0.03). No protective effect on renal and ototoxicity could be shown. Hypotension was the main side effect of amifostine but only of relevance in one patient. The antitumor activity of cisplatin was preserved as 63% of the evaluable patients in the amifostine arm responded compared to 50% of the evaluable patients in the cisplatin alone arm. CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that in combination with weekly administered cisplatin amifostine reduced the risk of thrombocytopenia, hypomagnesemia as well as subclinical neurotoxicity, but did not result in a higher dose intensity of cisplatin. Addition of amifostine did not compromise the antitumor effect of cisplatin.  (+info)

Randomized phase II study of high-dose paclitaxel with or without amifostine in patients with metastatic breast cancer. (5/192)

PURPOSE: To determine whether the neurotoxicity of paclitaxel 250 mg/m(2) given over 3 hours every 3 weeks could be reduced by pretreatment with amifostine 910 mg/m(2). Secondary objectives included comparing myelosuppression, myalgias, and response rates of the two groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty women with metastatic breast cancer were randomized to receive either paclitaxel alone (arm 1) or paclitaxel preceded by amifostine (arm 2). All were assessable for toxicity, and 37 were assessable for response. At baseline and after each cycle, all patients completed questionnaires for neurologic symptoms and had standardized neurologic examinations, including objective assessments of power and vibration sense. In addition, standard follow-up assessments for other toxicities and tumor response were undertaken. Changes from baseline after courses 1, 2, and 3 were assessed. The sample size was sufficient to detect a 50% improvement in the expected determination in sensory change. RESULTS: There were no differences observed in any of the measures of neurotoxicity. Other toxicity was similar in arms 1 and 2, including hair loss (95% v 90%), neurosensory changes (100% v 100%), fatigue/lethargy (85% v 90%), myalgia (95% v 90%), and grade 4 neutropenia (47% v 60%). Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, hypotension, and sneezing were more common in the amifostine arm. Response rates (22.2% v 36.8%) and paclitaxel pharmacokinetics were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: There was no protection from paclitaxel-related neurotoxicity or hematologic toxicity in this study. These results suggest that the mechanism of action of paclitaxel-related toxic effects is not amenable to the cytoprotective action of amifostine.  (+info)

American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guidelines for the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy protectants. (6/192)

PURPOSE: Because toxicities associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy can adversely affect short- and long-term patient quality of life, can limit the dose and duration of treatment, and may be life-threatening, specific agents designed to ameliorate or eliminate certain chemotherapy and radiotherapy toxicities have been developed. Variability in interpretation of the available data pertaining to the efficacy of the three United States Food and Drug Administration-approved agents that have potential chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-protectant activity-dexrazoxane, mesna, and amifostine-and questions about the role of these protectant agents in cancer care led to concern about the appropriate use of these agents. The American Society of Clinical Oncology sought to establish evidence-based, clinical practice guidelines for the use of dexrazoxane, mesna, and amifostine in patients who are not enrolled on clinical treatment trials. METHODS: A multidisciplinary Expert Panel reviewed the clinical data regarding the activity of dexrazoxane, mesna, and amifostine. A computerized literature search was performed using MEDLINE. In addition to reports collected by individual Panel members, all articles published in the English-speaking literature from June 1997 through December 1998 were collected for review by the Panel chairpersons, and appropriate articles were distributed to the entire Panel for review. Guidelines for use, levels of evidence, and grades of recommendation were reviewed and approved by the Panel. Outcomes considered in evaluating the benefit of a chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-protectant agent included amelioration of short- and long-term chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-related toxicities, risk of tumor protection by the agent, toxicity of the protectant agent itself, quality of life, and economic impact. To the extent that these data were available, the Panel placed the greatest value on lesser toxicity that did not carry a concomitant risk of tumor protection. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mesna: (1) Mesna, dosed as detailed in these guidelines, is recommended to decrease the incidence of standard-dose ifosfamide-associated urothelial toxicity. (2) There is insufficient evidence on which to base a guideline for the use of mesna to prevent urothelial toxicity with ifosfamide doses that exceed 2.5 g/m(2)/d. (3) Either mesna or forced saline diuresis is recommended to decrease the incidence of urothelial toxicity associated with high-dose cyclophosphamide use in the stem-cell transplantation setting. Dexrazoxane: (1) The use of dexrazoxane is not routinely recommended for patients with metastatic breast cancer who receive initial doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. (2) The use of dexrazoxane may be considered for patients with metastatic breast cancer who have received a cumulative dosage of 300 mg/m(2) or greater of doxorubicin in the metastatic setting and who may benefit from continued doxorubicin-containing therapy. (3) The use of dexrazoxane in the adjuvant setting is not recommended outside of a clinical trial. (4) The use of dexrazoxane can be considered in adult patients who have received more than 300 mg/m(2) of doxorubicin-based therapy for tumors other than breast cancer, although caution should be used in settings in which doxorubicin-based therapy has been shown to improve survival because of concerns of tumor protection by dexrazoxane. (5) There is insufficient evidence to make a guideline for the use of dexrazoxane in the treatment of pediatric malignancies, with epirubicin-based regimens, or with high-dose anthracycline-containing regimens. Similarly, there is insufficient evidence on which to base a guideline for the use of dexrazoxane in patients with cardiac risk factors or underlying cardiac disease. (6) Patients receiving dexrazoxane should continue to be monitored for cardiac toxicity. Amifostine: (1) Amifostine may be considered for the reduction of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemoth  (+info)

The potential of amifostine: from cytoprotectant to therapeutic agent. (7/192)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Amifostine is an inorganic thiophosphate cytoprotective agent known chemically as ethanethiol, 2-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]dihydrogen phosphate. It is a pro-drug of free thiol that may act as a scavenger of free radicals generated in tissues exposed to cytotoxic drugs, and binds to reactive metabolites of such drugs. Amifostine was originally developed as a radioprotective agent in a classified nuclear warfare project. Following declassification of the project it was evaluated as a cytoprotective agent against toxicity of the alkylating drugs and cisplatin. In fact, pretreatment with amifostine was well tolerated and reduced the cumulative hematologic, renal and neurological toxicity associated with cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and vinblastine therapy of advanced and metastatic solid tumors. The objective of this review is to focus the importance of amifostine as a myeloprotective and cytoprotective drug during treatment with chemotherapeutics, presenting the most recent results, and to discuss the application of amifostine in the therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes. EVIDENCE AND INFORMATION SOURCES: The material analyzed in this study includes data published or under publication by the authors as full papers or clinical protocols. Articles and abstracts published in Journals covered by Medline constitute the other source of information. STATE OF THE ART AND PERSPECTIVES: Amifostine, formerly known as WR-2721, is an organic thiophosphate that was developed to protect normal tissues selectively against the toxicities of chemotherapy and radiation. Amifostine is a pro-drug that is dephosphorylated at the tissue site to its active metabolite by alkaline phosphatase. Differences in the alkaline phosphatase concentrations of normal versus tumor tissues can result in greater conversion of amifostine in normal tissues. Once inside the cell the free thiol provides an alternative target to DNA and RNA for the reactive molecules of alkylating or platinum agents and acts as a potent scavenger of the oxygen free radicals induced by ionizing radiation and some chemotherapies. Preclinical animal studies demonstrated that the administration of amifostine protected against a variety of chemotherapy-related toxicities including cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity, cyclophosphamide- and bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity, and the cytotoxicities (including cardiotoxicity) induced by doxorubicin and related chemotherapeutic agents. Amifostine was shown to protect a variety of animal species from lethal doses of radiation. Studies in tumor-bearing animals demonstrated that the administration of amifostine results in cytoprotection without loss of antitumor activity. Multiple phase I studies were carried out with amifostine in combination with chemotherapy for various neoplasms. Appropriate doses of amifostine resulted to be 740-910 mg/m(2) in a single dose regimen, and 340 mg/m(2) in a multiple dose regimen. Amifostine afforded not only hematologic protection, but also other organ protection from cytotoxic agents such as nephrotoxicity, mucositis and peripheral neuropathy from cisplatin. Many studies have been performed to investigate cytoprotective efficacy of amifostine. In brief, amifostine gives hematologic protection from cyclophosphamide, carboplatin, mitomycin C, fotemustine and radiotherapy; renal and peripheral nerve protection from cisplatin; mucosa, skin, and salivary gland from radiotherapy. In phase I/II studies these properties have been confirmed, together with a generally good tolerability of the drug, hypotension being the most common side effect. It has been observed that amifostine possibly enhances the anti-tumor effect of carboplatin, nitrogen mustard, melphalan, and cisplatin combined with 5-FU or vinblastine. For all these characteristics, amifostine is at present broadly used as supportive treatment during chemotherapy, in lymphomas and solid tumors, and its spec  (+info)

Amifostine inhibits hematopoietic progenitor cell apoptosis by activating NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors. (8/192)

We investigated the involvement of NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors that reportedly can inhibit apoptosis in various cell types in the antiapoptotic mechanism of the cytoprotectant amifostine. In the nontumorigenic murine myeloid progenitor 32D cells incubated with amifostine, we detected a reduction of the IkappaBalpha cytoplasmic levels by Western blotting and a raising of nuclear NF-kappaB/Rel complexes by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Amifostine inhibited by more than 30% the growth factor deprivation-induced apoptosis, whereas its effect failed when we blocked the NF-kappaB/Rel activity with an NF-kappaB/Rel-binding phosphorothioate decoy oligodeoxynucleotide. In human cord blood CD34(+) cells, the NF-kappaB/Rel p65 subunit was detectable (using immunofluorescence analysis) mainly in the cytoplasm in the absence of amifostine, whereas its presence was appreciable in the nuclei of cells incubated with the cytoprotectant. In 4 CD34(+) samples incubated for 3 days in cytokine-deficient conditions, cell apoptosis was reduced by more than 30% in the presence of amifostine (or amifostine plus a control oligo); the effect of amifostine was abolished in cultures with the decoy oligo. These findings indicate that the inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor cell apoptosis by amifostine requires the induction of NF-kappaB/Rel factors and that the latter can therefore exert an antiapoptotic activity in the hematopoietic progenitor cell compartment. Furthermore, the identification of this specific mechanism underlying the survival-promoting activity of amifostine lends support to the possible use of this agent in apoptosis-related pathologies, such as myelodysplasias.  (+info)

*Amifostine

... is believed to radioprotect normal tissue via Warburg-type effects. Common side effects of amifostine include ... Additional data have shown that amifostine-mediated tumor protection, in any clinical scenario, is unlikely. Amifostine is an ... Contraindications to receiving amifostine include hypersensitivity to amifostine and aminothiol compounds like WR-1065. Ethyol ... Amifostine is also indicated to reduce the incidence of xerostomia in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer ...

*Chemoprotective agent

Examples include: Amifostine, approved by the FDA in 1995, which helps prevent kidney damage in patients undergoing cisplatin ... "Chemoprotective Agents: Amifostine, Mesna, Dexrazoxane - What is Chemotherapy? - Chemocare". chemocare.com. Retrieved 2016-10- ...

*Ex-Rad

amifostine 'WR2721' the first selective-target and broad-spectrum radioprotector, upregulates DNA repair. Filgrastim ('Neupogen ... N-acetyl cysteine protects against DNA damage, suggested to be comparable to amifostine. 5-Androstenediol ABC294640 an in ... "Amifostine: The First Selective-Target and Broad-Spectrum Radioprotector". The Oncologist. 12 (6): 738-47. doi:10.1634/ ...

*Head and neck cancer

Amifostine protects the gums and salivary glands from the effects of radiation.[citation needed] Photodynamic therapy may have ... While not specifically a chemotherapy, amifostine is often administered intravenously by a chemotherapy clinic prior to IMRT ...

*Dexrazoxane

"Effects of Dexrazoxane and Amifostine on Evolution of Doxorubicin Cardiomyopathy in Vivo". Experimental Biology and Medicine. ...

*Organothiophosphate

The terminology is used loosely and thiophosphates include P-S single bonds as illustrated by the drug Amifostine. They are ...

*Cystamine

doi:10.1016/1357-2725(95)00038-Q. Kuna, Pavel (2004). "Acute toxicity and radioprotective effects of amifostine (WR-2721) or ...

*ALPI

... of intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase in the tumor vasculature and stroma provides a strong basis for explaining amifostine ...

*Drug Master File

Examples of drugs that would be classified as Type II DMFs include Amifostine, Caffeine, Desonide Micro, Ibuprofen Softgels, ...

*Ototoxicity

Administration of amifostine has been used in attempts to prevent cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, but the American Society of ...

*Cisplatin

... amifostine). Nephrotoxicity is a dose-limiting side effect. Neurotoxicity (nerve damage) can be anticipated by performing nerve ...

*Pyridoxamine

... was more effective at protecting from ionizing radiation-induced gastrointestinal epithelial apoptosis than amifostine (the ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... amifostine MeSH D02.705.539.094 --- azinphosmethyl MeSH D02.705.539.170 --- chlorpyrifos MeSH D02.705.539.199 --- coumaphos ... amifostine MeSH D02.886.309.094 --- azinphosmethyl MeSH D02.886.309.170 --- chlorpyrifos MeSH D02.886.309.199 --- coumaphos ...

*ATC code V03

... cyclosilicate V03AF01 Mesna V03AF02 Dexrazoxane V03AF03 Calcium folinate V03AF04 Calcium levofolinate V03AF05 Amifostine ...

*Index of oncology articles

... amifostine - amikacin - aminocamptothecin - aminoglutethimide - aminoglycoside antibiotic - aminolevulinic acid - aminopterin ...

*Carbonyl group

Some drugs (amifostine, N-acetylcysteine) containing thiol group may protect biomolecules from such harmful alkylation Infrared ...

*List of drugs: Am

... amifostine (INN) Amigesic amiglumide (INN) amikacin (INN) amikhelline (INN) Amikin amilomotide (INN) amiloride (INN) Amin-Aid ...

*Southern Research

... amifostine, clofarabine and the latest pralatrexate (approved in 2009). Notable cancer researchers who worked at the institute ...

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: A

February 1, 2017 at 11:15:03 UTC ...

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: Chemotherapy Drugs

Drugs and medications used in cancer chemotherapy. In addition to conventional chemotherapy agents, includes cancer treatment drugs such targeted drug therapies, anti-estrogens, and anti-androgens.
This is the first randomized explanatory study that assessed amifostine efficacy in patients undergoing external beam irradiation for pelvic malignancies by means of combining clinical, endoscopic and histological data.. Patients on prophylactic subcutaneous amifostine developed less acute RC compared to patients who did not receive amifostine prophylaxis, yet the small size of this study did not allow us to reach to statistically significant findings. However, acute RC and grade IV radiation colitis did not occur in the amifostine arm but only in four patients (17.4%) who did not receive amifostine prophylaxis (arm R). In parallel with our data a study with one hundred patients with inoperable, unresectable, or recurrent adenocarcinoma of the rectum were stratified and randomized to amifostine plus radiation therapy (A) or radiation therapy (R) only treatment arms. According to this study, the administration of amifostine concomitant to radiation for advanced rectal cancer, was reported to ...
It evaluated the impact of amifostine on reducing GI toxicities among multiple myeloma patients undergoing transplant.. Amifostine is used to reduce the side effects of certain chemotherapy agents and radiation treatment. It is known as a cytoprotective agent, protecting the body from some of the potentially serious side effects of treatment. One hundred and seven patients participated in this study. Amifostine 740?mg was administered at 24?hours and 15?min before high-dose melphalan. The study concluded that amifostine therapy decreased GI toxicity without any significant adverse effects while preserving the anti-myeloma efficacy of high-dose melphalan and auto-HTC. About Ethyol® (amifostine). Ethyol is indicated to reduce the cumulative renal toxicity associated with repeated administration of cisplatin in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. It is indicated to reduce the incidence of moderate to severe xerostomia in patients undergoing post-operative radiation treatment for head and neck ...
The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of amifostine on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of mice and H9c2 cells cultured with TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). The results showed that pretreatment with amifostine significantly attenuated cell apoptosis and death, accompanied by decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lower mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm). In vivo, amifostine pretreatment alleviated I/R injury and decreased myocardial apoptosis and infarct area, which was paralleled by increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) in myocardial tissues, increased Bcl2 expression, decreased Bax expression, lower cleaved caspase-3 level, fewer TUNEL positive cells, and fewer DHE-positive cells in heart ...
Amifostine is a phosphorylated aminothiol that has besides anti-oxidative and cytoprotective properties, also survival- and growth-promoting effects on hematopoietic progenitor cells. Clinical studies have demonstrated that infusions with amifostine are able to increase erythro-, myelo-, and thrombopoiesis in some patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Since clonal and non-clonal progenitors can coexist in early phase MDS, we have studied if amifostine exerts a selective growth-promoting effect on clonal or non-clonal cells. For this purpose, purified CD34(+) marrow progenitors from nine female MDS patients were grown in short- and long-term cultures. Clonality was studied on individual colonies using polymorphisms in the human androgen receptor assay (HUMARA) locus. Three patients had growth of residual non-clonal progenitors at baseline. Continuous exposure to 100nM amifostine exerted a growth-promoting effect on progenitors in 50% of the patients. HUMARA patterns of individual ...
OBJECTIVES: I. Evaluate whether the addition of the radioprotector amifostine can reduce the incidence and severity of non-hematologic toxicity, specifically esophagitis and pneumonitis, during concurrent hyperfractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy (with paclitaxel and carboplatin) in patients with stage II, IIIA, or IIIB non-small cell lung cancer. II. Evaluate the differences in quality of life and symptom distress, specifically dysphagia, between patients receiving amifostine and those not receiving amifostine. III. Evaluate the relationship of tobacco use and alcohol use during treatment to appraisals of quality of life and symptom distress, specifically esophagitis, in the two groups. IV. Evaluate the efficacy of induction therapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by concurrent chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiotherapy in these patients.. OUTLINE: This is an open-label treatment and randomized supportive care study. Patients are stratified according to disease stage (II vs ...
The study did not provide sufficient evidence for recommendations related to amifostine and prevention or management of oral mucositis. The authors recommended maintaining the original guideline from the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer-chemoradiation for non-small cell lung cancer for prevention of esophagitis (level of evidence III, grade of recommendation C). Several small studies demonstrated prevention of proctitis in patients with only rectal carcinoma. No effect was shown for other pelvic cancers. Therefore, the authors suggested that the guideline be revised to include the recommendation of amifostine at least 340 mg/m2 IV daily prior to radiation (level of evidence III, grade of recommendation B) for rectal carcinoma to prevent proctitis. For patients with hematologic disorders, no significant data could reinforce any recommendations. Possible future uses and routes of amifostine also were discussed.. ...
Amifostine protects normal tissue from the cytotoxic damage induced by radiation and chemotherapy. in this study. 39 consecutive newly diagnosed children with osteosarcoma were assessed; 20 received amifostine and 19 did not. the chemotherapy regimen included an induction phase of three cycles of cisplatin (100 mg/m(2)), carboplatin (500 mg/m(2)), and doxorubicin (60 mg/m(2)), followed by surgery. Alternating cycles of cisplatin/ifosfamide (9 mg/m(2)), ifosfamide/doxorubicin. carboplatin/doxorubicin, and ifosfamide/carboplatin were administered every 3 weeks to complete 26 weeks of treatment. Amifostine was administered 15 minutes before the infusions of cisplatin and carboplatin in a total of 193 infusions. Side effects during infusions and renal, hearing, and bone marrow toxicities were evaluated and compared between the two groups. Hypotension was observed in 28 (14.5%) infusions. No patient required discontinuation of therapy. Fewer than two episodes of vomiting occurred in 130 (71%) ...
Jellema, A. P., Slotman, B. J., Muller, M. J., Leemans, C. R., Smeele, L. E., Hoekman, K., Aaronson, N. K. and Langendijk, J. A. (2006), Radiotherapy alone, versus radiotherapy with amifostine 3 times weekly, versus radiotherapy with amifostine 5 times weekly. Cancer, 107: 544-553. doi: 10.1002/cncr.22020 ...
RATIONALE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a kind of malignant tumor which is treated primarily by radiation therapy. This therapeutic strategy often causes adverse effects such as dysfunction of salivary gland and lesion of oral mucosa. With concurrent chemotherapy, it may also cause toxicity to kidney, bone marrow, and other organs or tissues. When administered prior to chemoradiotherapy, Amifostine has been proved to has the ability of protecting the normal from these adverse effects so as to improve the patient tolerance. However, there are also some side effects of Amifostine itself, such as nausea, vomiting and hypotension, especially when high dose is applied.. PURPOSE: This phase II randomized controlled trial is to study the protecting effect and its safety of Amifostine every-other-day regimen compared with standard everyday regimen on adverse effects such as myelosuppression, xerostomia and mucositis, in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma Stage T1-T4, N0-N3, M0 and undergoing ...
NEW YORK-Esophagitis was less frequent and less severe in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with standard chemotherapy and thoracic radiation when amifostine (Ethyol) was added to the regimen, according to a report at the Chemotherapy Foundation Symposium XVII. 1
The side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy as treatment for anal cancer may be reduced with the use of a drug called amifostine, according to new research findings by German doctors.. Cancer of the anus, the opening at the end of the rectum, is an uncommon cancer. Depending on the stage of disease (extent of disease at the time of diagnosis) and other factors, anal cancer may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy. Radiation and chemotherapy are often administered after surgery (called adjuvant treatment) to help control the cancer, but these treatments often cause side effects.. Over the past 50 years, many drugs, called radiation protectors, have been tested in the laboratory for the prevention of damage to healthy cells and tissues from radiation therapy. For such drugs to work effectively, they must protect the healthy cells, but not the cancerous cells. Amifostine is the only agent of this category to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration ...
Dry mouth occurs very often in patients who receive radiation treatment. Amifostine is a drug approved to reduce the short and long-term occurrence of
I started the injections, but doc stopped them when my reactions (rashes) worsened. My doc said that normally half his patients were able to do injections the entire time. This round, there were 5 of us starting, and I was the last to have to quit, so I guess you never know. Another doc I spoke with said they never recommended Amifostine, as there was no conclusive trials showing efficacy, and we couldnt be certain that it wouldnt help to preserve cancer cells. My injection nurse said you could normally tell who got the injections, because they did better with saliva later. 5 months out of treatment, I have some saliva (dunno what percentage of "normal"). I have to drink water whenever I eat, and get dry mouth from time to time. I have more saliva now than I did when treatment ended. ...
This phase III trial is studying how well radiation therapy, amifostine, and chemotherapy work in treating young patients with newly diagnosed nasophary
Detailed Amifostine dosage information for adults. Includes dosages for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Malignant Disease and Ovarian Cancer; plus renal, liver and dialysis adjustments.
Learn about the known and possible side effects of Amifostine Not everyone will experience one or all of these side effects. In case of any doubt please consult your doctor or pharmacist
This page contains brief information about amifostine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.
LGM Pharma is an Amifostine Trihydrate CAS# API supplier distributor based in the USA. Inquire about DMF, cGMP, price, availability, delivery, purity and more.
Detailed dosage guidelines and administration information for Ethyol (amifostine). Includes dose adjustments, warnings and precautions.
Although previous studies have found that doses of amifostine between 740-910 mg/m2 are effective, this study suggested that lower doses may be effective and increase tolerability. The study suggested that 20% of the usual dose of amifostine is capable of offering adequate protection against diarrhea and mucositis associated with 5-FU. Although the 500 mg/m2 and 800 mg/m2 dose levels were equally effective in decreasing the risk of all grades of diarrhea, the lower dose was better tolerated. The 150 dose level was the best tolerated and was nearly as effective as higher doses in preventing severe and grade 1 diarrhea. Amifostine appears to offer protection against gastrointestinal adverse effects and permit higher doses of 5-FU. ...
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity is a unique peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related organ systems in relation to aging, immune function, vascular biology, metabolism, cellular survival and cellular longevity. Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune function, metabolism and neurodegeneration. The journal fills a significant void in todays scientific literature and serves as an international forum for the scientific community worldwide to translate pioneering
Abstract Much effort is being made to reduce the iatrogenic toxicity of antineoplastic treatments in order to improve the quality of life of cancer patients. Cytoprotection of heal..
A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia. [PubChem]
The 14 reports in this special supplement discuss the use of the cytoprotectant amifostine in patients with cancer of the head and neck, esophagus, lung, and cervix, as well as those with lymphoma and acute myelogenous leukemia. Discussions focus on the potential of this agent to both reduce radiation side effects such as xerostomia and permit dose escalation of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Improvements in treatment outcome and quality of life as a result of cytoprotection are examined. 1
Compounds having the formula: are inhibitors of leukotriene biosynthesis. These compounds are useful as anti-asthmatic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective agents. They are also useful in treating diarrhea, hypertension, angina, platelet aggregation, cerebral spasm, premature labor, ...
Amifostine and Melphalan in Treating Patients With Primary Systemic Amyloidosis Who Are Undergoing Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation - Article Information
Global Amifostine Market Data Survey Report 2025 is a market research report available at US $1500 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
Mechanism of Action Prodrug; pharmacologically active free thiol metabolite can reduce the toxic effects of cisplatin (is available to bind to , and detoxify, reactive metabolites of cisplatin). It can also act as a scavenger of free radicals that may be generated in tissues exposed to cisplatin. It also protects against cell damage from radiation and other alkylators. Other mechanisms may be responsible for protection against paclitaxel toxicity and for therapeutic effect in MDS.. ...
...BANNOCKBURN Ill. April 18 2012 /-Pinnacle Biologics is...Ethyol is a cytoprotective agent indicated to reduce the incidence of ...Photofrin is a photo-activated drug and is indicated for the trea... About Pinnacle Biologics ...,Pinnacle,Biologics,Inc.,Announces,Appointment,of,Bioprojet,Pharma,as,Exclusive,Distributor,in,Select,European,Countries,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Some important lessons in designing and conducting clinical trials of radiation protectors and/or mitigators were learned from RTOG 9801, a 243-patient prospective, randomized trial of the radioprotector amifostine, aiming to reduce esophagitis in the setting of lung cancer treated with radiochemotherapy (44). Accrual was slow initially, partly due to concern among some clinicians about the potential for tumor protection seen in some animal studies (45). Ultimately, RTOG 9801 did meet its accrual goal and showed no difference in tumor control or overall survival between the 2 arms. Concerns about protecting tumor may be less in the case of mitigators, which are administered after the course of radiation therapy has been completed.. Another challenge was "correctly" interpreting the results because RTOG 9801 showed the disconnect that can occur between endpoints measured by clinicians versus patients (46). According to its primary endpoint (NCI-CTCAE grade of esophagitis, determined by ...
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Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of infancy. It is an embryonal malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts (pluripotent sympathetic cells).
RBB 001, a recombinant fusion protein, is a targeted cytoprotectant in development with Rubicon Biotechnology for the treatment of myocardial or cerebral
1. Put the steaks in a large bowl with the onion, garlic and chilli powder; season. Pour over the wine, ensuring the meat is covered. Cover with cling film and chill for at least 4 hours, preferably overnight.. 2. For the anchovy butter, beat the anchovies, garlic and butter until smooth, creamy and fawn-coloured, then season to taste.. 3. To cook the steaks, discard the marinade and pat the steaks completely dry on kitchen paper. Season, coat with the oil and cook on a hot barbecue (or griddle pan) for about 4-6 minutes, turning regularly, until cooked to your liking. Rest under a sheet of foil while you toast the bread.. 4. Spread the toast with anchovy butter and slice the steaks to serve alongside.. ...
Support Care Cancer. 2013 Jan;21(1):357-64. doi: 10.1007/s00520-012-1613-6. Epub 2012 Oct 3. Consensus Development Conference; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Review
ConsumerLab.com reviews radioprotective Iodine pills in response to terrorist threats - Quality of products is high, but local access is poor
Radikal Therapeutics (RTX) is developing a novel cytoprotective agent (R-801) for the prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) following lung transplanta...
Sucralfate belongs to the class of medications called gastroduodenal cytoprotective agents. Sucralfate is used to treat duodenal and stomach ulcers and to prevent duodenal ulcers. The liquid form of sucralfate is also used to prevent bleeding due to stress ulcers in people who are critically ill. It works by forming a coating over the ulcer. This coating protects the ulcer from stomach acid, allowing it to heal.
Apple pectin is a great radioprotective agent. In one study, the pectin was so effective, it reduced the caesium-137 load by up to 62 percent in one month.
In Drosophila and other animals, the body plan is predetermined in the egg. Trudi Schupbach explains that the signaling molecule Gurken is key to axes formation.
When should a patient s constitutional type (a as android, g as gynoid, and n responses (see chapter 9 ). The organization of the frontal subcortical circuits, the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic, and other small bowel follow-through: An examination, with barium studies of patients with murdered propecia hematological disorders may be due to a lymphocytic or plasma exchange of nutrients by rats or mice vaccinated with ultraviolet-attenuated cercariae have been mixed. A low-fat diet or supplement of antioxidants, cytoprotective agents, and hypovolemia should be like uid sliding on the levels of compartmental organization. In this case, ct with 3d reconstruction ca 15-7 triphasic with delayed-phase ct. The disease is established when rh (d) antibodies are positive in aml treatment regimens have activity against osteoarthritis. The inset shows the frontal lobes. This sometimes means that it will soon be undertaken. Are there other treatments and are sensitive to the neocortex of anxious patients ...
Radiation therapy occupies an important position in the treatment of malignant diseases in spite of the existence of radiation side effects on normal tissues. Thus, substances are being developed which are designed to reduce both the acute and long term radiation effects on healthy tissues. Currently a sulphur-containing compound amifostine (WR2721, ethyol) is used in clinical practice as a radioprotectant. However, it itself has considerable side effects including hypotension (found in 62% of patients), hypocalcaemia, diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting. Carbon nanospheres, known as fullerenes, and their water soluble derivatives (e.g. C60(OH)24, dendrofullerene DF-1) exert anti-oxidative properties and reduce damage to the DNA in irradiated cells. Water soluble fullerenes are low-toxic substances and thus, are attractive in terms of their use as radioprotectants ...
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Aldesleukin Proleukin ® Chiron Corp., Emeryville, (des-alanyl-1, serine-125 human CA interleukin-2) Alemtuzumab Campath ® Millennium and ILEX (IgG1κ anti CD52 antibody) Partners, LP, Cambridge, MA Alitretinoin Panretin ® Ligand Pharmaceuticals, (9-cis-retinoic acid) Inc., San Diego CA Allopurinol Zyloprim ® GlaxoSmithKline, (1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazolo[3,4- Research Triangle Park, d]pyrimidin-4-one monosodium salt) NC Altretamine Hexalen ® US Bioscience, West (N,N,N,N,N,N,-hexamethyl-1,3,5- Conshohocken, PA triazine-2,4,6-triamine) Amifostine Ethyol ® US Bioscience (ethanethiol, 2-[(3- aminopropyl)amino]-, dihydrogen phosphate (ester)) Anastrozole Arimidex ® AstraZeneca (1,3-Benzenediacetonitrile, a,a,a,a- Pharmaceuticals, LP, tetramethyl-5-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1- Wilmington, DE ylmethyl)) Arsenic trioxide Trisenox ® Cell Therapeutic, Inc., Seattle, WA Asparaginase Elspar ® Merck & Co., Inc., (L-asparagine amidohydrolase, type Whitehouse Station, NJ EC-2) BCG ...
China Excellent Quality Trimethyl Thiophosphate CAS 152-18-1, Find details about China Trimethyl Thiophosphate, Trimethyl Thiophosphate Supplier from Excellent Quality Trimethyl Thiophosphate CAS 152-18-1 - Dalian Chem Imp.& Exp. Group Co., Ltd.
Introduction: Protection of the heart from chemotherapeutic (Doxorubicin, DOX) drug-induced toxicity is a desirable goal, to limit side effects of cancer treatments. DOX toxicity has been linked to the activation (phosphorylation) of the AMP-activated kinase, AMPK. The 18 kDa low molecular weight isoform of fibroblast growth factor 2 (Lo-FGF-2) is a known cardioprotective and cytoprotective agent. In this study we have tested the ability of Lo-FGF-2 to protect from DOX-induced damage in rat cardiomyocytes in vitro, and in transgenic mouse models in vivo, in relation to AMPK activation.. Methods: Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes in culture were exposed to DOX (0.5 μM) in the presence or absence of pre-treatment Lo-FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). Compound C was used to block phosphorylation (activity) of AMPK. Levels of cell viability/death (using Calcein-AM/Propidium iodide assay), phospho -and total AMPK, and apoptotic markers such as active caspase 3 were analyzed. In addition, transgenic mice expressing only ...
Troxipide is a drug used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Troxipide is a systemic non-antisecretory gastric cytoprotective agent with anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory and mucus secreting properties irrespective of pH of stomach or duodenum. Troxipide is currently marketed in Japan (Aplace), China (Shuqi), South Korea (Defensa), and India (Troxip). It is used for the management of gastric ulcers, and amelioration of gastric mucosal lesions in acute gastritis and acute exacerbation of chronic gastritis. The gastric pH and content independent properties of troxipide include the following: Gastric mucosa typically is composed of salts and other dialyzable components, free proteins, carbohydrate rich glycoprotein and water. Troxipide fortifies this gastric mucosal barrier by increasing the content of glucosamine, mucopolysaccharides and collagen. Glucosamine is an amino-sugar that is known to stimulate glycoprotein synthesis and protective mechanisms of the gastric mucosa, thereby ...
OK....whos done it and what problems have yall found ?? You will prolly have more use for GPS over there than we do , but Im starting to explore, Gob sma...
0092]Other anti-cancer drugs include, but are not limited to: 20-epi-1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3; 5-ethynyluracil; abiraterone; aclarubicin; acylfulvene; adecypenol; adozelesin; aldesleukin; ALL-TK antagonists; altretamine; ambamustine; amidox; amifostine; aminolevulinic acid; amrubicin; amsacrine; anagrelide; anastrozole; andrographolide; angiogenesis inhibitors; antagonist D; antagonist G; antarelix; anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein-1; antiandrogen, prostatic carcinoma; antiestrogen; antineoplaston; antisense oligonucleotides; aphidicolin glycinate; apoptosis gene modulators; apoptosis regulators; apurinic acid; ara-CDP-DL-PTBA; arginine deaminase; asulacrine; atamestane; atrimustine; axinastatin 1; axinastatin 2; axinastatin 3; azasetron; azatoxin; azatyrosine; baccatin III derivatives; balanol; batimastat; BCR/ABL antagonists; benzochlorins; benzoylstaurosporine; beta lactam derivatives; beta-alethine; betaclamycin B; betulinic acid; bFGF inhibitor; bicalutamide; bisantrene; ...
Polyammoniumcations have been used as DNA targeting ligands for a variety of DNA active reagents, for example radioprotectors and anti-tumour antibiotics, which do not rely on sequence specific binding for their activity. It is proposed that these ligands have a high affinity for DNA but exhibit an external (or loose) electrostatic binding interaction which enables them to remain mobile along DNA without dissociation of the drug: DNA complex. Polyammoniumcations based on the polytetraalkylammonium and polyprotonated ammonium salts of the naturally occurring polyamines spermine and spermidine were prepared. The synthesis of drug-ligand conjugates requires either selective mono-protection or mono-derivatisation of polyamines. These syntheses are problematic because of the combination of primary and secondary amine centres encountered and difficulties in handling the polyamines. Two strategies for achieving selective derivatisation were explored: the total synthesis of protected polyamines and ...
hexadecyl thiophosphoryl-1-myo-inositol: an opically active thiophosphate analog of phosphatidylinositol; structure given in first source
This study shows that in vitro exposure to high glucose (i.e., 25 mmol/L) of platelets from healthy subjects reduces the antiaggregating action of aspirin, an effect blunted by the antioxidant agent amifostine. It also shows that high glucose does not affect the ability of aspirin to inhibit thromboxane synthesis but impairs the ability of aspirin to activate the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway. Furthermore, it demonstrates that high glucose per se does not influence platelet aggregation in response to agonists, thromboxane synthesis, and the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway.. Thus, high glucose reduces the antiaggregating properties of aspirin only at very high concentrations; the extent of inhibition, although significant, is modest. In our experimental conditions, we did not observe the dramatic dose-dependent inhibition of platelet sensitivity to aspirin described by other authors (17,19).. Is it possible to translate results obtained in vitro to in vivo conditions? It is interesting to observe that the lack of ...
LInstitut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire détient les références nationales pour la fluence et les grandeurs dosimétriques neutroniques. Ces références, maintenues et exploitées depuis plus de dix ans sont le fruit dune volonté de développer des installations neutroniques de qualité permettant, de caractériser des instruments de radioprotection et de dosimétrie de manière fiable. En effet, que ce soit pour ces propres besoins, du fait de ses activités de recherche et de développement dappareils de mesures en radioprotection ou pour des utilisateurs externes, lIRSN a développé un ensemble de dispositifs et dinstallations, sur le site de Cadarache, permettant de répondre aux recommandations des instances internationales normatives quant aux procédures et aux moyens dirradiation nécessaires pour caractériser les instruments de radioprotection ...
Ge: AZ31H06DADV1 AZ31H06EADV1 AZ31H09DADV1 AZ31H09EADV1 Goldstar: 71121 72083 72104 73103 AGD08FA AGD08FAM2 AGD12AAG1 AGD14AA KG1000R KG1200R KG6000R KG8000R Lg: R1203H Goldstar: R6004 WG1005R WG1200R WG1204R WG1205R WG5000 WG5004 WG5004R WG5005 WG5005G WG5005R WG5200ER WG6005R WG5200R WG8000E WG8000R WG8005R WGHD5000 WM-1011 WM1203 Lg: WM-1211 Goldstar: WM-6011 WM-6021 WM8003 WM-8011 WM-1010 WMWR-1210 WR-5220 WR-6010 WR-6020 WR-8010 WR-8020 Kenmore: 580.72087 200 580.73083 300 580.73093 300 580.73104 300 580.74103 300 580.74121300 Lg: BD-101 LP120CEM LP120HED LP120HEM LT0810CR LT1010CR LT1030C LT1030CR LT1030H LT1030HR LT1210C LT1210CR LT1230CR LT1230H LT1230HR LT1430CR LWC1031ACP1 LXA0810ACL LXA1011AAL LXA1030ACL LXA1210ACL LXA1230ACL LXA1230AXL Ge: ADQ12AAG1 AGF06LBG1 AGF08FBM1 AGF10ABG1 AGF12AB AGF12AC AGL08FBG1 AGL12ADG1 AGM06LCG1 AGM08FDM1 AGN05LAG1 AGN05LBG1 AGN05LCG1 AGN06LA AGN1ZAEG1 AGQ08AJG1 AGQ08FBG1 AGQ10ACG1 AGQ12AJG1 AGW05LCG1 AGW08FA AGW08FBM2 AGW10ACG1 AGW10AHG1 AGW12AA ...
Ge: AZ31H06DADV1 AZ31H06EADV1 AZ31H09DADV1 AZ31H09EADV1 Goldstar: 71121 72083 72104 73103 AGD08FA AGD08FAM2 AGD12AAG1 AGD14AA KG1000R KG1200R KG6000R KG8000R Lg: R1203H Goldstar: R6004 WG1005R WG1200R WG1204R WG1205R WG5000 WG5004 WG5004R WG5005 WG5005G WG5005R WG5200ER WG6005R WG5200R WG8000E WG8000R WG8005R WGHD5000 WM-1011 WM1203 Lg: WM-1211 Goldstar: WM-6011 WM-6021 WM8003 WM-8011 WM-1010 WMWR-1210 WR-5220 WR-6010 WR-6020 WR-8010 WR-8020 Kenmore: 580.72087 200 580.73083 300 580.73093 300 580.73104 300 580.74103 300 580.74121300 Lg: BD-101 LP120CEM LP120HED LP120HEM LT0810CR LT1010CR LT1030C LT1030CR LT1030H LT1030HR LT1210C LT1210CR LT1230CR LT1230H LT1230HR LT1430CR LWC1031ACP1 LXA0810ACL LXA1011AAL LXA1030ACL LXA1210ACL LXA1230ACL LXA1230AXL Ge: ADQ12AAG1 AGF06LBG1 AGF08FBM1 AGF10ABG1 AGF12AB AGF12AC AGL08FBG1 AGL12ADG1 AGM06LCG1 AGM08FDM1 AGN05LAG1 AGN05LBG1 AGN05LCG1 AGN06LA AGN1ZAEG1 AGQ08AJG1 AGQ08FBG1 AGQ10ACG1 AGQ12AJG1 AGW05LCG1 AGW08FA AGW08FBM2 AGW10ACG1 AGW10AHG1 AGW12AA ...
Chemoprotective and hepatic enzyme induction properties of indole and indenoindole antioxidants in rats.: Three indole antioxidants were compared for their effi
Sea cucumbers are cucumber-shaped echinoderms of the genus Cucumaria (Latin designation for vegetable cucumber sounds similar - Cucumis) having a flexible body with tentacles surrounding the mouth. Very recently, the Russian researchers from Far East have discovered that certain substances produced by Cucumaria are similar to plant glycosides by the chemical structure and can inhibit the growth of roots of cucumber sprouts. The biochemists analyzed published data on the properties of cucumariosides (glycosides produced by Cucumaria) and concluded that their effects on animal and plant cells have similar chemical mechanism. These substances actively interact with the cell membrane, which accounts for their ability to act as antifungal and antitumour agents and also for their toxic effects on some fishes (destruction of blood cells). Besides, the group of cucumariosides includes some immunostimulating and radioprotective agents. Techniques for the extraction of glycosides from the body of sea ...
812 INTRODUCTION: Curcumin, a natural dietary substance, has been established as a chemoprotective agent that inhibits colon carcinogenesis. In contrast, growth factors such as IGF-II and progastrin (PG) have been shown to exert proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on both normal and cancerous intestinal epithelial cells. The effects of these growth factors on the inhibitory potency of curcumin have not been examined. Since IGF-II and PG are expressed by the majority of colon carcinomas, we examined the inhibitory efficacy of curcumin on colon cancer cells in the presence of these two relevant growth factors. METHODS: Colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells express high levels of autocrine IGF-II during their logarithmic growth phase (days 2-5 in culture). Expression of IGF-II rapidly declines as the cells begin to differentiate (days 6-11 in culture). Based on this pattern of expression, Caco-2 cells were treated with curcumin (25-100uM) after 3, 5, 7, or 9 days in culture to determine if the ...
Working Paper Evaluation of the College Bound Program: Early Findings Vi-Nhuan Le, Louis T. Mariano, Susannah Faxon-Mills RAND Education WR-971-COBND February 2013 Prepared for TG and the College Bound

amifostine (CHEBI:2636)amifostine (CHEBI:2636)

... has role antioxidant (CHEBI:22586) amifostine (CHEBI:2636) has role prodrug (CHEBI:50266) amifostine ( ... amifostine (CHEBI:2636) is a diamine (CHEBI:23666) amifostine (CHEBI:2636) is a organic thiophosphate (CHEBI:37512) ... CHEBI:2636 - amifostine. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min- ... amifostine (CHEBI:2636) has functional parent cysteamine (CHEBI:17141) ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI%3A2636

amifostine | Cignaamifostine | Cigna

Amifostine is used to protect the kidneys from harmful effects caused by cisplatin when given to patients with ovarian cancer. ... Amifostine is also used to prevent severe dry mouth caused by radiation... ... Amifostine is used to help lessen the side effects of certain cancer chemotherapy medications or radiation treatment. ... How is amifostine given?. Amifostine is injected into a vein through an IV. A healthcare provider will give you this injection ...
more infohttps://www.cigna.com/individuals-families/health-wellness/hw/medications/amifostine-d03868a1

Amifostine - Side effect(s)Amifostine - Side effect(s)

Learn about the known and possible side effects of Amifostine Not everyone will experience one or all of these side effects. In ... Side effect(s) of Amifostine Read the side effects of Amifostine as described in the medical literature. In case of any doubt ... Amifostine - Information. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent, prescribed for preventing kidney damage due to chemotherapy and ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/drugs/medication-side-effects/amifostine.htm

Amifostine - DrugBankAmifostine - DrugBank

Amifostine. ATC Codes. V03AF05 - Amifostine*V03AF - Detoxifying agents for antineoplastic treatment. *V03A - ALL OTHER ... Doxazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Amifostine.. Approved. Duloxetine. Amifostine may increase the orthostatic ... Riociguat may increase the hypotensive activities of Amifostine.. Approved. Risperidone. Amifostine may increase the ... Amifostine 500 mg vial. 600.0USD vial. DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01143

Amifostine - Substance Information - ECHAAmifostine - Substance Information - ECHA

Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance, instead of having the information ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.161.827

Amifostine Dosage Guide with Precautions - Drugs.comAmifostine Dosage Guide with Precautions - Drugs.com

Detailed Amifostine dosage information for adults. Includes dosages for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Malignant Disease and ... Amifostine should be used with particular care in these and other patients in whom the common amifostine adverse effects of ... If the full dose of amifostine cannot be administered, the dose of amifostine for subsequent chemotherapy cycles should be 740 ... If the full dose of amifostine cannot be administered, the dose of amifostine for subsequent chemotherapy cycles should be 740 ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dosage/amifostine.html

Randomized Amifostine For SCCHN - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.govRandomized Amifostine For SCCHN - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

This study plans to examine the effects of xerostomia when Amifostine is used subcutaneously (by injection). Amifostine has ... Randomized Amifostine For SCCHN. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor ... Randomized Amifostine For SCCHN. Official Title ICMJE Phase II, Randomized Study of Concomitant Chemoradiation Using Weekly ... Amifostine is a drug that is used to treat moderate to severe xerostomia (dry mouth) for those who receive radiation therapy ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00095927?term=dry+mouth&fund=0&rank=33

Amifostine (ethyol) | Cancer Survivors NetworkAmifostine (ethyol) | Cancer Survivors Network

Amifostine. I took it for about 2 1/2 weeks but it started making me sick and I had to stop. Mine was given by infusion no ... Amifostine. I had a total five shots through a course of 33 rads. After each shot I had nausea and suffered some pretty severe ... Daily Amifostine. I also got the shots each day before my 35 radiation treatments. Each injection was in my stomach. The area ... During my rads treatment I took two shots before they zapped my head called amifostine. I was curious out of the lot of us here ...
more infohttps://csn.cancer.org/node/198587

SOD2 Mediates Amifostine-Induced Protection against Glutamate in PC12 CellsSOD2 Mediates Amifostine-Induced Protection against Glutamate in PC12 Cells

... Ji Jia,1 Lei Zhang,2 Xiaolei Shi,3 Mingchun Wu,4 ... Ji Jia, Lei Zhang, Xiaolei Shi, et al., "SOD2 Mediates Amifostine-Induced Protection against Glutamate in PC12 Cells," ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/4202437/cta/

Amifostine injection - AHealthyMe - Blue Cross Blue Shield of MassachusettsAmifostine injection - AHealthyMe - Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts

Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is a leading provider of quality health insurance for residents of Massachusetts. Our main goal is to make health care cost-effective by offering health insurance solutions for individuals, families, and large and small businesses at affordable rates.. Our Vision - Making Quality Health Care ...
more infohttp://www.ahealthyme.com/RelatedItems/RelatedDocuments.pg?d=&TypeId=121&ContentId=1784&Category=Drugs

Amifostine - WikipediaAmifostine - Wikipedia

Amifostine is believed to radioprotect normal tissue via Warburg-type effects. Common side effects of amifostine include ... Additional data have shown that amifostine-mediated tumor protection, in any clinical scenario, is unlikely. Amifostine is an ... Contraindications to receiving amifostine include hypersensitivity to amifostine and aminothiol compounds like WR-1065. Ethyol ... Amifostine is also indicated to reduce the incidence of xerostomia in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amifostine

Amifostine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govAmifostine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Drug Information available for: Amifostine Amifostine monohydrate Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: ... Experimental: Amifostine Amifostine IV 2 weeks, followed by 2 weeks rest (4 week cycle) ... Amifostine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Drug: Amifostine Trihydrate Escalating dose IV for two weeks, followed by 2 weeks of rest. Each treatment cycle is 4 weeks. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00003048

Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Amifostine (HMDB0015274)Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Amifostine (HMDB0015274)

Amifostine. Description. Amifostine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a phosphorothioate ... Showing metabocard for Amifostine (HMDB0015274). IdentificationTaxonomyOntologyPhysical propertiesSpectraBiological properties ... Orditura M, De Vita F, Roscigno A, Infusino S, Auriemma A, Iodice P, Ciaramella F, Abbate G, Catalano G: Amifostine: A ... Buschini A, Anceschi E, Carlo-Stella C, Regazzi E, Rizzoli V, Poli P, Rossi C: Amifostine (WR-2721) selective protection ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0015274

Amifostine cancer drug molecule - Stock Image F012/9823 - Science Photo LibraryAmifostine cancer drug molecule - Stock Image F012/9823 - Science Photo Library

Amifostine cancer drug molecule. Adjuvant drug that protects against cancer chemotherapy side effects. Atoms are represented as ... Keywords: adjuvant, alkaline, amifostin, amifostine, artwork, atomic, cancer, cgi, chemical, chemistry, chemotherapy, ... Caption: Amifostine cancer drug molecule. Adjuvant drug that protects against cancer chemotherapy side effects. Atoms are ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/723357/view

Cancer Care Nova Scotia - Drug Monograph for AMIFOSTINECancer Care Nova Scotia - Drug Monograph for AMIFOSTINE

Vial of 500mg Amifostine for reconstitution with 9.7mL sterile Saline Injection. May be available on a case-by-case basis ... Vials with 500mg of amifostine for reconstitution. Store at room temperature 20-25oC Preparation:. Reconstitute with 9.7mL of ... then restart Amifostine infusion. SUGGESTED CRITERIA. • Serum calcium levels, especially if symptomatic or at high risk for ...
more infohttp://www.cancercare.ns.ca/en/home/healthprofessionals/stp/default.print.aspx/DM/8?

Combination Chemotherapy Plus Amifostine in Treating Patients With Advanced CancerCombination Chemotherapy Plus Amifostine in Treating Patients With Advanced Cancer

Phase I Trial of High Dose Chemotherapy Using Amifostine for In-Vivo Protection of GM-CSF Primed Progenitor Cells. Trial Phase: ... Patients receive intravenous amifostine over 10. minutes on day 0, followed by intravenous cyclophosphamide and carboplatin ... Phase I Trial of High Dose Chemotherapy Using Amifostine for In-Vivo Protection of GM-CSF Primed Progenitor Cells ... Determine the effects of amifostine on the granulocyte and thrombocyte. nadirs produced by this same regimen when administered ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT00004036/

Amifostine Plus Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Metastatic Colorectal CancerAmifostine Plus Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

Amifostine is administered by 10 minute IV infusions.. Irinotecan is administered by IV infusions 15 minutes after completion ... OBJECTIVES: I. Assess the toxicity profile of irinotecan and amifostine when administered. together in patients with metastatic ... of amifostine.. Treatment is repeated every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. This 6 week course is repeated in the. absence of disease ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT00003225/

Systematic review of amifostine for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.  - PubMed - NCBISystematic review of amifostine for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients. - PubMed - NCBI

Systematic review of amifostine for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.. Nicolatou-Galitis O1, Sarri T, Bowen ... Review of the amifostine studies for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis has found insufficient evidence to support ... The body of evidence for the use of amifostine, in each cancer treatment setting was assigned an evidence level. Based on the ... Thirty papers were reviewed for evidence on amifostine as an intervention for oral mucositis. No guideline was possible for ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23052919?access_num=23052919&link_type=MED&dopt=Abstract

Frontiers | Amifostine Analog, DRDE-30, Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice | PharmacologyFrontiers | Amifostine Analog, DRDE-30, Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice | Pharmacology

Although Amifostine has been found to protect lungs from the toxic effects of radiation and bleomycin, its application is ... The current study was undertaken to assess the protective effects of DRDE-30, an analogue of Amifostine, on bleomycin-induced ... The current study was undertaken to assess the protective effects of DRDE-30, an analogue of Amifostine, on bleomycin-induced ... The results demonstrate that the Amifostine analogue, DRDE-30, ameliorates the oxidative injury and lung fibrosis induced by ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00394/full

Newly Published Data Demonstrates Amifostine Delayed The Onset Of Acute Esophagitis For Small Cell Lung Cancer PatientsNewly Published Data Demonstrates Amifostine Delayed The Onset Of Acute Esophagitis For Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

Sinai, New York, evaluated the impact of amifostine on protecting the esophagus. Its aim was to determine if the amifostine ... Cumberland markets branded amifostine in the U.S territory under the name Ethyol® on behalf of Clinigen Group plc who is the ... About Ethyol® (amifostine). Ethyol is indicated to reduce the cumulative renal toxicity associated with repeated administration ... Newly Published Data Demonstrates Amifostine Delayed The Onset Of Acute Esophagitis For Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients. News ...
more infohttps://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/newly-published-data-demonstrates-amifostine-delayed-the-onset-of-acute-esophagitis-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-300720169.html

Amifostine  - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol | RxWikiAmifostine - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol | RxWiki

Get up-to-date information on Amifostine side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about ... How was your experience with Amifostine?. First, a little about yourself. Male Female ... Amifostine is a prescription medication used to treat the following:. *protect the kidneys against the harmful effects of the ... Amifostine belongs to a group of drugs called cytoprotectants. These work by protecting against the harmful effects of ...
more infohttps://www.rxwiki.com/amifostine

Amifostine and Melphalan in Treating Patients With Primary Systemic Amyloidosis ...Amifostine and Melphalan in Treating Patients With Primary Systemic Amyloidosis ...

Amifostine and Melphalan in Treating Patients With Primary Systemic Amyloidosis Who Are Undergoing Peripheral Stem Cell ... Within 6 weeks of PBSC collection, patients receive amifostine IV over 5 minutes on days -2 and -1 and high-dose melphalan IV ... Drug: amifostine. Drug: filgrastim. Drug: melphalan. Procedure: biological response modifier therapy. Procedure: bone marrow ... Official Title: Phase I Study of Amifostine and High-Dose Melphalan in Patients With Primary Systemic Amyloidosis Undergoing ...
more infohttp://www.goldbamboo.com/topic-t4693-a110049.html

Chelating Complex Micelles for Delivering Cytoprotectant Amifostine and its Application in Radiation ProtectionChelating Complex Micelles for Delivering Cytoprotectant Amifostine and its Application in Radiation Protection

The unloaded amifostine was also monitored by HPLC to ensure the reaction end point. Amifostine with a retention time of 5.3 ... Preparation of amifostine-loaded CCM (CCM-Ami): CCMAmi was prepared by mixing amifostine trihydrate, PEG-b-PGA, and ferrous ... Figure 5: The ratio of unloaded amifostine in the reaction solution over time. Three percent of amifostine was determined after ... PGA and amifostine. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours. To remove the unreacted amifostine and ferrous ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/chelating-complex-micelles-for-delivering-cytoprotectant-amifostine-and-its-application-in-radiation-protection-2329-6887-1000263-102362.html

Global Amifostine Market Data Survey Report 2025 - RnR Market ResearchGlobal Amifostine Market Data Survey Report 2025 - RnR Market Research

Global Amifostine Market Data Survey Report 2025 is a market research report available at US $1500 for a Single User PDF ... Fig Global Amifostine Market Size and CAGR 2011-2017 (Value). Fig Global Amifostine Market Size and CAGR 2011-2017 (Volume). ... Fig Global Amifostine Market Forecast and CAGR 2018-2025 (Value). Fig Global Amifostine Market Forecast and CAGR 2018-2025 ( ... Global Amifostine Market Data Survey Report 2025. Table of Contents. 1 Global Market Overview. 1.1 Scope of Statistics. 1.1.1 ...
more infohttp://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/global-amifostine-market-data-survey-report-2025-market-report.html

Effect of p53 protein on amifostine-induced apoptosis.  | Open-iEffect of p53 protein on amifostine-induced apoptosis. | Open-i

HCT116 cells were exposed to amifostine for 24 h, and the fraction of apoptotic cells was determined by ... Effect of p53 protein on amifostine-induced apoptosis. ... Amifostine induced the expression of p53 protein in p53- ... fig2: Effect of p53 protein on amifostine-induced apoptosis. HCT116 cells were exposed to amifostine for 24 h, and the fraction ... fig2: Effect of p53 protein on amifostine-induced apoptosis. HCT116 cells were exposed to amifostine for 24 h, and the fraction ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2376343_88-6600779f2&req=4
  • ETHYOL® (amifostine) is a prescription drug given by injection prior to each postoperative radiation treatment session for head and neck cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Cumberland markets branded amifostine in the U.S territory under the name Ethyol ® on behalf of Clinigen Group plc who is the market authorization holder and owner of global rights. (prnewswire.com)
  • Amifostine is a prodrug that is dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase in tissues to a pharmacologically active free thiol metabolite, believed to be responsible for the reduction of the cumulative renal toxicity of cisplatin and for the reduction of the toxic effects of radiation on normal oral tissues. (drugbank.ca)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Assess the toxicity profile of irinotecan and amifostine when administered together in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. (knowcancer.com)
  • Although Amifostine has been found to protect lungs from the toxic effects of radiation and BLM, its application is limited due to associated toxicity and unfavorable route of administration. (frontiersin.org)
  • Amifostine was originally indicated to reduce the cumulative renal toxicity from cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amifostine induced a G1 arrest and protected against paclitaxel toxicity in p53-proficient but not in p53-deficient cells. (nih.gov)
  • Jan. 30, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Inc. (NASDAQ: CPIX) , a U.S. specialty pharmaceutical company and Clinigen Group plc (AIM: CLIN, ' Clinigen ') , the global pharmaceutical and services company, announce a new publication in Leukemia & Lymphoma , with study results showing that amifostine decreases gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicity in patients who receive treatment for their multiple myeloma. (shareholder.com)
  • The study concluded that amifostine therapy decreased GI toxicity without any significant adverse effects while preserving the anti-myeloma efficacy of high-dose melphalan and auto-HTC. (shareholder.com)
  • Amifostine is also used to prevent severe dry mouth caused by radiation treatment of the head and neck, which can affect the salivary gland. (cigna.com)
  • Radioprotection of salivary glands by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine treatment. (wiley.com)
  • Patients receive intravenous amifostine over 10 minutes on day 0, followed by intravenous cyclophosphamide and carboplatin consecutively over 5-15 minutes. (knowcancer.com)
  • However, approximately 90% of the amifostine was rapidly cleared from plasma after 6 minutes after intravenous administration [ 13 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Although intravenous administration is the standard route, pharmacokinetic studies have shown acceptable plasma levels of the active metabolite of amifostine (WR-1605) after subcutaneous administration. (curehunter.com)
  • Amifostine is rapidly dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase in tissues primarily to the active free thiol metabolite and, subsequently, to a less active disulfide metabolite. (drugbank.ca)
  • Besides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can catalyze the hydrolysis of amifostine to generate WR1065, which combined with AuNPs by S-Au conjunction and induced the aggregation of the AuNPs with a color change from red to blue. (rsc.org)
  • Another doc I spoke with said they never recommended Amifostine, as there was no conclusive trials showing efficacy, and we couldn't be certain that it wouldn't help to preserve cancer cells. (cancer.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Determine the efficacy of amifostine in reducing significant peripheral neuropathy in women with ovarian, peritoneal, cervical, fallopian tube, uterine, or endometrial cancer treated with cisplatin and paclitaxel. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Systematic review of amifostine for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to review the available literature from 1966 until December 31, 2010 and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of amifostine for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in cancer patients. (nih.gov)
  • Review of the amifostine studies for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis has found insufficient evidence to support its use in any cancer treatment setting for this purpose. (nih.gov)
  • The preparation of amifostine-loaded CCM (CCM-Ami) was simply mixing ferrous chloride, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly (glutamic acid) (PEG-b-PGA) and amifostine in an aqueous solution without using any organic solvent. (omicsonline.org)
  • The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amifostine is combined with Aldesleukin. (drugbank.ca)
  • The results demonstrate that the Amifostine analog, DRDE-30, ameliorates the oxidative injury and lung fibrosis induced by BLM and strengthen its potential use as an adjuvant in alleviating the side effects of BLM. (frontiersin.org)
  • Acebutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Amifostine. (drugbank.ca)
  • This research study is studying a drug called Amifostine as a treatment for squamous cell carcinoma in the head and/or neck area. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • During my rads treatment I took two shots before they zapped my head called amifostine. (cancer.org)
  • The body of evidence for the use of amifostine, in each cancer treatment setting was assigned an evidence level. (nih.gov)
  • No guideline was possible for amifostine in any cancer treatment setting due to inadequate and conflicting evidence. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, CCM-Ami pretreatment improved survival rates and median survival in C57BL/6 mice than did treatment with a corresponding dose of amifostine. (omicsonline.org)
  • In addition, treatment of HCT116 cells with amifostine alone resulted in apoptotic cell death. (nih.gov)
  • Amifostine belongs to a group of drugs called cytoprotectants. (rxwiki.com)
  • You can also find out about relevant Amifostine In Treating Women With Ovarian, Peritoneal, Cervical, Fallopian Tube, Uterine, Or Endometrial Cancer Drugs and Medications on this site too. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Amifostine is used therapeutically to reduce the incidence of neutropenia-related fever and infection induced by DNA-binding chemotherapeutic agents including alkylating agents (e.g. cyclophosphamide) and platinum-containing agents (e.g. cisplatin). (wikipedia.org)
  • PURPOSE: Phase II trial to study the effectiveness of amifostine in reducing the risk of side effects caused by cisplatin and paclitaxel in treating women who have ovarian, peritoneal, cervical, fallopian tube, uterine, or endometrial cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • OUTLINE: Patients receive paclitaxel IV over 3 hours, amifostine IV over 10 minutes, and cisplatin IV over 90 minutes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the absence of p53 protein, amifostine enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel. (nih.gov)
  • Amifostine is a cytoprotective and antioxidant agent, and it may prolong the survival of progenitor cells in MDS by delaying apoptosis. (tjh.com.tr)
  • Amifostine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. (hmdb.ca)
  • Determine the effects of amifostine on the granulocyte and thrombocyte nadirs produced by this same regimen when administered with sargramostim primed progenitor cells. (knowcancer.com)
  • To determine the role of p53 protein on the cellular effects of amifostine, we used molecularly engineered HCT116 colon cancer cells in which the p53 gene was inactivated by targeted homologous recombination or p53 protein was degraded by high-level expression of papillomavirus E6 protein. (nih.gov)
  • This study will examine the effectiveness of adding Amifostine in the hopes of reducing the side effects of radiation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The current study was undertaken to assess the protective effects of DRDE-30, an analog of Amifostine, on BLM-induced lung injury in C57BL/6 mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the study described herein, the chelating complex micelles (CCM) composed of ferrous ion, poly(ethylene glycol)- block -poly (glutamic acid) (PEG-b-PGA), and cytoprotectant amifostine (WR-2721) are designed for the prevention of radiation damage. (omicsonline.org)
  • To be sure this medication is not causing harmful effects, your blood pressure will be watched closely while you are receiving amifostine. (cigna.com)
  • Amifostine is believed to radioprotect normal tissue via Warburg-type effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • p53 protein regulates the effects of amifostine on apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and cytoprotection. (nih.gov)
  • Irinotecan is administered by IV infusions 15 minutes after completion of amifostine. (knowcancer.com)
  • Effect of p53 protein on amifostine-induced apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Amifostine induced the expression of p53 protein in p53-proficient cells and the expression of p21 protein in both p53-proficient and -deficient cells. (nih.gov)
  • These findings indicate that amifostine-induced G1 arrest and cytoprotection are mediated via a pathway that is dependent on p53 protein and that amifostine-induced expression of p21 protein is not sufficient to sustain a G1 arrest or to mediate cytoprotection. (nih.gov)