Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary conditions characterized by malformed DENTAL ENAMEL, usually involving DENTAL ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA and/or TOOTH HYPOMINERALIZATION.Amelogenesis: The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).Dental Enamel Proteins: The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.Ameloblasts: Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Amelogenin: A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.Matrix Metalloproteinase 20: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Enamel Organ: Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.OdontoblastsTooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Open Bite: A condition in which certain opposing teeth fail to establish occlusal contact when the jaws are closed.Codon, Nonsense: An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.Tooth Resorption: Resorption of calcified dental tissue, involving demineralization due to reversal of the cation exchange and lacunar resorption by osteoclasts. There are two types: external (as a result of tooth pathology) and internal (apparently initiated by a peculiar inflammatory hyperplasia of the pulp). (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p676)Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Kallikreins: Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Osteogenesis Imperfecta: COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.Macroglossia: The presence of an excessively large tongue, which may be congenital or may develop as a result of a tumor or edema due to obstruction of lymphatic vessels, or it may occur in association with hyperpituitarism or acromegaly. It also may be associated with malocclusion because of pressure of the tongue on the teeth. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dementia, Vascular: An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Vanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Tooth Bleaching: The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.Tooth Bleaching Agents: Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments in TEETH and thus effect whitening.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Quality Improvement: The attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Gingival Overgrowth: Excessive growth of the gingiva either by an increase in the size of the constituent cells (GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY) or by an increase in their number (GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA). (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p574)Gingival DiseasesGingival Hypertrophy: Abnormal enlargement or overgrowth of the gingivae brought about by enlargement of existing cells.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.National Human Genome Research Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research into the mapping of the human genome and other organism genomes. The National Center for Human Genome Research was established in 1989 and re-named the National Human Genome Research Institute in 1997.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.

Immunohistochemical localisation of amelogenin-like proteins and type I collagen and histochemical demonstration of sulphated glycoconjugates in developing enameloid and enamel matrices of the larval urodele (Triturus pyrrhogaster) teeth. (1/128)

The presence of collagen in enameloid distinguishes it clearly from true enamel, but little is known about the phylogenetic relationship between these 2 tissues. It has previously been reported that amelogenins are the principal proteins of the enamel matrix, that type I collagen and chondroitin sulphates are the predominant matrices in dentine, and that amphibian and reptilian aprismatic enamels, contain no sulphated glycoconjugates, although certain sulphated substances are secreted into mammalian prismatic enamel during matrix formation. The larval urodele (Triturus pyrrhogaster) teeth are known to be composed of enameloid, dentine, and enamel-like tissue. To characterise the tooth matrices, the localisation of amelogenin-like proteins, type I collagen, and sulphated glycoconjugates was investigated. Chondroitin sulphates and fine fibrils immunoreactive for type I collagen were elaborated as the enameloid matrix inside the dental basement membrane. After the matrix had been deposited in full thickness, coarse collagen fibrils also immunoreactive for type I collagen and chondroitin sulphates were deposited below as the first dentine matrix. Further, enamel-like matrix with no collagen fibrils or sulphated glycoconjugates but strongly immunoreactive for amelogenins was deposited on the dentine. Although no immunolabelling for amelogenins was found over the enameloid matrix, at least at the formation stage, the zone of coarse collagen fibrils of dentine was partially immunoreactive as observed in mammalian mantle dentine. From the ontogeny and matrix constituents of larval urodele teeth, it is suggested that enameloid is originally a dentine-like tissue.  (+info)

Proteinases in developing dental enamel. (2/128)

For almost three decades, proteinases have been known to reside within developing dental enamel. However, identification and characterization of these proteinases have been slow and difficult, because they are present in very small quantities and they are difficult to purify directly from the mineralizing enamel. Enamel matrix proteins such as amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin are cleaved by proteinases soon after they are secreted, and their cleavage products accumulate in the deeper, more mature enamel layers, while the full-length proteins are observed only at the surface. These results suggest that proteinases are necessary for "activating" enamel proteins so the parent proteins and their cleavage products may perform different functions. A novel matrix metalloproteinase named enamelysin (MMP-20) was recently cloned from tooth tissues and was later shown to localize primarily within the most recently formed enamel. Furthermore, recombinant porcine enamelysin was demonstrated to cleave recombinant porcine amelogenin at virtually all of the sites that have previously been described in vivo. Therefore, enamelysin is at least one enzyme that may be important during early enamel development. As enamel development progresses to the later stages, a profound decrease in the enamel protein content is observed. Proteinases have traditionally been assumed to degrade the organic matrix prior to its removal from the enamel. Recently, a novel serine proteinase named enamel matrix serine proteinase-1 (EMSP1) was cloned from enamel organ epithelia. EMSP1 localizes primarily to the early maturation stage enamel and may, therefore, be involved in the degradation of proteins prior to their removal from the maturing enamel. Other, as yet unidentified, proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are almost certainly present within the forming enamel and await discovery.  (+info)

Edar/Eda interactions regulate enamel knot formation in tooth morphogenesis. (3/128)

tabby and downless mutant mice have apparently identical defects in teeth, hair and sweat glands. Recently, genes responsible for these spontaneous mutations have been identified. downless (Dl) encodes Edar, a novel member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, containing the characteristic extracellular cysteine rich fold, a single transmembrane region and a death homology domain close to the C terminus. tabby (Ta) encodes ectodysplasin-A (Eda) a type II membrane protein of the TNF ligand family containing an internal collagen-like domain. As predicted by the similarity in adult mutant phenotype and the structure of the proteins, we demonstrate that Eda and Edar specifically interact in vitro. We have compared the expression pattern of Dl and Ta in mouse development, taking the tooth as our model system, and find that they are not expressed in adjacent cells as would have been expected. Teeth develop by a well recorded series of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, similar to those in hair follicle and sweat gland development, the structures found to be defective in tabby and downless mice. We have analysed the downless mutant teeth in detail, and have traced the defect in cusp morphology back to initial defects in the structure of the tooth enamel knot at E13. Significantly, the defect is distinct from that of the tabby mutant. In the tabby mutant, there is a recognisable but small enamel knot, whereas in the downless mutant the knot is absent, but enamel knot cells are organised into a different shape, the enamel rope, showing altered expression of signalling factors (Shh, Fgf4, Bmp4 and Wnt10b). By adding a soluble form of Edar to tooth germs, we were able to mimic the tabby enamel knot phenotype, demonstrating the involvement of endogenous Eda in tooth development. We could not, however, reproduce the downless phenotype, suggesting the existence of yet another ligand or receptor, or of ligand-independent activation mechanisms for Edar. Changes in the structure of the enamel knot signalling centre in downless tooth germs provide functional data directly linking the enamel knot with tooth cusp morphogenesis. We also show that the Lef1 pathway, thought to be involved in these mutants, functions independently in a parallel pathway.  (+info)

Dental enamel formation and its impact on clinical dentistry. (4/128)

The nature of tooth enamel is of inherent interest to dental professionals. The current-day clinical practice of dentistry involves the prevention of enamel demineralization, the promotion of enamel remineralization, the restoration of cavitated enamel where demineralization has become irreversible, the vital bleaching of dental enamel that has become discolored, and the diagnosis and treatment of developmental enamel malformations, which can be caused by environmental or genetic factors. On a daily basis, dental health providers make diagnostic and treatment decisions that are influenced by their understanding of tooth formation. A systemic condition during tooth development, such as high fever, can produce a pattern of enamel defects in the dentition. Knowing the timing of tooth development permits estimates about the timing of the disturbance. The process of enamel maturation continues following tooth eruption, so that erupted teeth can become less susceptible to decay over time. Mutations in the genes encoding enamel proteins lead to amelogenesis imperfecta, a collection of inherited diseases having enamel malformations as the predominant phenotype. Defects in the amelogenin gene cause X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta, and genes encoding other enamel proteins are candidates for autosomal forms. Here we review our current understanding of dental enamel formation, and relate this information to clinical circumstances where this understanding may be particularly relevant.  (+info)

Possible role of heat shock protein (Hsp) 25 in the enamel organ during amelogenesis in the rat molar. (5/128)

The postnatal expression of heat shock protein (Hsp) 25 during the amelogenesis of rat molars was investigated by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. The localization pattern of Hsp 25-immunoreactivity in the inner enamel epithelium and ameloblast cell layer of the rat molars was almost identical to that in the rat incisors which we have previously reported: an intense Hsp25-immunoreactivity, which first appeared in the preameloblasts, was recognized in secretory ameloblasts and ruffle-ended ameloblasts with stage-specific immunointensity. Confocal microscopy with Hsp 25-antibody and rhodamine-labeled phalloidin clearly demonstrated the co-localization of Hsp 25 and actin filaments in the ameloblast layer, supporting our hypothesis that this molecule might serve to reinforce the ameloblast layer during enamel formation as well as the formation and maintenance of the ruffled border in ruffle-ended ameloblasts. Interestingly, the enamel free area cells, which essentially lack the ability for enamel formation, showed the Hsp 25-immunoreactivity during 4-11 days when they developed a ruffled border, but decreased in that immunoreactivity after postnatal 15 days following apoptosis. Since Hsp 25 has been shown to be a specific inhibitor of apoptosis, the enamel-free area cells contribute to determine the outline of dentin at the cusped area. These data support our previous hypothesis on the diverse functions of Hsp 25 in amelogenesis.  (+info)

Phospholipids in amelogenesis and dentinogenesis. (6/128)

Phospholipids have been identified in enamel and dentin. Before demineralization, a group of phospholipids extracted by lipid solvents was associated with cell membranes and is therefore closely related to cell growth and intracellular regulations. After demineralization, a second group of phospholipids, associated with the extracellular matrix, was extracted; this group is probably linked to the mineralized phase. Using imidazole-osmium tetroxide fixation of rat incisors, we stained cellular unsaturated fatty acids, so that we could visualize the membrane domains, coated pits, and endocytic inclusions. Filipin, a probe for cholesterol, varied in density along the plasma membrane of secretory ameloblasts, and allowed us to visualize membrane remnants inside the forming enamel. With respect to phospholipids located in the extracellular matrix, the malachite-green-glutaraldehyde (MGA) method or iodoplatinate (IP) reaction retains and visualizes enamel and dentin phospholipids. In predentin, aggregates appearing as granules and filaments, or liposome-like structures, were located in the spaces between collagen fibrils. In dentin, organic envelopes coating the crystals, also named "crystal-ghost" structures, outlined groups of collagen fibrils. Histochemical data provided evidence that phospholipids are co-distributed or interact with proteoglycans. Radioautography after IP reaction established that [3H] choline was detected in dentin as early as 30 min after the intravenous injection of the labeled precursor, before any labeling was seen in odontoblasts and predentin. This suggests that blood-serum-labeled phospholipids pass between odontoblasts, cross the distal permeable junctional complex, and diffuse in dentin prior to any cellular uptake and phospholipid synthesis. Pharmacologically and genetically induced pathology also supports the suggestion that phospholipids play an important role in the formation and mineralization of dental tissues.  (+info)

Dental fluorosis: chemistry and biology. (7/128)

This review aims at discussing the pathogenesis of enamel fluorosis in relation to a putative linkage among ameloblastic activities, secreted enamel matrix proteins and multiple proteases, growing enamel crystals, and fluid composition, including calcium and fluoride ions. Fluoride is the most important caries-preventive agent in dentistry. In the last two decades, increasing fluoride exposure in various forms and vehicles is most likely the explanation for an increase in the prevalence of mild-to-moderate forms of dental fluorosis in many communities, not the least in those in which controlled water fluoridation has been established. The effects of fluoride on enamel formation causing dental fluorosis in man are cumulative, rather than requiring a specific threshold dose, depending on the total fluoride intake from all sources and the duration of fluoride exposure. Enamel mineralization is highly sensitive to free fluoride ions, which uniquely promote the hydrolysis of acidic precursors such as octacalcium phosphate and precipitation of fluoridated apatite crystals. Once fluoride is incorporated into enamel crystals, the ion likely affects the subsequent mineralization process by reducing the solubility of the mineral and thereby modulating the ionic composition in the fluid surrounding the mineral. In the light of evidence obtained in human and animal studies, it is now most likely that enamel hypomineralization in fluorotic teeth is due predominantly to the aberrant effects of excess fluoride on the rates at which matrix proteins break down and/or the rates at which the by-products from this degradation are withdrawn from the maturing enamel. Any interference with enamel matrix removal could yield retarding effects on the accompanying crystal growth through the maturation stages, resulting in different magnitudes of enamel porosity at the time of tooth eruption. Currently, there is no direct proof that fluoride at micromolar levels affects proliferation and differentiation of enamel organ cells. Fluoride does not seem to affect the production and secretion of enamel matrix proteins and proteases within the dose range causing dental fluorosis in man. Most likely, the fluoride uptake interferes, indirectly, with the protease activities by decreasing free Ca(2+) concentration in the mineralizing milieu. The Ca(2+)-mediated regulation of protease activities is consistent with the in situ observations that (a) enzymatic cleavages of the amelogenins take place only at slow rates through the secretory phase with the limited calcium transport and that, (b) under normal amelogenesis, the amelogenin degradation appears to be accelerated during the transitional and early maturation stages with the increased calcium transport. Since the predominant cariostatic effect of fluoride is not due to its uptake by the enamel during tooth development, it is possible to obtain extensive caries reduction without a concomitant risk of dental fluorosis. Further efforts and research are needed to settle the currently uncertain issues, e.g., the incidence, prevalence, and causes of dental or skeletal fluorosis in relation to all sources of fluoride and the appropriate dose levels and timing of fluoride exposure for prevention and control of dental fluorosis and caries.  (+info)

The structure of the rat ameloblastin gene and its expression in amelogenesis. (8/128)

Ameloblastin (also designated amelin and sheathlin) is an enamel matrix protein expressed within the ameloblast lineage. In this study we analyzed the structure of the rat ameloblastin gene and characterized its subtypes. The promoter sequence contains several E-box-like elements, and consensus sequences for AP1 and SP1. The gene is about 6 kb in length and contains 12 exons. Exon 1 was mapped by primer extension and encodes 90 bp of 5' untranslated leader sequence, followed by the coding sequences of exon 2 (309 bp), alternatively spliced exon 3a (45 bp), exon 3b (198 bp), exon 4 (36 bp), exon 5 (60 bp), exon 6 (45 bp), exon 7 (150 bp), and exon 8 (448 bp) containing coding sequence (426 bp) and 3' untranslated sequence (22 bp), followed by exon 9 (39 bp); exon 10 (143 bp); exon 11 (342 bp); and exon 12. Exon 3a, encoding YEYSLPVHPPPLPSQ, has a potential SH3 binding domain. Analysis of ameloblastin subclones showed that exon 3a and 11 were potential alternative splicing sites, producing 4 types of ameloblastin mRNA, from which ameloblastin I and II could be translated. Using in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR methods we found that ameloblastin II, containing exon 3a, was more strongly expressed at the late maturation stage of ameloblasts than at the secretory stage, while a common probe for both ameloblastin subtypes showed wide expression throughout the presecretory, secretory and postsecretory stages. From the above results we propose that ameloblastin II plays an important role in the mineralization of ameloblasts during the maturation stages.  (+info)

Organs are amazing! Your skin is the largest and weighs 6 lbs. Your powerful heart pumps enough blood to fill a football stadium. Your pancreas lets you enjoy the sweet life. Your liver performs over 500 functions! So use your brain and get this remarkable gift box collection.|br||br||b|Organ Cells|/b| themed gift box includes these mini microbes: Brain Cell, Liver Cell, Skin Cell, Heart Cell and Beta Cell (Insulin).
SLC26A Gene Family Participate in pH Regulation during Enamel Maturation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Atherosclerosis Is the hardening and narrowing of the arteries. It is caused by the slow buildup of plaque inside the artery walls. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to other parts of the body. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. As it grows, the buildup of plaque narrows the inside of the artery and, in time, may restrict blood flow. There are two types of plaque: hard and stable or soft and unstable. Hard plaque causes artery walls to thicken and harden. Soft plaque is more likely to break apart from the walls and enter the bloodstream. This can cause a blood clot that can partially or totally block the flow of blood in the artery. When this happens, the organ supplied by the blocked artery starves for blood and oxygen. The organs cells may either die or suffer severe damage. Atherosclerosis is a slow, progressive disease that may start in childhood. It can affect the arteries of the brain, heart, ...
Supplementary Materialsdata_sheet_1. wellness evaluation (APACHE) II-, sepsis-related body organ failure evaluation (SOFA) ratings], cytokines, circulating-free deoxyribonucleic acidity/neutrophil-derived extracellular traps (cf-DNA/NETs), microbiological outcomes, and pre-morbidity. For the created cytotoxicity check, the human liver organ cell series HepG2/C3A was utilized. Sufferers plasma was incubated within a microtiter dish assay using the check cells and after 6?times incubation the viability (trypan blue staining, XTT-test) and efficiency (synthesis of albumin, cytochrome 1A2 activity) was analyzed. An impairment of efficiency and viability of check cells was just observed in the SG weighed against the CG. The plasma of non-survivors in the SG resulted in a far more pronounced impairment of check cells compared to the plasma of survivors at inclusion. Furthermore, the degrees of cf-DNA/NETs had been higher in the SG at addition considerably, after 3, and after 7?times weighed against ...
Mutations in the AMELX, ENAM, MMP20, KLK-4, FAM83H, WDR72, C4orf26, SLC24A4 LAMB3 and ITGB6 genes have been found to cause amelogenesis imperfecta (non-syndromic form). AMELX and ENAM encode extracellular matrix proteins of the developing tooth enamel and KLK-4 and MMP20 encode proteases that help degrade organic matter from the enamel matrix during the maturation stage of amelogenesis. SLC24A4 encodes a calcium transporter that mediates calcium transport to developing enamel during tooth development. Less is known about the function of other genes implicated in amelogenesis imperfecta.. Researchers expect that mutations in further genes are likely to be identified as causes of amelogenesis imperfecta.. Types include:. Amelogenesis imperfecta can have different inheritance patterns depending on the gene that is altered. Mutations in the ENAM gene are the most frequent known cause and are most commonly inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. This type of inheritance means one copy of the ...
Amelotin is an enamel-specific gene product, and its expression under normal circumstances is limited to maturation-stage (or late-stage) amelogenesis. The altered pattern of amelotin gene expression is achieved by creating transgenic animals in which the amelogenin gene promoter is used to drive amelotin. This study sets out to analyze transgenic animals in which amelotin is expressed throughout all stages of enamel formation (amelogenesis). This thesis will include an introduction and background in tooth development (including amelogenesis), and present results demonstrating animal genotype confirmation, transgene expression profiles by immunohistochemical and Western analysis and enamel phenotype using electron microscopy. We hypothesized that "The transgene will be functional, and that the amelotin transgene will be expressed throughout all stages of amelogenesis, resulting in an abnormal enamel structure." Data from immunohistochemical studies showed amelotin to be expressed throughout all ...
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of inherited defects of dental enamel formation that show both clinical and genetic heterogeneity [1]. In its mildest form, AI causes discoloration, while in the most severe presentation the enamel is hypocalcified causing it to be abraded from the teeth shortly after their emergence into the mouth [2]. Both the primary and permanent dentitions may be affected. Enamel findings in AI are highly variable, ranging from deficient enamel formation to defects in the mineral and protein content [3]. Four main types of AI have been described: hypoplastic, hypocalcified, hypomaturation and hypomaturation-hypoplastic with taurodontism [4].. The AI phenotypes vary widely depending on the specific gene involved, the location and type of mutation, and the corresponding putative change at the protein level [5]. Different inheritance patterns such as X-linked, autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive types have been reported and 14 subtypes of AI are recognized ...
Mutations in human and/or mouse homologs are associated with this disease. Synonyms: AI2A4; amelogenesis imperfecta hypomaturation type IIA4; amelogenesis imperfecta type IIA4
Amelogenesis imperfecta is an inherited defect of dental enamel formation that shows both clinical and genetic heterogeneity. In the hypoplastic type of AI, the enamel is of normal hardness but does not develop to normal thickness. The thinness of the enamel makes the teeth appear small. Radiographically, enamel contrasts normally from dentin. The surface of the enamel can vary, showing smooth, rough, pitted, or local forms (Witkop, 1988).
Amelogenesis imperfecta is a group of rare genetic conditions in which the outer layer of the teeth (enamel) fails to develop properly.
In a group of families in northern Sweden, a mutation in the ENAM gene (predicted to produce a highly truncated protein) results in the local hypoplastic form of autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta. In this study, sections of deciduous teeth from members of 3 of these families .... ...
Though the major protein players have been identified and the high-resolution structure of enamel has been obtained, the process of its formation remains difficult to piece together because of its complexity, and is compounded by results from different laboratories that do not always reconcile well with each other. Multiple attempts to engineer artificial enamel have failed to reproduce the macromolecular interweaving structure of enamel rods or recapitulate the unique mechanical properties of natural enamel. A static in vitro method involving organic and inorganic molecular components lacks the dynamic variables that cells provide.. In order to produce enamel biomimetically, knowledge of the detailed mechanisms of amelogenesis are needed and would require cell lines with reproducible, predictable and physiologically-relevant properties. Addressing the lack of appropriate cell lines from presecretory to maturation stages would allow examination of essential molecular processes- such as ion and ...
im young female with 24 years old. i have an amelogenesis imperfecta symptoms, all of my teeth are small in size, yellow or brownish in color, and i have done 2 orthognathic surgeries and my third surgery was for tongue reduction. my surgries were difficult and so painful, but in the same time i like them because they help me to be better in my apperence ( prepare my jaws location). now im work on my denture ...
IP Indian Journal of Conservative and Endodontics-IJCE-Print ISSN No:-2581-9534 Online ISSN No:-2581-8988Article DOI No:-10.18231,Case report on Gingival enlargement along with Amelogenesis Imperfecta a rare clinical entity in children-IP Innovative Publication Pvt Limited, Medical Journals Publication, Open Access J
Amelotin (AMTN) is an ameloblast-secreted protein that belongs to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (SCPP) family, which originated in early vertebrates. In rodents, AMTN is expressed during the maturation stage of amelogenesis only. This expression pattern strongly differs from the spatiotemporal expression of other ameloblast-secreted SCPPs, such as the enamel matrix proteins (EMPs). Furthermore, AMTN was characterized in rodents only. In this study, we applied various approaches, including in silico screening of databases, PCRs and transcriptome sequencing to characterize AMTN sequences in sauropsids and amphibians, and compared them to available mammalian and coelacanth sequences. We showed that (i) AMTN is tooth (enamel) specific and underwent pseudogenization in toothless turtles and birds, and (ii) the AMTN structure changed during tetrapod evolution. To infer AMTN function, we studied spatiotemporal expression of AMTN during amelogenesis in a salamander and a lizard, and compared the
Medicine Journal in MJB authors are : Anas Falah Mahdee,Ahmed Ghanim Alhelal,John Whitworth,Jane Eastham,James Gillespie Evidence For Complex Physiological Processes In The Enamel Organ of The Rodent Mandibular Incisor Throughout Amelogenesis university of babylon journals in the repository for farther content please log to http://repository.uobabylon.edu.iq
Objective: To observe the effect of fluoride overdose on the proliferation of the pure Wistar rats incisor ameloblasts. Material and Methods: Twenty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, Group I (the control) and Group II (receiving 50 mg/L F-). After 8 weeks treatment the AgNORs stain and TUNEL technique were used to analyze the effect of fluoride on the proliferation and apoptosis of ameloblasts. Results: Incremental lines in the incisors in Group II were clearly visible and eosinophilic granules had accumulated in the ameloblasts in the secretory stage. The number of AgNORs granules in the ameloblasts in the pre-secretory stage in Group II was lower than in Group I, and the difference was statistically relevant (p < 0.001); more ameloblasts experienced apoptosis or migrated in the secretory stage. Conclusion: Fluoride overdose can inhibit proliferation of the ameloblasts and accelerate their apoptosis, which is what is meant by fluorosis. ...
Enamel is the first and main line of defense against dental decay, and its proper formation is a prerequisite for strong, healthy teeth. Abnormalities in the mo...
Is a promoter of calcium phosphate mineralization, playing a critical role in the formation of the compact, mineralized, aprismatic enamel surface layer during the maturation stage of amelogenesis.
iMedPub Journals Press Releases, How dose Progesterone converts the endometrium to its secretory stage to prepare the uterus for implantation
cdna chromosome:GRCm38:5:88456011:88468531:1 gene:ENSMUSG00000029288 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Ambn description:ameloblastin [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc:MGI:104655 ...
Majandusuudiste veeb. riuudised Eestist ja v lismaalt, uurivad artiklid, b rsiuudised, fotod, videod, kommentaarid, investeerimine.
Amelogenesis imperfecta, type IV (AI4; MIM 104510) and trichodentoosseus syndrome (TDO; MIM 190320) are related disorders characterized by enamel hypoplasia and taurodontism. Tooth abnormalities are the only clinical features seen in individuals with AI4, while individuals with TDO also have hair, nail, and bone abnormalities. The additional findings seen in TDO may include dolichocephaly, kinky or curly hair, brittle nails, and a mild to moderate increase in bone density of the skull, spine and long bones. AI4 and TDO are autosomal dominant disorders caused by mutations in the DLX3 gene. DLX3 encodes the distal-less homeobox 3 protein, a transcription factor involved in regulation of gene expression during the development of various tissues.. Read less ...
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common causes of major birth defects in humans. Of the approximately 8400 children born each year in the U.S. with CMV-induced birth defects, more than 1/3 of these children exhibit hypoplasia and hypocalcification of tooth enamel. ❧ OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to initiate the investigation of the pathogenesis of CMV-induced tooth defects and examine the effects of CMV infection on progressive tooth differentiation and amelogenesis. ❧ METHODS: Mouse Cap and Bell stage mandibular first molars were infected with mouse CMV (mCMV) in vitro in a chemically-defined organ culture system and analyzed utilizing histological and immunolocalization methodologies. ❧ RESULTS: CMV infection of embryonic mouse mandibular first molars in vitro induces tooth dysmorphogenesis and enamel defects in a developmental stage- and duration-dependent manner. Initial protein localization studies suggest that the pathogenesis is mediated through NF-κB signaling ...
Author(s): Katsura, Kaitlin A | Advisor(s): Den Besten, Pamela | Abstract: Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) is a clinical diagnosis that encompasses a group of genetic mutations, each affecting processes involved in tooth enamel formation and thus, result in various enamel defects. The hypomaturation enamel phenotype has been described for mutations involved in the later stage of enamel formation, including Klk4, Mmp20, C4orf26, and Wdr72. Using a candidate gene approach we discovered a novel Wdr72 human mutation, resulting in a hypomaturation AI phenotype, to be a 5-base pair deletion (c.806_810delGGCAG; p.G255VfsX294). To gain insight into the function of WDR72, we used computer modeling of the full-length human WDR72 protein structure and found that the predicted N-terminal sequence forms two beta-propeller folds with an alpha-solenoid tail at the C-terminus. This domain iteration is characteristic of vesicle coat proteins, such as beta′-COP, suggesting a role for WDR72 in the formation of membrane
Reagents for the antigen Kallikrein 2 / Kallikrein-Related Peptidase 2 / KLK2 stained with APC-Cy5.5™ in the Antibody Database
Direct Progesterone Receptor and Indirect Androgen Receptor Interactions with the Kallikrein-Related Peptidase 4 Gene Promoter in Breast and Prostate Cancer
Médecine Buccale Chirurgie Buccale (MBCB) revue de la SFCO. Elle est consacrée à l étude et au traitement des affections de la cavité buccale, ainsi qu à la formation continue, à la recherche et aux progrès techniques et scientifiques
The human body is made up of many different kinds of tissues, which are composed of different kinds of cells. The ectoderm is what skin, hair, brain, nerve, and sensory organ cells come from. The endoderm forms the basis for the lungs surface (mucus membranes), the bladder, and intestinal tract, as well as mammary glands, the liver, and the pancreas. Tumours that grow out of these tissues are called carcinomas.. The mesoderm is the basis for support and movement structures, such as bones and muscle, as well as soft tissue, and blood and lymph vessels. When these types of tissues are fully mature, they are called mesenchymal tissues. Almost all malignant tumours that develop in mesenchymal tissues are called sarcomas.. ...
At my first appointment with Dr Check, he did a "smear" of my cervical cells to see if the progesterone in my body had converted the cells. My cells were so highly estrogenized, and not at all progesteronized, that he suspected I had not ovulated yet. I KNEW my period was coming the next day. He said, "If thats so, then your body is WAY off." Sure enough, my period came the next day. Additionally, an ultrasound at this same appointment revealed that my uterine lining (endometrium) was still a triple-stripe proliferative stage lining. It had not converted to the secretory stage lining. I saw it myself, and was very confused. I thought, well, maybe because its the first cycle after surgery and my body is just off ...
At my first appointment with Dr Check, he did a "smear" of my cervical cells to see if the progesterone in my body had converted the cells. My cells were so highly estrogenized, and not at all progesteronized, that he suspected I had not ovulated yet. I KNEW my period was coming the next day. He said, "If thats so, then your body is WAY off." Sure enough, my period came the next day. Additionally, an ultrasound at this same appointment revealed that my uterine lining (endometrium) was still a triple-stripe proliferative stage lining. It had not converted to the secretory stage lining. I saw it myself, and was very confused. I thought, well, maybe because its the first cycle after surgery and my body is just off ...
Logistiline regressioon saab olla nii binaarne, järjestatud või multinomiaalne. Binoomse või binaarse logistilise regressiooni puhul uuritakse olukorda, kus uuritaval tunnusel on kaks võimalikku väärtust: 0 ja 1. Multinominaalse regressiooni puhul on tegemist olukorraga, kus väljundiks on 3 või rohkem sõltumatut väärtust ning väärtustel puudub järjestus. Järjestatud logistilise regressiooni korral uuritakse tunnust, millel on mitu sõltuvat taset ning tasemed on järjestatud. Logit-mudel on kõige enam kasutatud meetod binaarse tunnuse modelleerimiseks. Sellel on ühtlasi ka kerge ja arusaadav interpretatsioon[5]. Sündmuse toimumisel ("ravimi tarvitamine", "võit" jne.) märgitakse tavaliselt "1" ning vastandsündmuse ("platseebo tarvitamine", "kaotus" jne) korral vastavalt "0". Mudeli parameetrite interpreteerimisel kasutatakse šansside suhte muutusi, kust sündmuse šanss on defineeritud kui sündmuse esinemise tõenäosuse ja sündmuse mitteesinemise tõenäosuse suhe. ...
Cells of the inner enamel epithelium located adjacent to the dental papilla mesenchymal cells, differentiate into early ameloblasts during the bell stage. Early ameloblasts differentiate into mature cells through pre-secretory and secretory stages. During the pre-secretory stage, the early ameloblasts differentiate and initiate synthesis of the enamel-related proteins. In the secretory stage, the matrix proteins accumulate extracellularly and the tooth crown is formed ...
PubMed journal article Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 gene (KLK4) in prostate tumors: quantitative expression analysis and evaluation of its clinical significanc were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and result in ectodermal dysplasia with amelogenesis imperfecta. However, because of the limited availability of patient tissue, analyses of enamel mineralization or possible changes in ameloblast function or morphology have not been possible. Here, we generated mice with ectodermal tissue-specific deletion of Stim1 ( Stim1 cKO [conditional knockout]), Stim2 ( Stim2 cKO), and Stim1 and Stim2 ( Stim1/2 cKO) and analyzed their enamel phenotypes as compared with those of control ( Stim1/2(fl/fl)) animals. Read More ...
Researchers identify a molecular mechanism that controls the precise patterning of enamel formation on incisor teeth. Mouse incisors are covered with enamel on the side closest to the lip while the other side remains enamel-free. This irregular distribution of enamel helps keep the cutting edges of the incisors very sharp. While it is well established that ameloblasts secrete enamel, the molecular signals regulating asymmetric ameloblast differentiation from the underlying dental epithelium are not well understood.
Enamel fluorosis is a defect in enamel development that occurs after exposure to excess fluoride. Fluorotic enamel is more porous, and contains more proteins th...
Integrin beta-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITGB6 gene. Mutations in ITGB6 cause amelogenesis imperfecta . Integrin, beta 6 has been shown to interact with FHL2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115221 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000026971 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Krissansen GW, Yuan Q, Jenkins D, Jiang WM, Rooke L, Spurr NK, Eccles M, Leung E, Watson JD (February 1992). "Chromosomal locations of the genes coding for the integrin beta 6 and beta 7 subunits". Immunogenetics. 35 (1): 58-61. doi:10.1007/bf00216629. PMID 1729173. Weinacker A, Chen A, Agrez M, Cone RI, Nishimura S, Wayner E, Pytela R, Sheppard D (April 1994). "Role of the integrin alpha v beta 6 in cell attachment to fibronectin. Heterologous expression of intact and secreted forms of the receptor". J Biol Chem. 269 (9): 6940-8. PMID 8120056. "Entrez Gene: ITGB6 integrin, beta 6". Wang, S. K.; Choi, M; Richardson, A. S.; Reid, B. M.; ...
Effectss of EMDs on the epithelial tissue. Two surveies by Gestrelius et Al ( 1997b ) and Kawase et Al. ( 2000 ) examined the proliferation of unwritten epithelial cells utilizing in vitro rat lingua epithelial cells and in vivo trials severally. Both concluded that EMDs did non heighten proliferation of epithelial cells ; instead they arrested the growing of the cells, by maintaining them locked on the G1 stage of the mitotic rhythm. There has been grounds that the TGF-i?? may be the factor that causes this suppression. ( Bosshardt 2008 ). However, it has been witnessed by Rincon et Al. ( 2005 ) , that EMD significantly increases DNA synthesis from a specialized epithelial cell type called the Remainders of Malassez. These are the remnant cells of what originally used to be portion of the HERS during development that have since migrated into the periodontic infinite. Their map remains mostly unknown, nevertheless it has been proposed that their map may be. linked to regeneration, as they react ...
Tooth enamel formation. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a freeze-fractured section through a tooth, showing the enamel-forming cell layer (green). This epithelium comprises a single layer of columnar cells called ameloblasts. The fracture plane passes up into the tooth from the enamel surface (orange, bottom left). The ameloblast layer has detached from the enamel in which it is normally embedded. Enamel is a hard ceramic layer that covers and protects the teeth. The other end of the ameloblasts originate in the internal tooth tissue (brown, across top). Magnification unknown. - Stock Image P486/0080
When you are building an oral health treatment plan, one of the best things that you can do is to take steps to preserve as much of your existing health dental structure as possible. Because dental enamel is designed to be strong and resistant to damage, the more that you can do to preserve dental enamel the better it is for your smile.. Today our OFallon dentists are sharing some more information about enamel; we hope that this empowers you to care for your teeth!. Dental enamel is the outermost layer of your smile. Every tooth is actually comprised of multiple layers: the dental enamel, the dentin, and then finally the dental pulp. Of these three layers the dental enamel is the least porous and the most durable.. Additionally, dental enamel does not have nerves in it. This is what allows you to chew and drink your favorite beverages without experiencing pain and sensitivity.. In order to maintain strong and healthy dental enamel, you want to make sure that you are drinking plenty of water, ...
Previously, we have shown that serine-16 phosphorylation in native full-length porcine amelogenin (P173) and the Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP(+P)), an alternative amelogenin splice product, affects protein assembly and mineralization in vitro. Notably, P173 and LRAP(+P) stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and inhibit hydroxyapatite (HA) formation, while non-phosphorylated counterparts (rP172, LRAP(−P)) guide the growth of ordered bundles of HA crystals. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the phosphorylation of full-length amelogenin and LRAP induces conformational changes that critically affect its capacity to interact with forming calcium phosphate mineral phases. To test this hypothesis, we have utilized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the secondary structure of LRAP(−P) and LRAP(+P) in the absence/presence of calcium and selected mineral phases relevant to amelogenesis; i.e., hydroxyapatite (HA: an enamel crystal prototype) and (ACP: an
During imaginal development of Drosophila, Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)], an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that mediates intracellular signalling by the Notch (N) receptor, controls successive alternative cell fate decisions leading to the differentiation of multicellular sensory organs. We describe here the distribution of the Su(H) protein in the wing disc epithelium throughout development of adult sense organs. Su(H) was found to be evenly distributed in the nuclei of all imaginal disc cells during sensory organ precursor cells selection. Thus differential expression and/or subcellular localization of Su(H) is not essential for its function. Soon after division of the pIIa secondary precursor cell, Su(H) specifically accumulates in the nucleus of the future socket cell. At the onset of differentiation of the socket cell, Su(H) is also detected in the cytoplasm. In this differentiating cell, N and deltex participate in the cytoplasmic retention of Su(H). Still, Su(H) does not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amelotin gene expression is temporarily being upregulated at the initiation of apoptosis induced by TGFβ1 in mouse gingival epithelial cells. AU - Nakayama, Yohei. AU - Matsui, Sari. AU - Noda, Keisuke. AU - Yamazaki, Mizuho. AU - Iwai, Yasunobu. AU - Matsumura, Hiroyoshi. AU - Izawa, Takashi. AU - Tanaka, Eiji. AU - Ganss, Bernhard. AU - Ogata, Yorimasa. PY - 2016/10/1. Y1 - 2016/10/1. N2 - Amelotin (AMTN) is expressed and secreted by ameloblasts in the maturation stage of amelogenesis and persist with low levels in the junctional epithelium (JE) of erupted teeth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the transcriptional regulation of the AMTN gene by transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) in gingival epithelial (GE1) cells in the apoptosis phase. Apoptosis was evaluated by the fragmentation of chromosomal DNA and TUNEL staining. A real-time PCR was carried out to examine the AMTN mRNA levels induced by TGFβ1 and Smad3 overexpression. Transient transfection analyses ...
This volume is the 1st in a series of Ebooks that bridges the gap between advances in science and clinical practice in odontology. Recent advances in biology, materials science and tissue engineering are increasingly viewed as being of enormous clinical potential. Stem cell research has opened up the possibility of reconstructing teeth from the association of epithelial and mesanchymal embryonic or adult cells, as an exciting alternative to metal implants. This Ebook will examine the multifunctional nature of a group of proteins known as the amelogenins. Latest studies indicate that this protein regulates the initiation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals during the mineralization of enamel. In addition, amelogenins organize enamel rods during tooth development, and also aid in the development of cementum by directing cells that form the cementum to the root surface of the teeth. The aim of this book is to serve as a bridge between basic biology and biomaterial sciences, and to inform ...
Mays, S., Ives, R. and Brickley, M. (2009), The effects of socioeconomic status on endochondral and appositional bone growth, and acquisition of cortical bone in children from 19th century Birmingham, England. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 140: 410-416. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21076 ...
Transports 1 Ca(2+) and 1 K(+) in exchange for 4 Na(+). Controls the rapid response termination and proper regulation of adaptation in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) which subsequently influences how odor information is encoded and perceived. May play a role in calcium transport during amelogenesis (By similarity ...
The pool sizes of purine nucleotides, nucleosides, and nucleobases were measured in the host tissues liver, skeletal muscle, and blood of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice during the different periods of tumor growth. There were large differences of tissue concentrations of these metabolites between control animals, animals in the logarithmic growth period of the Ehrlich ascites tumor, and animals in the resting phase of tumor growth. The ATP concentrations in liver, muscle, and erythrocytes were higher during the proliferating phase of the tumor compared with the ATP levels of these organs in healthy animals. In liver and skeletal muscle the ATP concentration decreased during the transition from proliferating into resting phase of tumor growth. The concentrations of nucleosides and nucleobases within the RBC and blood plasma decreased during the logarithmic growth phase but restored during the plateau period. As well as in the organs/cells investigated and in the body fluids (plasma, ascites ...
endogenous minutes was established in actors who was download Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France: Volume 1: The Clerical Establishment and its Social Ramification (Oxford History of the Christian Church) to the friary 50M eingeloggt secular A2( PLA2). data from organ cells are stored Historical literature Starting an Private user for Bregs in tournament biology. also, 21Yan Bregs were comeof facilities of CD80 and CD86, Quitting that CD80- and misconfigured download Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France: Volume 1: The Clerical Establishment and its between Bregs and their life years uses Historical both in Show of cell production dictionary and in the code of Breg-induced Tregs.
Have you ever wondered about tooth enamel? What is it? How important is it? How can you protect it? Here are the answers to all… Read more at Colgate.com
AmelogenesisAmelogenesis imperfecta • Amelogenin • American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry • American Academy of ...
FAM83H Amelogenesis imperfecta, type IB; 104500; ENAM Amelogenesis imperfecta, type IC; 204650; ENAM Amelogenesis imperfecta, ... AD5 Amelogenesis imperfecta, hypomaturation type, IIA3; 613211; WDR72 Amelogenesis imperfecta, hypomaturation-hypoplastic type ... with taurodontism; 104510; DLX3 Amelogenesis imperfecta, hypoplastic/hypomaturation type; 301200; AMELX Amelogenesis imperfecta ... type IIA1; 204700; KLK4 Amelogenesis imperfecta, type IIA2; 612529; MMP20 Aminoacylase 1 deficiency; 609924; ACY1 Amish ...
Herzog CR, Reid BM, Seymen F, Koruyucu M, Tuna EB, Simmer JP, Hu JC (February 2015). "Hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta ... Mutations in SLC24A4 cause amelogenesis imperfecta . GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140090 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... as a cause of amelogenesis imperfecta". American Journal of Human Genetics. 92 (2): 307-12. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.01.003. PMC ...
Lee SK, Seymen F, Kang HY, Lee KE, Gencay K, Tuna B, Kim JW (Jan 2010). "MMP20 hemopexin domain mutation in amelogenesis ... Hart PS, Hart TC, Simmer JP, Wright JT (Apr 2002). "A nomenclature for X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta". Archives of Oral ... The protein Amelogenin is a type of extracellular matrix protein, and is involved in the progcess of amelogenesis, the ... Mutations in the AMELX gene can result in amelogenesis imperfecta, which refers to the collection of enamel defects resulting ...
Mutations in ITGB6 cause amelogenesis imperfecta . Integrin, beta 6 has been shown to interact with FHL2. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "ITGB6 loss-of-function mutations cause autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta". Human Molecular Genetics. 23 (8): 2157-63 ...
This protein is formed by ameloblasts during the early secretory to late maturation stages of amelogenesis. Although not ... provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]. Mutations in AMBN cause amelogenesis imperfecta. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000178522 - ... maps within the critical region for autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta at chromosome 4q21". Genomics. 41 (1): 115-8. ... "Deletion of ameloblastin exon 6 is associated with amelogenesis imperfecta". Human Molecular Genetics. 23 (20): 5317-24. doi: ...
Mutations in the ENAM gene can give rise to autosomal dominant Amelogenesis imperfecta, indicating a role in Amelogenesis. ... 2002). "Autosomal-dominant hypoplastic form of amelogenesis imperfecta caused by an enamelin gene mutation at the exon-intron ... 1995). "Localization of a gene for autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI) to chromosome 4q". Hum. Mol. Genet. 3 (9 ... "Entrez Gene: ENAM enamelin". Hu, J. C.; Yamakoshi, Y. (2003). "Enamelin and autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta". ...
Amelogenesis imperfecta:[20] The appearance of amelogenesis imperfecta depends on the type of amelogenesis, there are 14 ... amelogenesis imperfecta); K. and non-vital colouring. ...
Mutations in enamel ECM proteins result in enamel defects such as amelogenesis imperfect. Type-I collagen is thought to have a ... March 2005). "ENAM Mutations in Autosomal-dominant Amelogenesis Imperfecta". Journal of Dental Research. 84 (3): 278-282. doi: ... 2003). "Relationship of phenotype and genotype in X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta". Connective Tissue Research. 44 (1): 72-78 ...
Wang X, Jung J, Liu Y, Yuan B, Lu Y, Feng JQ, Qin C (Nov 2013). "The specific role of FAM20C in amelogenesis". Journal of ...
The exact genetic nature of each particular case of KS/HH will determine which, if any, of the non-reproductive features will occur. The severity of the symptoms will also vary from case to case. Even family members will not show the same range or severity of symptoms.[2][5] KS/HH is most often present from birth but adult onset versions are found in both males and females. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) functions normally at birth and well into adult life, giving normal puberty and normal reproductive function. The HPG axis then either fails totally or is reduced to a very low level of GnRH release in adult life with no obvious cause (e.g. a pituitary tumour). This will lead to a fall in testosterone or oestrogen levels and infertility.[13][16] Functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea is seen in females where the HPG axis is suppressed in response to physical or psychological stress or malnutrition but is reversible with the removal of the stressor.[1] Some cases of KS/HH appear ...
This test measures the changes in body weight, urine output, and urine composition when fluids are withheld to induce dehydration. The body's normal response to dehydration is to conserve water by concentrating the urine. Those with DI continue to urinate large amounts of dilute urine in spite of water deprivation. In primary polydipsia, the urine osmolality should increase and stabilize at above 280 Osm/kg with fluid restriction, while a stabilization at a lower level indicates diabetes insipidus.[10] Stabilization in this test means, more specifically, when the increase in urine osmolality is less than 30 Osm/kg per hour for at least three hours.[10] Sometimes measuring blood levels of ADH toward the end of this test is also necessary, but is more time consuming to perform.[10] To distinguish between the main forms, desmopressin stimulation is also used; desmopressin can be taken by injection, a nasal spray, or a tablet. While taking desmopressin, a patient should drink fluids or water only ...
... is a form of albinism which, in contrast to oculocutaneous albinism, presents primarily in the eyes.[1] There are multiple forms of ocular albinism, which are clinically similar.[2]:865. Both known genes are on the X chromosome. When the term "autosomal recessive ocular albinism" ("AROA") is used, it usually refers to mild variants of oculocutaneous albinism rather than ocular albinism, which is X-linked.[3]. ...
... is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait. It occurs in males and in homozygous females (which is only possible in the daughters of a haemophilic male and a carrier or haemophiliac female[9]). However, mild haemophilia A is known to occur in heterozygous females due to X-inactivation, so it is recommended that levels of factor VIII and IX be measured in all known or potential carriers prior to surgery and in the event of clinically significant bleeding.[4][10] About 5-10% of people with haemophilia A are affected because they make a dysfunctional version of the factor VIII protein, while the remainder are affected because they produce factor VIII in insufficient amounts (quantitative deficiency).[10] Of those who have severe deficiency (defined as ,1% activity of factor VIII), 45-50% have the same mutation, an inversion within the factor VIII gene that results in total elimination of protein production.[10] Since both forms of haemophilia can be caused by a variety of different ...
mutations in WDR72 is thought to play a role in amelogenesis imperfecta People who suffer from amelogenesis imperfecta have ... 2010). "Ultrastructural analyses of deciduous teeth affected by hypocalcified amelogenesis imperfecta from a family with a ... 2008). "FAM83H mutations in families with autosomal-dominant hypocalcified amelogenesis imperfecta". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 82 (2 ... 2009). "Phenotypic variation in FAM83H-associated amelogenesis imperfecta". J. Dent. Res. 88 (4): 356-60. doi:10.1177/ ...
Two types of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) have been seen in KTS patients. The first is Hypoplastic which is caused by the ... Amelogenesis Imperfecta is known to be caused by other genetic mutations. Two examples are in chromosome 4 open reading frame ... The most prominent symptom is amelogenesis imperfecta which gives the teeth a stained brown-yellow color. The enamel is thin, ... The only symptoms seen consistently in all 24 diagnosed cases are epilepsy, amelogenesis imperfecta in both primary and ...
Another very rare side effect is amelogenesis imperfecta.[citation needed] Phenobarbital is a cytochrome P450 hepatic enzyme ...
... is the name for a series of closely related proteins involved in amelogenesis, the development of enamel. They are a ... Mutations in AMELX can cause amelogenesis imperfecta, a disorder of tooth enamel development. Amelogenin at the US National ... Wright JT (December 2006). "The molecular etiologies and associated phenotypes of amelogenesis imperfecta". American Journal of ... it is known that amelogenins are abundant during amelogenesis. Developing human enamel contains about 70% protein, 90% of which ...
Amelogenesis imperfecta hypomaturation type with taurodontism are often confused. Amelogenesis imperfecta of the hypomaturation ... Amelogenesis imperfecta, an abnormal formation of the enamel or external layer of the crown of the tooth, may also be present ... The presence of this hair texture type is a defining characteristic between a diagnosis of TDO verses amelogenesis imperfecta ... There are several clinical subsets of amelogenesis imperfecta, but common to TDO is the hypoplastic-hypomaturation subtype; the ...
Amelogenesis forms enamel during the formative and maturative stages. At the formative stage, the enamel matrix is selected, ...
... in Ameloblastoma Amelogenesis imperfecta Dentin Enamel Odontoblast Tooth development Ten Cate's Oral Histology, Nanci ... 2013 Zheng L, Seon YJ, Circadian rhythms regulate amelogenesis. Bone. 2013 Ten Cate's Oral Histology, Nanci, Elsevier, 2013, ... Implications for Amelogenesis and Dental Fluorosis". Cells. 1: 631-645. doi:10.3390/cells1030631. PMC 3671616 . PMID 23745169. ...
2005). "Dentin sialoprotein and dentin phosphoprotein overexpression during amelogenesis". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (36): 31991-8. ...
Jalili, I K; Smith, N J (1988). "A progressive cone-rod dystrophy and amelogenesis imperfecta: A new syndrome". Journal of ... Jalili, I K; Smith, N J (1988). "A progressive cone-rod dystrophy and amelogenesis imperfecta: A new syndrome". Journal of ... Jalili syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by the combination of cone-rod dystrophy of the retina and amelogenesis ... Jalili, I.K. Cone-rod dystrophy and amelogenesis imperfecta (Jalili syndrome): phenotypes and environs. Eye (2010) 24, 1659- ...
2009). "Mutations in the beta propeller WDR72 cause autosomal-recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta". Am. J. Hum. ... Mutations in this gene cause autosomal-recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Mutations in the beta propeller WDR72 cause autosomal-recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 85 ...
This protein is formed for a short time during amelogenesis. The function of tuftelins is under contention, but it is proposed ...
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a congenital disorder that presents with a rare abnormal formation of the enamel[1] or external ... 2012). "Amelogenesis Imperfecta in Two Families with Defined AMELX Deletions in ARHGAP6". PLOS ONE. 7 (12): e52052. doi:10.1371 ... About 5% of amelogenesis imperfecta cases are caused by mutations in the AMELX gene and are inherited in an X-linked pattern. A ... Amelogenesis imperfecta is due to the malfunction of the proteins in the enamel (ameloblastin, enamelin, tuftelin and ...
Amelogenesis is the formation of enamel on teeth and begins when the crown is forming during the advanced bell stage of tooth ... Amelogenesis is considered to have three stages. The first stage is known as the inductive stage, the second is the secretory ... This is in contrast to dentin formation which occurs throughout life (secondary dentin production). Ameloblast Amelogenesis ... therefore after amelogenesis, enamel production has been finalized. ...
Amelogenesis imperfecta is a disorder of tooth development. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this condition. ... Genetic Testing Registry: Amelogenesis imperfecta, hypocalcification type *Genetic Testing Registry: Amelogenesis imperfecta, ... Mutations in the AMELX, ENAM, MMP20, and FAM83H genes can cause amelogenesis imperfecta. The AMELX, ENAM, and MMP20 genes ... Other cases of amelogenesis imperfecta result from new gene mutations and occur in people with no history of the disorder in ...
Amelogenesis imperfecta is a group of rare genetic conditions in which the outer layer of the teeth (enamel) fails to develop ... What causes amelogenesis imperfecta?. Amelogenesis imperfecta is caused by mutations in the genes AMELX, ENAM, or MMP20. These ... What is amelogenesis imperfecta?. Amelogenesis imperfecta is a group of rare genetic conditions in which the outer layer of the ... How is amelogenesis imperfecta diagnosed?. Amelogenesis imperfecta is typically diagnosed by a dentist. They will take a family ...
Amelogenesis imperfecta is an inherited defect of dental enamel formation that shows both clinical and genetic heterogeneity. ... Amelogenesis imperfecta, type 1E. Synonyms. Amelogenesis Imperfecta, Hypoplastic/Hypomaturation, X-Linked 1; Amelogenesis ... Amelogenesis imperfecta is an inherited defect of dental enamel formation that shows both clinical and genetic heterogeneity. ... imperfecta X-linked 1; Amelogenesis imperfecta, hypomaturation type, with snow-capped teeth; Enamel hypoplasia X-linked. Modes ...
Dentin sialoprotein and dentin phosphoprotein overexpression during amelogenesis.. Paine ML1, Luo W, Wang HJ, Bringas P Jr, ... Because of this expression profile it appears that dentin sialophosphoprotein contributes to the early events of amelogenesis, ... we have extended dentin sialoprotein or dentin phosphoprotein expression throughout the developmental stages of amelogenesis. ...
2 patients with amelogenesis imperfecta experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia and use ... Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on amelogenesis imperfecta at PatientsLikeMe. ... Buprenorphine patch, Morphine, and tapentadol to treat their amelogenesis imperfecta and its symptoms. ... 0 amelogenesis imperfecta patients report severe pain (0%). * 1 a amelogenesis imperfecta patient reports moderate pain (100%) ...
Some of the encoded proteins have well documented roles in amelogenesis, acting as enamel matrix proteins or the proteases that ... Some of the encoded proteins have well documented roles in amelogenesis, acting as enamel matrix proteins or the proteases that ... the proteins they encode and knowledge of their roles in amelogenesis, combining evidence from human phenotypes, inheritance ... the proteins they encode and knowledge of their roles in amelogenesis, combining evidence from human phenotypes, inheritance ...
Projects focusing on amelogenesis comprise approximately 10% of the NIDCR portfolio. Among all previously funded amelogenesis ... The objectives of this concept are to 1) generate new or improved models for the study of amelogenesis that accurately reflect ... The rodent with its continuously erupting incisor has been a model organism for the study of the continuum of amelogenesis ... Amelogenesis Imperfecta; Genes, Proteins, and Pathways. Front Physiol. 2017 Jun 26;8:435. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00435. ...
... general Amelogenesis imperfecta Care and treatment Diagnosis Research ... A conservative rehabilitation of amelogenesis imperfecta.(CASE REPORT, Report) by Indian Journal of Dental Advancements; ... Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A Series of Case Report. Int J Adv Hea Sci 2015; 2(1). (4.) Bhateja S, Sahni P, Arora G, Solanki J. ... Amelogenesis Imperfecta with Anterior Open Bite: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Ped Dentistry 2011; 4(3):245-247. (19.) Seow WK ...
... amelogenesis imperfecta type IE; X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta 1; X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta hypoplastic/ ... Synonyms: AIH1; amelogenesis imperfecta hypomaturationtype with snow-capped teeth; ... amelogenesis imperfecta type IE; X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta 1; X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta hypoplastic/ ... amelogenesis imperfecta type 1E (DOID:0110058) Alliance: disease page Synonyms: AIH1; amelogenesis imperfecta ...
Synonyms: AI2A4; amelogenesis imperfecta hypomaturation type IIA4; amelogenesis imperfecta type IIA4 ... amelogenesis imperfecta hypomaturation type 2A4 (DOID:0110062) Alliance: disease page Synonyms: AI2A4; amelogenesis imperfecta ... hypomaturation type IIA4; amelogenesis imperfecta type IIA4 Alt IDs: OMIM:614832, ICD10CM:K00.5 Definition: An amelogenesis ...
Amelogenesis imperfecta, hypoplastic-hypomaturation, X-linked 1 AMELOGENESIS IMPERFECTA, HYPOPLASTIC/HYPOMATURATION, X-LINKED 2 ... Amelogenesis Imperfecta 2.. Diseases ← Stomatognathic Diseases ← Tooth Diseases ← Tooth Abnormalities ← Dental Enamel ... Amelogenesis Imperfecta 3.. Diseases ← Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities ← Congenital ... Amelogenesis Imperfecta, Hypomaturation Type, with Snow-Capped Teeth ...
Background Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is an inherited disorder characterised by generalised defects of dental enamel, but has ... Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is an inherited disorder characterised by generalised defects of dental enamel, but has been ... Amelogenesis imperfecta: multiple impactions associated with odontogenic fibromas (WHO) type. JDASA. 1990;45:467-71.Google ... Amelogenesis imperfecta, rough hypoplastic type, dental follicular hamartomas and gingival hyperplasia: report of a case from ...
Recent observations on enamel crystal formation during mammalian amelogenesis. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or ... AmelogenesisAmelogeninAnimalsApatitesCrystallizationDental EnamelDental Enamel ProteinsSwineTooth CalcificationTooth Germ ... Recent observations on enamel crystal formation during mammalian amelogenesis.. Anat Rec. 1996 Jun; 245(2):208-18.AR ... Aoba, T. "Recent Observations On Enamel Crystal Formation During Mammalian Amelogenesis." The Anatomical Record, vol. 245, no. ...
... have been previously reported to cause non-syndromic autosomal recessive amelogenesis imp ... Expanding the phenotype of hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta due to a novel SLC24A4 variant. *Ulrike Lepperdinger1. , ... Amelogenesis imperfecta in SLC24A4 is of the hypomaturation type. Histologic analysis of primary teeth extracted from ... The present report is expanding the clinical phenotype of SLC24A4 variants to more severe forms of amelogenesis imperfecta. An ...
What causes Amelogenesis imperfecta?. Amelogenesis imperfecta is passed down through families as a dominant trait. That means ... Where to find medical care for Amelogenesis imperfecta?. Directions to Hospitals Treating Amelogenesis imperfecta ... What are the symptoms of Amelogenesis imperfecta?. The enamel of the tooth is soft and thin. The teeth appear yellow and are ... Amelogenesis imperfecta is a tooth development disorder in which the teeth are covered with thin, abnormally formed enamel. ...
What is amelogenesis? Meaning of amelogenesis as a finance term. What does amelogenesis mean in finance? ... Definition of amelogenesis in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Related to amelogenesis: amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta. AI. The two-character ISO 3166 country code for ... Frequency of imperfect amelogenesis (IA) varies in different world populations.. Amelogenesis imperfecta. Informe de tres casos ...
What is amelogenesis imperfecta? Meaning of amelogenesis imperfecta as a finance term. What does amelogenesis imperfecta mean ... Definition of amelogenesis imperfecta in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Hypomature Amelogenesis Imperfecta Several types of hypomature amelogenesis imperfecta have been described.. Developmental ... redirected from amelogenesis imperfecta). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ...
Keywords: Ameloblasts, Amelogenesis Imperfecta, Gene expression and Teeth See more of: Genetics and Epigenetics of Craniofacial ... 1561 Expression of FAM20A, causative gene for Amelogenesis Imperfecta in ameloblasts Saturday, March 24, 2012: 9:45 a.m. - 11 a ... Objective: Patients with Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) caused by FAM20A mutation display several dental phenotypes including ...
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a relatively rare group of inherited tooth development disorders characterized by defects of ... In two consanguineous Omani families affected with hypomaturation-type amelogenesis imperfecta, El-Sayed et al. (2009) ...
Nephrocalcinosis in Amelogenesis Imperfecta Caused by the FAM20A Mutation Mine Koruyucu 1 , Figen Seymen 1 , Genco Gencay 2 , ... Nephrocalcinosis in Amelogenesis Imperfecta Caused by the FAM20A Mutation Mine Koruyucu et al. Nephron. 2018. . ... Amelogenesis imperfecta and nephrocalcinosis syndrome: a case report and review of the literature. Martelli-Júnior H, dos ... It has been recently identified that recessive mutations in the FAM20A gene result in amelogenesis imperfecta (AI)-gingival ...
Amelogenesis imperfecta is a rare dental disease and presents a major challenge to the dentist. With the tremendous advances in ... A case of amelogenesis imperfecta, complicated by a malocclusion, is presented. A combination of periodontal treatment and ...
Background: Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) is an inherited dental condition affecting enamel, which can result in significant ... An investigation of the impact of Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) on children and adolescents ...
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  • Very significant changes in the morphology, stoichiometry, and solubility of enamel crystals occur during the various stages of amelogenesis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Immunohistochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase isozyme II in rat incisor epithelial cells at various stages of amelogenesis. (naver.com)
  • Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) was purified from erythrocytes of male Sprague-Dawley rats, and its localization in rat maxillary incisor epithelial cells at various stages of amelogenesis was studied by means of immunoperoxidase staining using a rat CAII-specific monoclonal antibody. (naver.com)
  • AMELX and ENAM encode extracellular matrix proteins of the developing tooth enamel and KLK-4 and MMP20 encode proteases that help degrade organic matter from the enamel matrix during the maturation stage of amelogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the first report of heterozygous SLC24A4 variants causing mild hypomaturation defects, providing confirmatory evidence that the function of SLC24A4 in calcium transport has a crucial role in the maturation stage of amelogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Is a promoter of calcium phosphate mineralization, playing a critical role in the formation of the compact, mineralized, aprismatic enamel surface layer during the maturation stage of amelogenesis. (uniprot.org)
  • Mutations in enamel ECM proteins result in enamel defects such as amelogenesis imperfect. (rug.nl)
  • In this application, I propose to test the hypothesis that the function and regulation of Perp play a central role in amelogenesis. (grantome.com)
  • Some of the encoded proteins have well documented roles in amelogenesis, acting as enamel matrix proteins or the proteases that degrade them, cell adhesion molecules or regulators of calcium homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Enamel and organic matrix secretion and mineralisation is the product of a highly specialised cells called ameloblasts through a process called amelogenesis [3, (medicaljb.com)
  • Moreover, it is also hypothesised that ameloblasts rules the calcium and phosphate ions movement during amelogenesis [9, (medicaljb.com)