Americium: Americium. A completely man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Am, atomic number 95, and atomic weight 243. Its valence can range from +3 to +6. Because of its nonmagnetic ground state, it is an excellent superconductor. It is also used in bone mineral analysis and as a radiation source for radiotherapy.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Lawrencium: Lawrencium. A radioactive actinide discovered in 1961. It has the atomic symbol Lr, atomic number 103, and atomic weight of 257. There are two isotopes with mass number 257 or 258, and mass number 256.Actinium: Actinium. A trivalent radioactive element and the prototypical member of the actinide family. It has the atomic symbol Ac, atomic number 89, and atomic weight 227.0278. Its principal isotope is 227 and decays primarily by beta-emission.Actinoid Series Elements: A series of radioactive elements from ACTINIUM, atomic number 89, to and including LAWRENCIUM, atomic number 103.Toxicogenetics: The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.ArchivesText Messaging: Communication between CELL PHONE users via the Short Message Service protocol which allows the interchange of short written messages.Osteogenesis, Distraction: Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.HandwritingInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.PaperFrostbite: Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.Nuclear Reactors: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radioactive Pollutants: Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.WashingtonNuclear Energy: Energy released by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.Uranium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain uranium as an integral part of the molecule.Curium: A radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Cm, atomic number 96, and atomic weight 247. Thirteen curium isotopes have been produced with mass numbers ranging from 238-250. Its valence can be +3 or +4. It is intensely radioactive and decays by alpha-emission.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Lanthanoid Series Elements: Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Forensic Genetics: The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.Metals, Rare Earth: A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Waste Disposal Facilities: Sites that receive and store WASTE PRODUCTS. Some facilities also sort, process, and recycle specific waste products.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Libraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)Library Automation: The use of automatic machines or processing devices in libraries. The automation may be applied to library administrative activities, office procedures, and delivery of library services to users.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.

Effect of I,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in renal osteodystrophy. (1/22)

A 23-year-old man with medullary cystic disease had been undergoing hemodialysis for 5 years and had become confined to a wheelchair because of renal osteodystrophy. He was treated with 125-dihydroxycholecalciferol, 2.0 mug (later 1.0 mug) three times a week, administered by way of the venous end of the dialysis machine. Within 1 month bone pain lessened and his ability to stand and walk improved. By 3 months he was walking short distances and by 5 months, long distances. Calcium balance was near zero before treatment and was strongly positive during treatment. Bone mineral content in the lower femur, measured by photon absorptiometry, increased at a rate of 32.2% per year. In contrast, 26 other patients on long-term hemodialysis had a mean loss of bone mineral content of 14.0% per year. Radiographs taken during treatment showed a decrease in subperiosteal bone resorption and healing of a pseudofracture. A significant decrease in the mean serum alkaline phosphatase value was noted during treatment, but no significant changes in mean serum calcium or phosphorus values were seen.  (+info)

Thenar muscle blood flow and bone mineral in the forearms of lumberjacks. (2/22)

Forty lumberjacks who had used a chain saw for 0-20 years and who had no general disease affecting the bones were studied by measuring the thenar muscle blood flow of both hands by the 133-Xe local clearance method. Bone mineral in the left forearm in the region of cancellous and cortical bone was assessed by the 241-Am gamma ray attenuation method. Virbration was found to decrease the blood flow in the saw-bearing left hand compared with the right hand of the lumberjacks. The bone mineral density (g/vm-3) was lower in the forearm bones of the lumberjacks than in controls of the same age with healthy bones. Moreover the poorer the thenar muscle blood flow, the greater was the decrease in the mineral density of the distal radius. Measurement of the mineral density of the forearm bones by the gramma ray attenuation method can be used for early detection of bone lesions in traumatic vasospastic disease.  (+info)

Bone mineral content determined by functional imaging. (3/22)

Quantitation of bone mineral by photon absorptiometry is a simple and accurate method for determining changes in bone volume and mineral content in serial studies. An extension of the scintillation camera method for studying such changes in the calcaneous is described. This technique is applicable to large areas of bone, thereby minimizing the effect of repositioning errors. Using a 40-mCi 241Am sheet source, a 2.1% reproducibility in bone phantoms and a 2.4% reproducibility in normal patients was achieved. Several case studies are presented to illustrate sensitivity and clinical application of the method. Although bone mineral determinations are now performed in a limited number of health care facilities, the scintillation camera method described in this report could increase the availability of these determinations significantly.  (+info)

Radiation hazards from 241Am sources used in thyroid studies. (4/22)

The neutron and gamma photon doses corresponding to the neck and eye level from an 241AmO2 source used in thyroid studies have been theoretically estimated. The radiation hazard to the patient is found to be not significant.  (+info)

Worldwide bioassay data resources for plutonium/americium internal dosimetry studies. (5/22)

Biokinetic models are the scientific underpinning of internal dosimetry and depend, ultimately, for their scientific validation on comparisons with human bioassay data. Three significant plutonium/americium bioassay databases, known to the authors, are described: (1) Sellafield, (2) Los Alamos and (3) the United States Transuranium Registry. A case is made for a uniform standard for database format, and the XML standard is discussed.  (+info)

A device for in vitro irradiation with alpha-particles using an alpha-emitting radioactive source. (6/22)

A device to irradiate a monolayer of cultured cells with alpha-particles using an Am-241 alpha-source (33.4 MBq) was designed to investigate RBEs of alpha-particles in cell killing, induction of chromosome aberration, mutagenic changes and transformation. This device can be used conveniently in a common laboratory by a small number of researchers without any limitation of machine time. The device performs as follows: (1) The energy of alpha-particles at the entrance of the cell layer is 3.20 MeV with a standard deviation of 0.25 MeV, (2) the incident angle to the cell layer is 82.8 degrees with a standard deviation of 3.2 degrees, (3) the fluence rate is 4.7 x 10(5) cm-2.min-1, (4) the average LET infinity for a cell layer 5 microns thick is 138 keV/micron, (5) the average dose rate for a cell layer 5 microns thick is 0.10 Gy/min., (6) a temperature and CO2 concentration conducive to cell cultivation are maintained during irradiation.  (+info)

Separation techniques for quantification of radionuclides in environmental samples. (7/22)

 (+info)

Investigation of activation rate uniformity in a prompt-gamma rays IVNAA facility. (8/22)

The preliminary design studies for developing a prompt-gamma rays in vivo neutron activation analysis facility are in construction at Neutron Activation Research Centre of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this work, activation rate distribution is studied in different bilateral configurations in order to reduce the CV of activation rate distribution throughout the body to less than 10%. It means that the maximum RMS deviation from the mean value of distribution must be smaller than 0.5%. The best case includes two pairs of (241)Am-Be neutron sources. Each pair (with 70 cm distance between two sources) is positioned within up and down 40 x 110 cm(2) area graphite collimators. Also, four moderator/reflector objects are added to transversal body surfaces with 5 cm thick water and 3 cm thick graphite. The proper thickness of polyethylene pre-moderators is chosen 8 mm. The RMS deviation of distribution is 0.3% with the mean activation rate of 1.85 x 10(-6) cm(-3).  (+info)

*Americium

... such as americium dioxide (AmO2) and americium(IV) fluoride (AmF4). All pentavalent and hexavalent americium compounds are ... Americium(III) oxide is a red-brown solid with a melting point of 2205 °C. Americium(IV) oxide is the main form of solid ... Borides of americium include AmB4 and AmB6. The tetraboride can be obtained by heating an oxide or halide of americium with ... Metallic americium is obtained by reduction from its compounds. Americium(III) fluoride was first used for this purpose. The ...

*Americium-241

... (241Am) is an isotope of americium. Like all isotopes of americium, it is radioactive. 241Am is the most common ... Americium-241 is a form of americium therefore having the same general hazards. Americium and its isotopes are both extremely ... Americium-241 is an α-emitter with a weak γ-ray byproduct. Safely handling americium-241 requires knowing and following proper ... It is the most prevalent isotope of americium in nuclear waste. Americium-241 has a half-life of 432.2 years. It is commonly ...

*Americium dioxide

... (AmO2) is a black compound of americium. In the solid state AmO2 adopts the fluorite, CaF2 structure. It is ... The americium oxalate is then added to a platinum boat to undergo calcination.The americium oxalate precipitate is dried in a ... The slurry of americium oxalate and oxalic acid is next agitated before the americium oxalate is filtered out, washed with ... Synthesis of americium dioxide as described by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory includes making a solution of americium in ...

*Americium(III) bromide

... or americium tribromide is the chemical compound composed of americium and bromine with the formula ... www.webelements.com/compounds/americium/americium_tribromide.html. ... AmBr3, with americium in a +3 oxidation state. The compound is a crystalline solid. http:// ...

*Americium(III) chloride

... or americium trichloride is the chemical compound composed of americium and chlorine with the formula ... "Chemistry: Periodic Table: americium: compound data (americium (III) chloride)". WebElements. Retrieved 2008-06-24. Perry, Dale ... In the solid state each americium atom has nine chlorine atoms as near neighbours, at approximately the same distance, in a ... This can be used to remove americium from plutonium by melting the crude mixture together with salts such as sodium chloride. " ...

*Americium(IV) fluoride

... or americium tetrafluoride is the chemical compound composed of americium and fluoride with the formula ...

*Americium(II) chloride

... or americium dichloride is the chemical compound composed of americium and chlorine with the formula ...

*Americium(III) iodide

... or americium triiodide is the chemical compound composed of americium and iodine with the formula AmI3. ... Americium(III) iodide takes the form of yellow crystals. The crystal form is orthorhombic. It melts around 960°C. The density ...

*Americium(III) fluoride

... or americium trifluoride is the chemical compound composed of americium and fluorine with the formula ...

*Electronic waste

"Americium, Radioactive". TOXNET Toxicology Data Network. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Chen, A.; Dietrich, K. ... Elements found in trace amounts include americium, antimony, arsenic, barium, bismuth, boron, cobalt, europium, gallium, ...

*Radionuclide

"Smoke Detectors and Americium". world-nuclear.org. Archived from the original on 2010-11-12. Office of Radiation Protection - ... Smoke detectors use a very small quantity of 241Am (about 0.29 micrograms per smoke detector) in the form of americium dioxide ... The radionuclide used is americium-241, which is created by bombarding plutonium with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. It decays ...

*Smoke detector

Americium-241 is an alpha emitter with a half-life of 432.6 years. Alpha particle radiation, as opposed to beta (electron) and ... If the americium is left in the ionization chamber of the alarm the radiological risk is insignificant because the chamber acts ... The americium-241 in ionizing smoke detectors poses a potential environmental hazard, albeit a very small one. Disposal ... A person would have to open the sealed chamber and ingest or inhale the americium for the risk to be significant. The radiation ...

*Curium(III) oxide

Norman M. Edelstein; James D. Navratil; Wallace W. Schulz (1984). Americium and curium chemistry and technology. D. Reidel Pub ...

*Neptunium

Np(V) does not bond as readily to soil particles in mildly acidic conditions as its fellow actinides americium and curium by ... With a half-life of 432 years, the americium-241 in an ionization smoke detector includes about 3% neptunium after 20 years, ... In one study comparing the diffusion rates of neptunium(V), plutonium(IV), and americium(III) in sandstone and limestone, ... This makes it and its predecessors such as americium-241 candidates of interest for destruction by nuclear transmutation. Due ...

*Glenn T. Seaborg

In addition to plutonium, he is credited as a lead discoverer of americium, curium, and berkelium, and as a co-discoverer of ... His patent on curium never proved commercially viable because of the element's short half-life, but americium is commonly used ... Seaborg, G. T.; James, R.A.; Morgan, L.O. (January 1948). The New Element Americium (Atomic Number 95). US Atomic Energy ... He held more than 40 patents - among them the only patents ever issued for chemical elements, americium and curium, and ...

*Ralph A. James

Similarly, americium (atomic number 95) was discovered in 1944-45 by Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Leon O. Morgan and ... The New Element Americium (Atomic Number 95).] Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, & Leon O.Morgan. NNES PPR (National Nuclear ... doi:10.1103/PhysRev.80.781 The New Element Americium (Atomic Number 95). Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, & Leon O. Morgan. ... and americium (1944-1945). Later he worked at UCLA and at the Lawrence Livermore laboratory in California. He also worked on ...

*Perxenate

Sodium perxenate, Na 4XeO 6, can be used for the analytic separation of trace amounts of americium from curium. The separation ... ISBN 0-12-023646-X. Holcomb, H. P. (March 1965). "Analytical Oxidation of Americium with Sodium Perxenate". Analytical ...

*Actinides in the environment

... the americium has very different biochemistry to plutonium.[citation needed] The most common isotope americium-241 decays (half ... Americium often enters landfills from discarded smoke detectors. The rules associated with the disposal of smoke detectors are ... It is likely that the medical care which he was given saved his life; because of the difference in the chemistry of americium ( ... For instance, in the UK it is permissible to dispose of an americium containing smoke detector by placing it in the dustbin ...

*Curium

Both americium and curium are present in solutions mostly in the +3 valence state; whereas americium oxidizes to soluble Am(IV ... this was prepared from the beta decay of americium-242 in the americium(V) ion 242 AmO+ 2. Failure to obtain Cm(VI) from ... The chemical behavior of curium is different from the actinides thorium and uranium, and is similar to that of americium and ... Separation of curium from a very similar americium can also be achieved by treating a slurry of their hydroxides in aqueous ...

*1944 in science

Americium discovered by Glenn T. Seaborg, et al. August 7 - IBM dedicates the first program-controlled calculator, the ...

*Allotropy

Promethium, americium, berkelium and californium have three allotropes each. In 2017, the concept of nanoallotropy was proposed ...

*Synthetic element

The discoveries of americium, berkelium, and californium followed soon. Einsteinium and fermium were discovered by a team of ...

*Larned B. Asprey

He wrote his thesis on "Equilibria in the oxide systems of praseodymium and americium", They moved to Los Alamos, New Mexico, ... Elements 95 and 96, originally called "pandemonium" and "delirium", were eventually named americium and curium by analogy with ... "Equilibria in the oxide systems of praseodymium and americium". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved March 21, 2016. " ... fluoride-soluble oxidation state of americium was one of the keys to the subsequent discovery of element 97, berkelium, at ...

*Isotopes of tantalum

The same property is exhibited in americium-242m (242mAm). 180 Ta has a half-life of only 8 hours. 180m Ta is the only ...

*Off-Site Source Recovery Project

The project mainly addresses sources containing americium and plutonium. The recently expanded mission also includes recovery ...
Americium is a man-made, radioactive, actinide element with an atomic number of 95. It was discovered in 1945. Actinides are the 15 elements, all of whose isotopes are radioactive starting with actinium (atomic number 89), and extending to lawrencium (atomic number 103). When not combined with other elements, americium is a silvery metal. Americium has no naturally occurring or stable isotopes. There are two important isotopes of americium, americium 241 and americium 243, also written as 241Am or 243Am, and read as americium two-forty-one and americium two-forty-three. Both isotopes have the same chemical behavior in the environment and the same chemical effects on your body. However, these isotopes have different atomic weights and different radioactive properties, such as their half-life (see next paragraph) and the energy of radiation they give off. Each radioactive isotope of an element, including americium, constantly gives off radiation, and this changes it into an isotope
Radioactive plutonium and americium were detected in air samples collected on Thursday, June 8, 2017 at the Hanford nuclear reservation in Washington, US, state officials said Tuesday, August 8. According to Hanford officials, State of Washington...
Experts available for americium compound consulting, expert witness, or analyst services for business, legal, and technical professionals.
Discover more about Americium. One of thousands of articles selected and checked for the Wikipedia for Schools by SOS Childrens Villages UK
The specific power of Americium is around 0.1 W/g. One smoke detector contains around 1 microgram of Am. To make a RTG to power your home, with a thermal efficiency of 10% and an output requirement of 5 kW, you would need 500 kg of Am or 500 billion smoke detectors. Or you could just buy Americium from the source, google says it costs $1500/g. That comes out to $750,000,000. I doubt the world production rate of Am is that much though ...
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Markdown is a text-to-HTML conversion tool for web writers. It allows you to write using an easy-to-read, easy-to-write plain text format, then convert it to structurally valid XHTML (or HTML ...
Many of these toxic chemicals off-gas -- they drift into the air in our homes and workplaces, and contaminate the dust on the floor where our babies crawl. We breathe them into our bodies ...
Transuranics are radionuclides that have atomic numbers greater than 92 in the periodic table. They are produced in nuclear reactors or as a result of nuclear chemistry experiments. These elements typically have half-lives that are greater than twenty years, and can produce moderate to high amounts of alpha radiation. The PUREX reprocessing method can be modified to carry out the TRUEX process which allows for the extraction of the transuranics, which reduces the radioactivity of the resulting MOX fuel. TRUEX is nearly identical to PUREX, except that octyl(phenyl)-N, N-dibutyl carbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide and tributylphosphate are added to the solution after the uranium and plutonium have been extracted to allow for the extraction of transuranics. Some of these transuranics such as americium, have industrial uses. The SANEX (Selective Actinide EXtraction) process has been proposed to allow for the extraction of specific radionuclides. Although the SANEX process is still theoretical, ...
The agency, which expanded the investigation because it disagrees with Davis-Besse officials about the potential threat to the men, also ordered additional tests on them. "We are not looking at an immediately life-threatening situation," stressed Jan Strasma, the NRCs spokesman for the Midwest region. "The [laboratory] results so far are far below the point where it would be any immediate health concern," he said. "We are looking at doses that have to be calculated over years. The extra lab tests are to better quantify what the doses would be." The calculations are based on the half-life, or decay rate, of the specific radioactive elements the men ingested and on the rate at which the human body typically excretes them, Strasma said. The elements, called "transuranics," are products of atom splitting, or fission, that goes on in the reactor, he said. Reactors produce a number of transuranics, including plutonium and americium, the element in household smoke detectors. But the NRC said it did ...
The alpha particles generated by the americium have the following property: They ionize the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the air in the chamber. To "ionize" means to "knock an electron off of." When you knock an electron off of an atom, you end up with a free electron (with a negative charge) and an atom missing one electron (with a positive charge). The negative electron is attracted to the plate with a positive voltage, and the positive atom is attracted to the plate with a negative voltage (opposites attract, just like with magnets). The electronics in the smoke detector sense the small amount of electrical current that these electrons and ions moving toward the plates represent. ...
Miniature satellites called cubesats have been gaining increasing popularity in both academic and private spaceflight ventures. NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory has recently been accepting design proposals for a cubesat mission to Europa, where solar and battery power would be inadequate power sources. In this thesis, a radioisotope powered cubesat was developed from a theoretical design and tested, first using computer software and finally using a physical scale model. Specifically, Solidworks was used to verify if the on-board electronics, Thermoelectric converter, and structure could survive the thermal load of an Americium power source. An electrically heated model was used to verify the Solidworks results. The computational results bore little resemblance to the physical model temperatures; some temperature predictions were accurate while several were off by several hundred degrees. During the physical test, the thermoelectric generator was able to withstand the high temperatures and ...
Makrlík Emanuel, Vaňura Petr, Selucký Pavel, Babain Vasily, Alyapyshev Mikhail, Darin Dmitriy: Highly Efficient Solvent Extraction of Americium and Europium by Using Hydrogen Dicarbollylcobaltate and N,N′-Diethyl-N,N′-bis(4-ethylphenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxamide. J Solution Chem 2017, 46, 1475. ,https://doi.org/10.1007/s10953-017-0651-6 ...
Preface ix. Chemicals Sorted by Chemical Groups 1. Technologies Applicable to Specific Chemicals 11. Alcohols 11. Aldehydes 12. Aldehydes and Ketones 13. Aldehydes or Ketones with Other Functional Groups 13. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons 14. Aliphatic Nitriles and Cyanates 20. Aliphatic Nitrosamines 21. Aliphatic Organophosphorous Compounds 21. Alkanes and Cyclic Alkanes 21. Alkenes, Cyclic Alkenes, and Dienes 26. Alkyl Halides 27. Alkynes 28. Aluminum 28. Americium 29. Amides 30. Amines 30. Antimony 31. Aromatic Amines and Diamines 31. Aromatic Nitriles and Cyanates 34. Aromatic Nitro Compounds 34. Aromatic Nitro Compounds with Other Functional Groups 35. Aromatic Organophosphorous Compounds 35. Aromatics with Halogenated Side Chain 35. Arsenic 37. Azo Compounds 40. Azo Compounds, Hydrazine Derivatives 40. Barium 40. Benzene and Monosubstituted Benzene Hydrocarbons 42. Benzene and Substituted Benzene Hydrocarbons 67. Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene (BTEX) 67. Beryllium 73. Bismuth ...
A large area multi wire proportional chamber positron camera system is under evaluation for clinical Nuclear Medicine investigation using isotopes both from in house generators (68Ga) and from remote...
In our Focus Product Program we will concentrate on Polyaminocarboxylic acid chelating agents.. The removal of undesirable metal ions is often difficult and expensive and it is usually easier to inactivate them with a chelating agent.. Amino acid chelating agents securely bind these ions to form stable complexes, which remain very soluble. Thus, the metal ion can no longer exert an adverse effect on the system.. In the formulating and compounding industry the major problem is hard water, which can cause precipitation and/or separation. Even if the compounder has "soft" water, he may be making a concentrate and shipping it into an area with hard water.. It normally takes between .5 and 1% of a chelate to do the job.. Every compounder should be using EDTA, especially if they make disinfectants. The formulas will require EDTA as EDTA enhances the efficacy.. ...
A set of programs has been developed for rapid collection of x-ray intensity data from protein and virus crystals with a commercially available two-dimensional focused geometry electronic detector. The detector is compact and portable, with unusually high spatial resolution comparable to that used in oscillation photography. It has allowed x-ray data collection on weakly diffracting crystals with large unit cells, as well as more conventional "diffractometer-quality" crystals. The quality of the data is compared with that from oscillation photography and automated diffractometry in the range of unit cells from 96.3 to 383.2 angstroms. Isomorphous and anomalous difference Pattersons, based on detector data, are shown for a variable surface glycoprotein mercury derivative and for a repressor-DNA bromine derivative, which has been solved at 7 angstroms with detector data only. ...
Initially, most common detection methods were based on the ionisation of gases, as in the Geiger-Müller counter: a sealed volume, usually a cylinder, with a polymer or thin metal window contains a gas, and a wire, and a high voltage is applied between the cylinder (cathode) and the wire (anode). When an X-ray photon enters the cylinder, it ionizes the gas. These ions accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionisation along their trajectory. This process, known as an avalanche, is detected as a sudden flow of current, called a "count" or "event.". Ultimately, the electrons form a virtual cathode around the anode wire drastically reducing the electric field in the outer portions of the tube. This halts the collisional ionizations and limits further growth of avalanches. As a result, all "counts" on a Geiger counter are the same size and it can give no indication as to the particle energy of the radiation, unlike the proportional counter. The intensity of the radiation is ...
Profiling Animal Toxicants by Automatically Mining Public Bioassay Data: A Big Data Approach for Computational Toxicology Jun Zhang 1,2, Jui-Hua Hsieh 3, Hao Zhu 1,2 * 1 Department of Chemistry, Rutgers
We as Radiologists and Physicians are particularly well clued to the concept of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) in terms of Radiation hazards awareness. Whilst investigating children for musculoskeletal ailments this gets translated into a very narrow range of availability of Cross-sectional modalities to arrive at a conclusive diagnosis.
In analysis of complex nuclear forensic samples containing lanthanides, actinides and matrix elements, rapid selective extraction of Am/Cm for quantification is challenging, in particular due the difficult separation of Am/Cm from lanthanides. Here we present a separation process for Am/Cm(III) which is achieved using a combination of AG1-X8 chromatography followed by Am/Cm extraction with a triazine ligand. The ligands tested in our process were CyMe4-BTPhen, CyMe4-BTBP, CA-BTP and CA-BTPhen. Our process allows for purification and quantification of Am and Cm (recoveries 80%-100%) and other major actinides in , 2d without the use of multiple columns or thiocyanate. The process is unaffected by high level Ca(II)/Fe(III)/Al(III) (10mg mL(-1)) and thus requires little pre-treatment of samples.. ...
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is susceptible to signal artifacts caused by relative motion between NIRS optical fibers and the scalp. These artifacts can be very damaging to the utility of functional NIRS, particularly in challenging subject groups where motion can be unavoidable. A number of approaches to the removal of motion artifacts from NIRS data have been suggested. In this paper we systematically compare the utility of a variety of published NIRS motion correction techniques using a simulated functional activation signal added to 20 real NIRS datasets which contain motion artifacts. Principle component analysis, spline interpolation, wavelet analysis, and Kalman filtering approaches are compared to one another and to standard approaches using the accuracy of the recovered, simulated hemodynamic response function (HRF). Each of the four motion correction techniques we tested yields a significant reduction in the mean-squared error (MSE) and significant increase in the ...
Transuranic waste consists of waste that is contaminated with man-made radioactive elements which are heavier than uranium (meaning the elements have higher atomic numbers than uranium on the Periodic Table of the Elements)" [i.e. plutonium, americium, etc.] "Because they come after uranium on the periodic table, they are referred to as "transuranic". The concentration of these transuranic elements in the waste determines whether it is transuranic (TRU) waste or low-level waste". [Note that it is concentration rather than how long-lived and dangerous.] "More than 70,000 containers of this waste (sometimes referred to as suspect TRU waste) were stored under a layer of dirt in the in the 1970s and 1980s, in the 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds of the Hanford Site. The intention was to retrieve the waste (which is why sometimes…. ...
In an effort to develop chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization, a collaborative project to develop iron-phosphate based ceramics has been initiated between Argonne National Laboratory and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. The starter powders are oxides of iron that are generated as inexpensive byproduct materials in the iron and steel industry. They contain iron oxides as a mixture of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and haematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). In this initial phase of this project, both of these compounds were investigated independently. Each was reacted with phosphoric acid solution to form iron phosphate ceramics. In the case of magnetite, the reaction was rapid. Adding ash as the waste component containing hazardous contaminants resulted in a dense and hard ceramic rich in glassy phase. On the other hand, the reaction of phosphoric acid solution with a mixture of haematite and ash waste contaminated with cesium and americium was too slow.
To improve tumor:tissue ratios in immunoscintigraphy, a three-step targeting method has been developed. The reagents used were (a) a radioactive, low molecular weight chelate prepared from ionic gallium and a phenolic polyaminocarboxylic acid, which can be labeled either with the single-photon emitter 67Ga or with the short-lived positron emitter 68GA(t½ = 68 min); (b) a bispecific monoclonal antibody (bs-mAb) synthesized from the F(ab)2 fragment of the 1.1ASML antibody specific for the glycoprotein CD44v associated with a rat pancreas carcinoma cell line and the F(ab′) fragment of an antibody specific for the gallium chelate; and (c) the nonradioactive gallium chelate covalently coupled to transferrin, which served as a high molecular weight blocker to prevent binding of the radioactive gallium chelate to bs-mAbs in the circulation. Targeting experiments in tumor-bearing nude mice with different doses of bs-mAbs, blocker, and 67Ga chelate were adjusted to maximize tumor to tissue contrasts ...
The present invention relates to a cleaning solution for cleaning substrates, to which a metallic wiring has been applied, being capable of easily removing the metallic impurities of the substrate surface without corroding the metal, not putting a strain on the environment, and not causing a shelf life problem. The cleaning solution comprising at least one member selected from a group consisting of oxalic acid, ammonium oxalate and polyaminocarboxylic acids, but contains no hydrogen fluoride.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality among dialysis patients.This topic reviews HCV infection among dialysis patients, including epidemiology, screening, and prevention.The treatment of H
The on- and off-axis imaging properties and effective area of the two SODART flight telescopes have been measured using the expanded beam x-ray facility at the Daresbury synchrotron. From on-axis measurements the encircled power distribution and the point spread function at three energies 6.627 keV, 8.837 keV and 11.046 keV have been measured using a one-dimensional position sensitive detector. We found that the point spread function can be presented well by a function which is a sum of a Gaussian divided by the radius and two exponential terms where the first has a 1/e value close to 2 arcmin and the other a 1/e value of ca. 15 arcmin. The data have been used to calculate the half power diameter (HPD) for three different SODART focal plane detectors, the high energy proportional counter (HEPC) with a field of view (FOV) of 65 arcmin, the low energy proportional counter (LEPC) with a FOV of 33 arcmin and the 19 element solid state detector array (SIXA) with a FOV of 18 arcmin. We found that the ...
A biopsy device comprises a handpiece, a fluid collection system, and a power transmission source. The handpiece is configured for grasping by a single hand, and is independently manipulatable by hand for movement of the instrument toward and away from the patient. An elongated piercer extends from the distal end of the handpiece. The piercer has a sharpened distal end for entering the tissue and a port located proximal to the sharpened distal end for receiving a portion of tissue mass. An elongated cutter is disposed coaxially relative to a piercer lumen of the piercer. A distal blade of the cutter slides distally past the port of the piercer to sever the tissue portion drawn into the port by vacuum. The handpiece further comprises a holster for detachably connecting a cutter rotational transmission and a cutter axial transmission to the power transmission source.
Cell Phone/Tower Radiation Hazards and Solutions Newsletter, Bi-Monthly; Volume 1, July-August 2013 by Prof. Girish Kumar, IIT Bombay Editors Column Cell phone technology has grown rapidly and currently there are more than 90 crore cell phone subscribers and nearly 5 lakh cell phone towers in India. From Sep. 1, 2012, India has adopted 1/10 of ICNIRP Guidelines, which implies safe power density of 470 milliWatt/m2 for GSM900 and 920 milliWatt/m2 for GSM1800 after Inter-Ministerial Committee (IMC) report came out in Jan. 2011, which mentioned several health hazards due to radiation. A large number of scientists prepared Bio-Initiative Report in 2007 and they proposed safe radiation density of 1.0 milliWatt/m2 for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and 0.1 milliWatt/m2 for indoor, cumulative RF exposure. Again, 29 scientists from 10 countries prepared Bio-Initiative Report 2012, after going through 1800 papers and reported health hazards with certainty. The most common complaints are: sleep ...
Aysel Sabuncu Brain Research Center. Ultra-high field (UHF) MRI offers improved signal- and contrast-to-noise ratio (SNR/CNR), which can be leveraged towards higher-resolution images. However, acquiring higher-resolution images increases scan times, making MRI scans prone to patient motion. Motion may become a problem especially with uncooperative patients such as in paediatric imaging and patients with Parkinsons or dementia. A common solution in such cases is to use sedatives. Unfortunately, sedation makes MRI an invasive imaging modality, and may commonly have side effects. Alternatively, real-time motion correction techniques can adapt the scan parameters accordingly and freeze patient motion from a data processing perspective these techniques are not directly applicable at UHF MRI.. At higher field strengths, artificial contrast variations are imposed on the acquired images due to the shorter wavelength. To correct such effects, parallel-transmit (pTx) arrays are commonly used. However, ...
At the completion of the research and development effort a Li-foil multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) neutron detector with more than 625-cm2 of active area will be included in a portable radiation detection system. The system is expected to outperform the standards set by the ANSI N42.53 standards, and gamma-ray rejection ratio (GRR) of 1.0x10-8 or better. A gamma-ray spectrometer for isotope .... ...
Primary Objectives: To determine the prevalence of HIV and other related infections such as Hepatitis C, along with associated risk behaviors, in patients with severe mental illness (SMI).. Secondary Objectives: To identify the implications for mental health and medical services and to obtain a better understanding of the contextual factors that affect the health problems associated with HIV risk behavior.. Primary Outcomes: The primary outcome variables are HIV seroprevalence, prevalence of HIV risk behaviors including injection drug use and sexual promiscuity, personal and social-contextual factors, comorbid mental disorders, and health service use among SMI persons in each group, veterans versus non-veterans.. Intervention: N/A. Study Abstract: It is suspected, but not well documented, that persons with severe mental illness represent a significant transmission source of serious infectious diseases. SMI diagnoses are defined as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or ...
Primary Objectives: To determine the prevalence of HIV and other related infections such as Hepatitis C, along with associated risk behaviors, in patients with severe mental illness (SMI).. Secondary Objectives: To identify the implications for mental health and medical services and to obtain a better understanding of the contextual factors that affect the health problems associated with HIV risk behavior.. Primary Outcomes: The primary outcome variables are HIV seroprevalence, prevalence of HIV risk behaviors including injection drug use and sexual promiscuity, personal and social-contextual factors, comorbid mental disorders, and health service use among SMI persons in each group, veterans versus non-veterans.. Intervention: N/A. Study Abstract: It is suspected, but not well documented, that persons with severe mental illness represent a significant transmission source of serious infectious diseases. SMI diagnoses are defined as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or ...
As Part V in our series, this paper examines steady-state fluorescence photon diffusion in a homogenous medium that contains a homogenous distribution of fluorophores, and is enclosed by a "concave" circular cylindrical applicator or is enclosing a "convex" circular cylindrical applicator, both geometries being infinite in the longitudinal dimension. The aim is to predict by analytics and examine with the finite-element method the changing characteristics of the fluorescence-wavelength photon-fluence rate and the ratio (sometimes called the Born ratio) of it versus the excitation-wavelength photon-fluence rate, with respect to the source-detector distance. The analysis is performed for a source and a detector located on the medium-applicator interface and aligned either azimuthally or longitudinally in both concave and convex geometries. When compared to its steady-state counterparts on a semi-infinite medium-applicator interface with the same line-of-sight source-detector distance, the ...
This Sexy Lumberjack is looking for wood! You'll want to hike in the woods every day just for a chance to bump into this luscious lumberjack. This sexy four-piece Halloween costume features denim jumper with chest pocket, plaid shirt, knit toque hat, leg warmers, and toy axe. Shoes not included. Coquette.
... is a very commonly used imaging method. It is used in fetal examinations in pregnant mothers and generally in examinations of the abdominal region.. Ultrasonography is also commonly used in examinations concerning the heart, gallbladder and soft tissue and to supplement mammography. Almost 660,000 ultrasonographic examinations are performed annually in Finland.. Ultrasonographic examinations supplement radiographic examinations and have partly replaced them. Using ultrasonography makes it possible to avoid the radiation hazard caused by X rays. There is no scientific evidence of a connection between ultrasonography and cancer.. ...
For some odd reason, long lived isotopes have a bad reputation. Statistically, it is the short lived ones that are nasty. The short lived are more likely to decay releasing ionizing energy. Uranium-238 has a half life of 4.5 billion years. So a few atoms of Uranium-238 are essentially stable in a biological environment. You would have to ingest a fairly large amount of Uranium-238 to have any radiation harm. It would likely be more harmful as a poisonous heavy metal than a radiation hazard. Think about it. It takes 4.5 billion years for half of the ingested amount to decay. If you ingested 4.5 billion atoms of U-238, 2.25 billion would decay in 4.5 billion years, so only 2.25 would decay per year in your body. Compare 2.25 per year to 4400 per second beta decays normal for a 160 pound (about 75 kilo)person, and that aint a lot, even if U-238 is 60 times more harmful than K-40. Plutonium-239 is only supposed to be 100 times more harmful than potassium 40, so that makes sense ...
New submitter QuantumPion writes The Environmental Protection Agency released draft guidelines last month that could significantly relax radiation hazard standards in the case of a radiological event in the United States by using risk-based decisions. The goal is to have limits that make sense in a...
• 1.3 x 1.3-cm total active area• |1-mm source-detector distance• 30-V bias voltage operation!%SensL%! has launched the SPMPlus,
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This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 415, Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion (NTTR). CAU 415 is located on Range 4808A of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) and consists of one corrective action site: NAFR-23-02, Pu Contaminated Soil. The CAU 415 site consists of the atmospheric release of radiological contaminants to surface soil from the Project 57 safety experiment conducted in 1957. The safety experiment released plutonium (Pu), uranium (U), and americium (Am) to the surface soil over an area of approximately 1.9 square miles. This area is currently fenced and posted as a radiological contamination area. Vehicles and debris contaminated by the experiment were subsequently buried in a disposal trench within the surface-contaminated, fenced area and are assumed to have released radiological contamination to subsurface soils. Potential source materials in the form of ...
The results of the research clearly show that plankton from the coast of Palomares, obtained from a depth of 50 metres, contains radioactive plutonium and americium with an activity up to five times higher than the average of the other samples studied. Thus, while average radioactivity in western Mediterranean plankton is around 452 units (millibequerels per kilogram of dried plankton), at Palomares this figure is 2,046 units. This is still within the safety margins recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency, but serves as a reminder that the area is not free of residual contamination arising from the accident that occurred on 17 January 1966, when two US planes, a B-52 bomber, loaded with 4 nuclear warheads, and a refuelling plane collided in mid-flight ...
What is background radiation?. Ionising radiation always present in the environment. Why does background radiation not cause harm?. The levels are constant and are too low to be harmful and are naturally occuring mostly. Main contributors to background radiation?. Cosmic rays from the sun, decay of rocks, radon gas from the ground. Small contributors to background radiation?. Man made sources like radioactive waste from nuclear power stations and hospitals, and from smoke alarms. How much does human activity contribute to background radiation?. Less than 1%. What is the most common radioisotope used in smoke alarms?. Americium 241. What type of radiation do smoke alarms give out?. Alpha. How does a smoke alarm work?. The alpha particles ionise the molecules of the air forming ions and electrons which are attracted to a pair of charged plates as shown in the picture below. When the ions and electrons hit the plates they provide a small amount of electricity (a small current). This current stays ...
in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (1999), 62(1), 13-15. Background : Recently, a novel blood-borne virus has been identified and named hepatitis G virus. Transfusion is the main route of transmission. It is known that patients on maintenance dialysis are more ... [more ▼]. Background : Recently, a novel blood-borne virus has been identified and named hepatitis G virus. Transfusion is the main route of transmission. It is known that patients on maintenance dialysis are more susceptible to infections with parenterally-transmitted viruses than the general population. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis G infection in a Belgian dialysis unit. Methods: The entire population of our dialysis unit (82 patients) was tested for the presence of hepatitis G virus (HGV) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. History of transfusion or renal transplantation coinfections with hepatitis B and C viruses, and serum aminotransferase levels were also tested. ...
Characterization of Cellular death (in vitro) Biochemical death - trypan blue positive -Cells unable to exclude dye (loss of membrane potential or membrane) Reproductive death - colony formation -cells unable to form a colony (may sit very happily on the dish)
Nach der Aufnahme von Plutonium mit der Nahrung wird ein großer Teil mit dem Stuhl wieder ausgeschieden. Der Anteil von Plutonium, der aus der Nahrung im Magen-Darm-Trakt in den Körper aufgenommen (resorbiert) wird, ist im Wesentlichen abhängig von der Art der Plutoniumverbindung und dem Alter der Person. In grober Annäherung kann eine Resorptionsrate von Plutonium mit der Nahrung von 0,05 Prozent angegeben werden. Bei anorganischen Plutoniumverbindungen liegt diese etwa um den Faktor zehn niedriger. Für Kleinkinder ist eine um den Faktor zehn höhere Resorptionsrate anzunehmen. Nach der Resorption von Plutonium über den Magen-Darm-Trakt wird Plutonium im Körper verteilt und dort vorrangig in Knochen und in der Leber konzentriert.. Im Blut aufgenommenes Plutonium wird zu etwa fünfzig Prozent im Knochen, zu dreißig Prozent in der Leber und etwa zwanzig Prozent in anderen Geweben eingelagert. Die Verweilzeit von inkorporiertem Plutonium im Knochen beträgt etwa fünfzig bis hundert Jahre ...
Autori: Olan A, Segall L, Stoica L, Gusbeth-Tatomir P, Cristea C, Patrulea S, Mardare N, Balasanian M, Covic A.. Editorial: Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi, Jul-Sep;110(3, p.599-63, 2006.. Rezumat:. Cuvinte cheie: by-pass ...
The programme covers a range of multidisciplinary topics relevant to Occupational Safety and Health. Subjects covered include Legislation, Occupational Health, Occupational Hygiene, Human and Organisational Behaviour at Work, Chemical Safety and Toxicology and Safety Toxicology. . - This part-time programme is designed to be completed over two full years (five semesters). September to July Year 1 and September to May Year 2.. - Assignments, project work and self-directed learning are required during the summer semester between the two academic years of study.. - Lectures will normally be held on Fridays (9 am - 5 pm) in Year 1 and on Tuesdays(9 am - 5 pm) in Year 2. - Assessment strategies include continuous assessment, assignments, projects and examinations.. ...
This course is intended for MUN employees who may occasionally be required to enter an authorized radioisotope laboratory to perform their employment function (i.e. facilities management personnel, custodians, ITS staff, administrative staff, etc.). This training will provide an overview of the laboratory environment, with special attention paid to the importance of recognizing and adhering to radiation signage, identification of the potential radiation hazards a worker may encounter, and what to do in the event that a radiation hazard is encountered. These employees will not perform their work in an area designated for nuclear substance or radiation device use without prior authorization from the RSO.. ...
Lasers can cause damage in biological tissues, both to the eye and to the skin, due to several mechanisms. Thermal damage, or burn, occurs when tissues are heated to the point where denaturation of proteins occurs. Another mechanism is photochemical damage, where light triggers chemical reactions in tissue. Photochemical damage occurs mostly with short-wavelength (blue) and ultra-violet light and can be accumulated over the course of hours. Laser pulses shorter than about 1 μs can cause a rapid rise in temperature, resulting in explosive boiling of water. The shock wave from the explosion can subsequently cause damage relatively far away from the point of impact. Ultrashort pulses can also exhibit self-focusing in the transparent parts of the eye, leading to an increase of the damage potential compared to longer pulses with the same energy.. The eye focuses visible and near-infrared light onto the retina. A laser beam can be focused to an intensity on the retina which may be up to 200,000 times ...
Part IV examines frequency-domain photon diffusion in a homogeneous medium enclosed by a "concave" circular cylindrical applicator or enclosing a "convex" circular cylindrical applicator, both geometries being infinite in the longitudinal dimension. The aim is to assess by analogical and finite-element methods the changes of AC amplitude, modulation depth, and phase with respect to the line-of-sight source-detector distance for a source and a detector located along the azimuthal or longitudinal direction on the concave or convex medium-applicator interface. By comparing to their counterparts along a straight line on a semi-infinite medium-applicator interface, for the same line-of-sight source-detector distance, it is found that: (1) the decay-rate of AC photon fluence is smaller along the azimuthal direction and greater along the longitudinal direction on the concave interface, (2) the decay-rate of AC photon fluence is greater along the azimuthal direction and smaller along the longitudinal ...
Purpose: Size, shape, and the position of paired organs are different in abdomen. However, the counterpart organs are conventionally treated jointly together in internal dosimetry. This study was performed to quantify the difference of specific absor
Approaches used in biomedical psychiatry to evaluate depressed mood provide ambiguous information about possible underlying biological or other causes. Conventionally trained psychiatrists rely on structured interviews to obtain salient information about medical, psychiatric, family and social history that may be related to a patients complaint of depressed mood. The Mini-mental state exam, Beck Depression Inventory, and Hamilton Depression Inventory are structured interview tools commonly used to assess the relative severity of symptoms as well as social and psychodynamic factors associated with depressed mood. In addition to the clinical interview, laboratory screening studies are sometimes used to assess possible endocrinological, infectious, or metabolic causes of depressed mood. Bioassays that identify underlying medical causes of depressed mood include thyroid studies (FT4 and TSH), fasting blood glucose, liver enzymes, complete blood count (CBC), serum iron levels, serum electrolytes, ...
...CLEMSON S.C. Environmental scientists at Clemson University have rec...The research has implications for nuclear cleanup efforts and could he... Plutonium contamination in soils can be transported in groundwater aw... The way to predict how much and how fast plutonium moves through the ...,Clemson,researcher,will,study,plutonium,underground,for,Energy,Department,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Can you name the 15 elements that are considered to be actinoids or actinides? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others.
Abstract Radiation hazards in outer space present an enormous challenge for the biological safety of astronauts. A deleterious effect of radiation is the production of reactive oxy..
Plutonium Chemistry. From: Chemistry of actinides Nuclear properties and isotope production Pu in nature Separation and Purification Atomic properties Metallic state Compounds Solution chemistry. Pu nuclear properties. Isotopes from 228≤A≤247 Important isotopes 238 Pu Slideshow 1421013 by gerd
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Washington, April 19 (ANI): Scientists have used high-energy X-rays to discover and study the structure of plutonium nanoclusters, which contaminate groundwater, thus increasing the risk of sickness in humans and animals. The finding was
There is no information from studies in humans or animals to identify the specific levels of exposures to plutonium in air, food, or water that have resulted in harmful effects. However, it is generally assumed that any amount of absorbed radiation, no matter how small, may cause some damage. When expressed as the amount of radioactivity deposited in the body per kilogram of body weight (kg bw) as a result of breathing in plutonium, studies in dogs report that 100,000 pCi plutonium/kg bw caused serious lung damage within a few months, 1,700 pCi/kg bw caused harm to the immune system, and 1,400 pCi/kg bw caused bone cancer after 4 years. In each of these cases the dogs were exposed to the plutonium in air for one day ...
Government nuclear experts worried by the destruction of Challenger are reviewing the design of two future shuttle payloads that will carry 48 pounds each of deadly plutonium.The experts at the
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94 Elements is a global filmmaking project exploring our lives through the lens of the elements. Award-winning filmmakers each take one element as the basis for a human story around its use, presented across a unique digital platform
Forward Error Correction technique: parity vectors are computed such that each parity vector spans multiple FEC frames; in a given FEC frame, a first set of syndrome bits are due to the parity vectors
Lasrick (2629253) writes An underground fire and a separate plutonium leak at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has left the US with no repository for transuranic (TRU) waste--that is, radioactive elements heavier than uranium on the periodic chart, such as plutonium, americium, curium and ne...
A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti+3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used to separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current ...
The author of this book, a physicist and science writer, provides an interesting history of the man-made element plutonium beginning with the discovery of its naturally occurring parent element, uranium. The succinct history includes the events that led to the discoveries of radioactivity, nuclear structure, and the fission of uranium. It then proceeds to the synthesis of plutonium and other transuranic elements and the revelation in 1938 that plutonium can undergo fission when bombarded with neutrons. That phenomenon became known to physicists in the United States and Germany in 1942. The scene then switches to Los Alamos, New Mexico, where plutonium is refined and shaped into the material for the first implosion fission weapons. The chapter preceding the final one focuses on the unique chemical and physical properties of plutonium that make it difficult to handle. The book concludes with comments on the stockpiles of plutonium that exist worldwide and plutoniums potential dangers to mankind. ...
This article pairs an historical discussion of the scientific developments of plutonium both during World War II and after with a technical analysis of the six allotropic phases of plutonium to illustrate its complexity as a metal. After discovery of plutonium in 1941, chemists and metallurgists of the Manhattan Project made tremendous strides in its study that enabled its use in the construction of atomic bombs by 1945. The article tracks how scientists during the war first alloyed plutonium with aluminum and then with gallium to arrive at a stable delta phase, which was malleable, and was thus able to be used in fabrication of nuclear weapons. Postwar research on plutonium, though fruitful, has been limited relative to research on steel, for example, emphasizing that plutonium metallurgy is still in its nascent stages. The article concludes with a detailed explication of plutonium at the atomic level, employing much more technical language that requires knowledge of the principles of ...
Toxoplasmosis is important due to the possibility of transplacental transmission, harming the fetus. The rate of risk for pregnancy depends on infection prevalence among women at childbearing age, the types of meat that they eat, the degree of contact between vulnerable pregnant women and protozoan transmission sources, and the stage of gestation when transmission occurs; the earlier in gestation that transmission occurs, the greater the severity of sequelae in the fetus or newborn [1-9]. Animals infected with Toxoplasma gondii transmit infective cysts to humans through ingestion of raw or undercooked meat. Oral transmission can also occur by ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts, which are eliminated in cat feces [10,11]. In different regions of the world, various types of factors have been implicated in toxoplasmosis transmission, however in the United States and France the ingestion of meat (beef, mutton or pork) containing parasite cysts is the most common source of human ...
The overall aim of the Concerted Action RBDATA-EULEP is to provide information to improve the assessments of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting doses. This involves a review of the behaviour of radionuclides following intake, and the transfer of expertise on methodology by organising small training workshops. The main activity is the development of an electronic database, effectively an annotated bibliography, but the electronic format used facilitates extension, updating, and information retrieval. It consists of linked tables of references and experiments, with details and comments on the materials, procedures and results. By June 2002 it contained information on 524 inhalation, 282 ingestion and 164 injection experiments from 391 references. It will be extended, and Internet access provided. Prospective users include: groups developing standards for internal dosimetry, scientists conducting research on radionuclide biokinetics, and health physicists assessing the consequences of ...
Bush administration plans governments first production of plutonium 238 since cold war, stirring debate over risks and benefits of material so radioactive that one speck can cause cancer; Energy Dept official Timothy A Frazier says most if not all of new plutonium is intended for secret missions, but not for nuclear arms, satellites or weapons in space; program would produce total of 330 pounds over 30 years at Idaho National Laboratory outside Idaho Falls; environmentalists warn of potential threat to ecosystems of several nearby national parks; plutonium 238s steady heat can be turned into electricity; federal and private experts unconnected to project say even if no formal plans now exist to use plutonium in space for military purposes, material could be used by military to power compact spy satellites that would be hard for adversaries to track, evade or destroy; photo; map (M)
The purpose of this analysis is to examine whether there is a justification for using high-level waste (HLW) as a surrogate for plutonium disposal in can-in-canister ceramic in the total-system performance assessment (TSPA) model for the Site Recommendation (SR). In the TSPA-SR model, the immobilized plutonium waste form is not explicitly represented, but is implicitly represented as an equal number of canisters of HLW. There are about 50 metric tons of plutonium in the U. S. Department of Energy inventory of surplus fissile material that could be disposed. Approximately 17 tons of this material contain significant quantities of impurities and are considered unsuitable for mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. This material has been designated for direct disposal by immobilization in a ceramic waste form and encapsulating this waste form in high-level waste (HLW). The remaining plutonium is suitable for incorporation into MOX fuel assemblies for commercial reactors (Shaw 1999, Section 2). In this analysis,
Purpose. To quantify the impact of diagnostic confidence on radiological diagnosis with a fuzzy logic-based method. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two oncologic patients with 20 cysts and 30 metastases ≤1 cm in size found at 64-row computed tomography were included. Two readers (R1/R2) expressed diagnoses as a subjective level of confidence in malignancy within the interval [0,1] rather than on a "crisp" basis (malignant/benign); confidence in benignancy was . When cross-tabulating data according to the standard of reference, table cells resulted from the aggregation between and final diagnosis. We then assessed (i) readers diagnostic performance on a fuzzy and crisp basis; (ii) the "divergence" (%) as a measure of how confidence impacted on crisp diagnosis. Results. Diagnoses expressed with lower confidence increased fuzzy false positives compared to crisp ones (from 0 to 0.2 for R1; from 1 to 2.4 for R2). Crisp/fuzzy accuracy was 94.0%/93.6% (R1) and 94.0/91.6% (R2). (%) was larger in the ...
Treatment: surgical removal.. "Mole" is a very broad term that in laymans jargon refers to any growth on the skin. In the medical field, "moles" are benign growths derived from the bodys pigmented cells. However, moles can be brown, reddish-brown or skin-colored. Moles are benign by definition. They may occur at any age, but most commonly do so in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Moles usually live in harmony with our body. If they are cosmetically unpleasing, they can be surgically removed, using shave excision, radiofrequency ablation or complete excision. Only shave excision and radiofrequency treatment leave you without a noticeable scar, and there is a chance that over time the mole will grow back to its original size. Complete excision will ideally leave a linear scar instead of the mole and assures no recurrence. If a pigmented growth does not fulfill criteria for benignancy, it should be biopsied. Your skin examination will reveal which type of mole you have.. ...
In this work the applicability of calix[6]arene columns for actinides analysis in urine samples and drinking water was investigated. A radiochemical procedure has been developed for U, Pu, Am analysis in urine. A simple and effective method has also been proposed on a specific column named AQUALIX, for the separation and preconcentration of U from drinking water. These procedures are suitable for routine analysis and require a considerably reduced number of steps of sample treatment as compared to current procedures ...
Three benzene-centred tripodal diglycolamide (Bz-T-DGA) ligands, where the diglycolamide (DGA) moieties are attached to a central benzene ring through ethylene spacers (LI), amide groups (LII) or ether linkages (LIII), were evaluated for their extraction behaviour towards trivalent actinide and lanthanide io
Systems are shown that utilize differential measurement of radiation that has migrated through migration paths between two source-detector pairs placed on the head in a manner that each path is localized in a portion of one hemisphere of the brain. Various spectrophotometer systems are also shown for in vivo examination of tissue of a human by measuring changes in electromagnetic radiation scattered and absorbed in a migration path in the tissue. Generally, the spectrophotometer systems comprise a light source for introducing the radiation into the tissue, a detector for detecting radiation that has migrated in the tissue, a processor for processing signals of the detected radiation to create processed data, and a system for determining physiological or pathophysiological changes in the tissue of interest such as bleeding or tumor.
The risk of local recurrence for breast cancers is strongly correlated with the presence of a tumor within 1 to 2 mm of the surgical margin on the excised specimen. Previous experimental and theoretical results suggest that spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) holds much promise for intraoperative margin analysis. Based on simulation predictions for signal-to-noise ratio differences among varying spatial offsets, a SORS probe with multiple source-detector offsets was designed and tested. It was then employed to acquire spectra from 35 frozen-thawed breast tissue samples in vitro. Spectra from each detector ring were averaged to create a composite spectrum with biochemical information covering the entire range from the tissue surface to ∼2 mm below the surface, and a probabilistic classification scheme was used to classify these composite spectra as negative or positive margins. This discrimination was performed with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity, or with 100% positive predictive value
The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) frequency-domain multi-distance (FD-MD) method allows for the estimation of optical properties in biological tissue using the phase and intensity of radiofrequency modulated light at different source-detector sep
When NASA's next Mars rover blasts off later this month, the car-sized robot will carry with it nearly eight pounds of a special kind of plutonium
Plutonium - The awesome element by katerina mat | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
Always a crowd favorite, the Glockenspiel performance takes place daily. In the same style as the Rathaus Glockenspiel, on the Marienplatz, or central town square in Munich, the Glockenspiel depicts a comedic snapshot of a day-in-the-life of the Holzhacker, or Lumberjack. Accompanied to music, the Lumberjacks perform their daily job, chopping wood and sawing logs, as well as taking breaks to dance and typically enjoy a little refreshment. Located on the south end, near the BMO Harris Pavilion, its a German Fest MUST SEE.. Performance Times ...
Its sad how much of what you wrote applies to ALL businesses... instead of putting people at the top who actually know how the business runs and what each department does, we get people who went to business school. These people dont know JACK about how things actually work in the company, but hey, they have a degree in BUSINESS, so we should pay them a lot of money to make our jobs harder to do. siiiiigh. ...
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Can you guess who is who?. Come by the office to enter the drawing by guessing which Clinebell Team member is hiding under the Lumberjack beard ...
The axe isnt typically something we think of as modern or revolutionary, but some guys at Vipukirves have reinvented the lumberjacks tool.
July 10th, 2008 at 7:18 pm The accepted wisdom, which the Putrid Plutonium Propheteers try to push around in their seemingly spotless boardrooms; is that something like this could never happen here, in our pristine Idaho waters ...
The internal dosimetry program conducts analyses and consultation for the study and management of internal radiation exposure. The analyses include collection of information on work and residence history, past and current radiation exposure, bioassays to measure the presence of radionuclides within body tissues (in vivo) or body fluids and excretions (in vitro), and calculation of dose associated with observed uptakes. Consultation includes interpretation of bioassay results and can extend to collaboration with health care professionals and workplace supervisors. The internal dosimetry program includes a documented quality assurance program for in vivo bioassays and a comprehensive technical basis for the assessment of internal exposure. The program meets the requirements and recommendations of the DOE Implementation Guide for Internal Dosimetry Programs (10 CFR 835) and the American National Standards Institute Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay (N13.30). The Center is also involved in the ...
Pediatric dialysis patients are at risk of nutritional illness secondary to deficiencies in water-soluble vitamins and trace elements. Unlike 25-OH vitamin D, most other vitamins and trace elements are not routinely monitored in the blood and, consequently, the detection of any deficiency may not occur until significant complications develop. Causes of vitamin and trace element deficiency in patients on maintenance dialysis patient are multifactorial, ranging from diminished nutritional intake to altered metabolism as well as dialysate-driven losses of water-soluble vitamins and select trace elements. In this review we summarize the nutritional sources of key water-soluble vitamins and trace elements with a focus on the biological roles and clinical manifestations of their respective deficiency to augment awareness of potential nutritional illness in pediatric patients receiving maintenance dialysis. The limited pediatric data on the topic of clearance of water-soluble vitamins and trace ...
Actinides are a series of chemical elements that form the basis of nuclear fission technology, finding applications in strategic areas such as power generation, space exploration, diagnostics and medical treatments, and also in some special glass. Thorium (Th) and Uranium (U) are the most abundant actinides in the Earths crust.. A deeper understanding of the properties of uranium and other actinides is necessary not only for their more efficient use in existing applications but also for proposing new applications. Several open questions remain, progress in this area usually limited in part by the difficulty in handling these materials safely.. The distribution of electrons in the outer orbital of the atoms that make up a given material is what defines whether they are electrical insulators, conductors or semiconductors, as well as whether they are hard or malleable. Other structural, electronic and magnetic properties are also defined by these valence electrons which may undergo electronic ...
PERMITS MAKE IT OK, UP TO THEIR LIMITS To comprehend the risks after the partial clean up by 1979 standards, attorney Clare Hartnett writes in "Cleanup of Releases of Radioactive Materials from Commercial Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites: Whose Jurisdiction" published in 1994 in Vol. 34 of the Natural Resources Journal how overlaps exist between Superfund (Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation & Recovery Act, CERCLA), the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) , the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). "CERCLA was not intended to preempt existing legislation. This is evidenced by the federally permitted release exemption, which explicitly exempts releases from CERCLA liability pursuant to an AEA license," the document states. The article explains that a specified "release" of a contaminant will often be allowed as part of a federal permit. Simply, a "permit" allows a determined amount of the contaminant to be released. The EPA has authority ...
Although studies have examined the relationship between thyroid disorder (TD) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), the information on TD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is limited, say researchers from Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Aja University of Medical Science in Tehran, Iran, who report on an 11-year follow-up from the Tehran Thyroid Study. However, undetected TDs may compromise metabolic control of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance, or impaired fasting glucose, the researchers point out. Undetected TDs also may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. And DM and prediabetes can affect thyroid tests.. ...
Bariatric Surgery for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with BMI drawn to seek approximately 40% remission rate of diabetes from surgery with a 6% major Heal your thyroid with natural Blood sugar imbalances overtax the HPA Axis which effects the HPT axis and thyroid Studies have shown that chromium picolinate Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Search. Benefits Of Red Rice Wine cupcake Recipes for Diabetics! June 3 2015July 31 2015 Steve 37 Comments. Diabetic And Pregnant Diet Not only is type 2 diabetes completely preventable however is virtually curable for everyone who would probably to invest the hard time The "twin vicious cycles" explain how the buildup of fat in the cells of Lantus has been available for pharmaceutical use since the year 2000. Why are we addressing whey supplementation for diabetics or even for healthy individuals wishing to prevent diabetes from occurring? - Studies realized in Sweden [3] and Australia [4] have revealed beneficial effects of the administration of a whey ...
This was a meta-analysis of individual patient data in 14 cohort studies included in the Thyroid Studies Collaboration consortium. The authors used a common thyrotropin reference range of 0.45-4.49 mIU/L for all cohorts except for the Whickham Survey (in which authors used a reference range of 0.5-5.9 mIU/L because the first-generation thyrotropin assay used in that study yields consistently higher levels than measurements of current assays). The authors determined hazard ratios (HRs) of CHD mortality and CHD events according to thyrotropin levels after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status.. ...
ACSEPT is an R&D project founded by the seventh Framework Program (FP7) of the European Commission (Euratom - Fission). It is dedicated to the recycling of actinides by chemical separation and transmutation. It was officially launched on March the 1st, 2008 and will finish on February the 29th, 2012
Betke, U. and Wickleder, M. S. (2012), Oleum and Sulfuric Acid as Reaction Media: The Actinide Examples UO2(S2O7)-lt (low temperature), UO2(S2O7)-ht (high temperature), UO2(HSO4)2, An(SO4)2 (An = Th, U), Th4(HSO4)2(SO4)7 and Th(HSO4)2(SO4). Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2012: 306-317. doi: 10.1002/ejic.201100975 ...
Nuclear technology, Surfaces, Radioactive pollution, Decontamination, Environmental cleanliness, Radioactive materials, Radiation measurement, Radioactive isotopes, Floor coverings, Wall coverings, Cleaning materials, Contamination, Radiation hazards ...
A discussion of ph se diagrams of highly refractory oxides with oxides of lanthanides and actinides, as found in the literature, is presented. Included are certain generalizations concerning tetravalent actinide oxide systems containing one of the following: beryllium oxide, magn sium oxide, calcium oxide, aluminum o ide, zirconium oxide, silica, oxides of trivalent rare earth ele ents. Generalizations concerning oxides of trivalent rare earth elements are included. Systems with beryllium oxide are eutectic and analogous to systems with actinides. Also discussed are trivalent rare earth systems with aluminum oxides, ZrO2, S IO <.ACTINIDE SERIES
Transplantation tends to be more cost-effective than dialysis, with successful transplantation incurring lower costs of treatment and producing better outcomes in terms of quality of life. Transplantation also results in a greater ability of patients to participate productively in the community. For persons living in LMIC, where there is little or no social safety net, transplantation might therefore constitute a particularly attractive treatment option. Establishing organ donor and transplant programmes requires that first the cultural and organization challenges to such programmes are recognized and addressed.. In many cultures, deceased donation/transplantation is not a widely acceptable practice.33 Japan has the highest prevalence of dialysis patients in the world, however less than 5% of the quarter of a million on maintenance dialysis have chosen to be registered with Japans Kidney Transplant Network.34 Belief about what happens after death, cultural resistance to mutilating the body and ...
The preoperative diagnosis of thyroid lesions is not the only challenge faced by pathologists. Very often, establishing the differential diagnosis between benignancy and malignancy of a thyroid nodule, based only on the histopathological exam, can be quite difficult.. One of the greatest research challenges involving well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma is to develop a method to enable the correct differential diagnosis between benign and malignant lesions, trying to avoid a diagnostic surgery. To really reach this objective a test would need to have an especially high sensitivity rate,[11] but it has not yet been achieved in the literature even when genomic classifiers are employed[80]. Thus, the search for a "marker" that enhances this diagnostic capability is ongoing[81].. Cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) expression in thyroid nodules is in general intense and diffuse in papillary carcinoma and heterogeneous labeling in carcinoma and in follicular adenoma, with nil or low expression in other benign ...
Recycling of actinides by their separation from spent nuclear fuel, followed by transmutation in fast neutron reactors of Generation IV, is considered the most promising strategy for nuclear waste management. Closing the fuel cycle and burning long-lived actinides allows optimizing the use of natural resources and minimizing the long-term hazard of high-level nuclear waste. Moreover, improving the safety and sustainability of nuclear power worldwide. This paper presents the activities striving to meet these challenges, carried out under the Euratom FP7 collaborative project SACSESS (Safety of Actinide Separation Processes). Emphasis is put on the safety issues of fuel reprocessing and waste storage. Two types of actinide separation processes, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical, are considered, as well as related aspects of material studies, process modeling and the radiolytic stability of solvent extraction systems. Education and training of young researchers in nuclear chemistry is of ...
Schistosomiasis japonicum is one of the most severe zoonotic diseases in China. Water buffalo and yellow cattle are important reservoir hosts and the main transmission sources of Schistosoma japonicun in endemic areas. The susceptibility of these two hosts to schistosome infection is different, as water buffaloes are less susceptible to S. japonicum than yellow cattle. In this study, iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS was applied to compare the protein expression profiles of adult schistosomes recovered from water buffalo with those of yellow cattle. A total of 131 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified, including 46 upregulated proteins and 85 downregulated proteins. The iTRAQ results were confirmed by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Further analysis indicated that these DEPs were primarily involved in protein synthesis, transcriptional regulation, protein proteolysis, cytoskeletal structure and oxidative stress response processes. The results revealed that some of the

ATSDR - Public Health Statement: AmericiumATSDR - Public Health Statement: Americium

Americium has no naturally occurring or stable isotopes. There are two important isotopes of americium, americium 241 and ... americium 243, also written as 241Am or 243Am, and read as americium two-forty-one and americium two- ... Each radioactive isotope of an element, including americium, constantly gives off radiation, and this changes it into an ... Americium is a man-made, radioactive, actinide element with an atomic number of 95. It was discovered in 1945. Actinides are ...
more infohttps://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=809&tid=158

London Nuke Plant Loses 30 Kilos of Plutonium - SlashdotLondon Nuke Plant Loses 30 Kilos of Plutonium - Slashdot

Halliburton misplaces Americium in Massachusetts, fails to notify Nuclear Regulatory Commission within federally-mandated ...
more infohttps://science.slashdot.org/story/05/02/18/0027246/london-nuke-plant-loses-30-kilos-of-plutonium

Americium
    - Element information, properties and uses | Periodic TableAmericium - Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table

Element Americium (Am), Group 20, Atomic Number 95, f-block, Mass [243]. Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, ... Thats because americium is used in many smoke detectors. A tiny quantity - less than a millionth of a gram - of americium 241 ... None of americiums isotopes are truly stable - the longest lasting, americium-243, has a half-life of 7370 years, while many ... The americium was produced by bombarding plutonium with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. This produced isotope americium-241, ...
more infohttp://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/95/

Americium - WikipediaAmericium - Wikipedia

... such as americium dioxide (AmO2) and americium(IV) fluoride (AmF4). All pentavalent and hexavalent americium compounds are ... Americium(III) oxide is a red-brown solid with a melting point of 2205 °C. Americium(IV) oxide is the main form of solid ... Borides of americium include AmB4 and AmB6. The tetraboride can be obtained by heating an oxide or halide of americium with ... Metallic americium is obtained by reduction from its compounds. Americium(III) fluoride was first used for this purpose. The ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Americium

Periodic Table of Elements: Americium - Am (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)Periodic Table of Elements: Americium - Am (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)

Comprehensive information for the element Americium - Am is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names ... Americium Menu. *Americium Page One*Overview of Americium*Americiums Name in Other Languages*Atomic Structure of Americium* ... Americium Menu. *Americium Page One*Overview of Americium*Americiums Name in Other Languages*Atomic Structure of Americium* ... Americiums Name in Other Languages. *Latin: Americium*Czech: Americium*Croatian: Americij*French: Américium*German: Amerizium ...
more infohttps://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/Am.html

Americium-241 - WikipediaAmericium-241 - Wikipedia

Americium-241 (241Am) is an isotope of americium. Like all isotopes of americium, it is radioactive. 241Am is the most common ... Americium-241 is a form of americium therefore having the same general hazards. Americium and its isotopes are both extremely ... Americium-241 is an α-emitter with a weak γ-ray byproduct. Safely handling americium-241 requires knowing and following proper ... It is the most prevalent isotope of americium in nuclear waste. Americium-241 has a half-life of 432.2 years. It is commonly ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Americium-241

A series of dithiocarbamates for americium, curium, and californium (Journal Article) | DOE PAGESA series of dithiocarbamates for americium, curium, and californium (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

A series of dithiocarbamates for americium, curium, and californium Journal Article Cary, Samantha K. ; Su, Jing ; Galley, ... Accepted Manuscript: A series of dithiocarbamates for americium, curium, and californium. This content will become publicly ... COMPLEX FORMATION OF AMERICIUM, CURIUM, CALIFORNIUM, PROMETHIUM, AND EUROPIUM WITH 2-HYDROXYETHYLIMINODIACETEC ACID. ... title = {A series of dithiocarbamates for americium, curium, and californium},. author = {Cary, Samantha K. and Su, Jing and ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1480028-series-dithiocarbamates-americium-curium-californium

АРСЕНИДЫ АМЕРИЦИЯ (americium arsenides): Topics by WorldWideScience.orgАРСЕНИДЫ АМЕРИЦИЯ (americium arsenides): Topics by WorldWideScience.org

Lithium reduction of americium dioxide to generate americium metal Usami T.; Kato T.; Kurata M.; Inoue T.; Sims H.E.; Beetham S ... Synthesis of americium trichloride by the reaction of americium nitride with cadmium chloride ... HIGH-RESOLUTION MEASUREMENTS OF NEUTRON ENERGY SPECTRA FROM AMERICIUM-BERYLLIUM AND AMERICIUM-BORON NEUTRON SOURCES (BERYLLIUM ... NUCLEAR MAGNETIC MOMENTS AND HYPERFINE ANOMALIES OF RHENIUM-186, RHENIUM-188, AND AMERICIUM-241, AMERICIUM-242. ...
more infohttps://worldwidescience.org/topicpages/multi/RU/a/americium+arsenides.html

Americium and Curium Chemistry and Technology | Springer for Research & DevelopmentAmericium and Curium Chemistry and Technology | Springer for Research & Development

Americium and Curium Chemistry and Technology at the International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies in Honolulu, ... A Study on the Stability of Americium(V) and Americium(VI) in Nitrate Media ... Americium and Curium Chemistry and Technology. Papers from a Symposium given at the 1984 International Chemical Congress of ... Thus, this volume is a review of the chemistry of americium and curium, and provides a perspective on the current research on ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-94-009-5444-1

Americium | PhysicsOpenLabAmericium | PhysicsOpenLab

Alpha Radiation Alpha spectrometer Alpha Spectrometry Americium Beta particles Cherenkov cloud chamber Coincidence Compton ...
more infohttp://physicsopenlab.org/tag/americium/

Americium Dream Distractions: July 2009Americium Dream Distractions: July 2009

President Obama has laid out the three core principles for real health care reform -- and were going to do everything we can to make sure reform gets passed this year ...
more infohttp://amerdreamduh.blogspot.com/2009_07_01_archive.html

Americium Dream Documents: February 2010Americium Dream Documents: February 2010

http://74.125.155.132/search?q=cache:XQeBGtnj7skJ:www.omnigroup.com/mailman/archive/macosx-dev/1999-October.txt+stepwise.com/Articles/Technical/memorymanagement.html&cd=9&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client= ...
more infohttp://amerdreamdocs.blogspot.com/2010/02/

Americium Dream Distractions: May 2010Americium Dream Distractions: May 2010

Markdown is a text-to-HTML conversion tool for web writers. It allows you to write using an easy-to-read, easy-to-write plain text format, then convert it to structurally valid XHTML (or HTML ...
more infohttp://amerdreamduh.blogspot.com/2010_05_01_archive.html

Plutonium and americium detected in air near Highway 240 at Hanford sitePlutonium and americium detected in air near Highway 240 at Hanford site

Radioactive plutonium and americium were detected in air samples collected on Thursday, June 8, 2017 at the Hanford nuclear ... Radioactive plutonium and americium were detected in air samples collected on Thursday, June 8, 2017 at the Hanford nuclear ... The amount of americium detected is reportedly about three times the limit allowed by state air quality standards, but the ... Plutonium and americium detected in air near Highway 240 at Hanford site. Follow @TheWatchers_ ...
more infohttps://watchers.news/2017/08/10/plutonium-and-americium-detected-in-air-near-highway-240-at-hanford-site/

Rapid selective separation of americium/curium from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using triazine ligands  - Northumbria...Rapid selective separation of americium/curium from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using triazine ligands - Northumbria...

Rapid selective separation of americium/curium from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using triazine ligands ... Rapid selective separation of americium/curium from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using triazine ligands. Radiochimica ...
more infohttp://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/24144/

Americium and Curium Chemistry and Technology: Papers from a by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg (auth.), Norman M. Edelstein, James D. -...Americium and Curium Chemistry and Technology: Papers from a by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg (auth.), Norman M. Edelstein, James D. -...

Of course, trivalent americium was demonstrated to be a very stable aqueous ion. This was the status of americium chemistry ... tetravalent americium was demonstrated in the dioxide, pentavalent americium as the potassium carbonate salt of unknown ... They include the first major isolation of americium from impure plutonium, and significant expansion of americium chemistry. ... Extra info for Americium and Curium Chemistry and Technology: Papers from a Symposium given at the 1984 International Chemical ...
more infohttp://sandifeet.com/download/americium-and-curium-chemistry-and-technology-papers-from-a-symposium-given-at

URANIUM PLUTONIUM NUCLEAR MOX WASTE POWER PLANT MINING BOMBS ATOMIC SHELTER RADIOACTIVE ☢☠☢★: URANIUM PLUTONIUM THORIUM CESIUM...URANIUM PLUTONIUM NUCLEAR MOX WASTE POWER PLANT MINING BOMBS ATOMIC SHELTER RADIOACTIVE ☢☠☢★: URANIUM PLUTONIUM THORIUM CESIUM...

URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, THORIUM, MOX, WORLD, NUCLEAR, WASTES, TAILINGS, MOUNTAINS, RADIOACTIVITY, POLLUTION, GEIGER MÛLLER COUNTER, ATOMIC BOMBS, COLD AND HOT FUSION, FUKUSHIMA, TCHERNOBYL, MAYAK, SELLAFIELDS, TREE MILES ISLAND. BIBLE OF THE NUCLEAR AGE, BIBLE DE LÈRE NUCLÉAIRE, FISSION ET FUSSION, DÉCHETS, MONTAGNES DE ROCHES RADIOACTIVE, BEAVERS, YELLOW CAKE.. ...
more infohttp://uranium-nuclear-mox-radioactive-waste.blogspot.com/2014/08/uranium-plutonium-thorium-cesium-cobalt.html

The structures of CyMe4-BTBP complexes of americium(III) and europium(III) in solvents used in solvent extraction, explaining...The structures of CyMe4-BTBP complexes of americium(III) and europium(III) in solvents used in solvent extraction, explaining...

The separation of americium(III) from europium(III) with CyMe4-BTBP as extraction agent will increase with decreasing relative ... The presence of a nitrate ion in the first coordination sphere of the americium(III) complex compensates the charge density of ... The structures of CyMe4-BTBP complexes of americium(III) and europium(III) in solvents used in solvent extraction, explaining ... The structures of CyMe4-BTBP complexes of americium(III) and europium(III) in solvents used in solvent extraction, explaining ...
more infohttps://pub.epsilon.slu.se/13338/

Search Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill EducationSearch Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education

Americium. A chemical element, symbol Am, atomic number 95. The isotope 241Am is an alpha emitter with a half-life of 433 years ... Other isotopes of americium range in mass from 232 to 247, but only the isotopes of mass 241 and 243 are important. The isotope ...
more infohttps://www.accessscience.com/search?amp%3BrootID=794558&topics=Chemistry&start=0&%3Bstart=0&%3Bamp%3BsearchStr=Marine+ecology&%3Bamp%3Btypes=Image+Gallery&%3Bamp%3Btypes=Biography&%3Brows=25&%3Bamp%3Brows=10&rows=100

Search Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill EducationSearch Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education

Americium. A chemical element, symbol Am, atomic number 95. The isotope 241Am is an alpha emitter with a half-life of 433 years ... Other isotopes of americium range in mass from 232 to 247, but only the isotopes of mass 241 and 243 are important. The isotope ...
more infohttps://www.accessscience.com/search?topics=Psychiatry+%26+Psychology&topics=Navigation&topics=Chemistry&start=0&%3Bstart=0&%3Btopics=Botany&%3Btopics=Engineering+%26+Materials&%3Btopics=Psychiatry+%26+Psychology&types=Article&types=Project&%3Brows=10&%3Btypes=Briefing&%3Btypes=Image&rows=50

Articles by Topic - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill EducationArticles by Topic - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education

Americium - [Article] Ammine - [Article] Ammonia - [Article] Ammonium salt - [Article] Antimony - [Article] Aqua regia - [ ...
more infohttp://accessscience.com/topics/chemistry/inorganic-chemistry
  • However, since americium is radioactive, you can also be exposed to its radiation if you are near it. (cdc.gov)
  • Americium (pronounced, 1am-c-0ris(h)-'-cm) is a human-made, radioactive element. (cdc.gov)
  • Quantities of americium, as well as other radioactive elements, can be measured in units of mass (grams), but are usually measured in terms of their radioactivity (curies or becquerels). (cdc.gov)
  • Each radioactive isotope of an element, including americium, constantly gives off radiation, which changes it into an isotope of a different element or a different isotope of the same element. (cdc.gov)
  • With its half-life of 432.2 years, the americium in a smoke detector decreases and includes about 3% neptunium after 19 years, and about 5% after 32 years.The amount of americium in a typical new smoke detector is 0.29 microgram (about one-third the weight of a grain of sand) with an activity of 1 microcurie/37 kilobequerels (1.0 μCi/37 kBq). (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of americium detected is reportedly about three times the limit allowed by state air quality standards, but the standard is based on an average amount over 365 days for someone living there and growing food there, according to Department of Health officials. (watchers.news)
  • it was thus by analogy named after the Americas: "The name americium (after the Americas) and the symbol Am are suggested for the element on the basis of its position as the sixth member of the actinide rare-earth series, analogous to europium, Eu, of the lanthanide series. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, we could rather quickly disp·el the notion that americium had an attainable divalent state by observing that the trivalent absorption persisted in spite of reducing agents that yielded both europium(II) and samarium(II). (sandifeet.com)
  • from the early tracer studies, and reinforced by the location of americium in the new actinide series as a homolog of europium. (sandifeet.com)
  • EXAFS studies of the dicomplexes of CyMe4-BTBP with americium(III) and europium(III) in nitrobenzene, cyclohexanone, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol and malonamide (DMDOHEMA) in 1-octanol have been carried out to get a deeper understanding of the parameters responsible for the separation. (slu.se)
  • The separation of americium(III) from europium(III) with CyMe4-BTBP as extraction agent will increase with decreasing relative permittivity of the solvent, and thereby also with decreasing solubility of CyMe4-BTBP. (slu.se)
  • Americium was first made late in 1944 at the University of Chicago by a team which included Glenn Seaborg, Ralph James, Leon Morgan, and Albert Ghiorso. (rsc.org)
  • Americium was first produced in 1944 by the group of Glenn T. Seaborg from Berkeley, California, at the Metallurgical Laboratory of the University of Chicago, a part of the Manhattan Project. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although americium was likely produced in previous nuclear experiments, it was first intentionally synthesized, isolated and identified in late autumn 1944, at the University of California, Berkeley, by Glenn T. Seaborg, Leon O. Morgan, Ralph A. James, and Albert Ghiorso. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of americium was made in 1944, as just recounted in the first paper of this session by one of the discoverers, Glenn T. Seaborg. (sandifeet.com)
  • Initial experiments yielded four americium isotopes: 241Am, 242Am, 239Am and 238Am. (wikipedia.org)
  • Americium-241 has been produced in small quantities in nuclear reactors for decades, and many kilograms of 241Am have been accumulated by now. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a light water reactor (LWR), 79% of 241Am converts to 242Am and 10% to its nuclear isomer 242mAm: 79%: 95 241 A m → ( n , γ ) 95 242 A m {\displaystyle \mathrm {^{241}_{\ 95}Am\ {\xrightarrow {(n,\gamma )}}\ _{\ 95}^{242}Am} } Americium-241 decays mainly via alpha decay, with a weak gamma ray byproduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • 95}Am\longrightarrow _{\ 81}^{207}Tl+_{14}^{34}Si} } The least common (rarest) type of decay that americium-241 undergoes is spontaneous fission, with a branching ratio of 4×10−12 and happening 1.2 times a second per gram of 241Am. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of course, trivalent americium was demonstrated to be a very stable aqueous ion. (sandifeet.com)
  • it was believed (erroneously) that americium also possessed an attainable aqueous divalent state. (sandifeet.com)
  • Quantities of americium, as well as other radioactive elements, can be measured in units of mass (grams), but are usually measured in terms of their radioactivity (curies or becquerels). (cdc.gov)
  • This report applies the method to an investigation of the corresponding reaction of americium, representing a part of a systematic program of investigation of the thermodynamic properties of analogous reactions of lanthanide and actinide elements. (unt.edu)
  • The following document focuses on the study of the absorption spectra of americium chloride. (unt.edu)
  • A drug named 'Medetopect' consisting of apple pectins, vitamin C and calcium phosphate reduces absorption of Plutonium-239 and Americium-241 from the gastrointestinal tract of animals. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • It followed the pioneer work on americium which Cunningham, Werner and Perlman had provided in the half-dozen years following its discovery. (sandifeet.com)
  • Americium is named for America where it was first made. (rsc.org)
  • Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95. (wikipedia.org)
  • Americium is commonly used in smoke alarms, but has few other uses. (rsc.org)
  • Americium (pronounced, 1am-c-0ris(h)-'-cm) is a human-made, radioactive element. (cdc.gov)
  • including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Americium. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • Comprehensive information for the element Americium - Am is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides and technical terms are linked to their definitions. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • Americium-241 has a half-life of 432.2 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report calculates the alpha half-life of americium-243 and reporting a measurement error. (unt.edu)
  • We had an enormous advantage over the earlier workers in that, once we had it isolated, we could work with americium on the many milligram scale, utilizing spectrophotometry to ascertain americium valence states in millimolar solutions. (sandifeet.com)
  • The second most common type of decay for americium-241 is cluster decay, with a branching ratio of less than 7.4×10−16. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following report describes x-ray diffraction patterns of various compounds of americium and its crystal structures. (unt.edu)
  • Americium has been found in at least 8 of the 1,636 current or former NPL sites. (cdc.gov)
  • As more sites are evaluated, the sites at which americium is found may increase. (cdc.gov)
  • This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for americium . (cdc.gov)
  • This public health statement tells you about americium and the effects of exposure. (cdc.gov)