Amelogenin: A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.Dental Enamel Proteins: The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.Matrix Metalloproteinase 20: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.Amelogenesis: The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Ameloblasts: Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Nanospheres: Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary conditions characterized by malformed DENTAL ENAMEL, usually involving DENTAL ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA and/or TOOTH HYPOMINERALIZATION.Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Enamel Organ: Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Iguanas: Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Sex Determination Analysis: Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.Reptilian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Nanotubes: Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Directed Tissue Donation: Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Periodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal: Techniques for enhancing and directing cell growth to repopulate specific parts of the PERIODONTIUM that have been damaged by PERIODONTAL DISEASES; TOOTH DISEASES; or TRAUMA, or to correct TOOTH ABNORMALITIES. Repopulation and repair is achieved by guiding the progenitor cells to reproduce in the desired location by blocking contact with surrounding tissue by use of membranes composed of synthetic or natural material that may include growth inducing factors as well.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Cementogenesis: The formation of DENTAL CEMENTUM, a bone-like material that covers the root of the tooth.Paternity: Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Wnt Signaling Pathway: A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Colocasia: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Rana esculenta: An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".

Analysis of ancient DNA from a prehistoric Amerindian cemetery. (1/231)

The Norris Farms No. 36 cemetery in central Illinois has been the subject of considerable archaeological and genetic research. Both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA have been examined in this 700-year-old population. DNA preservation at the site was good, with about 70% of the samples producing mtDNA results and approximately 15% yielding nuclear DNA data. All four of the major Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were found, in addition to a fifth haplogroup. Sequences of the first hypervariable region of the mtDNA control region revealed a high level of diversity in the Norris Farms population and confirmed that the fifth haplogroup associates with Mongolian sequences and hence is probably authentic. Other than a possible reduction in the number of rare mtDNA lineages in many populations, it does not appear as if European contact significantly altered patterns of Amerindian mtDNA variation, despite the large decrease in population size that occurred. For nuclear DNA analysis, a novel method for DNA-based sex identification that uses nucleotide differences between the X and Y copies of the amelogenin gene was developed and applied successfully in approximately 20 individuals. Despite the well-known problems of poor DNA preservation and the ever-present possibility of contamination with modern DNA, genetic analysis of the Norris Farms No. 36 population demonstrates that ancient DNA can be a fruitful source of new insights into prehistoric populations.  (+info)

Rapid quantification of mixed chimerism using multiplex amplification of short tandem repeat markers and fluorescence detection. (2/231)

Monitoring the engraftment of donor cells after allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation (BSCT) may be important for the early diagnosis of graft failure or relapse of disease. Several techniques have been reported for this purpose. PCR-based assays analyzing polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers are attractive because they are sensitive and can be performed rapidly. The intent of the present study was to test a novel approach for the quantification of mixed chimerism using a commercial multiplex STR assay with fluorescence-based detection for forensic purposes. The feasibility of this assay and the accuracy of quantitative results was tested using serial cell mixtures of unrelated individuals. Sample preparation was optimized to obtain information from minute amounts of starting material, eg from patients with aplasia or from sorted cell populations. Using the STR-PCR, discrimination between donor and recipient was possible in all patients analyzed (n = 25). Cell dilution experiments showed a linear correlation between the cell numbers added and the proportions found, with the limit of detection for a minor cell population being 5%. Comparison of values obtained with standard FISH analysis in patients transplanted from sex-mismatched donors showed an excellent correlation with the STR-PCR results. Taken together, this procedure allows the rapid, versatile and accurate quantification of mixed chimerism, even with minuscule numbers of cells.  (+info)

An immunocytochemical study of amelogenin proteins in the developing tooth enamel of the gar-pike, Lepisosteus oculatus (Holostei, Actinopterygii). (3/231)

Previous studies have demonstrated the morphological similarity of the enamel-like layer found in the teeth of the coelacanth, lungfish and gar-pike to the enamel of tetrapods. In order to clarify the phylogenetic continuity between both structures, tooth germs of the gar-pike were immunocytochemically studied using an anti-bovine amelogenin polyclonal antibody. Intense immunoreaction was shown over the enamel-like matrix layer. Certain cell organelles associated with the secretory pathway of the ameloblasts were recognized as immunoreactive. These results indicate that the enamel-like layer of the gar-pike is a tissue homologous with the mammalian enamel because both possess a common, amelogenin-like substance.  (+info)

Histological analysis and ancient DNA amplification of human bone remains found in caius iulius polybius house in pompeii. (4/231)

Thirteen skeletons found in the Caius Iulius Polybius house, which has been the object of intensive study since its discovery in Pompeii 250 years ago, have provided an opportunity to study either bone diagenesis by histological investigation or ancient DNA by polymerase chain reaction analysis. DNA analysis was done by amplifying both X- and Y-chromosomes amelogenin loci and Y-specific alphoid repeat locus. The von Willebrand factor (vWF) microsatellite locus on chromosome 12 was also analyzed for personal identification in two individuals showing alleles with 10/11 and 12/12 TCTA repeats, respectively. Technical problems were the scarcity of DNA content from osteocytes, DNA molecule fragmentation, microbial contamination which change bone structure, contaminating human DNA which results from mishandling, and frequent presence of Taq DNA polymerase inhibiting molecules like polyphenols and heavy metals. The results suggest that the remains contain endogenous human DNA that can be amplified and analyzed. The amplifiability of DNA corresponds to the bone preservation and dynamics of the burial conditions subsequent to the 79 A.D. eruption.  (+info)

Proteinases in developing dental enamel. (5/231)

For almost three decades, proteinases have been known to reside within developing dental enamel. However, identification and characterization of these proteinases have been slow and difficult, because they are present in very small quantities and they are difficult to purify directly from the mineralizing enamel. Enamel matrix proteins such as amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin are cleaved by proteinases soon after they are secreted, and their cleavage products accumulate in the deeper, more mature enamel layers, while the full-length proteins are observed only at the surface. These results suggest that proteinases are necessary for "activating" enamel proteins so the parent proteins and their cleavage products may perform different functions. A novel matrix metalloproteinase named enamelysin (MMP-20) was recently cloned from tooth tissues and was later shown to localize primarily within the most recently formed enamel. Furthermore, recombinant porcine enamelysin was demonstrated to cleave recombinant porcine amelogenin at virtually all of the sites that have previously been described in vivo. Therefore, enamelysin is at least one enzyme that may be important during early enamel development. As enamel development progresses to the later stages, a profound decrease in the enamel protein content is observed. Proteinases have traditionally been assumed to degrade the organic matrix prior to its removal from the enamel. Recently, a novel serine proteinase named enamel matrix serine proteinase-1 (EMSP1) was cloned from enamel organ epithelia. EMSP1 localizes primarily to the early maturation stage enamel and may, therefore, be involved in the degradation of proteins prior to their removal from the maturing enamel. Other, as yet unidentified, proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are almost certainly present within the forming enamel and await discovery.  (+info)

Identification of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha as a transactivator of the mouse amelogenin gene. (6/231)

Amelogenin expression is ameloblast-specific and developmentally regulated at the temporal and spatial levels. In a previous transgenic mouse analysis, the expression pattern of the endogenous amelogenin gene was recapitulated by a reporter gene driven by a 2. 2-kilobase mouse amelogenin proximal promoter. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal expression of the amelogenin gene during odontogenesis, the mouse amelogenin promoter was systematically analyzed in mouse ameloblast-like LS8 cells. Deletion analysis identified a minimal promoter (-70/+52) containing a CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-binding site upstream of the TATA box. In transient transfection assays, C/EBPalpha up-regulated the promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. The C/EBP-binding site was necessary for both C/EBPalpha-mediated transactivation and basal promoter activity. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays demonstrated that C/EBPalpha bound to its cognate site in the amelogenin promoter and that the binding was specific. Endogenous C/EBPalpha was detected in LS8 cells, and overexpression of exogenous C/EBPalpha in LS8 cells was able to increase the expression level of the endogenous amelogenin protein. The activity of the amelogenin promoter in rat parotid Pa-4 cells and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells was minimal, ranging from 20 to 30% of the activity in ameloblast-like cells. Transient transfection experiments showed that C/EBPalpha transactivated the mouse amelogenin reporter gene in Pa-4 cells, but not in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Taken together, these data indicate that C/EBPalpha is a bona fide transcriptional activator of the mouse amelogenin gene in a cell type-specific manner.  (+info)

Functional antagonism between Msx2 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha in regulating the mouse amelogenin gene expression is mediated by protein-protein interaction. (7/231)

Ameloblast-specific amelogenin gene expression is spatiotemporally regulated during tooth development. In a previous study, the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) was identified as a transcriptional activator of the mouse amelogenin gene in a cell type-specific manner. Here, Msx2 is shown to repress the promoter activity of amelogenin-promoter reporter constructs independent of its intrinsic DNA binding activity. In transient cotransfection assays, Msx2 and C/EBPalpha antagonize each other in regulating the expression of the mouse amelogenin gene. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays demonstrate that Msx2 interferes with the binding of C/EBPalpha to its cognate site in the mouse amelogenin minimal promoter, although Msx2 itself does not bind to the same promoter fragment. Protein-protein interaction between Msx2 and C/EBPalpha is identified with co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Functional antagonism between Msx2 and C/EBPalpha is also observed on the stably transfected 2.2-kilobase mouse amelogenin promoter in ameloblast-like LS8 cells. Furthermore, the carboxyl-terminal residues 183-267 of Msx2 are required for protein-protein interaction, whereas the amino-terminal residues 2-97 of Msx2 play a less critical role. Among three family members tested (C/EBPalpha, -beta, and -gamma), Msx2 preferentially interacts with C/EBPalpha. Taken together, these data indicate that protein-protein interaction rather than competition for overlapping binding sites results in the functional antagonism between Msx2 and C/EBPalpha in regulating the mouse amelogenin gene expression.  (+info)

Time-related changes of developing enamel crystals after exposure to the tissue fluid in vivo: analysis of a subcutaneously implanted rat incisor. (8/231)

To investigate the effects of tissue fluid on the growth of enamel crystals, upper and lower incisors extracted from 3-week-old Wistar rats were removed of the enamel organ, implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal portion of animals from the same litter, and harvested at 72 h or 1 week after implantation. The grafts were chemically fixed with surrounding tissues and prepared for light and electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, or for the immunohistochemistry of amelogenin. Mineralization of implanted enamel layers was examined by contact X-ray microradiography. The immunoreactivities for 25 kD amelogenin in immature enamel decreased sequentially, starting from the surface to the deeper layers; by 1 week after implantation, no positive reactivities remained in the entire enamel layers at the stages of matrix formation and early maturation. In accordance with the loss of enamel proteins, immature enamel gained mineral density until it attained higher radio opacity than that of the adjacent dentin by 1 week. In contrast, the radio opacity of the full thickness of the enamel at early maturation remained low except for a superficial thin layer. Electron microscopy revealed no sign of growth of original enamel crystals, but showed heavy precipitation of electron-dense fine granules of calcium phosphate in all layers of the secretory enamel and the superficial layer of enamel at early maturation, which showed high radio opacity. The Ca/P ratio and electron diffraction patterns of the granular materials precipitated between intrinsic enamel crystals indicated the property of hydroxy apatite or octacalcium phosphate though a characteristic ribbon-like profile of enamel crystals was lacking. These data indicate that the enamel organ blocks exogenous mineral precipitates in growing enamel during the stage of matrix formation and plays an essential regulatory role for fine enamel crystallites to grow into large hexagonal crystals.  (+info)

Previously, we have shown that serine-16 phosphorylation in native full-length porcine amelogenin (P173) and the Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP(+P)), an alternative amelogenin splice product, affects protein assembly and mineralization in vitro. Notably, P173 and LRAP(+P) stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and inhibit hydroxyapatite (HA) formation, while non-phosphorylated counterparts (rP172, LRAP(−P)) guide the growth of ordered bundles of HA crystals. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the phosphorylation of full-length amelogenin and LRAP induces conformational changes that critically affect its capacity to interact with forming calcium phosphate mineral phases. To test this hypothesis, we have utilized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the secondary structure of LRAP(−P) and LRAP(+P) in the absence/presence of calcium and selected mineral phases relevant to amelogenesis; i.e., hydroxyapatite (HA: an enamel crystal prototype) and (ACP: an
Amelogenin gene expression is spatiotemporally regulated during enamel biomineralization. Studies show that C/EBP alpha is a transactivator of the mouse amelogenin gene acting at the C/EBP alpha cis-element located in the -70/+52 minimal promoter that also contains a reversed CCAAT box (-58/-54). Similar to the C/EBP alpha binding site, this CCAAT box is required for the basal promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that NF-Y is directly bound to this reversed CCAAT box. Co-transfection of C/EBP alpha and NF-Y synergistically increases the promoter activity. Protein-protein interactions between C/EBP alpha with NF-Y are identified by a co-immunoprecipitation analysis.; A protein/DNA array technique is utilized to identify a transcriptional factor named YY1. YY1 represses both the basal amelogenin promoter activity and C/EBP alpha-mediated transactivation. Furthermore, YY1 repression is independent of its DNA binding capacity.; C/EBP alpha contains four highly ...
Differences between the X chromosome and Y chromosome versions of the amelogenin gene (AMELX and AMELY respectively) enable it to be used in sex determination of unknown human samples. AMELXs intron 1 contains a 6 bp deletion relative to intron 1 of AMELY. This can be detected at low cost using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of intron 1, followed by gel electrophoresis. Two bands of DNA, at 106bps and 112bps, are resolved if both the AMELX and AMELY versions of the gene are present (i.e. the sample is from a male) or one band of DNA, at 106bps, if the AMELX version only is present (i.e. the sample is from a female).[3]. However because of AMELY variation among individuals and populations, this method of sex determination is not 100% accurate. Mutation in regions of AMELY intron 1 commonly used as primer annealing sites may disable PCR amplification. A 6bp insertion to AMELY intron 1 results in an amplicon identical in length to that of AMELX. In some males AMELY may be deleted entirely. In any ...
This volume is the 1st in a series of Ebooks that bridges the gap between advances in science and clinical practice in odontology. Recent advances in biology, materials science and tissue engineering are increasingly viewed as being of enormous clinical potential. Stem cell research has opened up the possibility of reconstructing teeth from the association of epithelial and mesanchymal embryonic or adult cells, as an exciting alternative to metal implants. This Ebook will examine the multifunctional nature of a group of proteins known as the amelogenins. Latest studies indicate that this protein regulates the initiation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals during the mineralization of enamel. In addition, amelogenins organize enamel rods during tooth development, and also aid in the development of cementum by directing cells that form the cementum to the root surface of the teeth. The aim of this book is to serve as a bridge between basic biology and biomaterial sciences, and to inform ...
Sure, there could be autosomal marker that influences male/female outcome but there is a more likely explanation: All SNPs have paralogue sequence stretches on the Y chromosome that are co-amplified during PCR. From the initial genotyping results it is most likely that only the Y chromosomal stretch is being mutated in SNP 4, 13 and 15.2. These SNPs are perfect sex marker, as they include an autosomal control allele (in comparison to pure Y markers like SNPs in SRY). They are always unambiguous (in contrast to pure X marker where only heterocygotes are informative).. They even offer advantage to commercial STR kits of the Amelogenin/Amely gene situated (in the Y parautosomal region) as they would not be affected by excess homologous X chromosomal material as often found in forensic situations. In addition, they might overcome some other weakness of the Amelogenin test where a second assay is usually recommended. If you will ever see a case-control study that is highlighting any of these SNPs, ...
For direct STR multiplex amplification of the CODIS and ESS loci, plus SE33, DYS391 and Amelogenin, with an innovative Quality Sensor
For direct STR multiplex amplification of the CODIS and ESS loci, SE33, DYS391 and Amelogenin, with an innovative Quality Sensor ...
Lyrics to Make Me Whole by Amel Larrieux: Darlin I want you to listen, / I stayed up all night, / So I can get this thing right. / And I
TY - JOUR. T1 - The influence of Leucine-rich amelogenin peptide on MSC fate by inducing Wnt10b expression. AU - Wen, Xin. AU - Cawthorn, William P.. AU - MacDougald, Ormond A.. AU - Stupp, Samuel I.. AU - Snead, Malcolm L.. AU - Zhou, Yan. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Amelogenin is the most abundant protein of the enamel organic matrix and is a structural protein indispensable for enamel formation. One of the amelogenin splicing isoforms, Leucine-rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP) induces osteogenesis in various cell types. Previously, we demonstrated that LRAP activates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway to induce osteogenic differentiation of mouse ES cells through the concerted regulation of Wnt agonists and antagonists. There is a reciprocal relationship between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). Wnt10b-mediated activation of canonical Wnt signaling has been shown to regulate mesenchymal stem cell fate. Using the bipotential bone ...
leucine-rich amelogenin peptide: translation product of an alternatively spliced transcript; amino acid sequence has been determined
Masica, David L., and Rachel Karchin. "Collections of simultaneously altered genes as biomarkers of cancer cell drug response." Cancer research 73, no. 6 (2013): 1699-1708.. Masica, David L., Patrick R. Sosnay, Garry R. Cutting, and Rachel Karchin. "Phenotype-optimized sequence ensembles substantially improve prediction of disease-causing mutation in cystic fibrosis." Human Mutation (2012).. Masica, David L., and Rachel Karchin. "Correlation of somatic mutation and expression identifies genes important in human glioblastoma progression and survival." Cancer research 71, no. 13 (2011): 4550-4561.. Masica, David L., Jeffrey J. Gray, and Wendy J. Shaw. "Partial high-resolution structure of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated leucine-rich amelogenin protein adsorbed to hydroxyapatite." The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 115, no. 28 (2011): 13775-13785.. Masica, David L., Sarah B. Schrier, Elizabeth A. Specht, and Jeffrey J. Gray. "De Novo Design of Peptide-Calcite Biomineralization Systems." ...
As a quality control measure the amelogenin sex gene is tested as part of the paternity test. The gene confirms the sex declared by the applicant and can help deter fraud.
Principal Investigator:Toyoda Kyosuke, Project Period (FY):2015-08-28 - 2017-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity start-up, Research Field:Periodontology
The bone matrix and tooth enamel are the hardest substances in the body, and both are formed through the mineralization of proteins secreted by osteoblasts and ameloblasts, respectively. One of the primary components of the bone matrix is collagen, which provides strength, as well as acts as a substrate for mineralization. Amelogenin is the main extracellular matrix protein secreted by ameloblasts and is important for both the inclusion of minerals and the proper structure of tooth enamel. Defects in the secretion or structure of these extracellular matrices compromise the strength and durability of the tissues. Two studies reveal distinct mechanisms of secretory dysregulation that affect proper mineralization of these tissues. Zhao et al. found that the trimeric intracellular cation channel Tric-b, which localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), was important to secretion of collagen by osteoblasts in mice. Mutations in TMEM38b, the human homolog of Tric-b, are associated with osteogenesis ...
Effectss of EMDs on the epithelial tissue. Two surveies by Gestrelius et Al ( 1997b ) and Kawase et Al. ( 2000 ) examined the proliferation of unwritten epithelial cells utilizing in vitro rat lingua epithelial cells and in vivo trials severally. Both concluded that EMDs did non heighten proliferation of epithelial cells ; instead they arrested the growing of the cells, by maintaining them locked on the G1 stage of the mitotic rhythm. There has been grounds that the TGF-i?? may be the factor that causes this suppression. ( Bosshardt 2008 ). However, it has been witnessed by Rincon et Al. ( 2005 ) , that EMD significantly increases DNA synthesis from a specialized epithelial cell type called the Remainders of Malassez. These are the remnant cells of what originally used to be portion of the HERS during development that have since migrated into the periodontic infinite. Their map remains mostly unknown, nevertheless it has been proposed that their map may be. linked to regeneration, as they react ...
Aichmayer, B.; Margolis, H. C.; Sigel, R.; Yamakoshi, Y.; Simmer, J. P.; Fratzl, P.: The onset of amelogenin nanosphere aggregation studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering. Journal of Structural Biology 151 (3), S. 239 - 249 (2005 ...
FUNCTION: This gene encodes a member of the kallikrein subfamily of serine proteases that are involved in diverse physiological functions such as skin desquamation, tooth enamel formation, seminal liquefaction, synaptic neural plasticity and brain function. The encoded preproprotein undergoes proteolytic cleavage of the activation peptide to generate the functional enzyme. This gene is located in a cluster of several related kallikrein genes on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016 ...
Article Multi-component supramolecular assembly structures studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy. In this review, recent progress on the multi-component self-assembled structure and assembling mechanism are discussed. The effects of various inter...
Page contains details about porphyrin supramolecular assemblies . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
A Szentágothai János Kutatóközpont a PTE korszerű, nemzetközi tudományszervezési és menedzsment normák szerint kialakított új intézménye, amely az élettudományi, élettelen természettudományi, valamint környezettudományi oktatás.... Tovább. ...
A Szentágothai János Kutatóközpont a PTE korszerű, nemzetközi tudományszervezési és menedzsment normák szerint kialakított új intézménye, amely az élettudományi, élettelen természettudományi, valamint környezettudományi oktatás.... Tovább. ...
Az RSS a Really Simple Syndication egy olyan form tum amely lehet v teszi, hogy webhely nk aktualit sait megosszuk nnel s m s weboldalak szerkeszt ivel. A form tumnak t bb verzi ja l tezik, mi a 0.91-es v ltozatot t mogatjuk, csatorn nk ISO 8859-2 karakterk dol st haszn l. ...
A radioaktív bomlás során az instabil atommag szerkezete változik meg A radioaktív bomlás során az instabil atommag szerkezete változik meg. BOMLÁS = új atommag keletkezik, amely részecskesugárzás kibocsátása révén stabilizálódik, tehát a radioaktivitás és a sugárzás összetartoznak. Radioaktív nuklidok keletkezése: magreakciók által, melyekben „célmagok
Az oldal néha cookie-nak nevezett kis adatfájlokat helyez el az Ön készülékén. A cookie egyszerű, kisméretű szöveges fájl, amely segítségével az oldal meg tudja jegyezni az Ön műveleteit és beállításait.
Az aldoszteron a mell kvese-k regben termel d szteroid hormon, amely a szervezet s - s v zh ztart s rt felel s. Termel d s vel fokoz dik a szerve
Dental enamel is the hardest mineralized tissue in the body and initially forms from a protein matrix. During enamel formation, ameloblasts secrete unique proteins into the extracellular space to direct mineralization of enamel crystallites. This specialized organic matrix contains the proteins amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin. Amelogenin is the major enamel matrix protein secreted, comprising ~95% of the total matrix, yet after maturation and completion of amelogenesis, only ~1% of the initial organic matrix remains in mineralized enamel. Ameloblasts, being the only cells in close proximity to the organic matrix, most likely are responsible for the removal of proteinaceous matrix debris for proper enamel maturation. The rapid removal of enamel matrix proteins is poorly understood in the literature, principally because clathrin (the prototypical pathway for endocytosis) is expressed at very low levels in ameloblasts. Most of the historical record of endocytosis is focused on clathrin ...
Amelotin (AMTN) is an ameloblast-secreted protein that belongs to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (SCPP) family, which originated in early vertebrates. In rodents, AMTN is expressed during the maturation stage of amelogenesis only. This expression pattern strongly differs from the spatiotemporal expression of other ameloblast-secreted SCPPs, such as the enamel matrix proteins (EMPs). Furthermore, AMTN was characterized in rodents only. In this study, we applied various approaches, including in silico screening of databases, PCRs and transcriptome sequencing to characterize AMTN sequences in sauropsids and amphibians, and compared them to available mammalian and coelacanth sequences. We showed that (i) AMTN is tooth (enamel) specific and underwent pseudogenization in toothless turtles and birds, and (ii) the AMTN structure changed during tetrapod evolution. To infer AMTN function, we studied spatiotemporal expression of AMTN during amelogenesis in a salamander and a lizard, and compared the
The conversion of bioactive glass to a calcium phosphate material, typically hydroxyapatite (HA), by solution-precipitation reactions in aqueous phosphate solution, has been commonly reported. This paper describes the structural and compositional characteristics of the calcium phosphate material formed during the early-stage conversion (o5 h) of a borosilicate glass (designated H12) in aqueous phosphate solution. Disks of H12 glass were reacted with 0.25M K2HPO4 solution with a starting pH57.0 at 371C. The structure and composition of the product layer were characterized using thin film X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectroscopy. For reaction times o5 h, the results indicated the formation of brushite (CaHPO4 .2H2O) with coarse, plate-like crystals. In comparison, the formation of HA with small needle-like crystals was found at later times. This early-stage formation of brushite has not been reported in previous studies of converting
The flexible structure of polymers has enabled them to be useful in a wide variety of medical applications due to the possibility to tailor their properties to suit desired applications. For a long ti
In Turner syndrome (TS) one X-chromosome is missing or defective. The amelogenin gene, located on the X-chromosome, plays a key role during the formation of dental enamel. The aim of this study was to find support for the hypothesis that impaired expression of the X-chromosome influences mineral incorporation during amelogenesis and, indirectly, during dentinogenesis. Primary tooth enamel and dentin from girls with TS were analysed and compared with the enamel and dentin of primary teeth from healthy girls. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the composition of TS enamel were found, in addition to morphological differences. Higher frequencies of subsurface lesions and rod-free zones were seen in TS enamel using polarized light microscopy. Similarly, scanning electron microscopy showed that the enamel rods from TS teeth were of atypical sizes and directions. Using X-ray microanalysis, high levels of calcium and phosphorus, and low levels of carbon, were found in both TS enamel and dentin. ...
In the framework of the project "Immigration and mobility in mediaeval and post-mediaeval Norway" molecular genetic analyses were performed on 97 pre-modern human remains including genetic sexing and Y-chromosomal DNA typing. All samples were subjected to molecular genetic analyses of the sex using "Genderplex" consisting of two diff erent regions of the amelogenin gene, SRY and four X-STR loci. From 90% of the extracted remains (n=87) sex assignment was possible. Of these, 49 (56.3%) brought a genetically male result. All of these DNA extracts were subjected to Y-STR analysis using Yfiler Plus PCR Amplification Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientifi c) and/or PowerPlex Y23 System (Promega). At least partial Y-STR profiles were obtained from all samples. A detailed comparison between mediaeval/post-mediaeval and contemporary Y-chromosomes was performed by searching the obtained haplotypes (HTs) in the Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD: https://yhrd.org) comprising 154,329 haplotypes from 991 ...
A supramolecular assembly or "supermolecule" is a well defined complex of molecules held together by noncovalent bonds. While a supramolecular assembly can be simply composed of two molecules (e.g., a DNA double helix or an inclusion compound), it is more often used to denote larger complexes of molecules that form sphere-, rod-, or sheet-like species. Micelles, liposomes and biological membranes are examples of supramolecular assemblies. The dimensions of supramolecular assemblies can range from nanometers to micrometers. Thus they allow access to nanoscale objects using a bottom-up approach in far fewer steps than a single molecule of similar dimensions. The process by which a supramolecular assembly forms is called molecular self-assembly. Some try to distinguish self-assembly as the process by which individual molecules form the defined aggregate. Self-organization, then, is the process by which those aggregates create higher-order structures. This can become useful when talking about liquid ...
Loratadine Amel is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Loratadine Amel is available on the Drugs.com website.
A Pécsi Riport tartalmaz beszámolókat a város kulturális, közéleti, sport és minden olyan történéséről, amely Pécs város polgárait érdekelheti. Napilapunk megbízható forrásokból szerzi információit, melyet egy-egy esemény után szinte azonnal olvashat, képekkel és videóval.
A Pécsi Riport tartalmaz beszámolókat a város kulturális, közéleti, sport és minden olyan történéséről, amely Pécs város polgárait érdekelheti. Napilapunk megbízható forrásokból szerzi információit, melyet egy-egy esemény után szinte azonnal olvashat, képekkel és videóval.
Ny jtott felsz v d s filmtabletta, gy folyamatosan l tja el a szervezetet tablett nk nt 1200 mg C-vitaminnal, amely hozz j rul az immunrendszer s az idegrendszer norm l m k d s hez. Antioxid nsk nt t mogatja a sejtek oxidat v stresszel szembeni v delm t, a f radts g s kif rad s cs kkent s t, fokozza a vas felsz v d s t. T mogatja a kollag nk pz d st, a csontozat, a porcok, a b r, az erek, a fogak s a fog ny norm l llapot nak fenntart s t ...
1. Milyen t pus gy gyszer az Etoposide-Teva s milyen betegs gek eset n alkalmazhat ?Az Etoposide-Teva hat anyaga az etopozid, amely egy n. podofillotoxin-sz
Page contains details about ITO/VB-FNPD/mixed nanospheres/TPBi/LiF/Al . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Fedail, Moneira Abd Allah Mansour; Supervisor,- Ahmed Ibrahim Shomo;Co-supervisor,- Amel Omer Bakhiet;Co-supervisor;- Magdi Salih Mansour (Sudan University of Science and Technology, 2010-01-01) ...
Learn more about In His Own Words: Living With Coronary Artery Disease at Reston Hospital Center Bill, 72, never suspected he had a heart problem, until he suffered...
Tooth enamel formation. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a freeze-fractured section through a tooth, showing the enamel-forming cell layer (green). This epithelium comprises a single layer of columnar cells called ameloblasts. The fracture plane passes up into the tooth from the enamel surface (orange, bottom left). The ameloblast layer has detached from the enamel in which it is normally embedded. Enamel is a hard ceramic layer that covers and protects the teeth. The other end of the ameloblasts originate in the internal tooth tissue (brown, across top). Magnification unknown. - Stock Image P486/0080
TY - JOUR. T1 - Porcine fetal enamel matrix derivative stimulates proliferation but not differentiation of pre-osteoblastic 219 cells, inhibits proliferation and stimulates differentiation of osteoblast-like MG63 cells, and increases proliferation and differentiation of normal human osteoblast NHOst cells. AU - Schwartz, Z.. AU - Carnes, D. L.. AU - Pulliam, R.. AU - Lohmann, C. H.. AU - Sylvia, V. L.. AU - Liu, Y.. AU - Dean, D. D.. AU - Cochran, D. L.. AU - Boyan, Barbara D.. PY - 2000/8. Y1 - 2000/8. N2 - Background: Embryonic enamel matrix proteins are hypothesized to be involved in the formation of acellular cementum during tooth development, suggesting that these proteins can be used to regenerate periodontal tissues. Enamel matrix protein derived from embryonic porcine tooth germs is used clinically, but the mechanisms by which it promotes the formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and bone are not well understood. Methods: This study examined the response of osteoblasts at 3 stages ...
Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind.. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development.. Dental caries is a leading cause of tooth loss in both developed and developing countries. The disease affects billions of people and occasionally leads to lethality in both children and adults or important sequela, such as blindness. To treat dental caries in the permanent dentition of children from developing countries by traditional amalgam restorative dentistry would require financial resources beyond the total health budget of these countries. Children with poorer oral ...
Accurate identification of the biological sex of ancient remains is vital for critically testing hypotheses about social structure in prehistoric societies. However, morphological methods are imprecise for juvenile individuals and fragmentary remains, and molecular methods that rely on particular sex-specific marker loci such as the amelogenin gene suffer from allelic dropout and sensitivity to modern contamination. Analyzing shotgun sequencing data from 14 present-day humans of known biological sex and 16 ancient individuals from a time span of 100 to ~70,000 years ago, we show that even relatively sparse shotgun sequencing (about 100,000 human sequences) can be used to reliably identify chromosomal sex simply by considering the ratio of sequences aligning to the X and Y chromosomes, and highlight two examples where the genetic assignments indicate morphological misassignment. Furthermore, we show that accurate sex identification of highly degraded remains can be performed in the presence of ...
Bioactive glass (BG) can directly bond to living bone without fibrous tissue encapsulation. Key mechanistic steps of BGs activity are attributed to calcium phosphate formation, surface hydroxylation and fibronectin (FN) adsorption. In the present study, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanesilanes with different surface chemistry (OH, NH2 and COOH) were used as a model system to mimic BGs surface activity. Calcium phosphate (Ca-P) was formed on SAMs by immersion in a solution that simulates the electrolyte content of physiological fluids. FN adsorption kinetics and monolayer coverage was determined on SAMs with or without Ca-P coating. The surface roughness was also examined on these substrates before and after FN adsorption. The effects of FN-adsorbed, Ca-P-coated SAMs on the function of MC3T3-E1 were evaluated by cell growth, expression of alkaline phosphatase activity and actin cytoskeleton formation. We demonstrate that, although the FN monolayer coverage and the root mean square (rms)
Tags: amelogenin, breakthrough, cavities, dental health, dentistry, dentists, dentristry, disease treatments, drilling, enamel, fight cavities, filling, goodhealth, goodscience, inventions, medical science, oral care, oral health, peptides, protein, remineralization, research, teeth. (Natural News) Many people dread going to the dentist. Even if its just a short visit for filling dental cavities, the idea of someone drilling into your teeth and hearing that grating sound can be the stuff of nightmares. Researchers may have found a way to treat cavities without the need for drilling - instead using the understanding of how natural tooth-forming proteins work to fight cavities.. Treating cavities with proteins:. In a 2015 study published in the Journal of Dental Research, it was found that as many as 2.4 billion people in the world have cavities. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that cavities are the most widespread non-communicable disease, which can severely affect the quality of ...
Promega announces the launch of GenePrint®10 System for human cell line authentication and sample identification. GenePrint 10 includes the eight loci recommended by the ANSI Standard (ASN-0002) Authentication of Human Cell Lines: Standardization of STR Profiling, 1 plus Amelogenin for gender identification and the highly polymorphic D21S11 locus for additional power of discrimination. Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis begins with amplification, and the GenePrint 10 System contains all<
Az Arvisura egy nagy terjedelmű, összefüggő, térben és időben igen nagy távolságot átfogó, jelentős irodalmi alkotás, amely a magyarság évezredes regevilágán keresztül mutatja be a magyar nép régmúltját. Közelebbről: a 24 Hun Törzsszövetség sámánjainak rendszeresen írt és őrzött hagyománya. Műfaját nehezen lehetne beazonosítani, leginkább a rege világához áll közel. A monumentális, mégis egységes történeti rendszer, amely e munkát olvasva elénk tárul, a történelem előtti, számunkra már mitologikus időkből szinte napjainkig vezet. Az Arvisura története az elsüllyedt őshaza földjén, Ataiszon kezdődik, amely ősföld hasonló a Platón által leírt Atlantiszhoz, azzal mégsem ugyanaz. A rege szerint innen kerültek a hunok Mezopotámián keresztül Ordoszba, ahol időszámításunk előtt 4040-ben megalapították a 24 törzsből álló szövetségüket. A Palócok Regevilága a 24 Hun Törzsszövetségbe tömörült törzsek életét írja
You can now access full text articles from research journals published by CSIR-NISCAIR! Full text facility is provided for all nineteen research journals viz. ALIS, AIR, BVAAP, IJBB, IJBT, IJCA, IJCB, IJCT, IJEB, IJEMS, IJFTR, IJMS, IJNPR, IJPAP, IJRSP, IJTK, JIPR, JSIR & JST. NOPR also hosts three Popular Science Magazines viz. Science Reporter (SR), Vigyan Pragati (VP) & Science Ki Duniya (SKD) and a Natural Products Repository (NPARR ...
Stay up to date with real time RMZFF stock quotes, historical charts and the latest financial news and investing data for NanoSphere Health Sciences Inc.
Amelogenin • American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry • American Academy of Periodontology • American Association of Endodontists ...
... amelogenin, Y-linked) gene. AMELY is a gene which encodes a form of amelogenin found on the Y chromosome. Amelogenin is a ... "amelogenin"". Genomics. 9 (2): 264-9. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90251-9. PMID 2004775. "Entrez Gene: amelogenin". Human AMELY ... 1992). "The human enamel protein gene amelogenin is expressed from both the X and the Y chromosomes". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 50 (2 ... Amelogenin Y chromosome AMELX Amely (band) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000099721 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ...
The protein Amelogenin, X isoform is an isoform of amelogenin that comes from the X chromosome. The protein Amelogenin is a ... Amelogenin, X isoform is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AMELX (amelogenin, X isoform) gene. ... Amelogenin X is a member of the amelogenin family of extracellular matrix proteins. When alternative splicing occurs, it ... Kim JW, Simmer JP, Hu YY, Lin BP, Boyd C, Wright JT, Yamada CJ, Rayes SK, Feigal RJ, Hu JC (May 2004). "Amelogenin p.M1T and p. ...
Markers commonly used include amelogenin, SRY and ZFX/ZFY. Various techniques have been developed using simple polymerase chain ...
SGM Plus also uses the Amelogenin (Amelo) sex-indicating test. SGM Plus differs from SGM in that SGM does not use the markers ...
Cementomimetics-constructing a cementum-like biomineralized microlayer via amelogenin-derived peptides. Gungormus M, Oren EE, ...
A commercially prepared and purified extract of enamel matrix proteins, EMD is composed primarily of amelogenin and has been ... Biochemistry and molecular biology of amelogenin proteins of developing dental enamel. Arch Oral Bio 1995;40:1-14 Boyan, BD, et ...
Amelogenin is used for a rapid test of a donor's sex. However, individuals' skin or blood samples are also kept permanently ...
His other recent work is on self-assembly of amelogenin bio-macromolecules. Amelogenin is involved in the mineral deposition ... 134, 024902 (2011). Kinetics of Nanochain Formation in a Simplified Model of Amelogenin Biomacromolecules, Wei Li et al., ...
... tuftelin and amelogenin) as a result of abnormal enamel formation via amelogenesis. People afflicted with amelogenesis ... "A deletion in the amelogenin gene (AMG) causes X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta (AIH1)". Genomics. 10 (4): 971-975. doi:10.1016 ...
Other significant proteins in enamel are amelogenins, enamelins, and tuftelins. This gene encodes the nonamelogenin enamel ...
Other significant proteins in enamel are amelogenins, enamelins, and ameloblastins. The human encoding gene for tuftelin (TUFT1 ...
"The human enamel protein gene amelogenin is expressed from both the X and the Y chromosomes". Am J Hum Genet. 50 (2): 303-16. ...
Proteins of note in the development of enamel are ameloblastins, amelogenins, enamelins and tuftelins. It is believed that they ...
... indeed contains amelogenin-like proteins and has a mineral content similar to that of tetrapod tooth enamel. Zylberberg ... L.; Sire, J. -Y.; Nanci, A. (1997). "Immunodetection of amelogenin-like proteins in the ganoine of experimentally regenerating ...
Gallon V, Chen L, Yang X, Moradian-Oldak J. Localization and quantitative co-localization of enamelin with amelogenin. J Struct ... Ameloblasts are cells which secrete the enamel proteins enamelin and amelogenin which will later mineralize to form enamel, the ...
The DNA profiles in the NFDD are generated by analysing 15 different STR loci plus Amelogenin for sex determination. Different ... plus Amelogenin for sex determination. There were approximately 80,000 DNA profiles on the DCID in 2007, with the number ...
"Forensic application of a rapid and quantitative DNA sex test by amplification of the X-Y homologous gene amelogenin". ...
As the prisms in the enamel grow in thickness but not length, proteins (amelogenins and most non-amelogenins) are removed from ... As enamel is secreted, some mineralisation occurs by Ca2+ deposition between nanospheres of amelogenins forming crystallites. ... importantly amelogenins, ameloblastins, enamelins, and tuftelins. The Ca2+ mainly comes from the enamel organ, and not the ...
One is using fragments known to support natural mineralization proteins, such as Amelogenin, Collagen, or Dentin Phosphophoryn ... Proteins of the developing enamel extracellular matrix (such as Amelogenin) control initial mineral deposition (nucleation) and ...
Also contains primers for the Amelogenin sex indicating test. The primers are tagged with the following fluorescent dyes for ...
... interacts with amelogenin and proteins involved in exocytosis and vesicular trafficking, suggesting that these proteins ... and colocalize in these cells with amelogenin, the main component of enamel, encoded by the AMELX gene, which has been already ...
... and amelogenin (AMEL), had not yet taken place in Aetiocetus. For the most part, Aetiocetus retains a primitive tooth count of ...
... amelogenin (AMELX; MIM 300391), ameloblastin (AMBN; MIM 601259), tuftelin (TUFT1; MIM 600087), dentine sialophosphoprotein ( ...
... amelogenin) are enzymatically broken down and the rate at which the subsequent breakdown products are removed. Fluoride may ...
One of the amelogenin splicing isoforms, Leucine-rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP) induces osteogenesis in various cell types. ... One of the amelogenin splicing isoforms, Leucine-rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP) induces osteogenesis in various cell types. ... One of the amelogenin splicing isoforms, Leucine-rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP) induces osteogenesis in various cell types. ... One of the amelogenin splicing isoforms, Leucine-rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP) induces osteogenesis in various cell types. ...
Comparison of Lagostomus maximus amelogenin gene (AMELX) with other mammals. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2015.0120[Article ...
Definition: An amelogenesis imperfecta that has material basis in mutation in the gene encoding amelogenin (AMELX). ...
Although the precise role of amelogenin(s) in regulating the mineralization process is unknown, it is known that amelogenins ... "deleted-amelogenin males" (DAMs). In response the authors suggested that while the amelogenin sex test may be accurate in ... The amelogenin gene has been most widely studied in humans, where it is a single copy gene, located on the X and Y chromosomes ... Amelogenin is the name for a series of closely related proteins involved in amelogenesis, the development of enamel.[1] They ...
Considering the importance of amelogenin protein in dental enamel formation, its ability to control apatite mineralization in ... Amelogenin and enamel biomimetics Q. Ruan and J. Moradian-Oldak, J. Mater. Chem. B, 2015, 3, 3112 DOI: 10.1039/C5TB00163C ... amelogenin and enamel biomimetics. We review the most recent findings on amelogenin secondary and tertiary structural ... Considering the importance of amelogenin protein in dental enamel formation, its ability to control apatite mineralization in ...
Amelogenin dosage compensation in carcinoma of colon, lung, liver and kidney, is not a marker of clonality in males. Zvejnieks ... Amelogenin p.M1T and p.W4S mutations underlying hypoplastic X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta. Kim, J.W., Simmer, J.P., Hu, Y.Y ... The human enamel protein gene amelogenin is expressed from both the X and the Y chromosomes. Salido, E.C., Yen, P.H., ... Amelogenin cross-amplification in the family Bovidae and its application for sex determination. Weikard, R., Pitra, C., Kühn, C ...
Pig Amelogenin Gene Expresses a Unique Exon 4 HU C.-C. , RYU O. H. , YAMAKOSHI Y. , ZHANG C. H. , CAO X. , QIAN Q. , SIMMER J. ... Porcine Amelogenin is Expressed from the X and Y Chromosomes IKAWA T. , KAKEGAWA A. , NAGANO T. , ANDO H. , YAMAKOSHI Y. , ... Micelle Structure of Amelogenin in Porcine Secretory Enamel FUKAE M. , YAMAMOTO R. , KARAKIDA T. , SHIMODA S. , TANABE T. ... Porcine Amelogenin : Alternative Splicing, Proteolytic Processing, Protein-Protein Interactions, and Possible Functions * * ...
Amelogenin (AMELX) with its splice variants is the most abundant enamel matrix protein, with only one known phosphorylation ... While AMELX regulates mineral transitions over space and time, it is unknown whether and when un-phosphorylated amelogenin ... While AMELX regulates mineral transitions over space and time, it is unknown whether and when un-phosphorylated amelogenin ... the shorter leucine-rich amelogenin protein (LRAP), and the exon 4-containing P190 in forming enamel, all within the context of ...
leucine-rich amelogenin peptide: translation product of an alternatively spliced transcript; amino acid sequence has been ... leucine-rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP). Subscribe to New Research on leucine-rich amelogenin peptide ...
Alternative names for Amelogenin Y antibody. AMELY, AMGL, AMGY, Amelogenin Y isoform ... Recombinant protein of human amelogenin, Y-linked (AMELY). Human. > 80 % Preparation: Recombint protein was captured through ... Background of Amelogenin Y antibody. Kit Component:. - KN212029G1, AMELY gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector. - KN212029G2, ...
... and the Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP(+P)), an alternative amelogenin splice product, affects protein assembly and ... and the Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP(+P)), an alternative amelogenin splice product, affects protein assembly and ... Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the phosphorylation of full-length amelogenin and LRAP induces conformational ... Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the phosphorylation of full-length amelogenin and LRAP induces conformational ...
Using amelogenin as a case study and a bioinformatics scoring matrix, we identified regions within amelogenin that are shared ... One 22-amino acid long peptide regions referred to as amelogenin-derived peptide 5 (ADP5) was shown to facilitate cell-free ... "Cementomimetics-constructing a Cementum-like Biomineralized Microlayer via Amelogenin-derived Peptides." International Journal ...
Vega: OTTMUSG19595 (Amelx, amelogenin X chromosome)*CCDS: 28475.1, 41213, 41214*OMIM: AMELOGENIN; AMELX, AMELOGENESIS ... amelogenin, X-linked. Synonyms: Amel, Amg, M100888, Rgsc888. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and PMID ...
Background Recombinant amelogenin protein (RAP) is reported to induce complete root apex formation in dog model when used as ... Recombinant amelogenin RAP R-amelogenin Regeneration Apexification Root canal therapy Non-vital teeth Open apex Immature teeth ... A total of 240 root canals were divided into two groups: a recombinant amelogenin protein (180 amino acid mouse amelogenin) ( ... Amelogenin splicing isoforms, leucine-rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP), induces osteogenesis in various cell types by activating ...
The effect of amelogenins (Xelma^,TM,) on hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers * * VOWDEN Peter ...
While it has long been known that amelogenin is essential for the proper development of enamel, its role has generally been ... In this article we report the successful purification of a recombinant mouse amelogenin protein and demonstrate that it has ... Using the TOPGAL transgenic mouse we showed that amelogenin expression in vivo is localized mainly around the root, the ... To determine the regulatory function of canonical Wnt signaling by amelogenin, we used TOPGAL transgenic mice. These mice ...
Presentation] Amelogenin Modulates Macrophage Phenotype During Inflammatory Responses.2016. *. Author(s). Kensuke Yamamichi, ... Presentation] Grp78 is crucial for cell migration induced by amelogenin in a human periodontal ligament cells.2016. *. Author(s ... Presentation] Grp78 Is Critical For Amelogenin-induced Cell Migration In PDLSCs2015. *. Author(s). Takao Fukuda, Kyosuke Toyoda ... Presentation] Molecular basis of amelogenin-induced periodontal tissue regeneration2016. *. Author(s). Takao Fukuda, Terukazu ...
Amelogenin in cranio-facial development: the tooth as a model to study the role of amelogenin during embryogenesis ZORA Wartung ... Download PDF Amelogenin in cranio-facial development: the tooth as a model to study the role of amelogenin during ... Amelogenin in cranio-facial development: the tooth as a model to study the role of amelogenin during embryogenesis. Journal of ... Recently, some amelogenin isoforms were found to bind to the cell surface receptors; LAMP-1, LAMP-2 and CD63, and subsequently ...
Background Amelogenin is an extracellular matrix protein well known for its. Background Amelogenin is an extracellular matrix ... A10, 10?ng/mL; A100, 100?ng/mL; A1000, 1000?ng/mL amelogenin; or without amelogenin dietary supplement (control) (means?? ... ng/mL amelogenin (d). 100?m From the full total outcomes we obtained regarding proliferation, the full-length amelogenin will ... the highest concentration of amelogenin as compared to the unstimulated control. hDPSCs treated with low concentrations present ...
MMP-20 hydrolysis of amelogenin in solution (AMG-S) and bound on HAP (AMG-HAP) were digested and quantified by HPLC. (A) HPLC ... B) Quantified UV areas of 25 kDa amelogenin substrate after digestion. (C) Quantified UV areas of 23 kDa amelogenin derivative ... B) Quantified UV areas of 25 kDa amelogenin substrate after digestion. (C) Quantified UV areas of 23 kDa amelogenin derivative ... The results show that as compared with amelogenin in solution, the HAP-bound amelogenin was hydrolyzed by both MMP20 and KLK4 ...
Amelogenins are a unique group of alternatively spliced proteins. While the full-length amelogenin is known to assemble into ... Synthetic LRAP and recombinant full-length amelogenin (rH175) were used at different concentrations and either immobilized onto ... It was concluded that the ability of amelogenins to self-assemble into nanospheres and to bind to apatite in vitro is not ... nanospheres and alter apatite crystal growth and alignment, the function of the leucine-rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP) in ...
Use Of Full-length Amelogenin For Promoting Nerve Growth Or Regeneration. * Published: Sep 27, 2018 ...
Expression of amelogenin in mouse tooth. Amelx; Algn; Amg; Amgl. Species: mouse Location in mouse genome: chromosome X, ... Mutations in amelogenin gene cause X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta.. Source references: Snead,M.L., Luo,W., Lau,E.C., and, ...
Amelogenin (AMELX) with its splice variants is the most abundant enamel matrix protein, with only one known phosphorylation ... While AMELX regulates mineral transitions over space and time, it is unknown whether and when un-phosphorylated amelogenin ... Mapping the tooth enamel proteome and amelogenin phosphorylation onto mineralizing porcine tooth crowns. 0 ... Mapping the tooth enamel proteome and amelogenin phosphorylation onto mineralizing porcine tooth crowns 10(925) ...
  • One 22-amino acid long peptide regions referred to as amelogenin-derived peptide 5 (ADP5) was shown to facilitate cell-free formation of a cementum-like hydroxyapatite mineral layer on demineralized human root dentin that, in turn, supported attachment of periodontal ligament cells in vitro. (ku.edu)
  • This result indicates that MMP20 rapidly cleaves off amelogenin C-terminus, causing the accumulation of the truncated hydrophobic peptide in solution. (nih.gov)
  • This study demonstrates that small peptide domains derived from native protein amelogenin can be utilized to construct a mineral layer on damaged human enamel in vitro. (peereffects.com)
  • Amelogenin Peptide Extract Increases Differentiation and Angiogenic an" by Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Sharon L. Hyzy et al. (vcu.edu)
  • Human MG63 osteoblast-like cells or normal human osteoblasts were treated with recombinant human amelogenin or a 5 kDa tyrosine-rich amelogenin peptide (TRAP) isolated from EMD and the effect on osteogenesis, local factor production, and apoptosis assessed. (vcu.edu)
  • The data suggest that the 5 kDa TRAP-rich sequence is an active amelogenin peptide that regulates osteoblast differentiation and local factor production and prevents osteoblast apoptosis. (vcu.edu)
  • Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the phosphorylation of full-length amelogenin and LRAP induces conformational changes that critically affect its capacity to interact with forming calcium phosphate mineral phases. (frontiersin.org)
  • These collective findings indicate that phosphorylation induces unique secondary structural changes that may enhance the functional capacity of native phosphorylated amelogenins like LRAP to stabilize an ACP precursor phase during early stages of enamel mineral formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Synthetic LRAP and recombinant full-length amelogenin (rH175) were used at different concentrations and either immobilized onto fluoroapatite substrates (FAP) or immersed into saturated calcium-phosphate solutions. (escholarship.org)
  • The preliminary data from the integrin assay show that amelogenin at 0.1 mg/ml also displays a broad up-regulation of several integrins/subunits. (chalmers.se)
  • In this article we report the successful purification of a recombinant mouse amelogenin protein and demonstrate that it has signaling activity in isolated mouse calvarial cells and human periodontal ligament cells. (ovid.com)
  • To investigate in greater detail the molecular mechanisms involved in the β-catenin signaling pathway, isolated osteoblasts and periodontal ligament cells were exposed to full-length recombinant mouse amelogenin and were evaluated for phenotypic changes and β-catenin signaling using a TOPFLASH construct and the LacZ reporter gene. (ovid.com)
  • Using the TOPGAL transgenic mouse we showed that amelogenin expression in vivo is localized mainly around the root, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone. (ovid.com)
  • Journal Article] Grp78 is Critical for Amelogenin-Induced Cell Migration in a Multipotent Clonal Human Periodontal Ligament Cell Line. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Presentation] Grp78 is crucial for cell migration induced by amelogenin in a human periodontal ligament cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Amelogenin is an extracellular matrix protein that has been reported to promote formation of granulation tissue and repair of chronic venous leg ulcers and elevate the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor in dermal fibroblasts.1-3 This study investigated the effect of amelogenin on angiogenesis in an ex vivo sprouting assay and related the findings to the cell surface integrin expression. (chalmers.se)
  • Integrin assay: Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (Promocell) were seeded in complete cell growth medium alone or supplemented with 0.1 mg/ml, 1 mg/ml amelogenin or 20 µg/ml fibronectin. (chalmers.se)
  • Conclusions: Amelogenin stimulated micro-vessel outgrowth in the chick aortic arch assay possibly through up-regulation of several integrins and subunits important for cell interaction with the ECM. (chalmers.se)
  • Amelogenin genes are located on both X and Y sex chromosomes in humans and are a major focus of DNA-based sex estimation methods. (bioinfor.com)
  • The Investigator 24plex QS Kit is for human identification, allowing multiplex amplification of the CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) core loci, the ESS (European Standard Set) markers, SE33, DYS391, D2S1338, D19S433 and Amelogenin. (qiagen.com)
  • The Investigator 24plex QS Kit uses QIAGEN's fast-cycling PCR technology for the rapid, simultaneous amplification of the CODIS and ESS markers, SE33, DYS391, D2S1338, D19S433 and Amelogenin. (qiagen.com)
  • While it has long been known that amelogenin is essential for the proper development of enamel, its role has generally been seen as structural in nature. (ovid.com)
  • Additionally, HERS cells showed low expression of CD44 and CD105 with absence of CD34 and amelogenin expressions. (mdpi.com)
  • Interestingly, we note that the 23 kDa amelogenin fragment rapidly increases in the first hour of the digestion. (nih.gov)
  • The optimized design of the two gender markers, Amelogenin and DYS391, enables the Investigator 24plex QS Kit to have both at a small fragment size, making the gender typing extremely robust. (qiagen.com)
  • Mouse knee joints including tibia growth plate at 4 weeks old and micromass cultures of limb bud mesenchymal cells after 2 weeks were fixed in paraformaldehyde, routinely processed, sections were cut and immunostained with amelogenin, collagen type II and type X, LAMP-1 and -3. (elsevier.com)
  • Developing human enamel contains about 70% protein, 90% of which are amelogenins. (wikipedia.org)
  • we demonstrate the cellular responses induced by the biological interaction between amelogenin and Grp78 in the human undifferentiated PDL cell line 1-17, which possesses the most typical characteristics of PDLSCs. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The amelogenin gene, which is located on human X and Y chromosomes, has been a central system to differentiate males from females in forensic casework and prenatal diagnosis. (ncjrs.gov)