Absence of menstruation.
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.
Abnormally infrequent menstruation.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Excessive or inappropriate LACTATION in females or males, and not necessarily related to PREGNANCY. Galactorrhea can occur either unilaterally or bilaterally, and be profuse or sparse. Its most common cause is HYPERPROLACTINEMIA.
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
Defects in the SEX DETERMINATION PROCESS in 46, XY individuals that result in abnormal gonadal development and deficiencies in TESTOSTERONE and subsequently ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE or other factors required for normal male sex development. This leads to the development of female phenotypes (male to female sex reversal), normal to tall stature, and bilateral streak or dysgenic gonads which are susceptible to GONADAL TISSUE NEOPLASMS. An XY gonadal dysgenesis is associated with structural abnormalities on the Y CHROMOSOME, a mutation in the GENE, SRY, or a mutation in other autosomal genes that are involved in sex determination.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Methods used for assessment of ovarian function.
Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tokyo" is not a medical term that has a specific definition in the field of medicine. Tokyo is actually the capital city of Japan and is not used as a term in medicine.
Visible efflorescent lesions of the skin caused by acne or resembling acne. (Dorland, 28th ed, p18, 575)
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
Procedures used for the targeted destruction of the mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity.
A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.
The premature cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) when the last menstrual period occurs in a woman under the age of 40. It is due to the depletion of OVARIAN FOLLICLES. Premature MENOPAUSE can be caused by diseases; OVARIECTOMY; RADIATION; chemicals; and chromosomal abnormalities.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".
Congenital conditions in individuals with a female karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.
Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.

The lipoprotein profile of women with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea. (1/431)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipoprotein profile in women with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea and to establish whether effective dopamine agonist therapy might have a beneficial effect. Blood samples were collected from women with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea and from controls matched for age, body mass index and smoking. Follow-up blood samples were collected from women on dopamine agonist therapy as treatment for their hyperprolactinaemia. Plasma cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, serum oestradiol and prolactin were measured. No statistically significant differences were found in the lipoprotein profile of the patient (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. During treatment with the dopamine agonist, bromocriptine (n = 9), significant reduction in total cholesterol [4.87 (3.98-5.87) versus 5.60 (4.55-6.61) mmol/l, P = 0.024] and LDL cholesterol [3.22 (2.01-4.23) versus 3.72 (2.59-4.93) mmol/l, P = 0.033] was noted. We conclude that beneficial alterations in the lipoprotein profile may occur in response to effective dopamine agonist therapy, presumably as a consequence of return of ovarian function and alleviation of oestrogen deficiency. Women with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea should be encouraged to take effective therapy to improve their lipoprotein profile and potentially reduce their cardiovascular risk.  (+info)

Evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in amenorrhoeic women with insulin-dependent diabetes. (2/431)

Diabetes is associated with a higher incidence of secondary hypogonadotrophic amenorrhoea. In amenorrhoeic women with insulin-dependent diabetes a derangement in hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis has been proposed. No data exist on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in these women. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), metoclopramide and thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) tests were performed in 15 diabetic women, eight amenorrhoeic (AD) and seven eumenorrhoeic (ED). Frequent blood samples were taken during 24 h to evaluate cortisol plasma concentrations. There were no differences between the groups in body mass index, duration of diabetes, insulin dose and metabolic control. The AD women had lower plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, oestradiol, androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) than the ED women. The responses of pituitary gonadotrophins to GnRH, and of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) to TRH, were similar in both groups. The AD women had a lower prolactin response to TRH and metoclopramide, and lower ACTH and cortisol responses to CRH, than the ED women. Mean cortisol concentrations > 24 h were higher in the amenorrhoeic group. Significant differences in cortisol concentrations from 2400 to 1000 h were found between the two groups. Insulin-dependent diabetes may involve mild chronic hypercortisolism which may affect metabolic control. Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis would increase hypothalamic secretion of CRH. This would lead directly and perhaps also indirectly by increasing dopaminergic tonus to inhibition of GnRH secretion and hence hypogonadotrophic amenorrhoea. Amenorrhoea associated with metabolically controlled insulin-dependent diabetes is a form of functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea that requires pharmacological and psychological management.  (+info)

Histopathological findings of the ovaries in anovulatory women. (3/431)

Wedge resection of the ovary was carried out in 45 anovulatory women to study the correlation between the degree of disturbance of ovulation and the histopathological findings. Polycystic ovary was always found in patients with anovulatory cycles. The ovaries in grade 1 amenorrhea showing withdrawal bleeding in response to gestagen alone belonged to the nonspecific type, polycystic type and sclerotic type. These histological changes were relatively mild in many cases. The ovaries in grade 2 amenorrhea showing withdrawal bleeding in response to estrogen and gestagen but not to gestagen alone belonged to the non-specific type, polycystic type, sclerotic type, atrophic type and streak type. Even within the same histological entity, the histological findings of the ovaries were more pronounced in grade 2 amenorrhea than in grade 1 amenorrhea. The patients with primary amenorrhea had only hypoplastic and aplastic ovaries with marked histological abnormalities.  (+info)

Anti-nuclear antibodies in patients with premature ovarian failure. (4/431)

We examined the prevalence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 32 consecutive patients with premature ovarian failure with and without chromosomal abnormalities. Blood samples were taken for karyotype determination as well as detection of autoantibodies, X-terminal microdeletions and spontaneous follicular growth. The correlation between ANA positivity and the age at onset of amenorrhoea, as well as the presence of karyotype abnormalities, X-terminal microdeletions and follicular growth was determined. Ten of the 24 patients with normal karyotype and none of the 8 patients with karyotype abnormalities were ANA positive. ANA were found more frequently in patients with premature ovarian failure with normal karyotypes than in control amenorrhoeic patients (42 versus 6, P < 0.01). ANA were found in 77% (10/13) of premature ovarian failure patients with normal karyotypes who developed amenorrhoea at or under the age of 30 years, but not in the patients who developed amenorrhoea later in life. Follicular growth was evident in 50% (5/10) of karyotypically normal patients with ANA, 71% (10/14) of karyotypically normal patients without ANA and 38% (3/8) of patients with karyotype abnormalities. X-terminal microdeletions were not found in any of the patients studied. These results suggest that patients with premature ovarian failure and ANA are an aetiologically and clinically distinct group.  (+info)

Large empty sella with an intrasellar herniation of an elongated third ventricle. Case report. (5/431)

A 73-year-old female presented with a large empty sella with herniation of an elongated third ventricle concomitant with herniation of the surrounding subarachnoid space into the sella, manifesting as visual impairment and amenorrhea without galactorrhea. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography cisternography clearly showed the large empty sella, without evidence of either hydrocephalus or benign intracranial hypertension, which is extremely rare.  (+info)

Variation of luteinizing hormone and androgens in oligomenorrhoea and its implications for the study of polycystic ovary syndrome. (6/431)

We measured luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgen concentrations in patients at different phases of the oligomenorrhoeic cycle and compared the results with those of patients with normogonadotrophic amenorrhoea. Several blood samples separated by >/=7 days were obtained from each of 72 patients with oligomenorrhoea and 18 with normogonadotrophic amenorrhoea. The oligomenorrhoeic cycle was divided into five phases: the postmenstrual phase week 1 (day 1-7) and week 2 (day 8-14), the specific oligomenorrhoeic phase (SOP, day 15 after a menstruation to day 21 before the next menstruation), the possibly peri-ovulatory phase (days 21-11 before menstruation) and the premenstrual phase (days 10-1 before menstruation). Samples obtained in the possibly peri-ovulatory phase were excluded. Within individuals LH concentrations were significantly higher during the SOP than during all other phases of the oligomenorrhoeic cycle (paired t-test, P = 0.0001-0.03). In contrast to the other phases of the oligomenorrhoeic cycle, no significant differences in gonadotrophins, androgen or oestradiol concentrations were found between the SOP and normogonadotrophic amenorrhoea. In oligomenorrhoea timing of blood sampling influences the measurement of LH and androgen concentrations, and the accurate interpretation of these measurements requires that the dates of menstruation both before and after the sample is taken should be known. In patients with oligomenorrhoea blood samples should be obtained during the SOP, when the endocrinology is comparable with that of normogonadotrophic amenorrhoea.  (+info)

Long-term treatment with bromocriptine of a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma secreting thyrotropin, growth hormone and prolactin. (7/431)

A 48-year-old female presented with acromegaly, amenorrhea and hyperthyroidism associated with high serum free T4 levels and measurable TSH concentrations. The administration of GHRH induced significant increases in GH, PRL and TSH. Conversely, intravenous infusion of dopamine or oral administration of bromocriptine effectively inhibited GH, PRL and TSH secretion. Serum alpha-subunit levels were neither affected by GHRH, dopamine nor bromocriptine. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and immunostaining of the tissue showed that the adenoma cells were positive for GH, PRL or TSH. The patient was treated with bromocriptine at a daily oral dose of 10 mg after surgery. Serum TSH were initially suppressed but returned within reference intervals with persistent normalized free T4 levels. Serum PRL became undetectable and GH levels were stable around 6 ng/ml except the periods of poor drug compliance, when serum TSH, GH and PRL levels rose considerably. The patient was followed-up for 10 years without any change in the residual adenoma tissues as detected by magnetic resonance imaging. These findings suggest that long-term bromocriptine therapy is effective in treating the hypersecretory state of a plurihormonal adenoma secreting TSH, GH and PRL.  (+info)

Variability of breast sucking, associated milk transfer and the duration of lactational amenorrhoea. (8/431)

Quantitative relationships between physical parameters of sucking, milk transfer and the duration of amenorrhoea were examined in normal mother-baby pairs under exclusive breastfeeding. Sucking pressures were recorded twice on the second and once on the fifth month after birth, during complete breastfeeding episodes, by means of a catheter attached to the nipple and connected to a pressure transducer, the signals of which were analysed by computer. Babies were weighed before and after each sucking episode to estimate milk transfer. In the first nursing episode after noon, 2-month-old babies sucked from 140 to > 800 times during 4-15 min from the first breast, obtaining from 20 to > 100 g milk. The physical parameters of sucking and milk transfer exhibited high inter-individual but low intra-individual variabilities. There were significant differences in the physical parameters of sucking and milk transfer efficiency between first and second breast and between the second and fifth months after birth. Milk transfer efficiency was inversely correlated with time occupied by non-sucking pauses > or = 1.5 s, and was directly correlated with mean intersuck intervals in the first breast and with duration of the sucking episode, number of sucks, mean pressure and area under the pressure curve in the second breast. There was no correlation between the physical parameters of sucking and duration of lactational amenorrhoea (n = 62). However, significantly more mothers had amenorrhoea lasting > 180 days among those whose babies spent a longer proportion of the nursing episode in non-sucking pauses > or = 1.5 s. This finding indicates that sensory stimulation of the nipple produced during a nursing episode by stimuli other than sucking itself may have an important role in sustaining lactational amenorrhoea. It is concluded that nursing episodes have a complex structure that allows the development of a breastfeeding phenotype in each mother-baby pair, exhibiting important inter-individual variability. The present analysis does not support the contention that this source of variability accounts for the variability in the duration of lactational amenorrhoea.  (+info)

Amenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the absence or cessation of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be categorized as primary amenorrhea, when a woman who has not yet had her first period at the expected age (usually around 16 years old), or secondary amenorrhea, when a woman who has previously had regular periods stops getting them for six months or more.

There are various causes of amenorrhea, including hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, extreme weight loss or gain, eating disorders, intense exercise, stress, chronic illness, tumors, and certain medications or medical treatments. In some cases, amenorrhea may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.

Amenorrhea can have significant impacts on a woman's health and quality of life, including infertility, bone loss, and emotional distress. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience amenorrhea or missed periods to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Hypothalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the hypothalamus, a small but crucial region of the brain responsible for regulating many vital functions in the body. The hypothalamus helps control:

1. Body temperature
2. Hunger and thirst
3. Sleep cycles
4. Emotions and behavior
5. Release of hormones from the pituitary gland

Hypothalamic diseases can be caused by genetic factors, infections, tumors, trauma, or other conditions that damage the hypothalamus. Some examples of hypothalamic diseases include:

1. Hypothalamic dysfunction syndrome: A condition characterized by various symptoms such as obesity, sleep disturbances, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic damage.
2. Kallmann syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the hypothalamus and results in a lack of sexual maturation and a decreased sense of smell.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder that causes obesity, developmental delays, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic dysfunction.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: Tumors that develop near the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, often causing visual impairment, hormonal imbalances, and growth problems.
5. Infiltrative diseases: Conditions such as sarcoidosis or histiocytosis can infiltrate the hypothalamus, leading to various symptoms related to hormonal imbalances and neurological dysfunction.
6. Traumatic brain injury: Damage to the hypothalamus due to head trauma can result in various hormonal and neurological issues.
7. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections that affect the hypothalamus, such as encephalitis or meningitis, can cause damage and lead to hypothalamic dysfunction.

Treatment for hypothalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, hormone replacement therapy, or other interventions to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Oligomenorrhea is a medical term used to describe infrequent menstrual periods, where the cycle length is more than 35 days but less than 68 days. It's considered a menstrual disorder and can affect people of reproductive age. The causes of oligomenorrhea are varied, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, excessive exercise, significant weight loss or gain, and stress. In some cases, it may not cause any other symptoms, but in others, it can be associated with infertility, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), acne, or obesity. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle modifications, hormonal medications, or surgery in rare cases.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

Galactorrhea is an uncommon condition where someone (typically a woman, but it can also occur in men and children) experiences abnormal or spontaneous production and secretion of milk from their breasts, not associated with childbirth or nursing. This condition can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, medications, tumors affecting the pituitary gland, or other underlying medical conditions. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if you experience galactorrhea to determine the cause and appropriate treatment.

Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), also known as Premature Ovarian Failure, is a condition characterized by the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40. This results in decreased estrogen production and loss of fertility. It is often associated with menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea (absence of menstruation). The exact cause can vary, including genetic factors, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and iatrogenic causes such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Menstruation disturbances, also known as menstrual disorders, refer to any irregularities or abnormalities in a woman's menstrual cycle. These disturbances can manifest in various ways, including:

1. Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or more in women of reproductive age.
2. Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual periods that occur at intervals greater than 35 days.
3. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation, often accompanied by cramping, pelvic pain, and other symptoms that can interfere with daily activities.
4. Menorrhagia: Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods that last longer than seven days or result in excessive blood loss, leading to anemia or other health complications.
5. Polymenorrhea: Abnormally frequent menstrual periods that occur at intervals of 21 days or less.
6. Metrorrhagia: Irregular and unpredictable vaginal bleeding between expected menstrual periods, which can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, infections, or structural abnormalities.

Menstruation disturbances can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, fertility, and overall health. They may result from various underlying conditions, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted infections. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for managing menstruation disturbances effectively.

Hyperprolactinemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of prolactin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. In women, this can lead to menstrual irregularities, milk production outside of pregnancy (galactorrhea), and infertility. In men, it can cause decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, breast enlargement (gynecomastia), and infertility. The condition can be caused by various factors, including pituitary tumors, certain medications, and hypothyroidism. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include medication to lower prolactin levels.

Gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XY is a medical condition where the gonads (testes) fail to develop or function properly in an individual with a 46,XY karyotype (a normal male chromosomal composition). This means that the person has one X and one Y chromosome, but their gonads do not develop into fully functional testes. As a result, the person may have ambiguous genitalia or female external genitalia, and they will typically not produce enough or any male hormones. The condition can also be associated with an increased risk of developing germ cell tumors in the dysgenetic gonads.

The severity of gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XY can vary widely, and it may be accompanied by other developmental abnormalities or syndromes. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the dysgenetic gonads to reduce the risk of tumor development, as well as hormone replacement therapy to support normal sexual development and reproductive function. The underlying cause of gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XY is not always known, but it can be associated with genetic mutations or chromosomal abnormalities.

Anovulation is a medical condition in which there is a failure to ovulate, or release a mature egg from the ovaries, during a menstrual cycle. This can occur due to various reasons such as hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, excessive exercise, stress, low body weight, or certain medications. Anovulation is common in women with irregular menstrual cycles and can cause infertility if left untreated. In some cases, anovulation may be treated with medication to stimulate ovulation.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Premenopause is not a formal medical term, but it's often informally used to refer to the time period in a woman's life leading up to menopause. During this stage, which can last for several years, hormonal changes begin to occur in preparation for menopause. The ovaries start to produce less estrogen and progesterone, which can lead to various symptoms such as irregular periods, hot flashes, mood swings, and sleep disturbances. However, it's important to note that not all women will experience these symptoms.

The official medical term for the stage when a woman's period becomes irregular and less frequent, but hasn't stopped completely, is perimenopause. This stage typically lasts from two to eight years and ends with menopause, which is defined as the point when a woman has not had a period for 12 consecutive months. After menopause, women enter postmenopause.

Menorrhagia is a medical term used to describe abnormally heavy or prolonged menstrual periods. It's often characterized by the loss of an excessive amount of menstrual blood (usually more than 80 ml) and can last longer than normal, typically over seven days. This condition can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, causing fatigue, distress, and restrictions in daily activities due to the need for frequent pad or tampon changes.

The causes of menorrhagia are varied and can include hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids or polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy complications, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions such as coagulopathies or thyroid disorders. In some cases, the cause may remain undetermined even after a thorough evaluation.

Treatment options for menorrhagia depend on the underlying cause and range from medication management with hormonal therapies, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or tranexamic acid to procedural interventions like endometrial ablation, hysteroscopic resection of polyps or fibroids, or ultimately hysterectomy in severe cases. It is essential for individuals experiencing menorrhagia to consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best course of action based on their specific situation and medical history.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Ovarian function tests are a series of diagnostic exams used to assess the health and functionality of the ovaries. These tests can help determine the remaining egg supply (ovarian reserve), evaluate hormone production, and identify any structural abnormalities. Commonly used ovarian function tests include:

1. Hormonal assays: Measuring levels of hormones such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the blood can provide information about ovarian function and egg supply.

2. Transvaginal ultrasound: This imaging technique is used to visualize the ovaries and assess their size, shape, and follicle development, which can indicate ovarian reserve and response to hormonal stimulation.

3. Clomiphene citrate challenge test (CCCT): This test involves measuring FSH levels on day 3 of the menstrual cycle and then again after administering clomiphene citrate, a fertility medication, on days 5-9. An abnormal response may suggest decreased ovarian function.

4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist stimulation test: This test evaluates the ovaries' ability to respond to GnRH, which regulates FSH and LH release. A suboptimal response may indicate reduced ovarian function.

5. Ovarian biopsy: Though rarely performed, an ovarian biopsy can provide direct information about the number and quality of follicles and eggs present in the ovary.

These tests are often used in conjunction to provide a comprehensive assessment of ovarian function, particularly in women experiencing infertility, menopause, or those undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

The cerebral aqueduct, also known as the aqueduct of Sylvius, is a narrow canal that connects the third and fourth ventricles (cavities) of the brain. It allows for the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle. The cerebral aqueduct is a critical component of the ventricular system of the brain, and any obstruction or abnormality in this region can result in an accumulation of CSF and increased pressure within the brain, which can lead to serious neurological symptoms and conditions such as hydrocephalus.

Anorexia nervosa is a psychological eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of gaining weight, a distorted body image, and extremely restrictive eating behaviors leading to significantly low body weight. It primarily affects adolescent girls and young women but can also occur in boys and men. The diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa, as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), include:

1. Restriction of energy intake relative to requirements leading to a significantly low body weight in the context of age, sex, developmental trajectory, and physical health. Significantly low weight is defined as a weight that is less than minimally normal or, for children and adolescents, less than that expected.
2. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight.
3. Disturbance in the way in which one's body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight.
4. In postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea (the absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles). A woman is considered to have amenorrhea if her periods occur only following hormone replacement therapy.

Anorexia nervosa can manifest in two subtypes: the restricting type and the binge-eating/purging type. The restricting type involves limiting food intake without engaging in binge eating or purging behaviors, while the binge-eating/purging type includes recurrent episodes of binge eating or purging through self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas.

Anorexia nervosa can lead to severe medical complications, including but not limited to malnutrition, electrolyte imbalances, heart problems, bone density loss, and hormonal disturbances. Early identification, intervention, and comprehensive treatment, which often involve a combination of psychotherapy, nutrition counseling, and medication management, are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of long-term health consequences.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tokyo" is not a medical term. It is the capital city of Japan and the country's largest metropolitan area. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I would be happy to help with those!

Acneiform eruptions refer to skin conditions that resemble or mimic the appearance of acne vulgaris. These eruptions are characterized by the presence of papules, pustules, and comedones on the skin. However, acneiform eruptions are not true acne and can be caused by various factors such as medications, infections, or underlying medical conditions.

Some examples of acneiform eruptions include:

* Drug-induced acne: Certain medications such as corticosteroids, lithium, and antiepileptic drugs can cause an acne-like rash as a side effect.
* Rosacea: A chronic skin condition that causes redness, flushing, and pimple-like bumps on the face.
* Pseudofolliculitis barbae: A condition that occurs when curly hair grows back into the skin after shaving, causing inflammation and acne-like lesions.
* Gram-negative folliculitis: A bacterial infection that can occur as a complication of long-term antibiotic use for acne treatment.

It is important to distinguish acneiform eruptions from true acne vulgaris, as the treatment approach may differ depending on the underlying cause. Dermatologists or healthcare providers specializing in skin conditions can provide an accurate diagnosis and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Hypogonadism is a medical condition characterized by the inability of the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) to produce sufficient amounts of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. This can lead to various symptoms including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction in men, irregular menstrual periods in women, and reduced fertility in both sexes. Hypogonadism may be caused by genetic factors, aging, injury to the gonads, or certain medical conditions such as pituitary disorders. It can be treated with hormone replacement therapy.

Endometrial ablation is a medical procedure that involves the removal or destruction of the endometrium, which is the lining of the uterus. This procedure is typically used to treat heavy menstrual bleeding that has not responded to other forms of treatment, such as medication. There are several techniques for performing endometrial ablation, including:

1. Hysteroscopy: This technique uses a thin, lighted tube with a camera called a hysteroscope, which is inserted through the cervix into the uterus. The surgeon can then see the endometrium and use instruments to remove or destroy it.
2. Electrosurgical ablation: This technique uses an electrical current to burn away the endometrium. A probe is inserted through the cervix into the uterus, and the electrical current is passed through the probe to heat and destroy the endometrial tissue.
3. Freezing: Also known as cryoablation, this technique involves freezing the endometrium with a probe that is inserted through the cervix into the uterus. The probe is cooled to a very low temperature, which destroys the endometrial tissue.
4. Radiofrequency ablation: This technique uses radiofrequency energy to heat and destroy the endometrium. A probe is inserted through the cervix into the uterus, and the radiofrequency energy is delivered to the endometrial tissue.
5. Balloon ablation: This technique involves inserting a balloon into the uterus and filling it with fluid that is heated to a high temperature. The heat from the fluid destroys the endometrium.
6. Microwave ablation: This technique uses microwave energy to heat and destroy the endometrium. A probe is inserted through the cervix into the uterus, and the microwave energy is delivered to the endometrial tissue.

It's important to note that endometrial ablation is not a form of birth control, and women who undergo this procedure may still become pregnant. However, pregnancy after endometrial ablation can be dangerous for both the mother and the fetus, so it is important to use reliable forms of contraception after the procedure.

Empty Sella Syndrome is a condition characterized by the absence or near-absence of the pituitary gland in the sella turcica, a bony structure at the base of the skull that houses the pituitary gland. This can occur due to the herniation of the arachnoid membrane, which surrounds the brain and spinal cord, into the sella turcica, compressing or replacing the pituitary gland.

In some cases, Empty Sella Syndrome may be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on imaging studies. However, in other cases, it can lead to hormonal imbalances due to the disruption of the pituitary gland's function. Symptoms may include headaches, vision changes, menstrual irregularities, fatigue, and decreased libido. Treatment typically involves addressing any underlying hormonal deficiencies with medication or hormone replacement therapy.

Premature menopause, also known as premature ovarian insufficiency, is a medical condition characterized by the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40. This results in the absence of menstrual periods and decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone, which can have significant impacts on a woman's health and fertility.

The symptoms of premature menopause are similar to those experienced during natural menopause and may include hot flashes, night sweats, mood changes, vaginal dryness, and decreased libido. However, because of the early age of onset, women with premature menopause have an increased risk of developing certain health conditions such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive decline.

The causes of premature menopause are varied and can include genetic factors, autoimmune disorders, surgical removal of the ovaries, chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and exposure to environmental toxins. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. Treatment for premature menopause typically involves hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to alleviate symptoms and reduce the risk of long-term health complications. However, HRT carries its own risks and benefits, and individualized treatment plans should be developed in consultation with a healthcare provider.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

Norpregnadienes are a type of steroid hormone that are structurally similar to progesterone, but with certain chemical groups (such as the methyl group at C10) removed. They are formed through the metabolism of certain steroid hormones and can be further metabolized into other compounds.

Norpregnadienes have been studied for their potential role in various physiological processes, including the regulation of reproductive function and the development of certain diseases such as cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their functions and clinical significance.

Virilism is a condition that results from excessive exposure to androgens (male hormones) such as testosterone. It can occur in both males and females, but it is more noticeable in women and children. In females, virilism can cause various masculinizing features like excess body hair, deepened voice, enlarged clitoris, and irregular menstrual cycles. In children, it can lead to premature puberty and growth abnormalities. Virilism is often caused by conditions that involve the adrenal glands or ovaries, including tumors, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and certain medications.

Bulimia nervosa is a mental health disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. These compensatory behaviors may include self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa often have a fear of gaining weight and a distorted body image, which can lead to a cycle of binge eating and purging that can be difficult to break. The disorder can have serious medical consequences, including electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, dental problems, and damage to the digestive system.

Bulimia nervosa typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects women more often than men. Treatment for bulimia nervosa may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication, and nutritional counseling. If left untreated, bulimia nervosa can lead to serious health complications and negatively impact a person's quality of life.

'46, XX Disorders of Sex Development' (DSD) is a medical term used to describe individuals who have typical female chromosomes (46, XX) but do not develop typical female physical characteristics. This condition is also sometimes referred to as 'Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome' (CAIS).

Individuals with 46, XX DSD/CAIS have testes instead of ovaries, and they typically do not have a uterus or fallopian tubes. They usually have female external genitalia that appear normal or near-normal, but they may also have undescended testes or inguinal hernias. Because their bodies are insensitive to androgens (male hormones), they do not develop male physical characteristics such as a penis or facial hair.

Individuals with 46, XX DSD/CAIS are typically raised as females and may not become aware of their condition until puberty, when they do not menstruate or develop secondary sexual characteristics such as breasts. Treatment for this condition typically involves surgery to remove the undescended testes and hormone replacement therapy to promote the development of secondary sexual characteristics.

It's important to note that individuals with 46, XX DSD/CAIS can live healthy and fulfilling lives, but they may face unique challenges related to their gender identity, sexuality, and fertility. It is essential to provide these individuals with comprehensive medical care, emotional support, and access to resources and information to help them navigate these challenges.

Pituitary diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproduction.

Pituitary diseases can be classified into two main categories:

1. Pituitary tumors: These are abnormal growths in or around the pituitary gland that can affect its function. Pituitary tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can vary in size. Some pituitary tumors produce excess hormones, leading to a variety of symptoms, while others may not produce any hormones but can still cause problems by compressing nearby structures in the brain.
2. Pituitary gland dysfunction: This refers to conditions that affect the normal function of the pituitary gland without the presence of a tumor. Examples include hypopituitarism, which is a condition characterized by decreased production of one or more pituitary hormones, and Sheehan's syndrome, which occurs when the pituitary gland is damaged due to severe blood loss during childbirth.

Symptoms of pituitary diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the hormones that are affected. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports" is not a medical term. It refers to physical activities that are governed by a set of rules and often engaged in competitively. However, there are fields such as Sports Medicine and Exercise Science that deal with various aspects of physical activity, fitness, and sports-related injuries or conditions. If you have any questions related to these areas, I'd be happy to try to help!

Breastfeeding or lactational amenorrhea is also a common cause of secondary amenorrhoea. Lactational amenorrhea is due to the ... Disability Online's amenorrhoea page Disability Online's athletic amenorrhoea page Amenorrhea (Articles with short description ... Amenorrhea is classified as either primary or secondary. Primary amenorrhoea is the absence of menstruation in a woman by the ... "Amenorrhea". nichd.nih.gov/. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 2018-11-07. "Who is at risk of amenorrhea?". nichd.nih.gov/. 31 January ...
Amenorrhea itself is not necessarily an indicator of infecundity, as the return of ovarian cycling is a gradual process and ... Lactational amenorrhea has evolved as a mechanism for preserving the health of the mother. This period of infecundity allows ... Lactational Amenorrhea Method, which cites: Zinaman MJ, Hughes V, Queenan JT, Labbok MH, Albertson B (March 1992). "Acute ... Lactational amenorrhea, also called postpartum infertility, is the temporary postnatal infertility that occurs when a woman is ...
... (FHA) is a form of amenorrhea and chronic anovulation and is one of the most common types of ... Compared to non-exercising women, whose rate of amenorrhea is 2-5%, the rate of amenorrhea in competitive and recreational ... Patients may present with subclinical menstrual dysfunction, ovulatory amenorrhea, amenorrhea, or have a history of combination ... Liu JH, Patel B, Collins G. Central causes of amenorrhea. [Updated 2016 Mar 1]. In: De Groot LJ, Chrousos G, Dungan K, et al., ...
... is a component of female athlete triad. Exercise induced amenorrhoea occurs in 5-25% of athletes and 1.8% ... Exercise amenorrhoea is a diagnosis of exclusion. Girls who exercise at a young age may have primary amenorrhoea. The ... Amenorrhea usually persists and may take over 6 months to reverse. Warren, Michelle P. (1 June 1999). "Health Issues for Women ... Exercise amenorrhoea is a medical condition in which women involved in heavy exercise experience absence of menstruation of ...
Ancient Roman doctors such as Aetius believed that amenorrhea, or the absence of a menstrual cycle, was caused by a "hot ... ISBN 978-953-51-2931-8. "Amenorrhea". nichd.nih.gov/. Retrieved 2018-11-07. O'Dowd, M. J. (2020-09-10). The History of ...
It may cause a total absence of periods (also called amenorrhea). Blood Tests: Most of the common cause of decreased flow of ... One cause of hypomenorrhea is Asherman's syndrome (intrauterine adhesions), of which hypomenorrhea (or amenorrhea) may be the ... "Amenorrhea: Causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 24, 2011. (Menstrual disorders). ... ISBN 0-674-01282-8. Toaff R, Ballas S (October 1978). "Traumatic hypomenorrhea-amenorrhea (Asherman's syndrome)". Fertil. ...
A rare form of HA that presents as primary amenorrhea can be due to a congenital deficiency of GnRH knows as idiopathic ... Amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) occurs in about 20% of women with ovulatory dysfunction. Infrequent and light menstruation ... A patient history and physical exam should include history of onset and pattern of oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, signs of PCOS ... Anovulation can also cause cessation of periods (secondary amenorrhea) or excessive bleeding (dysfunctional uterine bleeding). ...
Whitehead, Walter (5 September 1885). "Santonin In Amenorrhea". The Lancet. 2 (3236): 430-431. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)28119- ...
Adolescents with sex cord-stromal tumors may experience amenorrhea. As the cancer becomes more advanced, it can cause an ... and secondary amenorrhea. The mass of the tumor can cause other symptoms, including abdominal pain and distension, or symptoms ...
A. Estrogenic; Rx of secondary amenorrhea. R. Notiz Med Farm 32;295, Nov-Dec 81. Akingba JB, Ayodeji EA (February 1966). " ... "Amenorrhea as a leading symptom of choriocarcinoma". The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth. 73 ...
In reality, amenorrhea in women of child-bearing age is frequently a result of low body weight, poor nutrition, disordered ... Ratcliffe has claimed that amenorrhea (the absence of her period) for nine months was a sign that her body was healthy and had ... Golden, N. H.; Shenker, I. R. (July 1994). "Amenorrhea in anorexia nervosa. Neuroendocrine control of hypothalamic dysfunction ... Additionally, maintaining living conditions resulting in secondary amenorrhea may result in infertility and osteoporosis, which ...
A. Estrogenic; Rx of secondary amenorrhea. R. Notiz Med Farm 32;295, Nov-Dec 81. Begni-Calvet D (1959). "[Two properties of ... Akingba JB, Ayodeji EA (February 1966). "Amenorrhea as a leading symptom of choriocarcinoma". The Journal of Obstetrics and ... medication which is used in combination with an estrogen in the treatment of amenorrhea and menopausal symptoms in women. It is ... in the treatment of amenorrhea and menopausal symptoms in women. It has also been used to treat dysmenorrhea in women. ...
"Amenorrhea: Absence of Periods". www.acog.org. Retrieved 2021-09-13. Rosenberg, Michael J.; Burnhill, Michael S.; Waugh, ...
Some women also experience amenorrhea. For some women, prolonged bleeding will decline after the first three months of use. ...
Females will have primary amenorrhea. Individuals of both sexes will be tall, as lack of estrogen does not bring the epiphyseal ...
Consider treatment for women with amenorrhea. In addition, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning should be considered to ... in a population of women with adult-onset amenorrhea, and 17% among women with polycystic ovary syndrome. "What is ...
Jenijoy La Belle takes a slightly different view in her article, "A Strange Infirmity: Lady Macbeth's Amenorrhea". La Belle ... La Belle, Jenijoy (Autumn 1980). "A Strange Infirmity: Lady Macbeth's Amenorrhea". Shakespeare Quarterly. Washington, D.C.: ...
304-. ISBN 978-0-12-397769-4. Santoro NF, Neal-Perry G (11 September 2010). Amenorrhea: A Case-Based, Clinical Guide. Springer ...
In the case of RED-S, the majority of secondary amenorrhea cases are attributed to functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA), an ... Amenorrhea, defined as the cessation of the menstrual cycle for more than three months, is the second disorder in the triad. ... There are two types of amenorrhea. A person who has been having her period and then stops menstruating for ninety days or more ... Primary amenorrhea is characterized by delayed menarche (the onset of menses during puberty). Delayed menarche may be ...
In females, amenorrhea is commonly observed. Conditions with very low LH secretions include: Pasqualini syndrome Kallmann ...
Akhter N, Begum B (3 February 2013). "Evaluation and management of cases of primary amenorrhoea with MRKH syndrome". Bangladesh ... "Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of primary amenorrhea". Retrieved 19 November 2015. Woten M. "Quick Lesson: Mayer-Rokitansky ... primary amenorrhoea). Some find out earlier through surgeries for other conditions, such as a hernia.[citation needed] The ... of cases of primary amenorrhoea. Because most of the vagina does not develop from the Müllerian duct, instead developing from ...
Primarily indicated to induce menstruation in secondary amenorrhea by oral therapy, it contains 30 mg. of progesterone and 1 mg ... Frank R, Guterman HS (1954). "Comparison of progesterone preparations in secondary amenorrhea". Fertility and Sterility. 5 (4 ... Von Numers C (1951). "Simultaneous treatment of secondary amenorrhoea with oestrogen and progesterone". Acta Endocrinologica. 6 ...
"CDC - Lactational Amenorrhea Method - USMEC - Reproductive Health". www.cdc.gov. 2019-01-16. Archived from the original on 2022 ... inducing lactational amenorrhea, provides some protection from pregnancy, and is considered safe for the new infants. The ...
Such hormonal changes may manifest as amenorrhea and infertility in females as well as erectile dysfunction in males. ... Welt CK, Barbieri RL, Geffner ME (2020). "Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of secondary amenorrhea". UpToDate. Waltham, MA. ... amenorrhoea, unexpected lactation and loss of libido in women and erectile dysfunction and loss of libido in men. Causes of ...
Amenorrhea tends to be common in women. The cause of endocrinopathy is unknown, however VEGF may have a role. About 90-100% of ...
Measured from the onset of pregnancy-induced amenorrhea. Pasche Guignard, Florence (September 2015). "A Gendered Bun in the ...
Symptoms may also include scoliosis and primary amenorrhea. Synonyms include hypoplastic thumb Mullerian aplasia, and Mullerian ...
Observing that extreme leanness, hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) and lipodystrophy were conditions of hypoleptinemia, he piloted ... "Recombinant human leptin in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea". New England Journal of Medicine. 351 (10): 987-97. doi:10.1056 ... Normal human physiology and clinical implications for hypothalamic amenorrhoea and anorexia nervosa". The Lancet. 366 (9479): ...
The role of lactational amenorrhea has been shown to be important for infant survival as a mechanism to delay the next ... Holman, D.J.; Grimes, M.A.; Achterberg, J.T.; Brindle, E.; O'Connor, K.A. (2006). "Distribution of postpartum amenorrhea in ... Post-partum infecundability, also referred to as lactational infecundability or lactational amenorrhea, refers to the section ... or lactational amenorrhea, often employ understandings of energetics to their hypotheses and models. Energetics in this context ...
... there is no longer a requirement of amenorrhea. "Feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood", a rarely used diagnosis in ...
Breastfeeding or lactational amenorrhea is also a common cause of secondary amenorrhoea. Lactational amenorrhea is due to the ... Disability Onlines amenorrhoea page Disability Onlines athletic amenorrhoea page Amenorrhea (Articles with short description ... Amenorrhea is classified as either primary or secondary. Primary amenorrhoea is the absence of menstruation in a woman by the ... "Amenorrhea". nichd.nih.gov/. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 2018-11-07. "Who is at risk of amenorrhea?". nichd.nih.gov/. 31 January ...
Treatment of amenorrhea may range from hormonal supplementation for developmental abnormalities of the reproductive system to ... Primary amenorrhea is the absence of the menstrual period by the age of 16. ... Primary amenorrhea is the absence of the menstrual period by the age of 16. Treatment of amenorrhea may range from hormonal ...
Amenorrhea is a normal feature in prepubertal, pregnant, and postmenopausal females. ... Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual bleeding. [1] Amenorrhea is a normal feature in prepubertal, pregnant, and ... Amenorrhea after puberty can be divided into 2 groups: (1) amenorrhea without evidence of associated androgen excess and (2) ... A common cause of amenorrhea is functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. [3] It is characterized by abnormal hypothalamic GnRH ...
Posts about Amenorrhea written by Christopher Hobbs LAc AHG and David L. Hoffmann BSc Hons MNIMH ... To recognize amenorrhea it is necessary to know what would be considered normal menstruation. The duration of a period is 28 ...
Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a common, non-organic and theoretically reversible form of anovulation due to reduced ... Psychoneuroendocrine correlates of secondary amenorrhea Arch Womens Ment Health. 2003 Apr;6(2):83-9. doi: 10.1007/s00737-002- ... Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a common, non-organic and theoretically reversible form of anovulation due to reduced ... That not withstanding, it is mandatory in gynecological endocrinology to explore the issue of secondary amenorrhea from a ...
Amenorrhea is a normal feature in prepubertal, pregnant, and postmenopausal females. ... Hypothalamic amenorrhea. Hypothalamic amenorrhea is most common in patients who exercise to excess and/or have eating disorders ... encoded search term (Amenorrhea) and Amenorrhea What to Read Next on Medscape ... Amenorrhea Treatment & Management. Updated: Oct 14, 2019 * Author: Kristi A Tough DeSapri, MD; Chief Editor: Richard Scott ...
A look at how amenorrhea can affect fertility. Reasons why amenorrhea may occur and what women should do if they develop this. ... Types of Amenorrhea. There are two main types of amenorrhea:. Primary Amenorrhea. A girl who has not gotten her period by the ... Secondary Amenorrhea. Secondary amenorrhea occurs after you have had a normal period for some time, but then begin to go ... What is Amenorrhea?. Amenorrhea refers to the absence of your menstrual periods. It is fairly common in North America, ...
Amenorrhea is typically not a life-threatening condition. Four months ago I decided to go all in and stopped caring about what ... Post pill amenorrhea is a symptom of Post-Birth Control syndrome is marked by the absence of menses that persists 4-6 months ... "I think post-pill amenorrhea is a myth, a catchall for doctors who dont know what they heck is wrong with you - but I would be ... Amenorrhea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. [15-18] Moxibustion is a heat therapy technique ...
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Improve Amenorrhea: In this medical hypnotherapy audio recording process you will take a journey into your womb to help correct ... Improve Amenorrhea: In this medical hypnotherapy audio recording process you will take a journey into your womb to help correct ... Improve Amenorrhea with Self Hypnosis Suggestions CD. $16.95. Improve Amenorrhea with Self Hypnosis Suggestions CD quantity. ﹣ ... Be the first to review "Improve Amenorrhea with Self Hypnosis Suggestions CD" Cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a ...
Conclusion: Athletes with amenorrhea had higher depressive and anxiety symptomatology compared to eumenorrheic young women. ... 3 months within at least 6 preceding months of oligo-amenorrhea, OR in premenarchal girls, absence of menses at ,15 years), and ... demonstrated increased caudate volumes and decreased caudate activation during reward processing in athletes with amenorrhea ... 3 months within at least 6 preceding months of oligo-amenorrhea, OR in premenarchal girls, absence of menses at ,15 years), and ...
Amenorrhea means you do not have menstrual periods. There are two types. Primary amenorrhea means you never start your periods ... Secondary amenorrhea means you have had periods, and then they stop, especially for more than 3 months. ... But doing these things can lead to eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. If you exercise less or gain a little weight ...
It is hard to comment on the amenorrhea. All things cannot be "OK" if amenorrhea or severely irregular cycles are the norm? If ... Fasting with amenorrhea. My daughter has not had a regular period for five years. She tried BCP three times and was not ... "Can intermittent fasting help with amenorrhea?". January 4 2019 by Frida Hofmann Kruse. , medical content by Dr. Michael D. Fox ... Is the "Dutch test" a good marker to use in peri and menopause? Is fasting a good approach to amenorrhea? Snack options between ...
... we dive deep into the challenges of responding to hunger in eating disorder and hypothalamic amenorrhea recovery. We explore ... ️ Ready to get your period back? Join the next round of Healing Hypothalamic Amenorrhea! This 8-week, hybrid group and 1:1 ... ️ Ready to get your period back? Join the next round of Healing Hypothalamic Amenorrhea! This 8-week, hybrid group and 1:1 ... In this episode, we dive deep into the challenges of responding to hunger in eating disorder and hypothalamic amenorrhea ...
Ruemelin, K. 1964: Amenorrhea and its Causes from the Point of View of the Internist. i Die Medizinische Welt 47: 2503. ... Amenorrhea and its Causes from the Point of View of the Internist. Ii. Ruemelin, K.. ...
News stories and articles referencing amenorrhoea on European Pharmaceutical Review ...
Case study: Cervical stenosis and secondary amenorrhoea. Treatment for dyskaryosis may be complicated by the development of ...
There are two types of Amenorrhea. Types of Amenorrhea. Physiological Amenorrhea : Physiological Amenorrhea or the Loss of ... Pathological Amenorrhea: Pathological Amenorrhoea or loss of periods is amenorrhea that occurs as a symptom of an underlying ... Causes of Amenorrhea. Amenorrhea due to Problems in the Cerebral Cortex Stress - Stress is an important factor in causing ... What is Amenorrhea?. Amenorrhea (pronounced uh-men-o-REE-uh) is the medical term for the absence of a menstrual period. A ...
To prolong the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, health education regarding good breast-feeding practices is of crucial ... and the duration of postpartum amenorrhoea. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that seeking antenatal care, the time ... of supplement introduction were the only significant independent determinants of the duration of the lactational amenorrhoea. ... and the duration of postpartum amenorrhoea. The operational definition of the duration of postpartum amenorrhoea adopted in the ...
What is amenorrhea?. Amenorrhea is the medical term for missing periods. There are two different types of amenorrhea, and its ... This is a less common type of amenorrhea.. Secondary amenorrhea. Secondary amenorrhea is much more common Its estimated to ... Primary amenorrhea. Primary amenorrhea refers to the total absence of periods by the age of 15 or 16 or within 5 years of the ... Causes of amenorrhea. In addition to birth control and breastfeeding, other factors can cause you to skip your periods. These ...
Fitzgerald P.A. Fitzgerald, Paul A. "Secondary Amenorrhea." Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2023 Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ ... Secondary amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menses for 3 consecutive months in women who have passed menarche. Menopause ... Fitzgerald P.A. Fitzgerald, Paul A.Secondary Amenorrhea. In: Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ, Rabow MW, McQuaid KR. Papadakis M.A., & ... Secondary "hypothalamic" amenorrhea may be caused by stressful life events such as school examinations or leaving home. Such ...
Read more about for Amenorrhea or Absence of Menstruation . And get instant booking @ 1860-500-4424. ... Amenorrhea or Absence of Menstruation. Home » Specialities » Fertility » Amenorrhea or Absence of Menstruation ... Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation or one or more missed period cycles. When you miss three consecutive periods in a row ... When the underlying conditions are treated, it can cure amenorrhea.. Symptoms. Apart from the absence of periods, you may also ...
... here are the other major causes for irregular periods or amenorrhea.. 4 major causes for irregular periods or amenorrhea. High- ... 81 percent experienced amenorrhea at some point and many had nutritionally deficient diets!. "Exercise-induced amenorrhea" can ... As many as 66 percent of women long-distance runners and ballet dancers experience amenorrhea at one time or another! ... or intense emotional events are all situations that can induce amenorrhea with or without body weight loss.. Poor Diet Can ...
For women who have recently had a baby and are breastfeeding, the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) can be used as birth ... control when three conditions are met: 1) amenorrhea (not having any menstrual periods after delivering a baby), 2) fully or ...
Amenorrhea is a normal feature in prepubertal, pregnant, and postmenopausal females. ... encoded search term (Amenorrhea) and Amenorrhea What to Read Next on Medscape ... Because only 3 diagnoses are unique to primary amenorrhea and never cause secondary amenorrhea, differentiating primary from ... of primary amenorrhea cases and is second to Turner syndrome as the most common cause of primary amenorrhea. ...
Synonyms and keywords:Primary amenorrhea, Secondary amenorrhea, Functional amenorrhea, Hypothalamic amenorrhea, Menstrual cycle ... Differentiating Amenorrhea from other Diseases. Epidemiology and Demographics. Risk Factors. Screening. Natural History, ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Amenorrhea&oldid=1634575" ...
Tag: Amenorrhea. SPORT AND MENSTRUATION. In this article we will deal with the Womens Sports Triad. A syndrome which is found ... Categories Sports, HEALTH, Physical ConditionTags Menstruation, Menstruation, Sports, Amenorrhea, Anorexia, Bulimia, Womens ... in sports and consists of three symptoms: Eating disorders, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. Continue reading "ΑΘΛΗΤΙΣΜΟΣ ΚΑΙ ...
Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is a medical term for when a woman does not have menstrual periods. ...
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  • Secondary amenorrhoea, ceasing of menstrual cycles after menarche, is defined as the absence of menses for three months in a woman with previously normal menstruation, or six months for women with a history of oligomenorrhoea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary amenorrhoea is the absence of menstruation in a woman by the age of 16. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary amenorrhoea is defined as the absence of menstruation for three months in a woman with a history of regular cyclic bleeding or six months in a woman with a history of irregular menstrual periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • To recognize amenorrhea it is necessary to know what would be considered normal menstruation. (healthy.net)
  • Girls with primary amenorrhea do not have enough hormones in their body to trigger menstruation. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation or one or more missed period cycles. (apollocradle.com)
  • Of course, one of the most common reasons for amenorrhea or the absence of menstruation is pregnancy. (apollocradle.com)
  • Secondary amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menstruation for at least 6 months or for at least 3 of the previous 3 cycle intervals. (medscape.com)
  • Amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) happens to very yang women, who feel aversion for themselves, or for their woman pattern. (flowsandforms.com)
  • In primary amenorrhoea, the patient has never had a menstruation. (dentalmammoth.com)
  • In secondary amenorrhoea, menstruation remains absent for 6 consecutive months or, if the menstrual cycle i. (dentalmammoth.com)
  • The Endocrine Society has issued a new guideline on how to diagnose and treat hypothalamic amenorrhea , a condition that occurs when the hypothalamus slows or stops releasing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to cessation of menstruation. (medscape.com)
  • One such disorder is amenorrhea wherein the menstruation stops due to some unexplained reasons. (wellnesskeen.com)
  • In fact, primary amenorrhea has no relation with pregnancy, as this type occurs during childhood when a girl does not get her menstruation by the age of 16. (wellnesskeen.com)
  • When menstruation is absent or extremely delayed, this is the condition known as amenorrhea . (gynecology-doctors.com)
  • Amenorrhea (the absence of menstruation) can be primary or secondary. (msdmanuals.com)
  • General references Amenorrhea (the absence of menstruation) can be primary or secondary. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Primary amenorrhea is the failure of menses to occur by age 16 years, in the presence of normal growth and secondary sexual characteristics. (medscape.com)
  • If by age 13 menses has not occurred and the onset of puberty, such as breast development, is absent, a workup for primary amenorrhea should start. (medscape.com)
  • Secondary amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses sometime after menarche has occurred. (medscape.com)
  • Some authors suggest the absence of menses for 6 months constitutes amenorrhea, but the basis for this recommendation is unclear. (medscape.com)
  • When a girl has never experienced menarche and menses, she is said to be suffering from primary amenorrhoea or primary lack of menses. (gynaeonline.com)
  • When the patient has had at least one episode of spontaneous menses before the loss of her periods, she is said to suffer from secondary amenorrhoea. (gynaeonline.com)
  • Secondary amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menses for 3 consecutive months in women who have passed menarche. (mhmedical.com)
  • Primary amenorrhea is defined either as absence of menses by age 14 years with the absence of growth or development of secondary sexual characteristics (eg, breast development) or as absence of menses by age 16 years with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics. (medscape.com)
  • Teens who resume menses can restore some, if not most, of the bone density lost during their months of amenorrhea. (soulfirehealth.app)
  • Secondary amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of regular menses for three months or the cessation of irregular menses for six months and is caused by disruption of the HPO axis. (instituteofmotion.com)
  • There are two different types of amenorrhea, and it's important to know which type you have. (montereybayivf.com)
  • Consideration of the target organs of these reproductive hormones (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, uterus) is helpful for identifying the disease process responsible for a patient's amenorrhea. (medscape.com)
  • Menopause begins due to a problem in the hypothalamus (hypothalamic amenorrhea) if it starts before puberty. (resultmed.com)
  • 2. Menopause due to a problem in the hypothalamus (hypothalamic amenorrhea). (resultmed.com)
  • Another type is hypothalamic amenorrhea, which is characterized by an abnormality of the hypothalamus, a basal part of the diencephalon governing autonomic nervous system. (wellnesskeen.com)
  • Although amenorrhea has multiple potential causes, ultimately, it is the result of hormonal imbalance or an anatomical abnormality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amenorrhea can be caused by any mechanism that disrupts this hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, whether that it be by hormonal imbalance or by disruption of feedback mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of amenorrhea may range from hormonal supplementation for developmental abnormalities of the reproductive system to surgery for tumors of the pituitary. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, secondary amenorrhea is typically the result of drop in hormonal levels, infertility, or some kind of reproductive complication, premature menopause, or intrauterine scar formation. (wellnesskeen.com)
  • Some women also experience amenorrhea as a part of hormonal birth control , including oral pills and intrauterine devices. (gynecology-doctors.com)
  • However, amenorrhea can occur when ovulation is normal, as occurs when genital anatomic abnormalities (eg, congenital anomalies causing outflow obstruction, intrauterine adhesions [Asherman syndrome]) prevent normal menstrual flow despite normal hormonal stimulation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Doctors Gates: Hormonal and Other Changes in Patients with Hypothalamic Amenorrhea. (blogspot.com)
  • Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that seeking antenatal care, the time of initiation of breast-feeding, and the infant's age at the time of supplement introduction were the only significant independent determinants of the duration of the lactational amenorrhoea. (who.int)
  • To prolong the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, health education regarding good breast-feeding practices is of crucial value. (who.int)
  • The lactational amenorrhoea method, which entails the continuation of full or nearly full breast-feeding and remaining amenorrhoeic during the first six months postpartum, was agreed by the Bellagio Consensus Conference to be adopted as an initial method of contraception [6]. (who.int)
  • During the first six months postpartum, the lactational amenorrhoea method is 98% effective in preventing conception [6]. (who.int)
  • The cumulative six-month life table pregnancy rate was 0.45% among women who relied on lactational amenorrhoea as their only family planning method [10]. (who.int)
  • Since the lactational amenorrhoea method has been proved to be efficacious, this study was undertaken to reveal the determinants of the duration of lactational amenorrhoea among mothers in Alexandria. (who.int)
  • This is called 'lactational amenorrhea method', or LAM. (thenatalfamily.co.uk)
  • Effectiveness of Lactational Amenorrhea Method in Ethiopia: A Multi-Center Prospective Cohort Study. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) is one of the most commonly used contraception methods during the first six months of a woman 's postpartum period , there has been little research on its effectiveness in general and particularly in Ethiopia . (bvsalud.org)
  • The results of two controlled trials in Honduras indicate that exclusive breastfeeding for six months (compared with four months) confers an advantage in prolonging the duration of lactational amenorrhoea in mothers who breastfeed frequently (mean 10-14 feedings/day). (who.int)
  • Constitutional delay of puberty is a diagnosis of exclusion that is made when the workup for primary amenorrhea does not reveal another cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • But doing these things can lead to eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. (alberta.ca)
  • The condition often affects adolescent girls with low weight, low body fat, and emotional stress - ballet dancers, figure skaters, runners, and others who burn more calories through exercise than they consume are at risk for developing hypothalamic amenorrhea, as are those with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa . (medscape.com)
  • In these cases, careful monitoring is important because the mortality rate is high for patients who have hypothalamic amenorrhea as well as eating disorders - particularly anorexia nervosa - according to the researchers. (medscape.com)
  • HA occurs generally after severe stressed conditions/situations such as dieting, heavy training, or intense emotional events, all situations that can induce amenorrhea with or without body weight loss and HA is a secondary amenorrhea with a diagnosis of exclusion. (researchgate.net)
  • it is a retrospective diagnosis, usually made after 12 months of amenorrhea. (mhmedical.com)
  • Healthcare providers should consider a diagnosis of hypothalamic amenorrhea when evaluating adolescents or women who regularly have 45 days between periods or who haven't had a period in at least 3 months, the guideline says. (medscape.com)
  • Request more information about amenorrhea diagnosis and treatment today: Call (424) 365-1800 or contact Vitality Integrative Medicine online . (gynecology-doctors.com)
  • Clinicians should make the diagnosis of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) only after excluding the anatomic or organic pathology of amenorrhea. (medscape.com)
  • Diagnosis and appropriate correction of intrauterine anomalies are considered et d'Application en Chirurgie essential in order to increase chances of conception. (who.int)
  • Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a common, non-organic and theoretically reversible form of anovulation due to reduced hypothalamic GnRH drive. (nih.gov)
  • It is known as functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA), and it is associated with metabolic, physical, or psychological stress (after severe dieting, heavy training, intense emotional events, or a combination of them) [4, 5] with or without body weight loss [6]. (researchgate.net)
  • Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a relatively frequent disease due to the combination of metabolic, physical, or psychological stressors. (researchgate.net)
  • this disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, leading to functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) and low estrogen levels ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) is a functional disorder caused by disturbances in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility. (unifi.it)
  • Cite this: Endocrine Society Issues Hypothalamic Amenorrhea Guideline - Medscape - Mar 30, 2017. (medscape.com)
  • In females of reproductive age, diagnosing amenorrhea is a matter of first determining whether pregnancy is the etiology. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment is determined by the etiology of the amenorrhea and the desires of the patient. (medscape.com)
  • Because only 3 diagnoses are unique to primary amenorrhea and never cause secondary amenorrhea, differentiating primary from secondary amenorrhea does little to enhance the clinician's understanding of the etiology. (medscape.com)
  • People with stress-related amenorrhea have altered hormone levels that interfere with ovulation. (montereybayivf.com)
  • DESIGN: We included 8 patients (aged 23.16+/-1.72 years) suffering from hypothalamic stress-related amenorrhea with normal body weight and 8 age-matched healthy controls in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. (unifi.it)
  • Examples of amenorrhea include constitutional delay of puberty, Turner syndrome, and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary amenorrhea refers to the total absence of periods by the age of 15 or 16 or within 5 years of the onset of puberty. (montereybayivf.com)
  • They're still great workouts, but for someone who is still suffering from hypothalamic amenorrhea or just recently recovered, they are clearly too intense. (urbanjane.co)
  • Primary amenorrhea is defined as an absence of secondary sexual characteristics by age 13 with no menarche or normal secondary sexual characteristics but no menarche by 15 years of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Females who have not reached menarche at 14 and who have no signs of secondary sexual characteristics (thelarche or pubarche) are also considered to have primary amenorrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has to be investigated using the clinical history of the patient: occurrence of menarche, menstrual cyclicity, time and modality of amenorrhea, and it has to be excluded any endocrine disease or any metabolic (i.e., diabetes) and systemic disorders. (researchgate.net)
  • However, absence of menarche and of any breast development by age 13 should prompt evaluation for primary amenorrhea. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Primary amenorrhea is common among thin or athletic girls who do not have enough body fat to trigger estrogen and other sex hormones. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Production of male hormones - Certain ovarian tumors like theca cell tumors or Dermoid cysts can produce predominantly male hormones and cause amenorrhea. (gynaeonline.com)
  • Experiencing a traumatic event can suddenly cause the adrenals to work overtime, which can disrupt the production of estrogen and other reproductive hormones (a condition called hypothalamic amenorrhea). (varsityscope.com)
  • Amenorrhea refers to the absence of your menstrual periods. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Amenorrhea means you do not have menstrual periods. (alberta.ca)
  • Primary amenorrhea means you never start your periods. (alberta.ca)
  • Secondary amenorrhea means you have had periods, and then they stop, especially for more than 3 months. (alberta.ca)
  • Pathological Amenorrhoea or loss of periods is amenorrhea that occurs as a symptom of an underlying disease. (gynaeonline.com)
  • Amenorrhea is the medical term for missing periods. (montereybayivf.com)
  • Secondary amenorrhea refers to women who once got periods, but something has caused them to skip their period for more than 3 cycles. (montereybayivf.com)
  • When you miss three consecutive periods in a row, you may be diagnosed with Amenorrhea. (apollocradle.com)
  • Amenorrhea is a medical term for when a woman does not have menstrual periods. (familydoctor.org)
  • Amenorrhea is a condition of absence of menstrual periods in women or the presence of less than 9 menstrual cycles per year. (resultmed.com)
  • Since experiencing hypothalamic amenorrhea (missing periods) herself, Dr. Sykes has been on a mission to spread awareness of the condition and how to recover. (foodfreedomandfertility.com)
  • Amenorrhea is a condition in which a woman of reproductive age misses her menstrual periods for various reasons. (wellnesskeen.com)
  • Amenorrhea is basically the absence of menstrual periods in a woman of childbearing or reproductive age. (wellnesskeen.com)
  • Likewise, secondary amenorrhea is another condition in which a girl even after having regular periods for a certain period of time, experiences no bleeding for consecutive 3 to 4 months. (wellnesskeen.com)
  • Amenorrhea is the loss of regular menstrual periods. (soulfirehealth.app)
  • Having no menstrual periods is called amenorrhea. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If women have been having menstrual periods, which then stop, they may have secondary amenorrhea. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Primary amenorrhea and the potential for impaired fertility affect the emotional health of the adolescent and her family. (medscape.com)
  • Amenorrhea can signal underlying health problems and may be a clue to your fertility problems. (sharedjourney.com)
  • This habit might be more impactful on your fertility than you realize- especially if you're on a journey to heal from hypothalamic amenorrhea. (foodfreedomandfertility.com)
  • Amenorrhea can wreak havoc on a woman's system and make achieving fertility difficult. (gynecology-doctors.com)
  • Amenorrhea may also be the result of strict dieting, vigorous exercise, organic illness, or anorexia nervosa. (mhmedical.com)
  • Leptin in anorexia nervosa and amenorrhea. (bvsalud.org)
  • During pregnancy or after menopause, you will lose your period, and this is a natural form of amenorrhea. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Natural menopause was defined as the bleeding episode prior to at least 12 months of amenorrhea not due to surgery or hormone use. (cdc.gov)
  • Exploratory analyses demonstrated increased caudate volumes and decreased caudate activation during reward processing in athletes with amenorrhea suggesting that estrogen may play a role in reward processing. (frontiersin.org)
  • Such problems occur because in women who have amenorrhea, the estrogen level is low. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The symptom most often associated with amenorrhea is obvious: the absence of a menstrual period. (gynecology-doctors.com)
  • Diagnostic pitfalls in the evaluation and management of amenorrhea in adolescents. (epnet.com)
  • Hallmark findings in adolescents and young women with hypothalamic amenorrhea include overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis , suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis , and alterations in thyroid hormone regulation. (blogspot.com)
  • Diagnostic evaluation for FHA is suggested in adolescents and women whose menstrual cycle interval persistently exceeds 45 days and/or those who present with amenorrhea for 3 mo or more. (medscape.com)
  • Secondary amenorrhea occurs after you have had a normal period for some time, but then begin to go without a period for more than three months. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Amenorrhea is the absence of a menstrual period in a female who has reached reproductive age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though patient's with MRKH have functioning ovaries, and therefore have secondary sexual characteristics, they experience primary amenorrhea since there is no functioning uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most women with amenorrhea, the ovaries do not release an egg. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Amenorrhea can also result from conditions that affect the uterus, cervix, or vagina. (msdmanuals.com)
  • There are few reports regarding treatment of amenorrhea that has been present for 6 months for postpill women with suddenly increased body weight (BW), by using pharmacopuncture and moxibustion as a primary treatment method in TKM. (morewoodbikes.com)
  • Athletes with amenorrhea had higher depressive and anxiety symptomatology compared to eumenorrheic young women. (frontiersin.org)
  • Amenorrhea affects about 10% of women worldwide. (gynaeonline.com)
  • A total of 300 women nursing a child aged 6 to 24 months were interviewed to determine their sociodemographic and biological characteristics, the antenatal care received, health problems encountered during pregnancy and the postpartum period, breast-feeding practices, child nutrition, and the duration of postpartum amenorrhoea. (who.int)
  • Secondary amenorrhea is much more common It's estimated to affect 3-5% of women at some point in their lives. (montereybayivf.com)
  • Pregnancy is the most common cause for secondary amenorrhea in premenopausal women. (mhmedical.com)
  • Most women with hypothalamic amenorrhea have a persistently low frequency of GnRH pulses. (mhmedical.com)
  • After 5 years struggling with binge eating and amenorrhea, she developed a passion for helping other women overcome. (foodfreedomandfertility.com)
  • Amenorrhea can affect women of any age. (gynecology-doctors.com)
  • Amenorrhea was recorded only for women (age range 15-40 years) and erectile dysfunction only for men (age range 24-35 years). (cdc.gov)
  • No consensus has been reached regarding the point at which oligomenorrhea becomes amenorrhea. (medscape.com)
  • Amenorrhea may be accompanied by other symptoms, depending on the cause. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Uterine bleeding: May cause irregular bleeding or amenorrhea. (nih.gov)
  • Abnormal uterine findings were de Recherche et d'Application en identified in 95.8% of patients attending hysteroscopy at GESHRTH. (who.int)
  • In a patient with suspected FHA, exclude pregnancy and perform a full physical examination, including a gynecologic examination (external and, in selected cases, bimanual), to evaluate the possibility of organic etiologies of amenorrhea. (medscape.com)
  • In cases of primary amenorrhea, evaluate mullerian tract anomalies (congenital or acquired). (medscape.com)
  • If you are experiencing amenorrhea, it is probably because certain factors are causing an imbalance in your hormone levels. (sharedjourney.com)
  • The remaining diagnoses should be considered in patients with both primary and secondary amenorrhea. (medscape.com)
  • Secondary amenorrhea may be caused by acquired anatomic reproductive tract abnormalities that interfere with menstrual function or obstruct the menstrual flow. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A woman is said to have amenorrhea when a menstrual period does not occur for more than three months in a row. (gynaeonline.com)
  • Physiological states of amenorrhoea are seen, most commonly, during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding). (wikipedia.org)
  • Amenorrhea and pregnancy are two conditions in a woman's life which need not depend on each other. (wellnesskeen.com)
  • Furthermore, the analysis of data from nine prospective studies in different countries, including Egypt, concluded that, irrespective of the introduction of infant supplements, the probability of conception during the period of postpartum amenorrhoea was similar to that of modern contraceptive methods [11]. (who.int)
  • A systematic review of current scientific evidence on the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding1 identified and summarized studies that compared exclusive breastfeeding for four to six months with exclusive breastfeeding for six months in terms of growth, infant iron status, morbidity, atopic disease, motor development, postpartum weight loss, and amenorrhoea. (who.int)
  • Inpatient treatment should be considered for hypothalamic amenorrhea patients if they have a slow heart rate, low blood pressure, or an electrolyte imbalance. (medscape.com)
  • Obtain a baseline bone mineral density (BMD) measurement by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) from any adolescent or woman with 6 or more months of amenorrhea. (medscape.com)