Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)AmidohydrolasesAmide Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of either ammonia or an amide with another molecule, in which the linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.1.Glucagon-Like Peptides: Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.Polyunsaturated Alkamides: Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.Endocannabinoids: Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Deuterium Exchange Measurement: A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators: Compounds that interact with and modulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Arachidonic AcidsGlucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Monoacylglycerol Lipases: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC 3.1.1.23.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.EstersHydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Receptors, Glucagon: Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Lanthanoid Series Elements: Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Receptors, Cannabinoid: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Peptoids: Polymers of N-SUBSTITUTED GLYCINES containing chiral centers at the a-position of their side chains. These oligomers lack HYDROGEN BONDING donors, preventing formation of the usual intrachain hydrogen bonds but can form helices driven by the steric influence of chiral side chains.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Magainins: A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on immune cells where it may play a role modulating release of CYTOKINES.Cannabinoids: Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Benzodioxoles: Compounds based on benzene fused to oxole. They can be formed from methylated CATECHOLS such as EUGENOL.Nitrogenous Group Transferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Peptide PHI: A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Diflubenzuron: An insect growth regulator which interferes with the formation of the insect cuticle. It is effective in the control of mosquitoes and flies.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Thioamides: Organic compounds containing the radical -CSNH2.

The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. The tryptic peptides. (1/3261)

The NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa was digested with trypsin, and peptides accounting for 441 out of the 452 residues of the polypeptide chain were isolated and substantially sequenced. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50052 (11 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem J. (1975) 145, 5.  (+info)

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (2/3261)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Peptic and chymotryptic peptides and the complete sequence. (3/3261)

Peptic and chymotryptic peptides were isolated form the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa and substantially sequenced. Out of 452 residues in the polypeptide chain, 265 were recovered in the peptic and 427 in the chymotryptic peptides. Together with the tryptic peptides [Wootton, J. C., Taylor, J. G., Jackson, A. A., Chambers, G. K. & Fincham, J. R. S. (1975) Biochem. J. 149, 749-755], these establish the complete sequence of the chain, including the acid and amide assignments, except for seven places where overlaps are inadequate. These remaining alignments are deduced from information on the CNBr fragments obtained in another laboratory [Blumenthal, K. M., Moon, K. & Smith, E. L. (1975), J. Biol. Chem. 250, 3644-3654]. Further information has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50054 (17 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 145, 5.  (+info)

Deamidation and isoaspartate formation in smeared tau in paired helical filaments. Unusual properties of the microtubule-binding domain of tau. (4/3261)

An extensive loss of a selected population of neurons in Alzheimer's disease is closely related to the formation of paired helical filaments (PHFs). The most striking characteristic of PHFs upon Western blotting is their smearing. According to a previously described protocol (Morishima-Kawashima, M., Hasegawa, M., Takio, K., Suzuki, M., Titani, K., and Ihara, Y. (1993) Neuron 10, 1151-1160), smeared tau was purified, and its peptide map was compared with that of soluble (normal) tau. A CNBr fragment from soluble tau (CN5; residues 251-419 according to the 441-residue isoform) containing the microtubule-binding domain migrated at 15 and 18 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, whereas that from smeared tau exhibited two larger, unusually broad bands at approximately 30 and approximately 45 kDa, presumably representing dimers and trimers of CN5. In the peptide map of smeared tau-derived CN5, distinct peaks eluting at unusual locations were noted. Amino acid sequence and mass spectrometric analyses revealed that these distinct peptides bear isoaspartate at Asn-381 and Asp-387. Because no unusual peptides other than aspartyl or isoaspartyl peptide were found in the digests of smeared tau-derived CN5, it is likely that site-specific deamidation and isoaspartate formation are involved in its dimerization and trimerization and thus in PHF formation in vivo.  (+info)

Role of Rho and Rho kinase in the activation of volume-regulated anion channels in bovine endothelial cells. (5/3261)

1. We have studied the modulation of volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) by the small GTPase Rho and by one of its targets, Rho kinase, in calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. 2. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis showed that both RhoA and Rho kinase are expressed in CPAE cells. 3. ICl,swell, the chloride current through VRACs, was activated by challenging CPAE cells with a 25 % hypotonic extracellular solution (HTS) or by intracellular perfusion with a pipette solution containing 100 microM GTPgammaS. 4. Pretreatment of CPAE cells with the Clostridium C2IN-C3 fusion toxin, which inactivates Rho by ADP ribosylation, significantly impaired the activation of ICl,swell in response to the HTS. The current density at +100 mV was 49 +/- 13 pA pF-1 (n = 17) in pretreated cells compared with 172 +/- 17 pA pF-1 (n = 21) in control cells. 5. The volume-independent activation of ICl,swell by intracellular perfusion with GTPgammaS was also impaired in C2IN-C3-pretreated cells (31 +/- 7 pA pF-1, n = 11) compared with non-treated cells (132 +/- 21 pA pF-1, n = 15). 6. Activation of ICl,swell was pertussis toxin (PTX) insensitive. 7. Y-27632, a blocker of Rho kinase, inhibited ICl,swell and delayed its activation. 8. Inhibition of Rho and of Rho kinase by the above-described treatments did not affect the extent of cell swelling in response to HTS. 9. These experiments provide strong evidence that the Rho-Rho kinase pathway is involved in the VRAC activation cascade.  (+info)

Rho-kinase in human neutrophils: a role in signalling for myosin light chain phosphorylation and cell migration. (6/3261)

The role of a Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase in migration of neutrophils has been investigated. Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase I was expressed in human neutrophils. Chemotactic peptide led to a Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase-dependent increase in phosphorylation of myosin light chain. This was determined with the help of an antibody directed against serine 19-phosphorylated myosin light chain and an inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase (Y-27632). Y-27632 suppressed myosin light chain phosphorylation and chemotactic peptide-induced development of cell polarity and locomotion with similar potency (ED50 0.5-1.1 microM). The data strongly suggest that a Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase isoform, activated in human neutrophils exposed to chemotactic peptide, is important for motile functions of these cells.  (+info)

Determination of the lipophilicity of active anticonvulsant N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. (7/3261)

The lipophilicities of fourteen anticonvulsant active N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid [I-XIV] have been determined by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography with a mixture of methanol, TRIS buffer, and acetic acid as the solvent system. The RM value of each compound decreased linearly with increasing concentration of methanol. The partition coefficients (log P) of the amides were calculated by use of the Prolog P module of the Pallas system. Comparison of RM and log P enabled clog P values to be calculated. It was found that the anticonvulsant activity of amides [I-XIV] can be explained on the basis of their lipophilicity.  (+info)

Comparison of three solutions of ropivacaine/fentanyl for postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia. (8/3261)

BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine, 0.2%, is a new local anesthetic approved for epidural analgesia. The addition of 4 microg/ml fentanyl improves analgesia from epidural ropivacaine. Use of a lower concentration of ropivacaine-fentanyl may further improve analgesia or decrease side effects. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery were randomized in a double-blinded manner to receive one of three solutions: 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl, or 0.05% ropivacaine-1 microg fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia after standardized combined epidural and general anesthesia. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia settings and adjustments for the three solutions were standardized to deliver equivalent drug doses. Pain scores (rest, cough, and ambulation), side effects (nausea, pruritus, sedation, motor block, hypotension, and orthostasis), and patient-controlled epidural analgesia consumption were measured for 48 h. RESULTS: All three solutions produced equivalent analgesia. Motor block was significantly more common (30 vs. 0%) and more intense with the 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution. Other side effects were equivalent between solutions and mild in severity. A significantly smaller volume of 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution was used, whereas the 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl group used a significantly greater amount of ropivacaine and fentanyl. CONCLUSIONS: Lesser concentrations of ropivacaine and fentanyl provide comparable analgesia with less motor block despite the use of similar amounts of ropivacaine and fentanyl. This finding suggests that concentration of local anesthetic solution at low doses is a primary determinant of motor block with patient-controlled epidural analgesia after lower abdominal surgery.  (+info)

This thesis deals with the development and application of new synthetic methodology in organic chemistry.. The first part describes the development of a new protocol for the synthesis of 3-pyrrolines by means of a microwave-assisted ring-expansion reaction of 2-vinylaziridines. In addition, this methodology is implemented as a key-step in a formal total synthesis of the antibiotic (-)-anisomycin.. In the second part, a new methodology for the synthesis of arylglycines from Weinreb amides is described. In this procedure, a Grignard reagent is added to the iminium ion formed from the Weinreb amide upon treatment with a base. When a chiral amide is used, the nucleophilic addition proceeds with high diastereoselectivity.. Finally, an easy and straightforward synthesis of α-amino amides via a base-mediated rearrangement of modified Weinreb amides into N,O-acetals is presented. Subsequent arylation, alkylation, alkenylation or alkynylation of this intermediate affords the corresponding α-amino ...
The molecular mechanisms conferring high resistance of planar tertiary amide bonds to hydrolysis by most enzymes have remained elusive. To provide a chemical explanation to this unresolved puzzle, UB3LYP calculations were performed on an active site model of Xaa-Pro peptidases. The calculated reaction mechanism demonstrates that biocatalysts capable of tertiary amide bond hydrolysis capitalize on anti nucleophilic attack and protonation of the amide nitrogen, in contrast to the traditional syn displayed by amidases and proteases acting on secondary amide bonds.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallization-induced amide bond formation creates a boron-centered spirocyclic system. AU - Levonis, Stephan M. AU - Pappin, Brighid B.. AU - Healy, Peter C.. AU - Kiefel, Milton J.. AU - Simone, Michela. AU - Houston, Todd A.. PY - 2017/6/27. Y1 - 2017/6/27. N2 - The 5-nitrosalicylate ester of 2-acetamidophenylboronic acid (C 15 H 10 BN 2 O 6) is formed under crystallization conditions from the 5-nitrosalicylate ester of 2-aminophenylboronic acid. The boron at the center of this structure exists as a tetrahedral complex produced by a dative bond with the amide carbonyl. The perpendicular shape produces an unusual packing structure including a bifurcated hydrogen bond between the amide hydrogen and carbonyl groups on two neighboring molecules. We propose that this reaction occurs due to increased Lewis acidity of the nitrosalicylate ester of 2-aminophenylboronic acid.. AB - The 5-nitrosalicylate ester of 2-acetamidophenylboronic acid (C 15 H 10 BN 2 O 6) is formed under ...
As part of a continuing search for new potential anticancer candidates, we describe the synthesis, cytotoxicity and mechanistic evaluation of a series of 4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxamide derivatives as novel anticancer agents. The inhibitory activity of compounds 10-18 was determined against three cancer cell lines using the MTT colorimetric assay. The screening revealed that derivatives 16b and 17b exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against the gastric cancer cell line but was not active against a normal cell line, in contrast to doxorubicin, a standard chemotherapeutic drug in clinical use. Interestingly, no hemolytical activity was observed when the toxicity of 16b and 17b was tested against blood cells. The in silico and in vitro mechanistic evaluation indicated the potential of 16b as a lead for the development of novel anticancer agents against gastric cancer cells.
Background: Due to this increasing predicament of antibiotic confrontation, the lot of distinct antibiotics available is dwindling and there are only smatterings of new antibiotics in the drug development channel. Therefore, an intense necessitate for new antimicrobial drugs. In current study, we have synthesized the new derivatives with the help of molecular docking studies and investigated antimicrobial activities. Methods: By focusing the enzymes i.e. aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (AaRS) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, new amides of 2-(3-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-6-yl)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylic acid were synthesized and inhibition by docking study precedence to antimicrobial action. Studies were accomplished on a designed library of amide derivatives with the help of docking softwares i.e. AutoDock Vina 4.2 and Schrodingers maestro package against crystal structure of enzymes (PDB ID: 1wny.PDBQT and1jil.PDBQT). Based upon their dock score, superlative 23 focused amide ...
In this application, Dr Claudio Battilocchio of the Ley group, University of Cambridge, has used Vapourtecs 20 ml Rapid Mixing Reactors to perform an amide synthesis under biphasic flow reaction conditions.
The resins contain 5-10% non cleavable covalently attached ligands, 40 - 45% linker for peptide amide release at low concentrated TFA (5%) and 40 - 45% linker for peptide amide release with 95% TFA. The peptide, liberated by 5% TFA treatment must be seperated from the resin and deprotected with 95% TFA in a follow up step. This resin type is designed for screening of peptide amide libraries by sequential release. ...
The resins contain 5-10% non cleavable covalently attached ligands, 40 - 45% linker for peptide amide release at low concentrated TFA (5%) and 40 - 45% linker for peptide amide release with 95% TFA. The peptide, liberated by 5% TFA treatment must be seperated from the resin and deprotected with 95% TFA in a follow up step. This resin type is designed for screening of peptide amide libraries by sequential release. ...
INDOLE AMIDE DERIVATIVES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS FOR USE IN THE TREATMENT OF NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES - diagram, schematic, and image 86 ...
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Khoo LPY, Corbett AR.Successful resuscitation of an ASA 3 patient following ropivacaine-induced cardiac arrest. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 34: 804-807, No. 6, Dec 2006 - AustraliaGoogle Scholar ...
Amides are of fundamental interest in many fields of chemistry involving organic synthesis, chemical biology and biochemistry. Here, we report the first catalytic Buchwald-Hartwig coupling of both common esters and amides by highly selective C(acyl)-X (X = O, N) cleavage to rapidly access aryl amide function
The application of ropivacaine before HTV ventilation reduced Src-pTyr418/Src by 37% compared to HTV alone, however, this effect was not statistically significant (p = 0.678). Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2005, 49 (7): 913-918. 10.1111/j.1399-6576.2005.00774.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ScholarCostantini R, Affaitati G, Fabrizio A, Giamberardino MA: Controlling pain in the post-operative setting. For some experiments, cells were pretreated for 30minutes with the Src kinase inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(dimethylethyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine (PP2; 10μM) dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, Sigma-Aldrich) or with DMSO alone as the vehicle control (0.1%) Effect of ropivacaine on endotoxin-induced changes in expression/phosphorylation of Src, ICAM-1 and caveolin-1 in cultured human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs) Ropivacaine blocks LPS-induced Src activation and expression in HLMVECs To Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit ...
Hexanamide. Molecular model of the organic compound and amide hexanamide (C6.H13.N.O), also known as capronamide. This chemical reacts with azo and diazo compounds to generate toxic gases. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (grey), hydrogen (white), nitrogen (blue) and oxygen (red). Illustration. - Stock Image F016/9786
Provided are: a cyclic amide group-containing polymer having excellent hue, resistance to heat-induced yellowing, and moisture resistance; a cyclic amide acrylate suitable for use as a starting material for the polymer; and a method for producing same. The cyclic amide group-containing polymer is characterized by having a structural unit represented by general formula (1) below. In general formula (1) below, n represents an integer from 1-4, and R1 represents a hydrogen atom, a C1-30 organic group, a metal atom or an ammonium salt.
Beller and co-workers recently published a superb new method for reducing tertiary amides into amines. The reaction is tolerant of a wide range of functionalities including ester, thiomethyl, nitrile, secondary amide, and hydroxyl groups. This post is timely from my perspective because we just had a group meeting discussion about what is new and what is…
An amide bond is a peptide bond. It is formed when the amine group of one amino acid forms a bond with the carboxyl group of another amino acid, resulting in the loss of a single water molecule[1]. The peptide group (-CO-NH-) has partial double-bond characteristics due to the resonance of amides, where the nitrogen atom of the amide group is able to donate its lone pair of electrons to the carbon atom in the carboxyl group and push the electrons from the carbonyl C=O double bond towrds the oxygen atom, which forms an oxygen anion[2]. The resonance double bond increases the stability and decreases the rotation about the peptide bond[3]. ...
The structural study of simple amino amides derived from natural amino acids showed a unique conformational pattern for the aromatic residues, being clearly different from that for the aliphatic derivatives. The results from a detailed NMR analysis, supported by DFT calculations, indicate that the aromatic side chain tends to fold over the amino amide moiety, involving a stabilizing polar N-Hπ interaction. The implications of this folding in the establishing of non-covalent interactions is also discussed ...
Women with sonographic uterine artery flow abnormalities and either PE or IUGR (or both) were randomized to either ACET or non ACET control. Both groups were able to receive standard therapies (in-hospital monitoring, magnesium and anti-hypertensives as appropriate). The first five days of the therapeutic arm (ACET) consisted of a dose-finding trial, where epidural ropivacaine infusions (10ml/hr for 24 hours) of 0•04%, 0•06%, 0•08% and 0•1% and a saline placebo were each administered via tunneled epidural catheters in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over design over five consecutive days; all three women received all doses. Doppler measurement of flow in the uterine artery was performed at baseline and at the end of each dose period. The ideal dose for an individual was determined to be lowest dose of drug giving maximal effect without side effects; in the second stage of the study, this dose was administered until delivery with the addition of a second placebo day to during this ...
Synonyms for acetic amide in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for acetic amide. 1 synonym for acetamide: ethanamide. What are synonyms for acetic amide?
Here we report the use of a pillaring strategy for the design and synthesis of three novel amide-functionalized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), TMUs-22/-23/-24, isoreticular to the recently reported imine-functionalized TMU-6 and TMU-21 MOFs. An extensive study of their CO2 sorption properties and selectivity for CO2 over N2, from single gas sorption isotherms to breakthrough measurements, revealed that not only the incorporation of amide groups but also their accessibility is crucial to obtain enhanced CO2 sorption and CO2/N2 selectivity. Therefore, the MOF with more accessible amide groups (TMU-24) shows a CO2/N2 selectivity value of ca. 10 (as revealed by breakthrough experiments), which is ca. 500% and 700% of the selectivity values observed for the other amide-containing (TMU-22 and TMU-23) and imine-containing (TMU-6 and TMU-21) MOFs ...
The amides are a class of organic compounds which can be regarded as having been derived from either acids or amines. For example, the simple aliphati...
This is a prospective double-blinded and randomised study involving patients undergoing cardiac surgery with median sternotomy, the effects on postoperative analgesia of a 48-hr continuous infusion of ropivacaine 2 mg.mL-1, at the rate of 4 mL.hr-1 through two catheters inserted at the lateral edges of the sternum will be studied, versus a control group in which normal saline will be infused in the same conditions ...
3-(diethoxyphosphoryloxy)-1,2,3-benzotriazin-4(3H)-one: a coupling reagent for mediating amide bond formation with little or no racemization; structure in first source
Learn about Naropin (Ropivacaine Hcl) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
XBridge BEH Amide columns retain extremely polar compounds, including carbohydrates and sugars. XBridge Amide columns offer you a chemically stable, trifunctionally bonded amide phase that is stable from pH 2 to 11 to enable the separation of polar analytes spanning a wide range of polarity, structural moiety and pKa.
XBridge BEH Amide columns retain extremely polar compounds, including carbohydrates and sugars. XBridge Amide columns offer you a chemically stable, trifunctionally bonded amide phase that is stable from pH 2-11 to enable the separation of polar analytes spanning a wide range of polarity, structural moiety and pKa.
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We described the synthesis of carboxamide derivatives designed as novel simplified imatinib analogues and their antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory ..
Thirteen amide-substituted phenyl arsenoxides (-RCONH2, -RSO2NH2) were, per unit arsenic, only 4.5 to 13.5 per cent as toxic as the parent phenyl arsenoxide. Since the treponemicidal activity in vitro was not reduced to the same degree, the ratio of treponemicidal activity: toxicity was 1.9 to 6.1 times more favorable than that of phenyl arsenoxide. The favorable effect of amide groups was confirmed for ten of these compounds by assays of toxicity and therapeutic activity in syphilitic rabbits.. When one or both of the amide hydrogens were substituted (e.g., -SO2N(CH3), -CONH-pyridine), the effect of the entire group shifted toward that of the terminal substituent. In most cases, substitution in the amide therefore caused an increased toxicity, and impaired the favorable effect of the amide group as such. Only in the case of the compounds with terminal hydroxyl acetamido or nitrile groups was the favorable effect of the amide altogether preserved, perhaps because these groups in themselves ...
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 107346-32-7(4-AMINO-8-BROMO-N-PROPYL-DAZINE-3-AMIDE),please inquire us for 107346-32-7(4-AMINO-8-BROMO-N-PROPYL-DAZINE-3-AMIDE).
The recent study, Sodium Amide market forecasts the business performance of the Sodium Amide market for the forecast period, 2019 to 2026. The study considers the estimated period as the base… Read more » ...
69278-64-4 - Amides, castor-oil, N-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl) - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
[117 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Polyether Block Amide (PEBA) Market by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2021 report by Global Info Research. ...
2017-2022 Sodium Amide Report on Global and United States Market, Status and Forecast, by Players, Types and Applications - Radiant Insights
N,N-Diethylhexadecan-1-amide/ACM57303216 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
MolCore offers CAS No.128340-47-6, Lys-Ala-Arg-Val-Nle-p-nitro-Phe-Glu-Ala-Nle amide for your research needs.Find product specific information including MFCD00133510,128340-47-6 MSDS,Price,Custom Synthesis.
Cas Index,Name Index,APIs,Pharmaceutical intermediates,Fine chemicals,Browse by Compound Class,Browse by Functional Group,27652-89-7,,Capot Chimique
Cas Index,Name Index,APIs,Pharmaceutical intermediates,Fine chemicals,Browse by Compound Class,Browse by Functional Group,27652-89-7,,Capot Chimique
Sanomenen canviant la terminaci -oic de l cid per amida, si s n la funci principal. Si el seu carboni no es pot incloure dins la cadena principal, es canvia carbox lic per carboxamida i ja inclou el carboni. Si el nitrogen t substituents, sanomenen amb N com a localitzador, igual que a les amines. Exemples ...
between the charge distribution of the amide bond and the fluoroalkene moiety, as well as their dipole moments. Therefore, a… Expand ...
Z-AKR-AMC | Z-Ala-Lys-Arg-AMC 877-03 5 mg | 215.00 EURBenzyloxycarbonyl-L-alanyl-L-lysyl-L-arginine-4-methyl-coumaryl-7-amide (M.W.
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all([ afterallSerifR (), afterallSerifM (), proximaNovaR (), proximaNovaS (), proximaNovaRegularI (), ]) Rock bottom closing
Լեպտինը մասնակցում է օրգանիզմի էներգիական փոխանակության և մարմնի զանգվածի կարգավորմանը, հիմնական ֆունկցիան՝ ախորժակի ընկճումն է։ Այդ պատճառով շատ հաճախ անվանում են նաև հագեցման հորմոն։ Այն ազդում է ենթատեսաթմբի վրա և արգելակում քաղցի զգացում առաջ բերող Y-նեյրոպեպտիդի, անանդամիդի (ներսածին կաննաբինոիդային համակարգ) արտադրությունը, ինչպես նաև խթանում է քաղցը ճնշող α-մելանոխթանիչ հորմոնի արտադրությունը։ Ի տարբերություն խոլեցիստոկինի, լեպտինն առավել երկար ժամանակով է ճնշում քաղցի զգացողությունը։ Լեպտինի բնածին անբավարարությունը մարմնի խիստ ...
노래 가사 사이트 입니다. この世に限りはあるの코노요니카기리와 아루노이 세상에 끝이 있을까?もしも果てが見えたなら모시모하테가 미에타나라만약 끝이 보였다면どうやって笑うか楽しもうか도-얏떼 와라우까 타노시모우까어떻게 웃으며 즐겨볼까もうやりつくしたね모우 야리쯔쿠시타네.
सीमांत जिला फिरोजपुर के अन्तर्गत भारत-पाक सीमा पर बसे गांव जोधे के किसान रछपाल काफी उत्साहित हैं। उनकी रिहायश के बाहर गांव के कई लोग जमा हैं व रछपाल उनके आदर सत्कार में अपने बेटों को बार-बार आवाज देकर समझा रहे हैं कि केले व सेब सबको खिलाएं, जबकि वहां मौजूद लोगों में जिस विषय पर चर्चा हो रही है भारत-पाक की संभावित जंग का सीमांत ग्रामीणों पर क्या असर हो सकता है। उनकी पच्चीस एकड़ जमीन ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of the oral direct renin inhibitor aliskiren in patients with symptomatic heart failure.. AU - McMurray, John J V. AU - Pitt, Bertram. AU - Latini, Roberto. AU - Maggioni, Aldo P.. AU - Solomon, Scott D.. AU - Keefe, Deborah L.. AU - Ford, Jessica. AU - Verma, Anil. AU - Lewsey, Jim. AU - Aliskiren Observation of Heart Failure Treatment (ALOFT) Investigators, Observation of Heart Failure Treatment (ALOFT) Investigators. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - Loss of negative feedback inhibition of renin release during chronic treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor leads to a compensatory rise in renin secretion and downstream components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) cascade. This may overcome ACE inhibition but should be blocked by a direct renin inhibitor. We studied the effects of adding the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren to an ACE inhibitor in patients with heart failure. Patients with New York Heart Association class II to IV heart ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electromechanical effects of the direct renin inhibitor (aliskiren) on the pulmonary vein and atrium. AU - Tsai, Chin Feng. AU - Chen, Yao Chang. AU - Lin, Yung Kuo. AU - Chen, Shih Ann. AU - Chen, Yi Jen. PY - 2011/11. Y1 - 2011/11. N2 - Activation of the atrial renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). The pulmonary vein (PV) and left atrium (LA) are important trigger and substrate for the genesis of AF. We investigate the effects of a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, on the PV and LA arrhythmogenic activity and the underlying electromechanical mechanisms. Conventional microelectrodes were used to record action potentials and contractility in isolated rabbit PVs and LA tissues before and after the administration of aliskiren (0.1, 1, 3 and 10 μM). By the whole-cell patch clamp and indo-1 fluorimetric ratio techniques, ionic currents and intracellular calcium transient were studied in isolated single PV and LA ...
Sca-1 and VEGFR-2 positive pro-angiogenic cells (PAC) predict outcome of patients with vascular disease. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system impairs PAC function. The effects of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren on PAC numbers a
Lysergic acid amides[edit]. Main article: Lysergamides. *Ergine (LSA, D-lysergic acid amide, LAA, LA-111) *IUPAC name: 9,10- ... There are 3 main classes of ergoline derivatives, the water-soluble amides of lysergic acid, the water-insoluble ergopeptines ( ... ergoline derivatives that contain a tripeptide structure attached to the basic ergoline ring in the same location as the amide ...
... and does not result in cross-allergy to amides.[13][14] Therefore, amides can be used as alternatives in those patients. ... Esters are prone to producing allergic reactions, which may necessitate the use of an amide. The names of each locally clinical ... Many local anesthetics fall into two general chemical classes, amino esters (top) and amino amides (bottom) ... the half-life of amide local anaesthetic agents may be drastically increased thus increasing the risk of overdose. ...
P. Linda; A. Stener; A. Cipiciani; G. Savelli (January-February 1983). "Hydrolysis of amides. Kinetics and mechanism of the ...
Thioamides are analogous to amides. Sulfonic, sulfinic and sulfenic acids, esters, amides, and related compounds[edit]. ... They are typically prepared by the reaction of amides with Lawesson's reagent. Isothiocyanates, with formula R−N=C=S, are found ... 1.10 Sulfonic, sulfinic and sulfenic acids, esters, amides, and related compounds. *1.11 Sulfonium, oxosulfonium and related ...
It is an amide of nicotinic acid. Foods that contain nicotinamide include yeast, meat, milk, and green vegetables. Nicotinamide ... The structure of nicotinamide consists of a pyridine ring to which a primary amide group is attached in the meta position. It ... The enzyme allows for a more selective synthesis as further hydrolysis of the amide to nicotinic acid is avoided. Nicotinamide ... Schmidberger, J. W.; Hepworth, L. J.; Green, A. P.; Flitsch, S. L. (2015). "Enzymatic Synthesis of Amides". In Faber, Kurt; ...
The protein ligands to the iron are the sidechains of the three cysteine (Cys) residues and two mainchain amide nitrogens. The ... Asano, Y. (2015). "Hydrolysis of Nitriles to Amides". In Faber, Kurt; Fessner, Wolf-Dieter; Turner, Nicholas J. Biocatalysis in ... "Enzymatic Synthesis of Amides". In Faber, Kurt; Fessner, Wolf-Dieter; Turner, Nicholas J. Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis 1. ... which performs nitrile hydrolysis without formation of an intermediate primary amide. A sequence in genome of the ...
Schmidberger, J. W.; Hepworth, L. J.; Green, A. P.; Flitsch, S. L. (2015). "Enzymatic Synthesis of Amides". In Faber, Kurt; ...
The resulting ester amides are readily biodegradable and good solvents for a variety of different plant protection agents (such ... It is the starting compound for the vitamin nicotinamide and for the diester dimethyl-2-methylglutarate and the ester amide ... Schmidberger, J. W.; Hepworth, L. J.; Green, A. P.; Flitsch, S. L. (2015). "Enzymatic Synthesis of Amides". In Faber, Kurt; ... The diester can be selectively converted into a mixture of 1- or 5-substituted methyl ester amides with dimethylamine in ...
If the bond rotates slowly enough compared to the NMR time scale (e.g., amide bond), two different species can be detected by ... Hindered Internal Rotation of Amides". The Journal of Chemical Physics. 25 (6): 1228-1234. doi:10.1063/1.1743184. ISSN 0021- ...
"Amides and Related Functional Groups". Principles of Drug Action. 1 US Food and Drug Administration. "Drugs at FDA: FDA ... These are aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives consisting of an amide with a benzamide moiety and a triethylamine attached to ... procainamide contains an amide group. This substitution is the reason why procainamide exhibits a longer half-life time than ... the amide nitrogen. Procainamide was approved by the US FDA on June 2, 1950, under the brand name "Pronestyl". It was launched ...
They are typically prepared by the reaction of amides with Lawesson's reagent. Isothiocyanates, with formula R−N=C=S, are found ... Thioamides are analogous to amides. Sulfonic acids have functionality R−S(=O)2−OH. They are strong acids that are typically ...
Hindered Internal Rotation of Amides". J. Chem. Phys. 25 (6): 1228-1234. Bibcode:1956JChPh..25.1228G. doi:10.1063/1.1743184. ...
The formation of amide is promoted by CDI. Although the reactivity of CDI is less than acid chlorides, it is more easily ... CDI is mainly employed to convert amines into amides, carbamates, ureas. It can also be used to convert alcohols into esters. ... "Syntheses Using Heterocyclic Amides (Azolides)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English. 1 (7): 351-367. doi: ...
Esters and amidesEdit. Acid-base-catalysed hydrolyses are very common; one example is the hydrolysis of amides or esters. Their ... Upon hydrolysis, an amide converts into a carboxylic acid and an amine or ammonia (which in the presence of acid are ... attacks the carbon of the carbonyl group of the ester or amide. In an aqueous base, hydroxyl ions are better nucleophiles than ... Only proteins with a certain tertiary structure are targeted as some kind of orienting force is needed to place the amide group ...
This reaction is observed for three unsaturated functional groups, namely thioesters, esters and amides.[15] ... This reaction is observed for three unsaturated functional groups, namely thioesters, esters and amides.[11] ...
i. Meyers, A.; Ann Hanagan, M.; l. Mazzu, A. (1981). "2-Oxazolines from Amides via Imidates". Heterocycles. 15: 361. doi: ...
The resulting nitrilium ion 3 is hydrolyzed by water to the desired amide 5. Play media The Ritter reaction is most useful in ... I. Amides from Alkenes and Mononitriles". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 70 (12): 4045-8. doi:10.1021/ja01192a022. ... I. Amides from Alkenes and Mononitriles". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 70 (12): 4045-8. doi:10.1021/ja01192a022. ... The Ritter reaction is a chemical reaction that transforms a nitrile into an N-alkyl amide using various electrophilic ...
Compounds with a nitrogen atom attached to a carbonyl group, thus having the structure R-CO-NR′R″, are called amides and have ... Similarly, LiAlH4 reduces amides to amines. Many amines are produced from aldehydes and ketones via reductive amination, which ... Acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides react with primary and secondary amines to form amides (the "Schotten-Baumann reaction"). ... these salts thermally dehydrate to form the corresponding amides. H − N , R 2 R 1 , : ⏟ a m i n e + R 3 − C O ‖ − OH ⏟ ...
Cyclobutene, C 4H 6 Deltic acid, C 3H 2O 3 Croconic acid, C 5H 2O 5 Rhodizonic acid, C 6H 2O 6 Squaramides, the amides of ... Squaramides are amides of squaric acids. They are four membered vinylogously conjugated diamides. Hydrogen bonding occurs at ...
Gutowsky and Charles H. Holm studied intramolecular rotational rates of amides, establishing that energy barriers existed ... Hindered Internal Rotation of Amides" (PDF). The Journal of Chemical Physics. 25 (6): 1228-1234. doi:10.1063/1.1743184. ...
1993) and hydroxycinnamic acid amides (Sattar et al. 1990) have been isolated from Iochroma species. The family Solanaceae is ... Hydroxycinnamic acid amides from Iochroma cyaneum. Phytochemistry 29 (12) : 3931 - 3933. Alfonso, D., Bernardinelli, G. and ...
"The histamine amides of Acacia longifolia." Lloydia 38(2):101-105. Internal Sydney University Bulletin 1993 Fitzgerald, J.S. & ...
Amides exhibit two main resonance forms. Both are major contributors to the overall structure, so much so that the amide bond ... Amides can, however, be hydrolyzed to carboxylic acids in the presence of acid or base. The stability of amide bonds has ... Tertiary amides do not experience this problem, and react with carbon nucleophiles to give ketones; the amide anion (NR2−) is a ... which collapses to eliminate a carboxylate ion to give amide 3. This intermediate amide is more activated towards nucleophilic ...
Xue, J; Xu, L; Jiang, ZH; Wei, X (February 2013). "Two new amides from Streptomyces michiganensis". Natural product ...
"The histamine amides of Acacia longifolia". Lloydia. 38 (2): 101-5. PMID 1134208. Hegnauer, Robert (1994). Chemotaxonomie der ...
... are nitrogen-containing organic compounds with the general formula. Amides are formed when carboxylic acids ... The amide linkage is found in many useful synthetic polymers such as nylon. Amides are formed when amino acids react to form ...
Metal amides are a class of coordination compounds composed of a metal center with amide ligands of the form NR2. Amide ligands ... Lithium amides are the most important amides, as they are readily prepared from n-butyllithium and the appropriate amine, and ... The alkali metal amides, MNH2 (M = Li, Na, K) are commercially available. Sodium amide (also known as sodamide) is synthesized ... Potassium amides are prepared by transmetallation of lithium amides with potassium t-butoxide (see also Schlosser base) or by ...
English version of Chinese product page To read more in English about Huntsmans product range please return to the home page, select language "English" then navigate to "Products" in the header menu.. ...
... amide ligands and are part of a broader category of metal amides. Due to the bulky hydrocarbon backbone metal bis( ... Cage Complexes of N-Heterocyclic Amide and Bis(trimethylsilyl)amide Ligands: Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetic Properties". ... Metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides are strong bases. They are corrosive, and are incompatible with many chlorinated solvents. ... Bunge, Scott D.; Just, Oliver; Rees, William S. Jr (2000). "[{Au[μ-N(SiMe3)2]}4]: The First Base-Free Gold Amide". Angewandte ...
... glycolic amides having a strong herbicidal action, herbicides containing these active ingredients, a process for controlling ... The new O-(aminosulfonyl)-glycolic amides may be prepared from a glycolic amide and an aminosulfonyl halide in accordance with ... substituted alkylsulfonylglycolic amides and imides substituted alkylaminosulfonylglycolic amides and imides substituted ... The glycolic amides used as starting materials may be prepared analogously to the process described in J. Chem. Soc., 1357, ...
... is a lipid (CHEBI:18059) fatty amide (CHEBI:29348) is a monocarboxylic acid amide (CHEBI:29347) ... N-oleoyldopamine (CHEBI:31883) is a fatty amide (CHEBI:29348). N-oleoylglycine (CHEBI:73723) is a fatty amide (CHEBI:29348). N- ... fatty amide (CHEBI:29348) has functional parent fatty acid (CHEBI:35366) fatty amide (CHEBI:29348) is a fatty acid derivative ( ... Myxalamid D (CHEBI:31875) is a fatty amide (CHEBI:29348). Myxalamid S (CHEBI:31876) is a fatty amide (CHEBI:29348). N,N-bis(3- ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
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Package amide. *jessie (oldoldstable) (graphics): software for Medical Imaging 1.0.5-2+b2: amd64 armel armhf i386 ... You have searched for packages that names contain amide in all suites, all sections, and all architectures. Found 4 matching ...
... pyridine-4-carboxamide Pyridine-4-carboxylic acid amide pyridine-4-carboxylic acid amide 4- ... isonicotinic acid amide
Local Anesthetics, Amides. Class Summary. Local anesthetics block the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses. Anesthetics ...
Local Anesthetics, Amides. Class Summary. Local anesthetics block the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses.Anesthetics ... Lidocaine is an amide local anesthetic used in 1-2% concentration. The 1% preparation contains 10 mg of lidocaine for each 1 mL ...
Angiotensin amide definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ...
An amide (/ˈæmaɪd/ or /ˈæmɪd/ or /ˈeɪmaɪd/),[1][2][3] also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE( ... Amide synthesisEdit. Many methods exist in amide synthesis.[9] On paper, the simplest method for making amides is by coupling a ... In primary and secondary amides, the presence of N-H dipoles allows amides to function as H-bond donors as well. Thus amides ... "amide - Definition of amide in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries - English. Retrieved 15 April 2018.. ...
Acylaminosalicylic acid amides and their uses as pesticides. DE2210861A1. Mar 7, 1972. Sep 13, 1973. Hans Wirth Automaten. ... Substituted aminosalicylic acid amides with fungicidal effect and intermediate products for production thereof. US 6380386 B2 ... Halobenzyl substituted phenylaceto esters and amides and use thereof for prevention of harmful organisms. ... benz-amide, are already known (compare, for example, Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1993), 1142(3), 262-8, J. Med. Chem. (1990), 33(1 ...
Fluorinated cyclic amides as dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors. ... Fluorinated cyclic amides as dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors ...
Fatty-acid amide hydrolase 1 (IPR030560). Short name: FAAH Family relationships *Amidase (IPR000120) *Fatty-acid amide ... Fatty-acid amide hydrolase 1 (FAAH) is a mammalian integral membrane enzyme that degrades the fatty acid amide family of ... Structure and function of fatty acid amide hydrolase.. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 74 411-32 2005 ...
Thioctic acid amide , C8H15NOS2 , CID 863 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Synthetic Anthranilic Acid Amides. Results of tests on selected, highly pure anthranilic acid amides with cinnamic acid partial ... 2. Extraction of Anthranilic Acid Amide Fractions from Plants. EXAMPLE 3. Extraction of an anthranilic acid amide-containing ... GS101100-A: Anthranilic acid amide fraction from cultivated oats extract. Anthranilic acid amide content (sum of ... this publication does not report which anthranilic acid amide or which anthranilic acid amides from the group of the so-called ...
angiotensin amide synonyms, angiotensin amide pronunciation, angiotensin amide translation, English dictionary definition of ... angiotensin amide. n. Any of several polypeptide hormones, designated by Roman numerals, that are involved in the regulation of ... Angiotensin amide - definition of angiotensin amide by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/angiotensin+amide ... redirected from angiotensin amide). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. an·gi·o·ten·sin. (ăn′jē-ō-tĕn′sĭn). n.. ...
Derivatives: Sodium Tallowate, Tallow Acid, Tallow Amide, Tallow Amine, Talloweth-6, Tallow Glycerides, Tallow Imidazoline. ...
Identification of amide bioisosteres of triazole oxytocin antagonists.. Brown A1, Ellis D, Wallace O, Ralph M. ... A series of amides were investigated as potential bioisosteres of previously reported triazole oxytocin antagonists. A range of ... The high synthetic accessibility of this new amide series also facilitated the identification of a range of alternative left ...
polymeric amide synonyms, polymeric amide pronunciation, polymeric amide translation, English dictionary definition of ... Noun 1. polymeric amide - a polymer containing repeated amide groups polyamide nylon - a thermoplastic polyamide; a family of ... polymeric amide - a polymer containing repeated amide groups. polyamide. nylon - a thermoplastic polyamide; a family of strong ... polymeric amide. Also found in: Thesaurus.. Related to polymeric amide: polyimide, Polymide ...
  • A monocarboxylic acid amide derived from a fatty acid. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • For instance, the amide derived from acetic acid is named acetamide (CH 3 CONH 2 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the amide formed from dimethylamine and acetic acid is N , N -dimethylacetamide (CH 3 CONMe 2 , where Me = CH 3 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • While the conjugate acid of an amine has a p K a of about 9.5, the conjugate acid of an amide has a p K a around −0.5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, amides don't have as clearly noticeable acid-base properties in water . (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure and function of fatty acid amide hydrolase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The particular class of poly(ester-amides) are those which include a polymeric fat acid, and more specifically a dimeric fat acid component, in which the ester segments will contribute from about 20, preferably 35 to about 60 weight percent of the poly(ester-amide) and the amide segment contributing the remainder. (google.com.au)
  • The palmitoylethanolamide and oleamide enigmas : are these two fatty acid amides cannabimimetic? (nih.gov)
  • Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleamide are two fatty acid amides which 1) share some cannabimimetic actions with delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and 2) may interact with proteins involved in the biosynthesis, action and inactivation of endocannabinoids. (nih.gov)
  • Specifically, an amide results from an acid , in which a carbon atom is double bonded to oxygen and also to an hydroxyl group, when the hydroxyl group is replaced by an amine . (wikidoc.org)
  • In this context, the aim of the current study is the evaluation of -glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamic and hydroxycinnamic acid amides with amino acid. (hindawi.com)
  • The acid 17 can then be subjected to standard amide-bond forming techniques. (github.com)
  • Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase: A Potential Target for Next Generatio. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The present study demonstrates the antiproliferative effect of retinoic acid amide in vitro and in vivo against human lung cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Retinoic acid amide also leads to G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of lung cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Retinoic acid amide exhibited a synergistic effect on antiproliferative effects of methotrexate in lung cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • The retinoic acid amide-treated tumors showed inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 activation and Bcl-XL expression. (springer.com)
  • There was also increase in expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in tumors on treatment with retinoic acid amide. (springer.com)
  • Thus, retinoic acid amide exhibits promising antiproliferative effects against human lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and enhances the antiproliferative effect of methotrexate. (springer.com)
  • Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides like oleamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide and myristic amide to their corresponding acids, thereby serving to terminate the signaling functions of these molecules. (uniprot.org)
  • Amides are prepared by adding N , N ′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and an amine (ammonia derivative in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl units) to a carboxylic acid. (coursehero.com)
  • An amide , an aa kent as an acid amide , is a compoond wi the functional group R n E(O) x NR' 2 (R and R' refer tae H or organic groups). (wikipedia.org)
  • The structurally even simpler amino acid amide is also evaluated as a ligand, and selectivities up to 90% ee are obtained in the reduction of a number of aryl alkyl ketones. (diva-portal.org)
  • The Hull site is one of three fatty acid amide manufacturing plants in the Croda group with the others located in Gouda, Netherlands and Mianyang, China. (croda.com)
  • Acetic Acid Amide, 42 Products Found. (made-in-china.com)
  • How do you find Acetic Acid Amide factory in china that can manufacture items? (made-in-china.com)
  • Type the keywords you're interested in such as Acetic Acid Amide and make direct contact with any desirable suppliers / manufacturers / wholesalers for more important details or find similar choices that are lidocaine, cheap oxalic acid, discount stearic acid. (made-in-china.com)
  • The synthetic amides of L-glutamic acid also exhibited activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma [ 6 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • PTC-amino acid amides were identified and quantitated by comparing their elution positions and peak areas, respectively, with those of standards. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Note: As the nomenclature of amides of sulfur acids is described (though less extensively) in Rule C-641.8 , the present Subsection is illustrated mostly for carbon acids. (acdlabs.com)
  • Sterically hindered substrates can be converted with s -BuLi/TMEDA at -90 C. The amides can be efficiently reduced with lithium aluminum hydride to the corresponding Mannich bases. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • The proposed methodology readily affords the production of pure lithium amide nanoparticles at both bench-top and commercial scale. (wiley.com)
  • Miyaoka H, Wang Y, Hino S, Isobe S, Tokoyoda K, Ichikawa T, Kojima Y. Kinetic Modification on Hydrogen Desorption of Lithium Hydride and Magnesium Amide System. (mdpi.com)
  • This report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Lithium Amide industry. (prsync.com)
  • The Lithium Amide market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. (prsync.com)
  • Lithium Amide industry import/export consumption, supply and demand figures and cost price and production value gross margins are also provided. (prsync.com)
  • The Lithium Amide industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. (prsync.com)
  • in 2002 found that lithium-nitride reversibly absorbs a large amount of hydrogen and form a mixture of lithium-hydride and lithium-amide. (uio.no)
  • This thesis presents density functional theory calculations performed on Mg(NH2)2 (magnesium-amide). (uio.no)
  • Provided herein is a copolymer that includes a soft block (A) that contains poly(ester amide) (PEA) and a hard block (B). The copolymer can be any of AB, ABA or BAB type block copolymers. (google.com.au)
  • This invention generally relates to poly(ester amide) block copolymers useful for forming a bioabsorbable device such as a stent or for coating an implantable device such as a drug-delivery stent. (google.com.au)
  • Most common are carboxamides (organic amides) ( n = 1, E = C, x = 1), but many other important types of amides are known, including phosphoramides ( n = 2, E = P, x = 1 and many related formulas) and sulfonamides (E = S, x = 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The angle between the two Gly 79 amide-I transition dipoles, estimated at 103° from linear IR spectroscopy and 110° from 2D IR spectroscopy, combined with the coupling led to a structural picture of the hydrophobic interface that is remarkably consistent with results from NMR on helix dimers. (pnas.org)
  • The amide linkage is found in many useful synthetic polymers such as nylon. (gsu.edu)
  • The high synthetic accessibility of this new amide series also facilitated the identification of a range of alternative left hand side (biaryl replacement) substituents which gave good levels of oxytocin antagonism. (nih.gov)
  • I've come up with a synthetic route to amide-substituted triazolopyrazines - what do you think? (github.com)
  • The study revealed that the itaconyl m-phenylene amide polymer was a weak antioxidant, while itaconyl bisaniline- and itaconyl-o-tolidine amide polymers showed good anti-oxidation property. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Croda Polymer Additives has announced plans to invest in the expansion of its amide capacity at their manufacturing site in Hull, United Kingdom. (croda.com)
  • 3. A process for forming a coating composition comprising hydroxy amide acetals of claim 1, said process comprising reacting a hydroxy amide acetal with a crosslinking moiety. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Co-owned and co-pending U.S. Patent Application 60/615,360 describes the sythesis of these hydroxy-functionalized amide acetals, and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Hydroxy-functionalized amide acetals find use in cross-linkable coatings. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These peptides increase tension of the pedal retractor muscle and, in conjunction with FMRF-amide, increase peak tension of the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM). (uniprot.org)
  • It has also put in front of the spotlights RF-amide peptides and has invigorated research on this superfamily of regulatory neuropeptides. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present Research Topic aims at illustrating major advances achieved, through comparative studies in (mammalian and non-mammalian) vertebrates and invertebrates, in the knowledge of RF-amide peptides in terms of evolutionary history and physiological significance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Use of Pico-Tag methodology in the chemical analysis of peptides with carboxyl-terminal amides. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These involved the use of an amide conjugate bonded through the carboxy group of 4-nitrophenyl 4′-carboxymethylphenyl phosphate and an amino group of keyhole-limpet haemocyanin as the immunogen. (biochemj.org)
  • SABRE is used to hyperpolarize the transfer agent NH 2 R, where R is H or CH 2 Ph or CH 2 CH 2 Ph (etc.), which relays polarization to the analyte (HR″, route A), and R″ is amide, carboxyl, phosphate, or alkoxide (etc. (sciencemag.org)
  • Amides possess a conjugated system spread over the O, C and N atoms, consisting of molecular orbitals occupied by delocalized electrons . (wikipedia.org)