Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.

Cysteine proteinases and the pathogenesis of amebiasis. (1/80)

Amebiasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the tropical world. Entamoeba histolytica is now recognized as a separate species from the morphologically identical E. dispar, which cannot invade. Cysteine proteinases are a key virulence factor of E. histolytica and play a role in intestinal invasion by degrading the extracellular matrix and circumventing the host immune response through cleavage of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), IgG, and activation of complement. Cysteine proteinases are encoded by at least seven genes, several of which are found in E. histolytica but not E. dispar. A number of new animal models, including the formation of liver abscesses in SCID mice and intestinal infection in human intestinal xenografts, have proven useful to confirm the critical role of cysteine proteinases in invasion. Detailed structural analysis of cysteine proteinases should provide further insights into their biochemical function and may facilitate the design of specific inhibitors which could be used as potential chemotherapeutic agents in the future.  (+info)

Emergence of resistance to biocides during differentiation of Acanthamoeba castellanii. (2/80)

A synchronous encystment method was used to study the order of development of resistance of Acanthamoeba castellanii to a range of biocides. The emerging resistance during encystation to short-term exposure to the minimum amoebicidal concentrations of each biocide tested was recorded during the first 36 h of the differentiation process. Hydrochloric acid and moist heat were tested as possible resistance markers. Development of the acid-insoluble, proteincontaining, ectocyst wall and the cellulose endocyst wall was followed by quantification of the acid- and alkali-insoluble residues of cell samples removed from synchronous encystment cultures up to 36 h. Resistance to chemical agents (polyhexamethylene biguanide, benzalkonium chloride, propamidine isethionate, pentamidine isethionate, dibromopropamidine isethionate, hydrogen peroxide) and to moist heat was seen to develop between 14 and 24 h after trophozoites were inoculated into the encystment media. Resistance to hydrochloric acid developed between 0 and 2 h and to chlorhexidine diacetate between 24 and 36 h. Levels of acid-insoluble residues began to increase after 8 h and alkali-insoluble residues (cellulose) were detected after 16 h and coincided with the emergence of resistance to all the agents tested except hydrochloric acid. The results suggest that resistance to the biocides tested probably results largely from the physical barrier of the cyst walls rather than as a consequence of a metabolically dormant cyst.  (+info)

Paromomycin: no more effective than placebo for treatment of cryptosporidiosis in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trial Group. (3/80)

To evaluate the efficacy of paromomycin for the treatment of symptomatic cryptosporidial enteritis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults, we conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial before the widespread introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Seven units under the auspices of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group enrolled 35 adults with CD4 cell counts of < or = 150/mm(3). Initially, 17 patients received paromomycin (500 mg 4 times daily) and 18 received matching placebo for 21 days. Then all patients received paromomycin (500 mg q.i.d.) for an additional 21 days. Clinical definitions of response were measured by an average number of bowel movements per day in association with concurrent need for antidiarrheal agents that was lower than that before study entry. There was no treatment response during the placebo-controlled phase of the study according to protocol-defined criteria (P=.88). Three paromomycin recipients (17.6%) versus 2 placebo recipients (14.3%) responded completely. Rates of combined partial and complete responses in the paromomycin arm (8 out of 17, 47.1%) and the placebo arm (5 out of 14, 35.7%) of the study were also similar (P=.72). The clinical course of cryptosporidiosis was quite variable. Paromomycin was not shown to be more effective than placebo for the treatment of symptomatic cryptosporidial enteritis. However, inadequate statistical power prevents definitive rejection of the usefulness of paromomycin as therapy for this infection.  (+info)

In vitro activity of nitazoxanide and related compounds against isolates of Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. (4/80)

The activities of the N-(nitrothiazolyl) salicylamide nitazoxanide and its metabolite tizoxanide were compared with metronidazole in vitro in microplates against six axenic isolates of Giardia intestinalis. Tizoxanide was eight times more active than metronidazole against metronidazole-susceptible isolates and twice as active against a resistant isolate. In 10 axenic isolates of Entamoeba histolytica, while tizoxanide was almost twice as active as metronidazole against more susceptible isolates, it was more than twice as active against less susceptible isolates. Fourteen metronidazole-susceptible isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis were 1.5 times more susceptible to tizoxanide, which was nearly five times as active against resistant isolates. Two highly metronidazole-resistant isolates retained complete susceptibility to tizoxanide, and one moderately resistant isolate showed reduced susceptibility. In all three organisms, nitazoxanide results paralleled those of tizoxanide. Analogues lacking the reducible nitro-group had similar low activities against susceptible G. intestinalis, E. histolytica and T. vaginalis, indicating that nitro-reduction and free radical production was a probable mode of action. Nitazoxanide and its metabolite tizoxanide are more active in vitro than metronidazole against G. intestinalis, E. histolytica and T. vaginalis. Although, like metronidazole, they depend on the presence of a nitro-group for activity, they retain some activity against metronidazole-resistant strains, particularly of T. vaginalis. The results suggest that resistance mechanisms for metronidazole can be bypassed by nitazoxanide and tizoxanide.  (+info)

Cytotoxic activities of alkylphosphocholines against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. (5/80)

Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are causing serious chronic conditions such as destructive keratitis in contact lens wearers or granulomatous amoebic encephalitis in individuals with compromised immune systems. Both are characterized by the lack of availability of sufficiently effective and uncomplicated, manageable treatments. Hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) is licensed for use as a topical antineoplastic agent, but it is also active in vitro against several protozoan parasites, and it was applied very successfully for the treatment of human visceral leishmaniasis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of hexadecylphosphocholine and other alkylphosphocholines (APCs) against Acanthamoeba spp. The in vitro activities of eight different APCs against three Acanthamoeba strains of various pathogenicities were determined. All substances showed at least amoebostatic effects, and some of them disrupted the amoebae, as shown by the release of cytoplasmic enzyme activity. Hexadecylphosphocholine exhibited the highest degree of cytotoxicity against trophozoites, resulting in complete cell death at a concentration as low as 40 microM, and also displayed significant cysticidal activity. Hexadecylphosphocholine may be a promising new candidate for the topical treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis and, conceivably, even for the oral treatment of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis.  (+info)

Acanthamoeba keratitis in England and Wales: incidence, outcome, and risk factors. (6/80)

AIM: To determine the incidence, regional variation in frequency, outcome, and risk factors for acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in England and Wales. METHODS: AK cases presenting from 1 October 1997 to 30 September 1999 were identified by the British Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit active reporting system. Clinical and patient postal questionnaire data were analysed. RESULTS: 106 reported cases met study criteria. The annual incidence for the 2 years was 1.26 and 1.13 per million adults and, for contact lens (CL) wearers, 21.14 and 17.53 per million. There was marked regional variation in incidence (0 to 85.13 per million adult CL wearers), with CL wearers in the south having a ninefold increased risk of AK compared with those resident in the north (95% confidence limits: 2.2-38.9, p<0.0001), and a threefold increased risk with hard as opposed to soft domestic water (95% confidence limits: 1.73 to 6.58, p<0.001). Treatment and outcome data were similar to those previously reported. 93/106 (88%) patients were CL wearers. Among these, 46/77 (60%) were disinfecting irregularly, and 20/63 (32%) had been swimming in CLs. One step hydrogen peroxide and chlorine release soft CL (SCL) disinfection systems were significantly over-represented among the cases. Among SCL users, one or more previously established risk factors for AK were identified in 50/55 (91%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence was considerably higher than most previous estimates, and was static. The geographical variation in incidence may be partly related to the increase in risk associated with hard water. The fact that water quality can have such an effect on the risk of AK suggests that many CL wearers must be letting tapwater come into contact with their lenses or storage cases. Improved education for CL wearers and practitioners about hygiene practice and the variable efficacy of contact lens systems could be expected to reduce the incidence of this disease.  (+info)

Naegleria meningitis: a rare survival. (7/80)

Acute amebic meningoencephalitis caused by free-living amebae naegleria fowleri is extremely rare and uniformly fatal with only seven survivals reported till date. An interesting case of naegleria meningitis diagnosed by wet mount cytology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and treated with amphoterecin B, rifampicin and ornidazole with complete recovery is presented. In cases of suspected pyogenic meningitis, if CSF staining, antigen detection or culture is negative for bacteria, a wet mount cytology of CSF for naegleria is suggested. Early treatment with amphoterecin B and rifampicin may improve survival.  (+info)

Antiamoebic chemoprophylaxis using quinfamide in children: a comparative study. (8/80)

This study sought to examine whether the administration of quinfamide at 3- or 6-month intervals diminished the frequency of Entamoeba histolytica cysts in stool samples compared to controls. The prospective, longitudinal, randomized, single-blind study examined children from six primary schools in Celaya and Neutla, Guanajuato. Of the 1,524 students in these schools, we selected participants for the study as follows: Children were included in the study if their parents agreed in writing to the study and if the children demonstrated evidence of E. histolytica cysts after a parasitoscopic analysis by concentration (PSC) in three samples over consecutive days using Faust"s method. Those included in the study received a single 4.3-g/kg dose of quinfamide, and we performed PSC on days 5, 6, and 7 following dose administration to examine whether quinfamide had affected the presence of the cysts. The study participants who tested negative for cysts were divided into three groups: Group 1 had 102 patients who underwent quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses after the 12 months of the study; Group 2 had 98 subjects who underwent the quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses at months 3, 6, 9, and 12 after their entrance into the study; and Group 3 had 102 patients, who underwent the quinfamide treatment and series of three CPS analyses at months 6 and 12 of the study. All participants received the dose of quinfamide after providing stool samples and after a clinical gastrointestinal history was obtained. Further clinical gastrointestinal data were collected 5 days after the quintamide dose was administered. We used EpiInfo 6.0 for statistical analysis, calculating c2 and p values for the clinical data and the CPS data after the 12 months concluded. Of the initial samples of 1,524 subjects, 308 (20.2%) had Entamoebic cysts. Of these, six were further eliminated because they did not meet the inclusion requirements. At the conclusion of the study, Group 1 presented with 37.6% of subjects still testing positive for cysts; of Group 2, 12.5% tested positive; and in Group 3, 23.5% of participants tested positive for cysts (chi2 = 16.8; df = 2; p = 0.0002). For comparisons of groups 1 and 2 and 1 and 3, p < 0.05; for the comparison of groups 2 and 3, p > 0.05. We conclude that antiamoebic chemoprophylaxis can be a choice for control of amoebic infection where personal hygiene and food consumption habits are not improving.  (+info)

Amebicides are medications that are used to treat infections caused by amebae, which are single-celled microorganisms. One common ameba that can cause infection in humans is Entamoeba histolytica, which can lead to a condition called amebiasis. Amebicides work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the amebae. Some examples of amebicides include metronidazole, tinidazole, and chloroquine. It's important to note that these medications should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

An amebicide (or amoebicide) is an agent that is destructive to amoeba, especially parasitic amoeba that cause amoebiasis. ... In addition to the tissue amebicides above, one of the following lumenal amebicides should be prescribed as an adjunctive ... Anti-protist Amebicides at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Ryan KJ, Ray CG, eds. (2004). ... or one of the other lumenal amebicides above) must always be given afterwards Doses for children are calculated by body weight ...
It is also an amebicide. Fumagillin can block blood vessel formation by binding to an enzyme methionine aminopeptidase 2 and ...
Amebicide Jeffrey C. Pommerville (2014). Fundamentals of Microbiology. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 824-. ISBN 978-1-4496- ...
V.1Promising Basic Amebicides Derived from 5-Chloro-8-quinolinol". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 26 (10): 4070-4078. doi: ...
F D Gillin, D S Reiner, M Suffness (2021). "Bruceantin, a potent amoebicide from a plant, Brucea antidysenterica". ...
Masters DK, Hopkins AD (May 1979). "Therapeutic trial of four amoebicide regimes in rural Zaire". The Journal of Tropical ...
Inhibitors for the Entamoeba PPDK have been proposed as amebicides against this organism. Plant PPDK is regulated by the ...
Reptile amoebiasis can be treated with metronidazole, an amoebicide drug. Entamoeba invadens is primarily transmitted via the ...
... luminal amebicides such as Paramomycin must be administered after completion of Metronidazole treatment. This ensures complete ...
It is a luminal amebicide meaning that it only works on infections within the intestines. Diloxanide came into medical use in ... Diloxanide furoate works only in the digestive tract and is a lumenal amebicide. It is considered second line treatment for ...
Rodrigues LD, Jafferian PA, Vilella M, Costa AA, de Mello EB (November 1968). "[Comparative study on 3 amebicides: teclozine, ...
Iodoquinol is an amebicide used against Entamoeba histolytica, and it is active against both cyst and trophozoites that are ... It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is used as a luminal amebicide. It acts by chelation of ferrous ions ...
It was marketed by Geigy as an intestinal antiseptic and amebicide with the trade name Siosteran.[citation needed] Mett H, Gyr ...
He discovered that emetine, the active ingredient of the ancient emetic ipecacuanha, is an amoebicide and therefore effective ...
... amebicides MeSH D27.505.954.122.250.100.085 - antimalarials MeSH D27.505.954.122.250.100.115 - antitrichomonal agents MeSH ...
... amebicides, isoniazid, hemoglobin, bedwetting, and dermatoglyphics. Residential school deaths were common and have been linked ...
An amebicide (or amoebicide) is an agent that is destructive to amoeba, especially parasitic amoeba that cause amoebiasis. ... In addition to the tissue amebicides above, one of the following lumenal amebicides should be prescribed as an adjunctive ... Anti-protist Amebicides at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Ryan KJ, Ray CG, eds. (2004). ... or one of the other lumenal amebicides above) must always be given afterwards Doses for children are calculated by body weight ...
Drug class: Amebicides. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com on Feb 6, 2023. Written by Cerner Multum. ...
Luminal amebicides (eg, paromomycin). Tissue amebicides (eg, metronidazole). G lamblia. Contaminated ground water ...
Luminal amebicides (eg, paromomycin). Tissue amebicides (eg, metronidazole). G lamblia. Contaminated ground water ...
Chloroquine phosphate is in a class of drugs called antimalarials and amebicides. It works by killing the organisms that cause ... It is usually taken in combination with other amebicides.. Chloroquine phosphate may cause an upset stomach. Take chloroquine ...
In acute intestinal amebiasis, doxycycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides. ...
Drug classes: Amebicides, Antimalarial quinolines. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Mar 24, 2023. ...
In acute intestinal amebiasis, doxycycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides. ...
Chloroquine Phosphate API has antimalarial properties and amebicides. The organisms that cause malaria and amebiasis are killed ...
Drug used as an amebicide prepared by the action of iodine monochloride on 8-hydroxyquinoline. iodotherapy (i′o-do-thar′a-pe). ...
This medicine is a complete amebicide. Several other derivatives are synthesized later and prove to be extremely efficacious ...
In acute intestinal amebiasis, the tetracyclines may be a useful adjunct to amebicides. ...
antibiotic, antifungal, antileprotic, antituberculous drug, antimalarial, anthelmintic, amoebicide, antiviral, antiprotozoal ...
In acute intestinal amebiasis, may be a useful adjunct to amebicides. *In severe acne, may be a useful adjunctive therapy ...
Chloroquine phosphate belongs to the drug class called amebicides and antimalarials. The Aralen is a brand name for the ...
Ineffective within hydroxychloroquine price you chloroquine one -resistant the for amebicides be it asia versions. ...
... which belongs to a family of drugs called antimalarials and amebicides. It is a widely prescribed medication for the treatment ...
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Amebicides Generic Names: 1. Broxyquinoline; 2. diiodohydroxyquinoline (iodoquinol). Proprietary Names: 1. Starogyn; 2. ... Class: Amebicides. Generic Names:. 1. Broxyquinoline; 2. diiodohydroxyquinoline (iodoquinol).. Proprietary Names:. 1. Starogyn ... Data suggest that these amebicides may cause SMON. This neurologic disease has a 19% incidence of decreased vision and a 2.5% ...
The medicine is commonly used as an amoebicide and is typically prescribed to treat dysentery and diarrhoea. It works by ...
Once the diagnosis of AK was confirmed, amebicide treatment was administered with twice-hourly (day and night) therapy with ...
Paromomycin ointment (an amebicide) applied topically to sores (not available in the United States) ...
The most frequently used amebicides with luminal action are diloxanide furoate, di-iodohydroxyquin and paromomycin. Account for ...
Amebicide US Brand Names. YODOXIN® Package Insert. Description , Inactive Ingredients , Action , Indications , ...
Amebicides Gastro. Amino Acid Solutions Except Those Containing Fats. Aminoglycosides. Anabolic Hormones Systemic. ...
Amebicides / pharmacology* * Amebicides / therapeutic use * Animals * Benzamidines / pharmacology * Benzamidines / therapeutic ...
Amebicides. Salt Composition. Metronidazole (400mg) + Diloxanide (500mg). Dyrade M 400 mg/500 mg Tablet Side Effects. Nausea, ...
  • Chloroquine phosphate is in a class of drugs called antimalarials and amebicides. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This medication belongs to a group of drugs called antimalarials and amebicides. (rxwiki.com)
  • Luminal amebicide.The mechanism of action of diloxanide is unknown.This agent destroys the trophozoites of E. histolytica that eventually form into cysts. (kenyapharmtech.com)
  • For amebic liver abscess: Metronidazole 400 mg three times a day for 10 days Tinidazole 2g once a day for 6 days is an alternative to metronidazole Diloxanide furoate 500 mg three times a day for 10 days (or one of the other lumenal amebicides above) must always be given afterwards Doses for children are calculated by body weight and a pharmacist should be consulted for help. (wikipedia.org)
  • Luminal amebicide also must be used to eradicate bowel luminal infection. (medscape.com)
  • An amebicide (or amoebicide) is an agent that is destructive to amoeba, especially parasitic amoeba that cause amoebiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current deployment covers three of the company's lines of anti-malarial (artelum), anti-amoebicide (loxagyl) and analgesic (easadol) medication. (pharmaceuticalprocessingworld.com)
  • Fármacos que destruyen a las amebas, en especial a las especies parasitarias que causan AMEBIASIS a los seres humanos y los animales. (bvsalud.org)
  • 08. Which one of the following drugs is a systemic amebicide drug? (medparhlo.com)
  • In addition to the tissue amebicides above, one of the following lumenal amebicides should be prescribed as an adjunctive treatment, either concurrently or sequentially, to destroy E. histolytica in the colon: Paromomycin 500 mg three times a day for 10 days Iodoquinol 650 mg three times a day for 20 days Doses for children are calculated by body weight and a pharmacist should be consulted for help. (wikipedia.org)