Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).
Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.
The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Odontoblasts are columnar, highly differentiated, dentin-forming cells that originate from the ectodermal neural crest and reside within the pulp cavity of teeth, characterized by their production and secretion of the organic matrix component of dentin during amelogenesis.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.
A clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary conditions characterized by malformed DENTAL ENAMEL, usually involving DENTAL ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA and/or TOOTH HYPOMINERALIZATION.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Bicarbonate transporters that move BICARBONATE IONS in exchange of CHLORIDE IONS or SODIUM IONS across membranes. They regulate acid-base HOMEOSTASIS, cell volume and intracellular pH. Members include CHLORIDE-BICARBONATE ANTIPORTERS (SLC4A1, 2, 3, and 9); SODIUM-COUPLED BICARBONATE TRANSPORTERS (SLC4A4 and 5, 7, 8 and 10); and a sodium borate cotransporter (SLC4A11 protein).
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.
The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.

Scanning electron microscopy of the lateral cell surfaces of rat incisor ameloblasts. (1/196)

Dry dissected rat incisor ameloblasts studied in the scanning electron microscope show remarkable specializations of their lateral surfaces. Four or five cycles of a change from a surface with longitudinal gutterlike folds associated with large intercellular spaces, to one with microvilli and reduced intercellular spaces, are found along the length of the lower incisor maturation zone. It is argued that these changes indicate cyclical activity in maturation ameloblasts.  (+info)

Targeted disruption of the LAMA3 gene in mice reveals abnormalities in survival and late stage differentiation of epithelial cells. (2/196)

Laminin 5 regulates anchorage and motility of epithelial cells through integrins alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1, respectively. We used targeted disruption of the LAMA3 gene, which encodes the alpha3 subunit of laminin 5 and other isoforms, to examine developmental functions that are regulated by adhesion to the basement membrane (BM). In homozygous null animals, profound epithelial abnormalities were detected that resulted in neonatal lethality, consistent with removal of all alpha3-laminin isoforms from epithelial BMs. Alterations in three different cellular functions were identified. First, using a novel tissue adhesion assay, we found that the mutant BM could not induce stable adhesion by integrin alpha6beta4, consistent with the presence of junctional blisters and abnormal hemidesmosomes. In the absence of laminin 5 function, we were able to detect a new ligand for integrin alpha3beta1 in the epidermal BM, suggesting that basal keratinocytes can utilize integrin alpha3beta1 to interact with an alternative ligand. Second, we identified a survival defect in mutant epithelial cells that could be rescued by exogenous laminin 5, collagen, or an antibody against integrin alpha6beta4, suggesting that signaling through beta1 or beta4 integrins is sufficient for survival. Third, we detected abnormalities in ameloblast differentiation in developing mutant incisors indicating that events downstream of adhesion are affected in mutant animals. These results indicate that laminin 5 has an important role in regulating tissue organization, gene expression, and survival of epithelium.  (+info)

Expression of the Fanconi anemia group A gene (Fanca) during mouse embryogenesis. (3/196)

About 80% of all cases of Fanconi anemia (FA) can be accounted for by complementation groups A and C. To understand the relationship between these groups, we analyzed the expression pattern of the mouse FA group-A gene (Fanca) during embryogenesis and compared it with the known pattern of the group-C gene (Fancc). Northern analysis of RNA from mouse embryos at embryonic days 7, 11, 15, and 17 showed a predominant 4.5 kb band in all stages. By in situ hybridization, Fanca transcripts were found in the whisker follicles, teeth, brain, retina, kidney, liver, and limbs. There was also stage-specific variation in Fanca expression, particularly within the developing whiskers and the brain. Some tissues known to express Fancc (eg, gut) failed to show Fanca expression. These observations show that (1) Fanca is under both tissue- and stage-specific regulation in several tissues; (2) the expression pattern of Fanca is consistent with the phenotype of the human disease; and (3) Fanca expression is not necessarily coupled to that of Fancc. The presence of distinct tissue targets for FA genes suggests that some of the variability in the clinical phenotype can be attributed to the complementation group assignment.  (+info)

Localization of putative stem cells in dental epithelium and their association with Notch and FGF signaling. (4/196)

The continuously growing mouse incisor is an excellent model to analyze the mechanisms for stem cell lineage. We designed an organ culture method for the apical end of the incisor and analyzed the epithelial cell lineage by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and DiI labeling. Our results indicate that stem cells reside in the cervical loop epithelium consisting of a central core of stellate reticulum cells surrounded by a layer of basal epithelial cells, and that they give rise to transit-amplifying progeny differentiating into enamel forming ameloblasts. We identified slowly dividing cells among the Notch1-expressing stellate reticulum cells in specific locations near the basal epithelial cells expressing lunatic fringe, a secretory molecule modulating Notch signaling. It is known from tissue recombination studies that in the mouse incisor the mesenchyme regulates the continuous growth of epithelium. Expression of Fgf-3 and Fgf-10 were restricted to the mesenchyme underlying the basal epithelial cells and the transit-amplifying cells expressing their receptors Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b. When FGF-10 protein was applied with beads on the cultured cervical loop epithelium it stimulated cell proliferation as well as expression of lunatic fringe. We present a model in which FGF signaling from the mesenchyme regulates the Notch pathway in dental epithelial stem cells via stimulation of lunatic fringe expression and, thereby, has a central role in coupling the mitogenesis and fate decision of stem cells.  (+info)

Spatial and temporal activity of the dentin sialophosphoprotein gene promoter: differential regulation in odontoblasts and ameloblasts. (5/196)

Dentin sialoprotein and dentin phosphoprotein are non-collagenous proteins that are cleavage products of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP). Although these two protein products are believed to have a crucial role in the process of tooth mineralization, their precise biological functions and the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation are not clearly understood. To understand such functions, we have developed a transgenic mouse model expressing a reporter gene (lacZ) under the control of approximately 6 kb upstream sequences of Dspp. The transgenic fusion protein was designed to reside within the cells to facilitate the precise identification of cell type and developmental stages at which the Dspp-lacZ gene is expressed. The results presented in this report demonstrate: (a) the 6 kb upstream sequences of Dspp have the necessary regulatory elements to direct the tissue specific expression of the transgene similar to endogenous Dspp, (b) both odontoblasts and ameloblasts exhibit transgene expression in a differentiation dependent manner, and (c) a differential regulation of the transgene in odontoblasts and ameloblasts occurs during tooth development and mineralization.  (+info)

Subtilisin-like proprotein convertase PACE4 (SPC4) is a candidate processing enzyme of bone morphogenetic proteins during tooth formation. (6/196)

The temporospatial expression of PACE4, a member of the mammalian subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, in the developing rat molar tooth was determined by in situ hybridization. At the initiation stage of tooth development, PACE4 mRNA was weakly expressed in the dental lamina, whereas the mesenchymal cells intensely expressed the PACE4 transcript. At the bud stage, high-level expression of PACE4 mRNA was found in the dental epithelium and condensed dental mesenchyme. Its expression became more localized in the differentiating ameloblasts during cap and early bell stages. In the newborn rats, PACE4 mRNA was localized in the ameloblasts and odontoblasts, but its expression became weaker with advancing development, showing apparent association with the differentiation and establishment of functional ameloblasts and odontoblasts. These expression patterns of PACE4 were very similar to those of several bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) reported previously. Because BMPs, which are primarily involved in the morphogenesis in tooth formation, are synthesized as inactive precursors and activated by limited proteolysis at the consensus Arg-X-X-Arg maturation site, the present observations suggest that PACE4 is possibly a candidate proBMP convertase that acts during tooth formation.  (+info)

Transcription factor Sp3 is essential for post-natal survival and late tooth development. (7/196)

Sp3 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor closely related to Sp1 (specificity protein 1). We have disrupted the mouse Sp3 gene by homologous recombination. Sp3-deficient embryos are growth retarded and invariably die at birth of respiratory failure. The cause for the observed breathing defect remains obscure since only minor morphological alterations were observed in the lung, and surfactant protein expression is indistinguishable from that in wild-type mice. Histological examinations of individual organs in Sp3(-/-) mice show a pronounced defect in late tooth formation. In Sp3 null mice, the dentin/enamel layer of the developing teeth is impaired due to the lack of ameloblast-specific gene products. Comparison of the Sp1 and Sp3 knockout phenotype shows that Sp1 and Sp3 have distinct functions in vivo, but also suggests a degree of functional redundancy.  (+info)

Calbindin D28k-like immunoreactivity during the formation of the enamel-free area in the rat molar teeth. (8/196)

Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of calbindin D28k in the ameloblasts derived from the inner enamel epithelium. The occlusal surfaces of the rodent molars partly lack the enamel covering, which is referred to as enamel-free area (EFA). In the present study, we compared the immunohistochemical localization of calbindin D28k-like immunoreactivity (CB-LI) in the cells at the EFA (EFA cells) and ameloblasts of the rat molar teeth at the light microscopic level. CB-LI was strong in the ameloblasts of the presecretory through the protective stages, while it was faint at the late secretory to transitional stages. However, some mature ameloblasts lacked the immunoreactivity. On the other hand, the majority of EFA cells showed distinct polarization and elongation that were absent in few cells at the early stage of EFA formation. At all stages, the EFA cells adjacent to the ameloblasts showed CB-LI, however, some cells adjacent to the mature ameloblasts lacked the reaction. Intensive CB-LI was demonstrated in EFA cells at the reduced enamel epithelium. These immunohistochemical findings suggest EFA cells have cytochemical properties similar to those of ameloblasts.  (+info)

Ameloblasts are the specialized epithelial cells that are responsible for the formation of enamel, which is the hard, outermost layer of a tooth. These cells are a part of the dental lamina and are present in the developing tooth's crown region. They align themselves along the surface of the developing tooth and secrete enamel proteins and minerals to form the enamel rods and interrod enamel. Once the enamel formation is complete, ameloblasts undergo programmed cell death, leaving behind the hard, mineralized enamel matrix. Any damage or abnormality in the functioning of ameloblasts can lead to developmental defects in the enamel, such as hypoplasia or hypocalcification, which may affect the tooth's structure and function.

Amelogenesis is the biological process of forming enamel, which is the hard and highly mineralized outer layer of teeth. Enamel is primarily made up of calcium and phosphate minerals and is the toughest substance in the human body. Amelogenesis involves the synthesis, secretion, and maturation of enamel proteins by specialized cells called ameloblasts.

The medical definition of 'Amelogenesis' refers to a genetic disorder that affects the development and formation of tooth enamel. This condition is also known as Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) and can result in teeth that are discolored, sensitive, and prone to decay. There are several types of Amelogenesis Imperfecta, each with its own set of symptoms and genetic causes.

In summary, 'Amelogenesis' is the biological process of enamel formation, while 'Amelogenesis Imperfecta' is a genetic disorder that affects this process, leading to abnormal tooth enamel development.

The enamel organ is a structure found in the developing teeth of vertebrates. It is responsible for the formation of enamel, which is the hard, outermost layer of the tooth crown. The enamel organ is derived from the dental papilla and is composed of several layers: the outer enamel epithelium, the stellate reticulum, the stratum intermedium, and the inner enamel epithelium. These layers work together to produce the enamel matrix, which is then mineralized to form the hard tissue that covers the tooth's crown. The enamel organ disappears after the formation of enamel is complete, leaving only the hardened enamel layer behind.

Dental enamel is the hard, outermost layer of a tooth that protects the dentin and pulp inside. It is primarily made up of minerals, mainly hydroxyapatite, and contains very little organic material. However, during the formation of dental enamel, proteins are synthesized and secreted by ameloblast cells, which help in the development and mineralization of the enamel. These proteins play a crucial role in the proper formation and structure of the enamel.

Some of the main dental enamel proteins include:

1. Amelogenin: This is the most abundant protein found in developing enamel, accounting for about 90% of the organic matrix. Amelogenin helps regulate the growth and organization of hydroxyapatite crystals during mineralization. It also plays a role in determining the final hardness and structure of the enamel.

2. Enamelin: This protein is the second most abundant protein in developing enamel, accounting for about 5-10% of the organic matrix. Enamelin is involved in the elongation and thickening of hydroxyapatite crystals during mineralization. It also helps maintain the stability of the enamel structure.

3. Ameloblastin: This protein is produced by ameloblast cells and is essential for proper enamel formation. Ameloblastin plays a role in regulating crystal growth, promoting adhesion between crystals, and maintaining the structural integrity of the enamel.

4. Tuftelin: This protein is found in both dentin and enamel but is more abundant in enamel. Tuftelin is involved in the initiation of mineralization and helps regulate crystal growth during this process.

5. Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP): Although primarily associated with dentin formation, DSPP is also found in developing enamel. It plays a role in regulating crystal growth and promoting adhesion between crystals during mineralization.

After the formation of dental enamel is complete, these proteins are largely degraded and removed, leaving behind the highly mineralized and hard tissue that characterizes mature enamel. However, traces of these proteins may still be present in the enamel and could potentially play a role in its structure and properties.

Dental enamel is the hard, white, outermost layer of a tooth. It is a highly mineralized and avascular tissue, meaning it contains no living cells or blood vessels. Enamel is primarily composed of calcium and phosphate minerals and serves as the protective covering for the crown of a tooth, which is the portion visible above the gum line.

Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, and its primary function is to provide structural support and protection to the underlying dentin and pulp tissues of the tooth. It also plays a crucial role in chewing and biting by helping to distribute forces evenly across the tooth surface during these activities.

Despite its hardness, dental enamel can still be susceptible to damage from factors such as tooth decay, erosion, and abrasion. Once damaged or lost, enamel cannot regenerate or repair itself, making it essential to maintain good oral hygiene practices and seek regular dental checkups to prevent enamel damage and protect overall oral health.

An incisor is a type of tooth that is primarily designed for biting off food pieces rather than chewing or grinding. They are typically chisel-shaped, flat, and have a sharp cutting edge. In humans, there are eight incisors - four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw, located at the front of the mouth. Other animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents also have incisors that they use for different purposes like tearing or gnawing.

Amelogenin is a protein that plays a crucial role in the formation and mineralization of enamel, which is the hard, calcified tissue that covers the outer surface of teeth. It is expressed during tooth development and is secreted by ameloblasts, the cells responsible for producing enamel.

Amelogenin makes up approximately 90% of the organic matrix of developing enamel and guides the growth and organization of hydroxyapatite crystals, which are the primary mineral component of enamel. The protein is subsequently degraded and removed as the enamel matures and becomes fully mineralized.

Mutations in the gene that encodes amelogenin (AMELX on the X chromosome) can lead to various inherited enamel defects, such as amelogenesis imperfecta, which is characterized by thin, soft, or poorly formed enamel. Additionally, because of its high expression in developing teeth and unique size and structure, amelogenin has been widely used as a marker in forensic dentistry for human identification and sex determination.

Tooth calcification, also known as dental calculus or tartar formation, refers to the hardening of plaque on the surface of teeth. This process occurs when minerals from saliva combine with bacterial deposits and dental plaque, resulting in a hard, calcified substance that adheres to the tooth surface. Calcification can occur both above and below the gum line, and if not removed through professional dental cleanings, it can lead to periodontal disease, tooth decay, and other oral health issues.

Odontogenesis is the process of tooth development that involves the formation and calcification of teeth. It is a complex process that requires the interaction of several types of cells, including epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, and odontoblasts. The process begins during embryonic development with the formation of dental lamina, which gives rise to the tooth bud. As the tooth bud grows and differentiates, it forms the various structures of the tooth, including the enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp. Odontogenesis is completed when the tooth erupts into the oral cavity. Abnormalities in odontogenesis can result in developmental dental anomalies such as tooth agenesis, microdontia, or odontomas.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

A tooth germ is a small cluster of cells that eventually develop into a tooth. It contains the dental papilla, which will become the dentin and pulp of the tooth, and the dental follicle, which will form the periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. The tooth germ starts as an epithelial thickening called the dental lamina, which then forms a bud, cap, and bell stage before calcification occurs and the tooth begins to erupt through the gums. It is during the bell stage that the enamel organ, which will form the enamel of the tooth, is formed.

Odontoblasts are defined as columnar-shaped cells that are located in the pulp tissue of teeth, specifically within the predentin region. They are responsible for the formation of dentin, one of the main components of a tooth, by synthesizing and depositing collagenous and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the mineral hydroxyapatite.

Odontoblasts have a single process that extends into the dentinal tubules, which are microscopic channels within the dentin matrix. These cells play a crucial role in sensing external stimuli, such as heat, cold, or pressure, and transmitting signals to the nerves located in the pulp tissue, thereby contributing to the tooth's sensitivity.

In summary, odontoblasts are specialized dental cells that produce dentin, provide structural support for teeth, and contribute to their sensory functions.

In the context of dentistry, a molar is a type of tooth found in the back of the mouth. They are larger and wider than other types of teeth, such as incisors or canines, and have a flat biting surface with multiple cusps. Molars are primarily used for grinding and chewing food into smaller pieces that are easier to swallow. Humans typically have twelve molars in total, including the four wisdom teeth.

In medical terminology outside of dentistry, "molar" can also refer to a unit of mass in the apothecaries' system of measurement, which is equivalent to 4.08 grams. However, this usage is less common and not related to dental or medical anatomy.

Dental enamel hypoplasia is a condition characterized by the deficiency or reduction in the thickness of the tooth's enamel surface. This results in the enamel being thin, weak, and prone to wear, fractures, and dental cavities. The appearance of teeth with enamel hypoplasia may be yellowish, brownish, or creamy white, and they can have pits, grooves, or bands of varying widths and shapes.

Enamel hypoplasia can occur due to various factors, including genetics, premature birth, low birth weight, malnutrition, infections during childhood (such as measles or chickenpox), trauma, exposure to environmental toxins, and certain medical conditions that affect enamel formation.

The condition is usually diagnosed through a dental examination, where the dentist can observe and assess the appearance and structure of the teeth. Treatment options depend on the severity of the hypoplasia and may include fluoride treatments, sealants, fillings, crowns, or extractions in severe cases. Preventive measures such as maintaining good oral hygiene, a balanced diet, and regular dental check-ups can help reduce the risk of developing enamel hypoplasia.

Amelogenesis Imperfecta is a group of inherited dental disorders that affect the structure and appearance of tooth enamel. It is caused by mutations in various genes involved in the development and formation of enamel. The condition can be characterized by small, discolored, and poorly formed teeth that are prone to rapid wear, decay, and sensitivity. There are several types of Amelogenesis Imperfecta, which vary in their severity and the specific symptoms they present. Treatment typically focuses on managing the symptoms and improving the appearance and function of the teeth through restorative dental procedures.

Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) is a type of enzyme that belongs to the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. MMPs are involved in the breakdown and remodeling of extracellular matrix components, such as collagen and elastin.

MMP-20, also known as Enamelysin, is primarily expressed in developing teeth and plays a crucial role in tooth development and mineralization. It is responsible for the degradation of enamel proteins during tooth formation, helping to shape and harden the enamel matrix. MMP-20 is secreted by ameloblasts, which are the cells that produce enamel.

Defects in MMP-20 have been associated with dental disorders such as Amelogenesis imperfecta, a group of genetic conditions characterized by abnormalities in tooth enamel formation and structure.

Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to fluoride during tooth development. It is characterized by hypomineralization of the enamel, resulting in various appearances ranging from barely noticeable white spots to brown staining and pitting of the teeth. The severity depends on the amount, duration, and timing of fluoride intake, as well as individual susceptibility. Mild dental fluorosis is typically asymptomatic but can affect the appearance of teeth, while severe cases may cause tooth sensitivity and increased susceptibility to tooth decay.

Solute carrier family 4A (anion exchanger) proteins, also known as SLC4A proteins, are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the exchange of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and chloride (Cl-) ions across biological membranes. They play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including pH regulation, intracellular signaling, and fluid secretion/absorption in different tissues such as the kidney, brain, and red blood cells.

There are several members of this protein family, including:

1. SLC4A1 (AE1): Also known as band 3 anion transport protein, it is primarily expressed in the erythrocyte membrane and facilitates chloride-bicarbonate exchange. It also plays a role in carbon dioxide transport and maintaining the stability of red blood cells.
2. SLC4A2 (AE2): Expressed in various tissues, including the kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and brain. AE2 mediates chloride-bicarbonate exchange in these tissues and is involved in pH regulation and fluid secretion/absorption.
3. SLC4A3 (AE3): Found mainly in the heart, skeletal muscle, and brain, where it facilitates chloride-bicarbonate exchange. AE3 plays a role in regulating intracellular pH during muscle contraction and neuronal activity.
4. SLC4A4 (NBCe1): Expressed primarily in the kidney and brain, NBCe1 is a sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter that mediates the uptake of bicarbonate into cells. It plays a critical role in maintaining acid-base balance by reabsorbing bicarbonate from the urine filtrate in the kidney.
5. SLC4A5 (NBCe2): Found in various tissues, including the kidney and brain, NBCe2 is another sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter that facilitates bicarbonate uptake into cells. It contributes to pH regulation and acid-base balance.
6. SLC4A7 (NBCn1): Present in various tissues, including the eye, brain, and heart, NBCn1 is a sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter that mediates bicarbonate efflux from cells. It plays a role in maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis and has been implicated in certain diseases such as epilepsy and glaucoma.
7. SLC4A8 (NDCBE): Expressed mainly in the brain, NDCBE is a sodium-dependent chloride-bicarbonate exchanger that plays a role in regulating intracellular pH during neuronal activity.
8. SLC4A9 (AE4): Found primarily in the gastrointestinal tract and kidney, AE4 is a chloride-bicarbonate exchanger involved in pH regulation and fluid secretion/absorption.
9. SLC4A10 (NBCn2): Expressed mainly in the eye, NBCn2 is a sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter that plays a role in maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis and has been implicated in certain diseases such as epilepsy.
10. SLC4A11 (BTR1): Present in various tissues, including the eye and inner ear, BTR1 is a sodium-dependent borate cotransporter that plays a role in maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis and has been implicated in certain diseases such as Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy.

Tooth abnormalities refer to any variations or irregularities in the size, shape, number, structure, or development of teeth that deviate from the typical or normal anatomy. These abnormalities can occur in primary (deciduous) or permanent teeth and can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, systemic diseases, or localized dental conditions during tooth formation.

Some examples of tooth abnormalities include:

1. Microdontia - teeth that are smaller than normal in size.
2. Macrodontia - teeth that are larger than normal in size.
3. Peg-shaped teeth - teeth with a narrow, conical shape.
4. Talon cusps - additional cusps or points on the biting surface of a tooth.
5. Dens invaginatus - an abnormal development where the tooth crown has an extra fold or pouch that can trap bacteria and cause dental problems.
6. Taurodontism - teeth with large pulp chambers and short roots.
7. Supernumerary teeth - having more teeth than the typical number (20 primary and 32 permanent teeth).
8. Hypodontia - missing one or more teeth due to a failure of development.
9. Germination - two adjacent teeth fused together, usually occurring in the front teeth.
10. Fusion - two separate teeth that have grown together during development.

Tooth abnormalities may not always require treatment unless they cause functional, aesthetic, or dental health issues. A dentist can diagnose and manage tooth abnormalities through various treatments, such as fillings, extractions, orthodontic care, or restorative procedures.

Plastic embedding is a histological technique used in the preparation of tissue samples for microscopic examination. In this process, thin sections of tissue are impregnated and hardened with a plastic resin, which replaces the water in the tissue and provides support and stability during cutting and mounting. This method is particularly useful for tissues that are difficult to embed using traditional paraffin embedding techniques, such as those that contain fat or are very delicate. The plastic-embedded tissue sections can be cut very thinly (typically 1-2 microns) and provide excellent preservation of ultrastructural details, making them ideal for high-resolution microscopy and immunohistochemical studies.

Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and cementum of a tooth. It forms the majority of the tooth's structure and is composed primarily of mineral salts (hydroxyapatite), collagenous proteins, and water. Dentin has a tubular structure, with microscopic channels called dentinal tubules that radiate outward from the pulp chamber (the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and nerve endings that are responsible for the tooth's sensitivity to various stimuli such as temperature changes, pressure, or decay. Dentin plays a crucial role in protecting the dental pulp while also providing support and structure to the overlying enamel and cementum.

Dentinogenesis is the process of dentin formation, which is one of the main components of teeth. Dentin is a hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the tooth's enamel and cementum layers, providing structural support and protection to the pulp tissue containing nerves and blood vessels. The process of dentinogenesis involves the differentiation and activation of odontoblasts, which are specialized cells that synthesize and secrete the organic and inorganic components of dentin matrix. These components include collagenous proteins and hydroxyapatite crystals, which form a highly mineralized tissue that is both strong and flexible. Dentinogenesis continues throughout life as new layers of dentin are formed in response to various stimuli such as tooth wear, dental caries, or injury.

A tooth crown is a type of dental restoration that covers the entire visible portion of a tooth, restoring its shape, size, and strength. It is typically made of materials like porcelain, ceramic, or metal alloys and is custom-made to fit over the prepared tooth. The tooth crown is cemented in place and becomes the new outer surface of the tooth, protecting it from further damage or decay.

The process of getting a tooth crown usually involves two dental appointments. During the first appointment, the dentist prepares the tooth by removing any decay or damaged tissue and shaping the tooth to accommodate the crown. An impression is then taken of the prepared tooth and sent to a dental laboratory where the crown is fabricated. In the meantime, a temporary crown is placed over the prepared tooth to protect it until the permanent crown is ready. At the second appointment, the temporary crown is removed, and the permanent crown is cemented in place.

Tooth crowns are often recommended for several reasons, including:

* To restore a broken or fractured tooth
* To protect a weakened tooth from further damage or decay
* To support a large filling when there isn't enough natural tooth structure left
* To cover a dental implant
* To improve the appearance of a discolored or misshapen tooth

Overall, a tooth crown is an effective and long-lasting solution for restoring damaged or decayed teeth and improving oral health.

Dental pulp is the soft tissue located in the center of a tooth, surrounded by the dentin. It contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue, and plays a vital role in the development and health of the tooth. The dental pulp helps to form dentin during tooth development and continues to provide nourishment to the tooth throughout its life. It also serves as a sensory organ, allowing the tooth to detect hot and cold temperatures and transmit pain signals to the brain. Injury or infection of the dental pulp can lead to serious dental problems, such as tooth decay or abscesses, and may require root canal treatment to remove the damaged tissue and save the tooth.

Sodium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaF. Medically, it is commonly used as a dental treatment to prevent tooth decay, as it is absorbed into the structure of teeth and helps to harden the enamel, making it more resistant to acid attacks from bacteria. It can also reduce the ability of bacteria to produce acid. Sodium fluoride is often found in toothpastes, mouth rinses, and various dental treatments. However, excessive consumption can lead to dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis, which cause changes in bone structure and might negatively affect health.

Claudin-1 is a protein that is a member of the claudin family, which are important components of tight junctions in cells. Tight junctions are specialized structures that help to regulate the paracellular permeability of liquids and solutes between cells, and play a crucial role in maintaining cell polarity and tissue integrity. Claudin-1 is primarily expressed in epithelial and endothelial cells, where it helps to form tight junctions and regulate the movement of molecules across these barriers. Mutations in the gene that encodes claudin-1 have been associated with various human diseases, including skin disorders and cancer.

Fluorides are ionic compounds that contain the fluoride anion (F-). In the context of dental and public health, fluorides are commonly used in preventive measures to help reduce tooth decay. They can be found in various forms such as sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and calcium fluoride. When these compounds come into contact with saliva, they release fluoride ions that can be absorbed by tooth enamel. This process helps to strengthen the enamel and make it more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth, which can lead to dental caries or cavities. Fluorides can be topically applied through products like toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride varnishes, or systemically ingested through fluoridated water, salt, or supplements.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

Anion transport proteins are specialized membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of negatively charged ions, known as anions, across biological membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining ionic balance and regulating various physiological processes within the body.

There are several types of anion transport proteins, including:

1. Cl-/HCO3- exchangers (also known as anion exchangers or band 3 proteins): These transporters facilitate the exchange of chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions across the membrane. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the red blood cells, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys, where they help regulate pH, fluid balance, and electrolyte homeostasis.
2. Sulfate permeases: These transporters facilitate the movement of sulfate ions (SO42-) across membranes. They are primarily found in the epithelial cells of the kidneys, intestines, and choroid plexus, where they play a role in sulfur metabolism and absorption.
3. Cl- channels: These proteins form ion channels that allow chloride ions to pass through the membrane. They are involved in various physiological processes, such as neuronal excitability, transepithelial fluid transport, and cell volume regulation.
4. Cation-chloride cotransporters: These transporters move both cations (positively charged ions) and chloride anions together across the membrane. They are involved in regulating neuronal excitability, cell volume, and ionic balance in various tissues.

Dysfunction of anion transport proteins has been implicated in several diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (due to mutations in the CFTR Cl- channel), distal renal tubular acidosis (due to defects in Cl-/HCO3- exchangers), and some forms of epilepsy (due to abnormalities in cation-chloride cotransporters).

A proton pump is a specialized protein structure that functions as an enzyme, known as a proton pump ATPase, which actively transports hydrogen ions (protons) across a membrane. This process creates a gradient of hydrogen ions, resulting in an electrochemical potential difference, also known as a proton motive force. The main function of proton pumps is to generate and maintain this gradient, which can be used for various purposes, such as driving the synthesis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) or transporting other molecules against their concentration gradients.

In the context of gastric physiology, the term "proton pump" often refers to the H+/K+-ATPase present in the parietal cells of the stomach. This proton pump is responsible for secreting hydrochloric acid into the stomach lumen, contributing to the digestion and sterilization of ingested food. Inhibiting this specific proton pump with medications like proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is a common treatment strategy for gastric acid-related disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

Antiporters, also known as exchange transporters, are a type of membrane transport protein that facilitate the exchange of two or more ions or molecules across a biological membrane in opposite directions. They allow for the movement of one type of ion or molecule into a cell while simultaneously moving another type out of the cell. This process is driven by the concentration gradient of one or both of the substances being transported. Antiporters play important roles in various physiological processes, including maintaining electrochemical balance and regulating pH levels within cells.

Sodium-bicarbonate symporters, also known as sodium bicarbonate co-transporters, are membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of both sodium ions (Na+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) across the cell membrane in the same direction. These transporters play a crucial role in maintaining acid-base balance in the body by regulating the concentration of bicarbonate ions, which is an important buffer in the blood and other bodily fluids.

The term "symporter" refers to the fact that these proteins transport two or more different molecules or ions in the same direction across a membrane. In this case, sodium-bicarbonate symporters co-transport one sodium ion and one bicarbonate ion together, usually using a concentration gradient of sodium to drive the uptake of bicarbonate.

These transporters are widely expressed in various tissues, including the kidneys, where they help reabsorb bicarbonate ions from the urine back into the bloodstream, and the gastrointestinal tract, where they contribute to the absorption of sodium and bicarbonate from food and drink. Dysfunction of sodium-bicarbonate symporters has been implicated in several diseases, including renal tubular acidosis and hypertension.

Distal terminal bars are junctional complexes that separate the Tomes' processes from ameloblast proper. Ameloblasts are ... Initially the preameloblasts will differentiate into presecretory ameloblasts and then into secretory ameloblasts which lay ... Ameloblasts are cells present only during tooth development that deposit tooth enamel, which is the hard outermost layer of the ... Each ameloblast is a columnar cell approximately 4 micrometers in diameter, 40 micrometers in length and is hexagonal in cross ...
Ameloblast • Ameloblastic fibroma • Ameloblastin • Ameloblastoma • Amelogenesis • Amelogenesis imperfecta • Amelogenin • ...
The ameloblasts cells can be less prominent. Large cysts up to a few centimetres in diameter can be found. In follicular type, ... The most common follicular type has an outer arrangement of columnar or palisaded ameloblasts-like cells and inner zone of ... Ameloblastoma is a rare, benign or cancerous tumor of odontogenic epithelium (ameloblasts, or outside portion, of the teeth ... Resemble a fibro-osseous lesion with no obvious ameloblasts whilst dominated by dense collagenous tissue (desmoplastic). In one ...
Ameloblasts must also be present for dentinogenesis to continue. A message is sent from the newly differentiated odontoblasts ... It is at this stage that a signal is sent from the newly differentiated ameloblasts back across the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ ... When this first layer is formed, the ameloblasts move away from the interface with dentin, allowing for the development of ... Enamel formation continues around the adjoining ameloblasts, resulting in a walled area, or pit, that houses a Tomes' process, ...
Ameloblasts make enamel at the location of where the cusps of the teeth are located. Enamel grows outwards, away from the ... As the ameloblasts degenerate, a gingival sulcus is created.[citation needed] Frequently, nerves and blood vessels run parallel ... In summary, the layers in order of innermost to outermost consist of dentin, enamel (formed by IEE, or 'ameloblasts', as they ... Outside the dentin are the newly formed ameloblasts in response to the formation of dentin, which are cells that continue the ...
Such is the case in both permanent and primary dentitions; the enamel prisms following the path of the ameloblasts[5]. In ... Relationships between enamel prism decussation and organization of the ameloblast layer in rodent incisors. The Anatomical ...
Odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ODAM gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: ODAM odontogenic, ameloblast asssociated [sic]". Retrieved 2013-03-31. Moffatt P, Smith CE, Sooknanan R, et al. ( ...
Thus, each band on the enamel rod demonstrates the work/rest pattern of the ameloblasts that generally occurs over a span of a ... Both ameloblasts (the cells which initiate enamel formation) and Tomes' processes affect the crystallites' pattern. Enamel ... When this first layer is formed, the ameloblasts move away from the dentin, allowing for the development of Tomes' processes at ... At some point before the tooth erupts into the mouth, but after the maturation stage, the ameloblasts are broken down. ...
Golonzhka O, Metzger D, Bornert JM, Bay BK, Gross MK, Kioussi C, Leid M (March 2009). "Ctip2/Bcl11b controls ameloblast ... Research suggests that BCL11B is crucial for ameloblasts (the cells that produce tooth enamel) to form and work properly. ...
More than one ameloblast contributes to a single prism. Tomes's processes are distinctly different from Tomes's fibers, which ... During the synthesis of enamel, the ameloblast moves away from the enamel, forming a projection surrounded by the developing ... Tomes's processes (also called Tomes processes) are a histologic landmark identified on an ameloblast, cells involved in the ... Tomes's processes are those projections and give the ameloblast a "picket-fence" appearance under a microscope. They are ...
All tooth enamel, including interrod enamel and enamel rods, is made by ameloblasts. However, interrod enamel is formed ...
... localizes to the apical secretory pole of mouse ameloblasts". J Biol Chem. 275 (29): 22284-92. doi:10.1074/jbc.M000118200. PMID ...
The bud-cap stage of normal development shows ameloblasts forming palisades of columnar cells adjacent to a starry-like, ... These proliferate and mature into ameloblasts and fibrous connective tissue (3), and ultimately teeth. Ameloblastic fibromas ...
Ameloblast extension rate Duration of ameloblast extension Spreading rate of appositional termination. The appositional growth ... the secretory stage will end and they will transition into maturation stage ameloblasts. These ameloblasts will move down to ... A wave of ameloblasts will then differentiate from the cusp tip and move through the inner enamel epithelia down the slope of ... They are produced by the ameloblast in the bell stage of tooth development. As the crystals are long and closely packed, the ...
These cells give rise to ameloblasts, which produce enamel and the reduced enamel epithelium. The growth of cervical loop cells ...
2000). "A tuftelin-interacting protein (TIP39) localizes to the apical secretory pole of mouse ameloblasts". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ... localizes to the apical secretory pole of mouse ameloblasts". J. Biol. Chem. UNITED STATES. 275 (29): 22284-92. doi:10.1074/jbc ...
These cells give rise to ameloblasts, which produce enamel and the reduced enamel epithelium. The growth of cervical loop cells ...
The basal cells are an indication of the odontogenic origin as they resemble pre-ameloblasts. The epithelium can separate from ...
This layer is first seen during the cap stage, in which these inner enamel epithelium cells are pre-ameloblast cells. These ... will differentiate into Ameloblasts which are responsible for secretion of enamel during tooth development. The location of the ...
This protein is formed by ameloblasts during the early secretory to late maturation stages of amelogenesis. Although not ...
Intradental enamel pearls may form during tooth formation, when ameloblasts are invaginated inside the developing dentin. Inner ... these fragments have the potential to develop into functional ameloblasts, which then deposit enamel onto the root surface, ...
This does not occur in other forms of enamel hypoplasia, such as linear and plane-form, in which all ameloblast activity is ... Each pit is linked to the ceasing of ameloblasts at a particular point in enamel formation. Sometimes, only a couple of ... but all types are associated with a reduction of enamel formation due to disruption in ameloblast production. One of the most ... ameloblasts stop forming enamel, leading to small PEH defects, with large pits forming when hundreds of these enamel-forming ...
The ameloblasts also develop hemidesmosomes for the primary EA and become firmly attached to the enamel surface. However, the ... Before the eruption of the tooth and after enamel maturation, the ameloblasts secrete a basal lamina on the tooth surface that ...
"Odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM) is inactivated in toothless/enamelless placental mammals and toothed whales". BMC ...
MMP20 is responsible for the breakdown of extracellular matrix and plays a role in tissue remodeling in ameloblasts. mutations ...
This is because they are formed by entrapment of odontoblast processes between ameloblasts prior to and during amelogenesis. ...
More recent evidence has suggested a relationship between respiratory diseases and oxygen shortage of the ameloblasts and MIH. ... due to interruption to the function of ameloblasts. Many factors have been suggested, such as genetics and medical problems ...
Ameloblast-like proliferation in the connective tissue and lumen of the cyst may be seen. The standard treatment of calcifying ... Additionally, focal areas of stellate reticulum like cells are seen and near the basement membrane ameloblast-like cells may be ...
... or differentiation are mainly due to atypical interaction between odontoblasts and ameloblasts. Histopathologically, the deeper ...
Local trauma or abscess formation can adversely affect the ameloblasts overlying a developing crown, resulting in enamel ...
Distal terminal bars are junctional complexes that separate the Tomes processes from ameloblast proper. Ameloblasts are ... Initially the preameloblasts will differentiate into presecretory ameloblasts and then into secretory ameloblasts which lay ... Ameloblasts are cells present only during tooth development that deposit tooth enamel, which is the hard outermost layer of the ... Each ameloblast is a columnar cell approximately 4 micrometers in diameter, 40 micrometers in length and is hexagonal in cross ...
When the tooth emerges into the oral cavity, ameloblasts (cells that produce the enamel) disappear; for this reason, enamel ... Enamel, odontoblast and ameloblast were also found to exhibit strong 2PEF signal. ...
The dentin, in turn, induces the IEE to differentiate into ameloblasts, which lay down enamel matrix opposite the dentin. This ... It collapses before the formation of enamel, leaving the ameloblasts closer to the nutrient capillaries adjacent to the OEE. ...
Ameloblast - Atrophy * Ameloblast - Metaplasia, Squamous * Angiectasis * Dental Dysplasia * Denticle * Dentin - Basophilic ...
Trafficking and secretion of keratin 75 by ameloblasts in vivo. Yang, Xu; Yamazaki, Hajime; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Duverger, Olivier ...
Epidermal cells of the dental lamina that cover the growing dentine are called ameloblasts. ...
Alkaline phosphatase (AP) participates in tooth formation and is seen in dental and peridental cells - ameloblasts, ...
Enamel mineralization in the absence of maturation stage ameloblasts. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54(4):313-21. [ Links ]. ...
Ameloblasts [A11.436.107] Ameloblasts * Atypical Squamous Cells of the Cervix [A11.436.123] ...
Immunocytochemistry of ameloblast-like cells transfected to overexpress a mutant form of keratin 6 (red) associated with dental ...
Enamel mineralization occurs in a strictly synchronized manner along with ameloblast maturation in association with ion ... is derived from dental epithelial cell ameloblast-secreted enamel matrices. ... am, ameloblast; si, stratum intermedium; od, odontoblast; pa, papillary layer. Dashed lines indicate ameloblast border. Scale ... am, ameloblast; si, stratum intermedium; od, odontoblast. Dashed lines indicate ameloblast border and odontoblast order. Scale ...
Enamel matrix proteins and ameloblast biology. Deutsch D, Catalano-Sherman J, Dafni L, David S, Palmon A. Deutsch D, et al. ... Effects of overexpression of candidate miRNAs on ameloblast differentiation. (a) Scheme of the experimental timeline. (b) Gene ... Crucial Roles of microRNA-16-5p and microRNA-27b-3p in Ameloblast Differentiation Through Regulation of Genes Associated With ... Crucial Roles of microRNA-16-5p and microRNA-27b-3p in Ameloblast Differentiation Through Regulation of Genes Associated With ...
Ameloblast-specific genes Runx2. rhythmical production is associated with cell synchronization. in vitro. rat. Athanassiou- ... production in ameloblasts. in vitro/in vivo. rat/mouse. Zheng L et al. (2013). ...
Habelitz S. Materials engineering by ameloblasts. J Dent Res. 2015 Jun;94(6):759-67.. Hannig M, Hannig C. Nanomaterials in ... Although work on pluripotent stem cell-derived ameloblasts is underway, a synthetic approach to producing enamel ex vivo was ... Continuing studies of the mineralization front with enamel proteins or ameloblasts. *Expanding studies on the influence of ... utilizing ameloblast cells as an approach, effects of a biofilm barrier on biomineralization), etiology of caries (caries ...
B) Number of ameloblasts counted in area A limited by the end of the transition stage and ameloblasts in the early-maturation ... Ameloblasts disappear during tooth eruption. Thus, any disruption of ameloblast activity leads to irreparable enamel defects ... at which time ameloblasts are smaller and enamel matrix not fully mineralized.7 The number of ameloblasts in this area was ... with a focus on transition stage ameloblasts (Figure 3A). The total number of ameloblasts counted in the transition stage was ...
The protein is found in several types of cells, including specialized cells called ameloblasts. Ameloblasts produce tooth ...
Fluoride may also interfere with the maturation and differentiation of ameloblasts.. In regard to its effects on bone, fluoride ... Enamel development begins with the secretion of a set of enamel matrix proteins by ameloblasts that nucleates minerals. Matrix ...
Fluoride may also interfere with the maturation and differentiation of ameloblasts.. In regard to its effects on bone, fluoride ... Enamel development begins with the secretion of a set of enamel matrix proteins by ameloblasts that nucleates minerals. Matrix ...
5. Ameloblasts require active RhoA to generate normal dental enamel.. Xue H; Li Y; Everett ET; Ryan K; Peng L; Porecha R; Yan Y ... The Fam50a positively regulates ameloblast differentiation via interacting with Runx2.. Kim Y; Hur SW; Jeong BC; Oh SH; Hwang ... 6. The Nfic-osterix pathway regulates ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation.. Lee DS; Roh SY; Park JC. Cell Tissue ... Decreased levels of Cx43 gap junctions result in ameloblast dysregulation and enamel hypoplasia in Gja1Jrt/+ mice.. Toth K; ...
The protein is found in several types of cells, including specialized cells called ameloblasts. Ameloblasts produce tooth ...
Effects in growing incisor teeth included degeneration/necrosis of ameloblasts, and complete tooth loss with oral ulceration. ...
Ameloblasts A11.436.123 Atypical Squamous Cells of the Cervix A11.436.140 Caco-2 Cells A11.436.150 Chief Cells, Gastric A11.436 ...
Topics included seminiferous tubule dysgenesis in rats, ameloblast and odontoblast degeneration/necrosis in a rat, intestinal ... ameloblast degeneration and poorly mineralized enamel matrix, connective tissue paragangliomas, microcystin-LR toxicity, ...
Ameloblast,modify,29-JUL-05,(null),(null) C13155,Ganglion_Cell,modify,29-JUL-05,(null),(null) C32057,Alveolar_Sac,modify,29-JUL ... Ameloblast,modify,29-JUL-05,(null),(null) C32767,Immature_Bone,modify,29-JUL-05,(null),(null) C13157,Cuboidal_Cell,modify,29- ...
Ameloblasts - Preferred Concept UI. M0000884. Scope note. Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ...
Ameloblasts Preferred Term Term UI T001742. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1965). ... Ameloblasts Preferred Concept UI. M0000884. Scope Note. Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN ... Ameloblasts. Tree Number(s). A11.436.107. Unique ID. D000565. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/D000565 Scope ...
Ameloblasts Preferred Term Term UI T001742. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1965). ... Ameloblasts Preferred Concept UI. M0000884. Scope Note. Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN ... Ameloblasts. Tree Number(s). A11.436.107. Unique ID. D000565. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/D000565 Scope ...
G protein-coupled receptor Gpr115 (Adgrf4) is required for enamel mineralization mediated by ameloblasts. Chiba, Yuta; ...
AmeloD was expressed in inner dental epithelium (IDE) and pre-ameloblasts that actively proliferate and migrate to form enamel ...
Enamel mineralization in the absence of maturation stage ameloblasts. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54(4):313-21. * Google ...
... yes ameloblast,noun,E0069184,ameloblastic,adj,E0203545,yes glycosyl,noun,E0030051,glycosylic,adj,E0428523,yes Slav,noun, ...
128-What are ameloblasts* A-The cells employed in the formation of enamel. 129-How is the enamel formed * 24 DENTAL EMBRYOLOGY ... A-The enamel is formed by the ameloblasts or enamel cells; the enamel rod taking the form of the cell, which in its formation ...
Hypoxia increases the expression of enamel proteins and cytokines in an ameloblast-derived cell line. PPT Version , PDF Version ...
  • Ameloblasts are cells present only during tooth development that deposit tooth enamel, which is the hard outermost layer of the tooth forming the surface of the crown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially the preameloblasts will differentiate into presecretory ameloblasts and then into secretory ameloblasts which lay down the tooth enamel. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various factors which can affect the differentiation and development of ameloblasts, causing abnormalities to form within the tooth structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this stage, the ameloblast cells become longer and the nucleus migrates towards the proximal end. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ameloblasts are cells which secrete the enamel proteins enamelin and amelogenin which will later mineralize to form enamel, the hardest substance in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results were clas- effects on the ameloblast cells during the sified according to age and severity. (who.int)
  • Epidermal cells of the dental lamina that cover the growing dentine are called ameloblasts . (iaszoology.com)
  • Another example includes the conditional deletion of Dicer-1 in the epithelium of developing teeth may cause impaired differentiation of ameloblasts which results in deficient enamel formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reversal of Nutrition - as long as the ameloblasts are in contact with the dental papilla, they receive nutrient material from the blood vessels of the tissue, but due to formation of this dentin the original source of nutrition is cut off and the ameloblasts are supplied by capillaries penetrating the outer enamel epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • 17. Decreased levels of Cx43 gap junctions result in ameloblast dysregulation and enamel hypoplasia in Gja1Jrt/+ mice. (nih.gov)
  • 1. The Semaphorin 4D-RhoA-Akt Signal Cascade Regulates Enamel Matrix Secretion in Coordination With Cell Polarization During Ameloblast Differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • 6. The Nfic-osterix pathway regulates ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Essential roles of ameloblastin in maintaining ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation. (nih.gov)
  • 12. GTPases RhoA and Rac1 are important for amelogenin and DSPP expression during differentiation of ameloblasts and odontoblasts. (nih.gov)
  • 19. Follistatin regulates enamel patterning in mouse incisors by asymmetrically inhibiting BMP signaling and ameloblast differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • 20. The Fam50a positively regulates ameloblast differentiation via interacting with Runx2. (nih.gov)
  • Odontoblasts can also be affected, but ameloblasts appear to be more sensitive. (nih.gov)
  • Figure 2 Tooth, Ameloblast - Atrophy in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Atrophy can lead to squamous metaplasia of ameloblasts, characterized by loss of the columnar layer of ameloblasts with replacement by squamous epithelium (see Tooth, Ameloblast - Metaplasia, Squamous). (nih.gov)
  • Ameloblasts produce tooth enamel, which is the hard, calcium-rich material that forms the protective outer layer of each tooth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Figure Legend: Figure 1 Normal ameloblasts (arrow) in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Ameloblasts require active RhoA to generate normal dental enamel. (nih.gov)