Amidinotransferases: Enzymes of a subclass of TRANSFERASES that catalyze the transfer of an amidino group from donor to acceptor. EC 2.1.4.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.Glycine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the METHYLATION of GLYCINE using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to form SARCOSINE with the concomitant production of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseNordefrin: A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.Tetrahydroisoquinolines: A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.Planarians: Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Turbellaria: A class of free-living freshwater flatworms of North America.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Harmine: Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.Libraries, MedicalOligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.BenzophenonesTransferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase: A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase Deficiency Disease: An inherited urea cycle disorder associated with deficiency of the enzyme ORNITHINE CARBAMOYLTRANSFERASE, transmitted as an X-linked trait and featuring elevations of amino acids and ammonia in the serum. Clinical features, which are more prominent in males, include seizures, behavioral alterations, episodic vomiting, lethargy, and coma. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp49-50)Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Ornithine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.Aspartate Carbamoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.Carbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Carboxyl and Carbamoyl Transferases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Short Bowel Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.Sick Building Syndrome: A group of symptoms that are two- to three-fold more common in those who work in large, energy-efficient buildings, associated with an increased frequency of headaches, lethargy, and dry skin. Clinical manifestations include hypersensitivity pneumonitis (ALVEOLITIS, EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC); allergic rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL); ASTHMA; infections, skin eruptions, and mucous membrane irritation syndromes. Current usage tends to be less restrictive with regard to the type of building and delineation of complaints. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.BooksCellulitis: An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.Aminopyrine: A pyrazolone with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties but has risk of AGRANULOCYTOSIS. A breath test with 13C-labeled aminopyrine has been used as a non-invasive measure of CYTOCHROME P-450 metabolic activity in LIVER FUNCTION TESTS.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Aminopyrine N-DemethylaseVocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.

Isolation and characterization of the gene coding for the amidinotransferase involved in the biosynthesis of phaseolotoxin in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. (1/58)

Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola is the causal agent of the "halo blight" disease of beans. A key component in the development of the disease is a nonhost-specific toxin, Ndelta-(N'-sulphodiaminophosphinyl)-ornithyl-alanyl-homoarginine, known as phaseolotoxin. The homoarginine residue in this molecule has been suggested to be the product of L-arginine:lysine amidinotransferase activity, previously detected in extracts of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola grown under conditions of phaseolotoxin production. We report the isolation and characterization of an amidinotransferase gene (amtA) from P. syringae pv. phaseolicola coding for a polypeptide of 362 residues (41.36 kDa) and showing approximately 40% sequence similarity to L-arginine:inosamine-phosphate amidinotransferase from three species of Streptomyces spp. and 50.4% with an L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase from human mitochondria. The cysteine, histidine, and aspartic acid residues involved in substrate binding are conserved. Furthermore, expression of the amtA and argK genes and phaseolotoxin production occurs at 18 degrees C but not at 28 degrees C. An amidinotransferase insertion mutant was obtained that lost the capacity to synthesize homoarginine and phaseolotoxin. These results show that the amtA gene isolated is responsible for the amidinotransferase activity detected previously and that phaseolotoxin production depends upon the activity of this gene.  (+info)

Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency: the third inborn error of creatine metabolism in humans. (2/58)

Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) catalyzes the first step of creatine synthesis, resulting in the formation of guanidinoacetate, which is a substrate for creatine formation. In two female siblings with mental retardation who had brain creatine deficiency that was reversible by means of oral creatine supplementation and had low urinary guanidinoacetate concentrations, AGAT deficiency was identified as a new genetic defect in creatine metabolism. A homozygous G-A transition at nucleotide position 9297, converting a tryptophan codon (TGG) to a stop codon (TAG) at residue 149 (T149X), resulted in undetectable cDNA, as investigated by reverse-transcription PCR, as well as in undetectable AGAT activity, as investigated radiochemically in cultivated skin fibroblasts and in virus-transformed lymphoblasts of the patients. The parents were heterozygous for the mutant allele, with intermediate residual AGAT activities. Recognition and treatment with oral creatine supplements may prevent neurological sequelae in affected patients.  (+info)

Methylation demand and homocysteine metabolism: effects of dietary provision of creatine and guanidinoacetate. (3/58)

S-adenosylmethionine, formed by the adenylation of methionine via S-adenosylmethionine synthase, is the methyl donor in virtually all known biological methylations. These methylation reactions produce a methylated substrate and S-adenosylhomocysteine, which is subsequently metabolized to homocysteine. The methylation of guanidinoacetate to form creatine consumes more methyl groups than all other methylation reactions combined. Therefore, we examined the effects of increased or decreased methyl demand by these physiological substrates on plasma homocysteine by feeding rats guanidinoacetate- or creatine-supplemented diets for 2 wk. Plasma homocysteine was significantly increased (~50%) in rats maintained on guanidinoacetate-supplemented diets, whereas rats maintained on creatine-supplemented diets exhibited a significantly lower (~25%) plasma homocysteine level. Plasma creatine and muscle total creatine were significantly increased in rats fed the creatine-supplemented or guanidinoacetate-supplemented diets. The activity of kidney L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase, the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of guanidinoacetate, was significantly decreased in both supplementation groups. To examine the role of the liver in mediating these changes in plasma homocysteine, isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated with methionine in the presence and absence of guanidinoacetate and creatine, and homocysteine export was measured. Homocysteine export was significantly increased in the presence of guanidinoacetate. Creatine, however, was without effect. These results suggest that homocysteine metabolism is sensitive to methylation demand imposed by physiological substrates.  (+info)

On the control of arginine metabolism in chicken kidney and liver. (4/58)

Arginases have been found to be located on the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane of chicken kidney and liver. Transamidinase has been detected within the liver mitochondrial matrix space. Arginases and transamidinase act upon two different intracellular arginine pools. Penetration of arginine into the matrix space occurs only in respring mitochondria and in the presence of anions such as acetate and phosphate; D-arginine, L-ornithine, D-'ornithine and L-lysine penetrate with the same modalities. L-Histidine penetrates only kidney mitochondria. Because of transamidinase compartmentation, the rate of creatine synthesis is influenced by the rate of penetration of arginine into the mitochondria.  (+info)

Guanidinoacetate and creatine plus creatinine assessment in physiologic fluids: an effective diagnostic tool for the biochemical diagnosis of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencies. (5/58)

BACKGROUND: Disorders of creatine metabolism arise from genetic alterations of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT), and the creatine transporter. We developed a strategy for the detection of AGAT and GAMT defects by measurement of guanidinoacetate (GAA) and creatine plus creatinine (Cr+Crn) in biological fluids. METHODS: Three patients with AGAT deficiency from the same pedigree and their eight relatives, as well as a patient affected by a GAMT defect and his parents were analyzed by a new HPLC procedure in comparison with 90 controls. The method, which uses precolumn derivatization with benzoin, separation with a reversed-phase column, and fluorescence detection, has shown good precision and sensitivity and requires minimal sample handling. RESULTS: In the three AGAT patients, plasma GAA was 0.01-0.04 micro mol/L [mean (SD) for neurologically normal controls was 1.16 (0.59) micromol/L], Cr+Crn was 15-29 micro mol/L [reference limit in our laboratory, 79 (38) micromol/L]. Urinary GAA was 2.4-5.8 micro mol/L [reference, 311 (191) micromol/L], and Cr+Crn was 2.1-3.3 mmol/L [reference, 9.9 (4.1) mmol/L]. We found a smaller decrease in GAA and Cr+Crn in some carriers of an AGAT defect. In the patient with GAMT deficiency, plasma and urine GAA was increased (18.6 and 1783 micromol/L, respectively), and Cr+Crn was decreased in plasma (10.7 micromol/L) and urine (2.1 mmol/L). GAA was increased in the parents' plasmas and in the mother's urine. CONCLUSION: The assessment of GAA is a new tool for the detection of both GAMT and AGAT deficiencies.  (+info)

Fresh and cultured thyroid gland: survival and function after implantation. (6/58)

Isogeneic or allogeneic thyroid glands were implanted into thyroidectomized recipeint rats. These grafts, either fresh or cultured, were placed in hamstring muscle pocket or under the renal capsule. Survival and function of the grafts were evaluated by: restoration of normal levels of serum thyroxine, weight gain, kidney transamidinase (a thyroxine-induced enzyme), and histological appearance of re-excised implants. A isografts, fresh and cultured, functioned well as ectopic thyroid glands, though restoration of normal serum thyroxine levels was more rapid for the fresh implants. Fresh allografts functioned transiently but then failed due to rejection. No function was detected for cultured allografts, and rejection was seen histologically. The rat thyroid allograft therefore differs from the rat parathyroid allograft, which often can function for several months despite histological evidence of rejection. Maintenance in tissue culture prior to implantation does not appear to alter the longterm immunogenicity of either organ.  (+info)

Gatm, a creatine synthesis enzyme, is imprinted in mouse placenta. (7/58)

To increase our understanding of imprinting and epigenetic gene regulation, we undertook a search for new imprinted genes. We identified Gatm, a gene that encodes l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of creatine. In mouse, Gatm is expressed during development and is imprinted in the placenta and yolk sac, but not in embryonic tissues. The Gatm gene maps to mouse chromosome 2 in a region not previously shown to contain imprinted genes. To determine whether Gatm is located in a cluster of imprinted genes, we investigated the expression pattern of genes located near Gatm: Duox1-2, Slc28a2, Slc30a4 and a transcript corresponding to LOC214616. We found no evidence that any of these genes is imprinted in placenta. We show that a CpG island associated with Gatm is unmethylated, as is a large CpG island associated with a neighboring gene. This genomic screen for novel imprinted genes has elucidated a new connection between imprinting and creatine metabolism during embryonic development in mammals.  (+info)

Studies on the catabolism of Ng-methylarginine, Ng, Ng-dimethylarginine and Ng, Ng-dimethylarginine in the rabbit. (8/58)

1. The routes of elimination of Ng-methylarginine, Ng, Ng-dimethylarginine and Ng, Ng-dimethylarginine were investigated in the rabbit. 2. Analyses showed low plasma concentrations of these amino acids (around 1 nmol/ml) and ratios similar to those found in tissue proteins. The concentrations of these amino acids in extracts of brain, kidney, liver and spleen were similar except that liver had a lower concentration of Ng-methylarginine and Ng, Ng-dimethylarginine. Cerebrospinal fluid contained traces of each amino acid.  (+info)