Americium: Americium. A completely man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Am, atomic number 95, and atomic weight 243. Its valence can range from +3 to +6. Because of its nonmagnetic ground state, it is an excellent superconductor. It is also used in bone mineral analysis and as a radiation source for radiotherapy.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Osteogenesis, Distraction: Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Symbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Beekeeping: The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.Emblems and Insignia: Figures or symbols identifying or representing organizations or societies.Leptospermum: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. The common name of tea tree is also used for MELALEUCA and KUNZEA.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.PaperFrostbite: Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.Nuclear Reactors: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radioactive Pollutants: Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Neutron Diffraction: The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.Fast Neutrons: Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Waste Disposal Facilities: Sites that receive and store WASTE PRODUCTS. Some facilities also sort, process, and recycle specific waste products.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Libraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)Library Automation: The use of automatic machines or processing devices in libraries. The automation may be applied to library administrative activities, office procedures, and delivery of library services to users.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Libraries, NursingNelson Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Araliaceae: The ginseng plant family of the order Apiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are generally alternate, large, and compound. Flowers are five-parted and arranged in compound flat-topped umbels. The fruit is a berry or (rarely) a drupe (a one-seeded fruit). It is well known for plant preparations used as adaptogens (immune support and anti-fatigue).Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Schools: Educational institutions.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.BooksStudents, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.

Effect of I,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in renal osteodystrophy. (1/22)

A 23-year-old man with medullary cystic disease had been undergoing hemodialysis for 5 years and had become confined to a wheelchair because of renal osteodystrophy. He was treated with 125-dihydroxycholecalciferol, 2.0 mug (later 1.0 mug) three times a week, administered by way of the venous end of the dialysis machine. Within 1 month bone pain lessened and his ability to stand and walk improved. By 3 months he was walking short distances and by 5 months, long distances. Calcium balance was near zero before treatment and was strongly positive during treatment. Bone mineral content in the lower femur, measured by photon absorptiometry, increased at a rate of 32.2% per year. In contrast, 26 other patients on long-term hemodialysis had a mean loss of bone mineral content of 14.0% per year. Radiographs taken during treatment showed a decrease in subperiosteal bone resorption and healing of a pseudofracture. A significant decrease in the mean serum alkaline phosphatase value was noted during treatment, but no significant changes in mean serum calcium or phosphorus values were seen.  (+info)

Thenar muscle blood flow and bone mineral in the forearms of lumberjacks. (2/22)

Forty lumberjacks who had used a chain saw for 0-20 years and who had no general disease affecting the bones were studied by measuring the thenar muscle blood flow of both hands by the 133-Xe local clearance method. Bone mineral in the left forearm in the region of cancellous and cortical bone was assessed by the 241-Am gamma ray attenuation method. Virbration was found to decrease the blood flow in the saw-bearing left hand compared with the right hand of the lumberjacks. The bone mineral density (g/vm-3) was lower in the forearm bones of the lumberjacks than in controls of the same age with healthy bones. Moreover the poorer the thenar muscle blood flow, the greater was the decrease in the mineral density of the distal radius. Measurement of the mineral density of the forearm bones by the gramma ray attenuation method can be used for early detection of bone lesions in traumatic vasospastic disease.  (+info)

Bone mineral content determined by functional imaging. (3/22)

Quantitation of bone mineral by photon absorptiometry is a simple and accurate method for determining changes in bone volume and mineral content in serial studies. An extension of the scintillation camera method for studying such changes in the calcaneous is described. This technique is applicable to large areas of bone, thereby minimizing the effect of repositioning errors. Using a 40-mCi 241Am sheet source, a 2.1% reproducibility in bone phantoms and a 2.4% reproducibility in normal patients was achieved. Several case studies are presented to illustrate sensitivity and clinical application of the method. Although bone mineral determinations are now performed in a limited number of health care facilities, the scintillation camera method described in this report could increase the availability of these determinations significantly.  (+info)

Radiation hazards from 241Am sources used in thyroid studies. (4/22)

The neutron and gamma photon doses corresponding to the neck and eye level from an 241AmO2 source used in thyroid studies have been theoretically estimated. The radiation hazard to the patient is found to be not significant.  (+info)

Worldwide bioassay data resources for plutonium/americium internal dosimetry studies. (5/22)

Biokinetic models are the scientific underpinning of internal dosimetry and depend, ultimately, for their scientific validation on comparisons with human bioassay data. Three significant plutonium/americium bioassay databases, known to the authors, are described: (1) Sellafield, (2) Los Alamos and (3) the United States Transuranium Registry. A case is made for a uniform standard for database format, and the XML standard is discussed.  (+info)

A device for in vitro irradiation with alpha-particles using an alpha-emitting radioactive source. (6/22)

A device to irradiate a monolayer of cultured cells with alpha-particles using an Am-241 alpha-source (33.4 MBq) was designed to investigate RBEs of alpha-particles in cell killing, induction of chromosome aberration, mutagenic changes and transformation. This device can be used conveniently in a common laboratory by a small number of researchers without any limitation of machine time. The device performs as follows: (1) The energy of alpha-particles at the entrance of the cell layer is 3.20 MeV with a standard deviation of 0.25 MeV, (2) the incident angle to the cell layer is 82.8 degrees with a standard deviation of 3.2 degrees, (3) the fluence rate is 4.7 x 10(5) cm-2.min-1, (4) the average LET infinity for a cell layer 5 microns thick is 138 keV/micron, (5) the average dose rate for a cell layer 5 microns thick is 0.10 Gy/min., (6) a temperature and CO2 concentration conducive to cell cultivation are maintained during irradiation.  (+info)

Separation techniques for quantification of radionuclides in environmental samples. (7/22)

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Investigation of activation rate uniformity in a prompt-gamma rays IVNAA facility. (8/22)

The preliminary design studies for developing a prompt-gamma rays in vivo neutron activation analysis facility are in construction at Neutron Activation Research Centre of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this work, activation rate distribution is studied in different bilateral configurations in order to reduce the CV of activation rate distribution throughout the body to less than 10%. It means that the maximum RMS deviation from the mean value of distribution must be smaller than 0.5%. The best case includes two pairs of (241)Am-Be neutron sources. Each pair (with 70 cm distance between two sources) is positioned within up and down 40 x 110 cm(2) area graphite collimators. Also, four moderator/reflector objects are added to transversal body surfaces with 5 cm thick water and 3 cm thick graphite. The proper thickness of polyethylene pre-moderators is chosen 8 mm. The RMS deviation of distribution is 0.3% with the mean activation rate of 1.85 x 10(-6) cm(-3).  (+info)

Americium is a man-made, radioactive, actinide element with an atomic number of 95. It was discovered in 1945. Actinides are the 15 elements, all of whose isotopes are radioactive starting with actinium (atomic number 89), and extending to lawrencium (atomic number 103). When not combined with other elements, americium is a silvery metal. Americium has no naturally occurring or stable isotopes. There are two important isotopes of americium, americium 241 and americium 243, also written as 241Am or 243Am, and read as americium two-forty-one and americium two-forty-three. Both isotopes have the same chemical behavior in the environment and the same chemical effects on your body. However, these isotopes have different atomic weights and different radioactive properties, such as their half-life (see next paragraph) and the energy of radiation they give off. Each radioactive isotope of an element, including americium, constantly gives off radiation, and this changes it into an isotope
Radioactive plutonium and americium were detected in air samples collected on Thursday, June 8, 2017 at the Hanford nuclear reservation in Washington, US, state officials said Tuesday, August 8. According to Hanford officials, State of Washington...
Discover more about Americium. One of thousands of articles selected and checked for the Wikipedia for Schools by SOS Childrens Villages UK
TY - JOUR. T1 - New isotope 233Am. AU - Sakama, M.. AU - Tsukada, K.. AU - Asai, M.. AU - Ichikawa, S.. AU - Haba, H.. AU - Goto, S.. AU - Oura, Y.. AU - Nishinaka, I.. AU - Nagame, Y.. AU - Shibata, M.. AU - Kojima, Y.. AU - Kawade, K.. AU - Ebihara, M.. AU - Nakahara, H.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - The new neutron-deficient americium isotope 233Am produced via the 233U(6Li, 6n) reaction has been identified using the JAERI on-line isotope separator (JAERI-ISOL) coupled to a gas-jet transport system. The α-decay of 233Am and its subsequent α-decay chain have been observed in the mass-233 fraction. The half-life and α-particle energy of 233Am have been determined to be 3.2 ± 0.8 min and 6780 ± 17 keV, respectively. From these results and a deduced α-decay branching ratio, the observed α-decay is regarded as a favored transition.. AB - The new neutron-deficient americium isotope 233Am produced via the 233U(6Li, 6n) reaction has been identified using the JAERI on-line isotope ...
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Many of these toxic chemicals off-gas -- they drift into the air in our homes and workplaces, and contaminate the dust on the floor where our babies crawl. We breathe them into our bodies ...
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The low energy gas scintillation proportional counter (LE-GSPC) is an imaging x-ray spectrometer. It is one of the narrow field instruments on board the SAX satellite and covers the lower energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. The low energy response of the detector is achieved by using a driftless gas cell and a thin multilayer polyimide foil as entrance window. The overall design of the imaging GSPC for space application is described. Using unit level and system level calibration data, acquired at a synchrotron and a long beam x-ray source, the capabilities both in terms of energy and position resolution are discussed. The overall efficiency of the instrument which includes the mirrors effective area, the entrance windows transparencies, the detectors efficiency and electronics deadtime are reviewed. Background rejection issues and the experiments consequent sensitivity to the measurement of cosmic x- ray source spectra are addressed ...
Transuranics are radionuclides that have atomic numbers greater than 92 in the periodic table. They are produced in nuclear reactors or as a result of nuclear chemistry experiments. These elements typically have half-lives that are greater than twenty years, and can produce moderate to high amounts of alpha radiation. The PUREX reprocessing method can be modified to carry out the TRUEX process which allows for the extraction of the transuranics, which reduces the radioactivity of the resulting MOX fuel. TRUEX is nearly identical to PUREX, except that octyl(phenyl)-N, N-dibutyl carbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide and tributylphosphate are added to the solution after the uranium and plutonium have been extracted to allow for the extraction of transuranics. Some of these transuranics such as americium, have industrial uses. The SANEX (Selective Actinide EXtraction) process has been proposed to allow for the extraction of specific radionuclides. Although the SANEX process is still theoretical, ...
The agency, which expanded the investigation because it disagrees with Davis-Besse officials about the potential threat to the men, also ordered additional tests on them. "We are not looking at an immediately life-threatening situation," stressed Jan Strasma, the NRCs spokesman for the Midwest region. "The [laboratory] results so far are far below the point where it would be any immediate health concern," he said. "We are looking at doses that have to be calculated over years. The extra lab tests are to better quantify what the doses would be." The calculations are based on the half-life, or decay rate, of the specific radioactive elements the men ingested and on the rate at which the human body typically excretes them, Strasma said. The elements, called "transuranics," are products of atom splitting, or fission, that goes on in the reactor, he said. Reactors produce a number of transuranics, including plutonium and americium, the element in household smoke detectors. But the NRC said it did ...
The alpha particles generated by the americium have the following property: They ionize the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the air in the chamber. To "ionize" means to "knock an electron off of." When you knock an electron off of an atom, you end up with a free electron (with a negative charge) and an atom missing one electron (with a positive charge). The negative electron is attracted to the plate with a positive voltage, and the positive atom is attracted to the plate with a negative voltage (opposites attract, just like with magnets). The electronics in the smoke detector sense the small amount of electrical current that these electrons and ions moving toward the plates represent. ...
Preface ix. Chemicals Sorted by Chemical Groups 1. Technologies Applicable to Specific Chemicals 11. Alcohols 11. Aldehydes 12. Aldehydes and Ketones 13. Aldehydes or Ketones with Other Functional Groups 13. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons 14. Aliphatic Nitriles and Cyanates 20. Aliphatic Nitrosamines 21. Aliphatic Organophosphorous Compounds 21. Alkanes and Cyclic Alkanes 21. Alkenes, Cyclic Alkenes, and Dienes 26. Alkyl Halides 27. Alkynes 28. Aluminum 28. Americium 29. Amides 30. Amines 30. Antimony 31. Aromatic Amines and Diamines 31. Aromatic Nitriles and Cyanates 34. Aromatic Nitro Compounds 34. Aromatic Nitro Compounds with Other Functional Groups 35. Aromatic Organophosphorous Compounds 35. Aromatics with Halogenated Side Chain 35. Arsenic 37. Azo Compounds 40. Azo Compounds, Hydrazine Derivatives 40. Barium 40. Benzene and Monosubstituted Benzene Hydrocarbons 42. Benzene and Substituted Benzene Hydrocarbons 67. Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene (BTEX) 67. Beryllium 73. Bismuth ...
Makrlík Emanuel, Vaňura Petr, Selucký Pavel, Babain Vasily, Alyapyshev Mikhail, Darin Dmitriy: Highly Efficient Solvent Extraction of Americium and Europium by Using Hydrogen Dicarbollylcobaltate and N,N′-Diethyl-N,N′-bis(4-ethylphenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxamide. J Solution Chem 2017, 46, 1475. ,https://doi.org/10.1007/s10953-017-0651-6 ...
A large area multi wire proportional chamber positron camera system is under evaluation for clinical Nuclear Medicine investigation using isotopes both from in house generators (68Ga) and from remote...
In our Focus Product Program we will concentrate on Polyaminocarboxylic acid chelating agents.. The removal of undesirable metal ions is often difficult and expensive and it is usually easier to inactivate them with a chelating agent.. Amino acid chelating agents securely bind these ions to form stable complexes, which remain very soluble. Thus, the metal ion can no longer exert an adverse effect on the system.. In the formulating and compounding industry the major problem is hard water, which can cause precipitation and/or separation. Even if the compounder has "soft" water, he may be making a concentrate and shipping it into an area with hard water.. It normally takes between .5 and 1% of a chelate to do the job.. Every compounder should be using EDTA, especially if they make disinfectants. The formulas will require EDTA as EDTA enhances the efficacy.. ...
Metal complexes of polyaminocarboxylic acids are of interest as contrast media for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Such metal complexes are stable and will therefore minimize the toxic effects of the free metal ions ...
Fibroblasts form one the most important cellular components of the skin derma. During aging, skin fibroblasts undergo substantial changes in their functional activity, morphology and proliferative potential. The number of dermal fibroblasts decreases with aging, along with their ability to synthesize active soluble factors and to maintain proteostasis of components of the intercellular dermal matrix. The skin thinning, the loss of skin flexibility and elasticity, and wrinkle formation are natural consequences of such a decline. Therefore, we suggested that evaluating the proliferative potential of dermal fibroblasts is of great significance. Measuring the ability to form colonies in vitro represents one of the "gold standard" methods for the assessment of the clonogenic survival of cells. The method was initially developed to evaluate the loss of reproductive capacity (reproductive death) of cells after exposure to damaging agents, particularly ionizing radiation. Later it was shown that cells ...
Initially, most common detection methods were based on the ionisation of gases, as in the Geiger-Müller counter: a sealed volume, usually a cylinder, with a polymer or thin metal window contains a gas, and a wire, and a high voltage is applied between the cylinder (cathode) and the wire (anode). When an X-ray photon enters the cylinder, it ionizes the gas. These ions accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionisation along their trajectory. This process, known as an avalanche, is detected as a sudden flow of current, called a "count" or "event.". Ultimately, the electrons form a virtual cathode around the anode wire drastically reducing the electric field in the outer portions of the tube. This halts the collisional ionizations and limits further growth of avalanches. As a result, all "counts" on a Geiger counter are the same size and it can give no indication as to the particle energy of the radiation, unlike the proportional counter. The intensity of the radiation is ...
The FDA has determined that N115 has sufficient safety toxicology and clinical data to proceed with the multi-dose, extended use, clinical trials. Phase III/Phase IV studies will focus on Pulmonary Fibrosis, Unmet Needs, and COPD patients. On the basis of existing clinical data, EmphyCorp is confident that its Investigative New Drug, N115, can and will be used for maintenance or continuous treatment of patients over extended periods of time. The Company believes that N115 will set the standard in the pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of major pulmonary diseases.. EmphyCorp and EmphyCorp.com does not encourage the use of any illegal substances. Always consult your local physician before taking any medication. Medications described on our website are for informational purposes ONLY and must be prescribed by your primary physician and scheduled for pickup at your local pharmacy. We are not a pharmacy and do not sell any prescription medications through this website.. EmphyCorp Inc - ...
personalhealthcare.in is a web portal for sharing of personal healthcare information by common people including those working in the healthcare profession. It is intended to provide practical guidance born out of actual individual healthcare experience to persons having health issues. Experience is knowledge and knowledge is power. This knowledge empowers each person to seek and adopt the best course of healthcare plan and approach---in terms of preventive healthcare regimen or treatment of disease ...
Profiling Animal Toxicants by Automatically Mining Public Bioassay Data: A Big Data Approach for Computational Toxicology Jun Zhang 1,2, Jui-Hua Hsieh 3, Hao Zhu 1,2 * 1 Department of Chemistry, Rutgers
We as Radiologists and Physicians are particularly well clued to the concept of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) in terms of Radiation hazards awareness. Whilst investigating children for musculoskeletal ailments this gets translated into a very narrow range of availability of Cross-sectional modalities to arrive at a conclusive diagnosis.
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In analysis of complex nuclear forensic samples containing lanthanides, actinides and matrix elements, rapid selective extraction of Am/Cm for quantification is challenging, in particular due the difficult separation of Am/Cm from lanthanides. Here we present a separation process for Am/Cm(III) which is achieved using a combination of AG1-X8 chromatography followed by Am/Cm extraction with a triazine ligand. The ligands tested in our process were CyMe4-BTPhen, CyMe4-BTBP, CA-BTP and CA-BTPhen. Our process allows for purification and quantification of Am and Cm (recoveries 80%-100%) and other major actinides in , 2d without the use of multiple columns or thiocyanate. The process is unaffected by high level Ca(II)/Fe(III)/Al(III) (10mg mL(-1)) and thus requires little pre-treatment of samples.. ...
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is susceptible to signal artifacts caused by relative motion between NIRS optical fibers and the scalp. These artifacts can be very damaging to the utility of functional NIRS, particularly in challenging subject groups where motion can be unavoidable. A number of approaches to the removal of motion artifacts from NIRS data have been suggested. In this paper we systematically compare the utility of a variety of published NIRS motion correction techniques using a simulated functional activation signal added to 20 real NIRS datasets which contain motion artifacts. Principle component analysis, spline interpolation, wavelet analysis, and Kalman filtering approaches are compared to one another and to standard approaches using the accuracy of the recovered, simulated hemodynamic response function (HRF). Each of the four motion correction techniques we tested yields a significant reduction in the mean-squared error (MSE) and significant increase in the ...
Transuranic waste consists of waste that is contaminated with man-made radioactive elements which are heavier than uranium (meaning the elements have higher atomic numbers than uranium on the Periodic Table of the Elements)" [i.e. plutonium, americium, etc.] "Because they come after uranium on the periodic table, they are referred to as "transuranic". The concentration of these transuranic elements in the waste determines whether it is transuranic (TRU) waste or low-level waste". [Note that it is concentration rather than how long-lived and dangerous.] "More than 70,000 containers of this waste (sometimes referred to as suspect TRU waste) were stored under a layer of dirt in the in the 1970s and 1980s, in the 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds of the Hanford Site. The intention was to retrieve the waste (which is why sometimes…. ...
In an effort to develop chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization, a collaborative project to develop iron-phosphate based ceramics has been initiated between Argonne National Laboratory and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. The starter powders are oxides of iron that are generated as inexpensive byproduct materials in the iron and steel industry. They contain iron oxides as a mixture of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and haematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). In this initial phase of this project, both of these compounds were investigated independently. Each was reacted with phosphoric acid solution to form iron phosphate ceramics. In the case of magnetite, the reaction was rapid. Adding ash as the waste component containing hazardous contaminants resulted in a dense and hard ceramic rich in glassy phase. On the other hand, the reaction of phosphoric acid solution with a mixture of haematite and ash waste contaminated with cesium and americium was too slow.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality among dialysis patients.This topic reviews HCV infection among dialysis patients, including epidemiology, screening, and prevention.The treatment of H
The on- and off-axis imaging properties and effective area of the two SODART flight telescopes have been measured using the expanded beam x-ray facility at the Daresbury synchrotron. From on-axis measurements the encircled power distribution and the point spread function at three energies 6.627 keV, 8.837 keV and 11.046 keV have been measured using a one-dimensional position sensitive detector. We found that the point spread function can be presented well by a function which is a sum of a Gaussian divided by the radius and two exponential terms where the first has a 1/e value close to 2 arcmin and the other a 1/e value of ca. 15 arcmin. The data have been used to calculate the half power diameter (HPD) for three different SODART focal plane detectors, the high energy proportional counter (HEPC) with a field of view (FOV) of 65 arcmin, the low energy proportional counter (LEPC) with a FOV of 33 arcmin and the 19 element solid state detector array (SIXA) with a FOV of 18 arcmin. We found that the ...
Aysel Sabuncu Brain Research Center. Ultra-high field (UHF) MRI offers improved signal- and contrast-to-noise ratio (SNR/CNR), which can be leveraged towards higher-resolution images. However, acquiring higher-resolution images increases scan times, making MRI scans prone to patient motion. Motion may become a problem especially with uncooperative patients such as in paediatric imaging and patients with Parkinsons or dementia. A common solution in such cases is to use sedatives. Unfortunately, sedation makes MRI an invasive imaging modality, and may commonly have side effects. Alternatively, real-time motion correction techniques can adapt the scan parameters accordingly and freeze patient motion from a data processing perspective these techniques are not directly applicable at UHF MRI.. At higher field strengths, artificial contrast variations are imposed on the acquired images due to the shorter wavelength. To correct such effects, parallel-transmit (pTx) arrays are commonly used. However, ...
At the completion of the research and development effort a Li-foil multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) neutron detector with more than 625-cm2 of active area will be included in a portable radiation detection system. The system is expected to outperform the standards set by the ANSI N42.53 standards, and gamma-ray rejection ratio (GRR) of 1.0x10-8 or better. A gamma-ray spectrometer for isotope .... ...
RADIOLOGY: HEART: Case# 33669: CARDIAC VIABILITY. The patient is a 47 year old woman with a recent `Q wave myocardial infarction suggesting a transmural defect. The infarct area involved the anterior wall of the left ventricle. A recent cardiac catheterization revealed an ejection fraction (EF) of 20% and severe diffuse coronary stenosis of the proximal LAD. 18-FDG-PET was requested to evaluate for ischemic myocardium that could be salvaged with coronary bypass and subsequently improve the EF. An alternative treatment option was cardiac transplantation. A transmission CT of the chest was first obtained using revolving Ge-68 (a positron emitter) pins as transmission sources. This transmission data was used to correct for non-uniform attenuation encountered within the chest. The patient was then injected with 15 mCi of 15-NH3 IV and imaging begun 3 minutes afterward. The images depict resting perfusion in the left ventricle. The patient was given a glucose load and blood sugars were monitored ...
Primary Objectives: To determine the prevalence of HIV and other related infections such as Hepatitis C, along with associated risk behaviors, in patients with severe mental illness (SMI).. Secondary Objectives: To identify the implications for mental health and medical services and to obtain a better understanding of the contextual factors that affect the health problems associated with HIV risk behavior.. Primary Outcomes: The primary outcome variables are HIV seroprevalence, prevalence of HIV risk behaviors including injection drug use and sexual promiscuity, personal and social-contextual factors, comorbid mental disorders, and health service use among SMI persons in each group, veterans versus non-veterans.. Intervention: N/A. Study Abstract: It is suspected, but not well documented, that persons with severe mental illness represent a significant transmission source of serious infectious diseases. SMI diagnoses are defined as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or ...
Primary Objectives: To determine the prevalence of HIV and other related infections such as Hepatitis C, along with associated risk behaviors, in patients with severe mental illness (SMI).. Secondary Objectives: To identify the implications for mental health and medical services and to obtain a better understanding of the contextual factors that affect the health problems associated with HIV risk behavior.. Primary Outcomes: The primary outcome variables are HIV seroprevalence, prevalence of HIV risk behaviors including injection drug use and sexual promiscuity, personal and social-contextual factors, comorbid mental disorders, and health service use among SMI persons in each group, veterans versus non-veterans.. Intervention: N/A. Study Abstract: It is suspected, but not well documented, that persons with severe mental illness represent a significant transmission source of serious infectious diseases. SMI diagnoses are defined as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or ...
Radiation can be harmful to living creatures. Radiation can harm living things directly by damaging their cells. The cells might stop functioning, or they might be unable to reproduce. Radiation can also cause cells to reproduce in an out-of-control fashion, causing cancer.. Radiation can also interfere with the reproduction of living things. It can cause sterility, making reproduction impossible. It can also cause mutations in offspring, which are usually detrimental or even fatal.. Animals (including humans) tend to be more susceptible to the harmful effects of radiation than plants. Some types of microbes are tolerant of high doses of radiation that would easily kill multicelled organisms.. Natural sources of radiation play a role in the long-term evolution of species. Some (a very, very tiny fraction) mutations caused by radiation turn out to be beneficial. They give certain organisms a better chance to survive. Sometimes mutations caused by radiation produce a more successful and ...
As Part V in our series, this paper examines steady-state fluorescence photon diffusion in a homogenous medium that contains a homogenous distribution of fluorophores, and is enclosed by a "concave" circular cylindrical applicator or is enclosing a "convex" circular cylindrical applicator, both geometries being infinite in the longitudinal dimension. The aim is to predict by analytics and examine with the finite-element method the changing characteristics of the fluorescence-wavelength photon-fluence rate and the ratio (sometimes called the Born ratio) of it versus the excitation-wavelength photon-fluence rate, with respect to the source-detector distance. The analysis is performed for a source and a detector located on the medium-applicator interface and aligned either azimuthally or longitudinally in both concave and convex geometries. When compared to its steady-state counterparts on a semi-infinite medium-applicator interface with the same line-of-sight source-detector distance, the ...
This Sexy Lumberjack is looking for wood! You'll want to hike in the woods every day just for a chance to bump into this luscious lumberjack. This sexy four-piece Halloween costume features denim jumper with chest pocket, plaid shirt, knit toque hat, leg warmers, and toy axe. Shoes not included. Coquette.
For some odd reason, long lived isotopes have a bad reputation. Statistically, it is the short lived ones that are nasty. The short lived are more likely to decay releasing ionizing energy. Uranium-238 has a half life of 4.5 billion years. So a few atoms of Uranium-238 are essentially stable in a biological environment. You would have to ingest a fairly large amount of Uranium-238 to have any radiation harm. It would likely be more harmful as a poisonous heavy metal than a radiation hazard. Think about it. It takes 4.5 billion years for half of the ingested amount to decay. If you ingested 4.5 billion atoms of U-238, 2.25 billion would decay in 4.5 billion years, so only 2.25 would decay per year in your body. Compare 2.25 per year to 4400 per second beta decays normal for a 160 pound (about 75 kilo)person, and that aint a lot, even if U-238 is 60 times more harmful than K-40. Plutonium-239 is only supposed to be 100 times more harmful than potassium 40, so that makes sense ...
Join and connect with BlackPlanets LUMBERJACK FANS group. FOR FANS THAT LIKE LUMBERJACK AND WANT 2 KNOW MORE ABOUT THE GROUP THIS IS THE GROUP 4 U. Worlds largest free African-American online community
ABE is a small, fast and convenient program for visualizing and modeling experimental bioassay data. The data can be modeled using either polynomials or a more specific four-parameter model based upon the standard, sigmoidal dose-response curve. Find ABE at: http://bioinformatics.org/abe/. ...
Youve bought the propaganda from the nuclear industry. They say its low-level radiation. Thats absolute rubbish. If you inhale a millionth of a gram of plutonium, the surrounding cells receive a very, very high dose. Most die within that area, because its an alpha emitter. The cells on the periphery remain viable. They mutate, and the regulatory genes are damaged. Years later, that person develops cancer. Now, thats true for radioactive iodine, that goes to the thyroid; cesium-137, that goes to the brain and muscles; strontium-90 goes to bone, causing bone cancer and leukemia. Its imperative … that you understand internal emitters and radiation, and its not low level to the cells that are exposed. Radiobiology is imperative to understand these days." ...
FRAM by ORTEC analyzes the gamma-ray spectrum taken with a germanium radiation detector, of plutonium-bearing, uranium-bearing, or mixed items and quantifies the distribution of plutonium or uranium isotopes, 241Americium, and other transuranic isotopes (including uranium in mixed uranium-plutonium oxides) that contribute measurable gamma rays to the spectrum.
The results of the research clearly show that plankton from the coast of Palomares, obtained from a depth of 50 metres, contains radioactive plutonium and americium with an activity up to five times higher than the average of the other samples studied. Thus, while average radioactivity in western Mediterranean plankton is around 452 units (millibequerels per kilogram of dried plankton), at Palomares this figure is 2,046 units. This is still within the safety margins recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency, but serves as a reminder that the area is not free of residual contamination arising from the accident that occurred on 17 January 1966, when two US planes, a B-52 bomber, loaded with 4 nuclear warheads, and a refuelling plane collided in mid-flight ...
What is background radiation?. Ionising radiation always present in the environment. Why does background radiation not cause harm?. The levels are constant and are too low to be harmful and are naturally occuring mostly. Main contributors to background radiation?. Cosmic rays from the sun, decay of rocks, radon gas from the ground. Small contributors to background radiation?. Man made sources like radioactive waste from nuclear power stations and hospitals, and from smoke alarms. How much does human activity contribute to background radiation?. Less than 1%. What is the most common radioisotope used in smoke alarms?. Americium 241. What type of radiation do smoke alarms give out?. Alpha. How does a smoke alarm work?. The alpha particles ionise the molecules of the air forming ions and electrons which are attracted to a pair of charged plates as shown in the picture below. When the ions and electrons hit the plates they provide a small amount of electricity (a small current). This current stays ...
in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (1999), 62(1), 13-15. Background : Recently, a novel blood-borne virus has been identified and named hepatitis G virus. Transfusion is the main route of transmission. It is known that patients on maintenance dialysis are more ... [more ▼]. Background : Recently, a novel blood-borne virus has been identified and named hepatitis G virus. Transfusion is the main route of transmission. It is known that patients on maintenance dialysis are more susceptible to infections with parenterally-transmitted viruses than the general population. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis G infection in a Belgian dialysis unit. Methods: The entire population of our dialysis unit (82 patients) was tested for the presence of hepatitis G virus (HGV) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. History of transfusion or renal transplantation coinfections with hepatitis B and C viruses, and serum aminotransferase levels were also tested. ...
Gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities ranging from edema to ulceration occur in two thirds of patients dying of uremia. Early studies suggested that uremic patients on maintenance dialysis treatment were at increased risk of peptic ulceration but more recent data indicate that this is not so. Other gastrointestinal problems reported for uremic subjects on maintenance dialysis treatment include bleeding from telangiectatic lesions, constipation, mucosal deposition of amyloid and acute pancreatitis. Nausea and vomiting are common in the uremic patient but gastric emptying studies have yielded conflicting results. Patients undergoing renal transplantation are at increased risk of development of esophagitis, complicated peptic ulcer, intestinal ulceration, and perforation as well as acute pancreatitis ...
Nach der Aufnahme von Plutonium mit der Nahrung wird ein großer Teil mit dem Stuhl wieder ausgeschieden. Der Anteil von Plutonium, der aus der Nahrung im Magen-Darm-Trakt in den Körper aufgenommen (resorbiert) wird, ist im Wesentlichen abhängig von der Art der Plutoniumverbindung und dem Alter der Person. In grober Annäherung kann eine Resorptionsrate von Plutonium mit der Nahrung von 0,05 Prozent angegeben werden. Bei anorganischen Plutoniumverbindungen liegt diese etwa um den Faktor zehn niedriger. Für Kleinkinder ist eine um den Faktor zehn höhere Resorptionsrate anzunehmen. Nach der Resorption von Plutonium über den Magen-Darm-Trakt wird Plutonium im Körper verteilt und dort vorrangig in Knochen und in der Leber konzentriert.. Im Blut aufgenommenes Plutonium wird zu etwa fünfzig Prozent im Knochen, zu dreißig Prozent in der Leber und etwa zwanzig Prozent in anderen Geweben eingelagert. Die Verweilzeit von inkorporiertem Plutonium im Knochen beträgt etwa fünfzig bis hundert Jahre ...
Background: Sudden cardiac death is common and accounts largely for the excess mortality of patients on maintenance dialysis. It is unknown whether aldosterone and cortisol increase the incidence of sudden cardiac death in dialysis patients. Methods and results: We analysed data from 1255 diabetic haemodialysis patients participating in the German Diabetes and Dialysis Study (4D Study). Categories of aldosterone and cortisol were determined at baseline and patients were followed for a median of 4 years. By Cox regression analyses, hazard ratios (HRs) were determined for the effect of aldosterone, cortisol, and their combination on sudden death and other adjudicated cardiovascular outcomes. The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 8 years (54% male). Median aldosterone was ,15 pg/mL (detection limit) and cortisol 16.8 µg/dL. Patients with aldosterone levels ,200 pg/mL had a significantly higher risk of sudden death (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06-2.69) compared with those with an aldosterone ,15 pg/mL. ...
Autori: Olan A, Segall L, Stoica L, Gusbeth-Tatomir P, Cristea C, Patrulea S, Mardare N, Balasanian M, Covic A.. Editorial: Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi, Jul-Sep;110(3, p.599-63, 2006.. Rezumat:. Cuvinte cheie: by-pass ...
The programme covers a range of multidisciplinary topics relevant to Occupational Safety and Health. Subjects covered include Legislation, Occupational Health, Occupational Hygiene, Human and Organisational Behaviour at Work, Chemical Safety and Toxicology and Safety Toxicology. . - This part-time programme is designed to be completed over two full years (five semesters). September to July Year 1 and September to May Year 2.. - Assignments, project work and self-directed learning are required during the summer semester between the two academic years of study.. - Lectures will normally be held on Fridays (9 am - 5 pm) in Year 1 and on Tuesdays(9 am - 5 pm) in Year 2. - Assessment strategies include continuous assessment, assignments, projects and examinations.. ...
"Americium, Radioactive". TOXNET Toxicology Data Network. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Chen, A.; Dietrich, K. ... Elements found in trace amounts include americium, antimony, arsenic, barium, bismuth, boron, cobalt, europium, gallium, ...
"Smoke Detectors and Americium". world-nuclear.org. Archived from the original on 2010-11-12. Office of Radiation Protection - ... Smoke detectors use a very small quantity of 241Am (about 0.29 micrograms per smoke detector) in the form of americium dioxide ... The radionuclide used is americium-241, which is created by bombarding plutonium with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. It decays ...
Americium-241 is an alpha emitter with a half-life of 432.6 years. Alpha particle radiation, as opposed to beta (electron) and ... If the americium is left in the ionization chamber of the alarm the radiological risk is insignificant because the chamber acts ... The americium-241 in ionizing smoke detectors poses a potential environmental hazard, albeit a very small one. Disposal ... A person would have to open the sealed chamber and ingest or inhale the americium for the risk to be significant. The radiation ...
Americium 1944 G. T. Seaborg, R. A. James, O. Morgan and A. Ghiorso Prepared by irradiating plutonium with neutrons during the ... "95 Americium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ "97 Berkelium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09- ... Prepared by bombardment of americium with calcium[163] 113 Nihonium 2003-2004 Y. Oganessian et al. (JINR in Dubna) and K. ... Created by bombardment of americium with alpha particles.[143] 98 Californium 1950 S. G. Thompson, K. Street, Jr., A. Ghiorso ...
americium 95 Am curium 96 Cm berkelium 97 Bk californium 98 Cf ...
"Americium, Radioactive". TOXNET Toxicology Data Network. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016.. ... Americium. The radioactive source in smoke alarms.. It is known to be carcinogenic.[90]. ... Elements found in small amounts include cadmium, mercury, and thallium.[88] Elements found in trace amounts include americium, ...
Ameri-cium95Am​[243] Curium96Cm​[247] Berkel-ium97Bk​[247] Califor-nium98Cf​[251] Einstei-nium99Es​[252] Fer-mium100Fm​[257] ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
Norman M. Edelstein; James D. Navratil; Wallace W. Schulz (1984). Americium and curium chemistry and technology. D. Reidel Pub ...
Np(V) does not bond as readily to soil particles in mildly acidic conditions as its fellow actinides americium and curium by ... With a half-life of 432 years, the americium-241 in an ionization smoke detector includes about 3% neptunium after 20 years, ... In one study comparing the diffusion rates of neptunium(V), plutonium(IV), and americium(III) in sandstone and limestone, ... This makes it and its predecessors such as americium-241 candidates of interest for destruction by nuclear transmutation. Due ...
In addition to plutonium, he is credited as a lead discoverer of americium, curium, and berkelium, and as a co-discoverer of ... His patent on curium never proved commercially viable because of the element's short half-life, but americium is commonly used ... Seaborg, G. T.; James, R.A.; Morgan, L.O. (January 1948). The New Element Americium (Atomic Number 95). US Atomic Energy ... He held more than 40 patents - among them the only patents ever issued for chemical elements, americium and curium, and ...
Similarly, americium (atomic number 95) was discovered in 1944-45 by Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Leon O. Morgan and ... The New Element Americium (Atomic Number 95).] Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, & Leon O.Morgan. NNES PPR (National Nuclear ... doi:10.1103/PhysRev.80.781 The New Element Americium (Atomic Number 95). Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, & Leon O. Morgan. ... and americium (1944-1945). Later he worked at UCLA and at the Lawrence Livermore laboratory in California. He also worked on ...
Sodium perxenate, Na 4XeO 6, can be used for the analytic separation of trace amounts of americium from curium. The separation ... ISBN 0-12-023646-X. Holcomb, H. P. (March 1965). "Analytical Oxidation of Americium with Sodium Perxenate". Analytical ...
95 Am americium use. 2880 K. 2607 °C. 4725 °F WebEl. 2880 K. 2607 °C. 4725 °F ...
2): this was prepared from the beta decay of americium-242 in the americium(V) ion 242. AmO+. 2.[2] Failure to obtain Cm(VI) ... Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium ... Both americium and curium are present in solutions mostly in the +3 valence state; whereas americium oxidizes to soluble Am(IV ... Further neutron capture followed by β−-decay produces the 241Am isotope of americium which further converts into 242Cm: Pu. 94 ...
Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium ... "Smoke Detectors and Americium", Nuclear Issues Briefing Paper, 35, May 2002, archived from the original on 11 September 2002, ... americium, Am, named because it is an analog to europium, and so was named after the continent where it was first produced ( ... the element americium is utilized in devices like smoke detectors and spectrometers.[9][10] ...
... the americium has very different biochemistry to plutonium.[citation needed] The most common isotope americium-241 decays (half ... Americium often enters landfills from discarded smoke detectors. The rules associated with the disposal of smoke detectors are ... It is likely that the medical care which he was given saved his life; because of the difference in the chemistry of americium ( ... For instance, in the UK it is permissible to dispose of an americium containing smoke detector by placing it in the dustbin ...
Americium discovered by Glenn T. Seaborg, et al. August 7 - IBM dedicates the first program-controlled calculator, the ...
Promethium, americium, berkelium and californium have three allotropes each. In 2017, the concept of nanoallotropy was proposed ...
The discoveries of americium, berkelium, and californium followed soon. Einsteinium and fermium were discovered by a team of ...
He wrote his thesis on "Equilibria in the oxide systems of praseodymium and americium", They moved to Los Alamos, New Mexico, ... Elements 95 and 96, originally called "pandemonium" and "delirium", were eventually named americium and curium by analogy with ... "Equilibria in the oxide systems of praseodymium and americium". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved March 21, 2016. " ... fluoride-soluble oxidation state of americium was one of the keys to the subsequent discovery of element 97, berkelium, at ...
The same property is exhibited in americium-242m (242mAm). 180 Ta has a half-life of only 8 hours. 180m Ta is the only ...
The project mainly addresses sources containing americium and plutonium. The recently expanded mission also includes recovery ...
"Neptunium 237 and Americium: World Inventories and Proliferation Concerns" (PDF). Isis-online.org. Retrieved 24 October 2012. " ... Limited plutonium solubility - Fluorides of plutonium, americium and curium occur as trifluorides, which means they have three ...
Neptunium-237 and some isotopes of americium might be usable, but it is not clear that this has ever been implemented. Ten ... David Albright and Kimberly Kramer (August 22, 2005). "Neptunium 237 and Americium: World Inventories and Proliferation ...
Main article: Americium-241. Americium-241 is the most prevalent isotope of americium in nuclear waste.[8] It is the isotope ... Americium-243[edit]. Americium-243 has a mass of 243.06138 g/mol and a half-life of 7,370 years, the longest lasting of all ... Americium has an atomic number of 95 (the number of protons in the nucleus of the americium atom). ... Americium-242m[edit]. Transmutation flow between 238Pu and 244Cm in LWR.[9]. Fission percentage is 100 minus shown percentages. ...
Exposure to very large amounts of radioactive americium may result in increased cancer risk. Americium has been found in at ... Very low levels of americium occur in air, water, soil, and food. ... What is americium?. Americium is a man-made radioactive chemical. Americium has no naturally occurring or stable isotopes. Two ... What happens to americium when it enters the environment?. *Americium released to the air (from nuclear weapon tests) will be ...
Toxicological profile for Americium. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
... such as americium dioxide (AmO2) and americium(IV) fluoride (AmF4). All pentavalent and hexavalent americium compounds are ... Americium(III) oxide is a red-brown solid with a melting point of 2205 °C. Americium(IV) oxide is the main form of solid ... Borides of americium include AmB4 and AmB6. The tetraboride can be obtained by heating an oxide or halide of americium with ... Metallic americium is obtained by reduction from its compounds. Americium(III) fluoride was first used for this purpose. The ...
Information on arsenic, a potential agent for chemical terrorism. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Americium-241 (241Am) is an isotope of americium. Like all isotopes of americium, it is radioactive. 241Am is the most common ... Americium-241 is a form of americium therefore having the same general hazards. Americium and its isotopes are both extremely ... Americium-241 is an α-emitter with a weak γ-ray byproduct. Safely handling americium-241 requires knowing and following proper ... It is the most prevalent isotope of americium in nuclear waste. Americium-241 has a half-life of 432.2 years. It is commonly ...
... www.epa.gov/rpdweb00/radionuclides/americium.htmlexternal icon. ...
Element Americium (Am), Group 20, Atomic Number 95, f-block, Mass [243]. Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, ... Thats because americium is used in many smoke detectors. A tiny quantity - less than a millionth of a gram - of americium 241 ... None of americiums isotopes are truly stable - the longest lasting, americium-243, has a half-life of 7370 years, while many ... The americium was produced by bombarding plutonium with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. This produced isotope americium-241, ...
It carries the country name of my birth; Americium. A certain form of Americium is ideal for a type of nuclear solid fuel ... the original Tsolkovsky space train with a several hundred foot long slender skeleton mounting these one shot Americium ... It carries the country name of my birth; Americium.. A certain form of Americium is ideal for a type of nuclear solid fuel ... Petition for Americium Emergency Stockpile Posted by Gary Michael Church in categories: asteroid/comet impacts, business, ...
The effect of americium α-decay on this material has been followed by XRD and Al MAS NMR analyses. In a first step, a ...
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Comprehensive information for the element Americium - Am is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names ... Americium Menu. *Americium Page One*Overview of Americium*Americiums Name in Other Languages*Atomic Structure of Americium* ... Americium Menu. *Americium Page One*Overview of Americium*Americiums Name in Other Languages*Atomic Structure of Americium* ... Americiums Name in Other Languages. *Latin: Americium*Czech: Americium*Croatian: Americij*French: Américium*German: Amerizium ...
A series of dithiocarbamates for americium, curium, and californium Journal Article Cary, Samantha K. ; Su, Jing ; Galley, ... Accepted Manuscript: A series of dithiocarbamates for americium, curium, and californium. This content will become publicly ... COMPLEX FORMATION OF AMERICIUM, CURIUM, CALIFORNIUM, PROMETHIUM, AND EUROPIUM WITH 2-HYDROXYETHYLIMINODIACETEC ACID. ... title = {A series of dithiocarbamates for americium, curium, and californium},. author = {Cary, Samantha K. and Su, Jing and ...
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Americium and Curium Chemistry and Technology at the International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies in Honolulu, ... A Study on the Stability of Americium(V) and Americium(VI) in Nitrate Media ... Americium and Curium Chemistry and Technology. Papers from a Symposium given at the 1984 International Chemical Congress of ... Thus, this volume is a review of the chemistry of americium and curium, and provides a perspective on the current research on ...
Lithium reduction of americium dioxide to generate americium metal Usami T.; Kato T.; Kurata M.; Inoue T.; Sims H.E.; Beetham S ... Synthesis of americium trichloride by the reaction of americium nitride with cadmium chloride ... HIGH-RESOLUTION MEASUREMENTS OF NEUTRON ENERGY SPECTRA FROM AMERICIUM-BERYLLIUM AND AMERICIUM-BORON NEUTRON SOURCES (BERYLLIUM ... NUCLEAR MAGNETIC MOMENTS AND HYPERFINE ANOMALIES OF RHENIUM-186, RHENIUM-188, AND AMERICIUM-241, AMERICIUM-242. ...
Categories Environment, Global News, Health, Politics, Science, Society Tags Americium, Arnie Gundersen, Cesium-134, Cesium-137 ... Scientist Marco Kalthofens Presentation To The American Public Health Association: Americium (A Byproduct Of Plutonium Decay) ...
The effect of sodium dibutylphosphate on the remobilization of americium and plutonium from Irish Sea sediments. ... The effect of sodium dibutylphosphate on the remobilization of americium and plutonium from Irish Sea sediments. Marine ...
Occupational contamination with americium and Ca-DTPA treatment. D. Pelclová and Z. Fenclová ...
Alpha Radiation Alpha spectrometer Alpha Spectrometry Americium Beta particles Cherenkov cloud chamber Coincidence Compton ...
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  • With its half-life of 432.2 years, the americium in a smoke detector decreases and includes about 3% neptunium after 19 years, and about 5% after 32 years.The amount of americium in a typical new smoke detector is 0.29 microgram (about one-third the weight of a grain of sand) with an activity of 1 microcurie/37 kilobequerels (1.0 μCi/37 kBq). (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of americium detected is reportedly about three times the limit allowed by state air quality standards, but the standard is based on an average amount over 365 days for someone living there and growing food there, according to Department of Health officials. (watchers.news)
  • it was thus by analogy named after the Americas: "The name americium (after the Americas) and the symbol Am are suggested for the element on the basis of its position as the sixth member of the actinide rare-earth series, analogous to europium, Eu, of the lanthanide series. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, we could rather quickly disp·el the notion that americium had an attainable divalent state by observing that the trivalent absorption persisted in spite of reducing agents that yielded both europium(II) and samarium(II). (sandifeet.com)
  • from the early tracer studies, and reinforced by the location of americium in the new actinide series as a homolog of europium. (sandifeet.com)
  • EXAFS studies of the dicomplexes of CyMe4-BTBP with americium(III) and europium(III) in nitrobenzene, cyclohexanone, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol and malonamide (DMDOHEMA) in 1-octanol have been carried out to get a deeper understanding of the parameters responsible for the separation. (slu.se)
  • The separation of americium(III) from europium(III) with CyMe4-BTBP as extraction agent will increase with decreasing relative permittivity of the solvent, and thereby also with decreasing solubility of CyMe4-BTBP. (slu.se)
  • From abstract: 'A compound that is shown to be KAmO₂F₂ is prepared by the addition of a saturated solution of KF to an acid solution of pentavalent americium. (unt.edu)
  • tetravalent americium was demonstrated in the dioxide, pentavalent americium as the potassium carbonate salt of unknown composition. (sandifeet.com)
  • In a light water reactor (LWR), 79% of 241Am converts to 242Am and 10% to its nuclear isomer 242mAm: 79%: 95 241 A m → ( n , γ ) 95 242 A m {\displaystyle \mathrm {^{241}_{\ 95}Am\ {\xrightarrow {(n,\gamma )}}\ _{\ 95}^{242}Am} } Americium-241 decays mainly via alpha decay, with a weak gamma ray byproduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second most common type of decay for americium-241 is cluster decay, with a branching ratio of less than 7.4×10−16. (wikipedia.org)
  • 95}Am\longrightarrow _{\ 81}^{207}Tl+_{14}^{34}Si} } The least common (rarest) type of decay that americium-241 undergoes is spontaneous fission, with a branching ratio of 4×10−12 and happening 1.2 times a second per gram of 241Am. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of americium α-decay on this material has been followed by XRD and Al MAS NMR analyses. (americanelements.com)
  • For more information about Am-241, see the Public Health Statement by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxpro2.html , or visit the Environmental Protection Agency at http://www.epa.gov/rpdweb00/radionuclides/americium.html external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • The book examines the effect of distribution of alkaline earth, of plutonium, of thorium, of americium, and of phosphorus in bone growth. (elsevier.com)
  • Of course, trivalent americium was demonstrated to be a very stable aqueous ion. (sandifeet.com)
  • it was believed (erroneously) that americium also possessed an attainable aqueous divalent state. (sandifeet.com)
  • Americium has an atomic number of 95 (the number of protons in the nucleus of the americium atom). (wikipedia.org)
  • Very low levels of americium occur in air, water, soil, and food, as well as in smoke detectors. (cdc.gov)
  • Americium released to the air (from nuclear weapon tests) will be associated with particles and will settle to the soil and water in rain or snow. (cdc.gov)
  • Americium strongly sticks to soil particles and does not travel very far into the ground. (cdc.gov)
  • Plants may take up small amounts of americium from the soil. (cdc.gov)
  • The general population may be exposed to very small amounts of americium in air, water, soil, and food. (cdc.gov)
  • Higher-than-normal levels of americium may be in soil near a nuclear waste site, nuclear reactor, or plant that manufactures ionization smoke detectors. (cdc.gov)
  • This report applies the method to an investigation of the corresponding reaction of americium, representing a part of a systematic program of investigation of the thermodynamic properties of analogous reactions of lanthanide and actinide elements. (unt.edu)
  • The following document focuses on the study of the absorption spectra of americium chloride. (unt.edu)
  • A drug named 'Medetopect' consisting of apple pectins, vitamin C and calcium phosphate reduces absorption of Plutonium-239 and Americium-241 from the gastrointestinal tract of animals. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • It followed the pioneer work on americium which Cunningham, Werner and Perlman had provided in the half-dozen years following its discovery. (sandifeet.com)
  • These ceased to function a billion years ago, and as the longest lived isotope is americium-247, with a half-life of 7370 years, none has survived to the present day. (rsc.org)
  • Inside your body, americium is concentrated in your bones, where it remains for a long time. (cdc.gov)
  • However, exposure as children could result in a longer period in which americium in the bones could affect nearby cells and increase the chance of causing cancer later in life. (cdc.gov)
  • abstract = "Neutron-deficient americium isotopes 233,234,235,236Am were produced in the bombardment of multiple thin targets of 233U and 235U with 7.6-10.5 MeV/nucleon 6Li ions. (elsevier.com)
  • Laboratory animals exposed to very high levels of americium had damage to the lungs, liver, and thyroid. (cdc.gov)
  • However, studies in animals have demonstrated that internal exposure to 241 Am can cause cancer in bone and liver, where americium is stored. (cdc.gov)
  • Americium ( 95 Am) is an artificial element , and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given. (wikipedia.org)