Liver Abscess, Amebic
Lung Diseases, Parasitic
Immunoglobulin A, Secretory
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Sensitivity and Specificity
Serum antibodies to Balamuthia mandrillaris, a free-living amoeba recently demonstrated to cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. (1/284)Free-living amoebae cause three well-defined disease entities: a rapidly fatal primary meningoencephalitis, a chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), and a chronic amoebic keratitis. GAE occurs in immunocompromised persons. Recently, another type of free-living amoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, has been shown to cause GAE. The finding that this amoeba has caused infection in some healthy children has raised the possibility that humans may lack immunity to B. mandrillaris. Human serum was examined for the presence of surface antibodies specific for this amoeba by immunofluorescence. Sera from adults contained titers of 1/64-1/256 of anti-B. mandrillaris antibodies (IgM and IgG classes), which did not cross-react with other amoebae. Cord blood contained very low antibody levels, but levels similar to those in adults were seen in serum of 1- to 5-year-old children. (+info)
Amoebiasis among institutionalized psychiatric patients in Taiwan. (2/284)Although information on amoebiasis among institutionalized psychiatric patients is available, reports on the relationship between behaviour and this infection are not abundant. From July 1995 to June 1996, stool and blood samples were collected from 565 patients in three psychiatric hospitals of North Taiwan. Stool samples were examined using the direct smear and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation techniques as well as ProSpecT Entamoeba histolytica Microplate Assay kit. Blood samples were examined by the Amebiasis Serology Microwell ELISA kit. Among these patients, 14 (2.5%) harboured one or two species of intestinal parasites. There were 6 (1.1%) E. histolytica/E. dispar cyst passers: 5 positive in stool ELISA test and 2 with antibodies against E. histolytica. Among demographic factors, type of psychiatric disorder and disability, only a significant sexual difference in seropositivity of E. histolytica was observed. These findings indicate that the infected patients acquired the infections before they entered the hospitals. (+info)
Pathogenicity of Korean isolates of Acanthamoeba by observing the experimental infection and zymodemes of five isoenzymes. (3/284)To determine the pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba spp. isolated in Korea and to develop a isoenzymatic maker, the mortality rate of infected mice, in vitro cytotoxicity against target cells and isoenzyme band patterns were observed. Five isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. (YM-2, YM-3, YM-4, YM-5, and YM-7) were used in this study as well as three reference Acanthamoeba spp. (A. culbertsoni, A. hatchetti, and A. royreba). According to the mortality rate of infected mice, Korean isolates could be categorized into three groups high virulent (YM-4), low virulent (YM-2, YM-5, YM-7) and the nonpathogenic group (YM-3). In addition, the virulence of Acanthamoeba spp. was enhanced by brain passage in mice. In the cytotoxicity assay against chinese hamster ovary cells, especially, the cytotoxicity of brain-passaged amoebae was relatively higher than the long-term cultivated ones. The zymodeme patterns of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), hexokinase (HK), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and malic enzyme (ME) of Acanthamoeba spp. were different among each isolate, and also between long-term cultured amoebae and brain passaged ones. In spite of the polymorphic zymodemes, a slow band of G6PD and HK, and an intermediate band of MDH were only observed in pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp., which should be used as isoenzymatic makers. (+info)
Case studies in international travelers. (4/284)Family physicians should be alert for unusual diseases in patients who are returning from foreign travel. Malaria is a potentially fatal disease that can be acquired by travelers to certain areas of the world, primarily developing nations. Transmitted through the bite of the Anopheles mosquito, malaria usually presents with fever and a vague systemic illness. The disease is diagnosed by demonstration of Plasmodium organisms on a specially prepared blood film. Travelers can also acquire amebic infections, which may cause dysentery or, in some instances, liver abscess. Amebiasis is diagnosed by finding Entamoeba histolytica cysts or trophozoites in the stool. Invasive amebic infections are generally treated with metronidazole followed by iodoquinol or paromomycin. Cutaneous larva migrans is acquired by skin contact with hookworm larvae in the soil. The infection is characterized by the development of itchy papules followed by serpiginous or linear streaks. Cutaneous larva migrans is treated with invermectin or albendazole. Case studies are presented. (+info)
Epizoic amoebae from the gills of turbot Scophthalmus maximus. (5/284)Species of amoebae belonging to the genera Platyamoeba Page, 1969, Vannella Bovee, 1965 and Flabellula Schaeffer, 1926 were found to accompany Paramoeba sp., the agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD), in clinically diseased turbots. The same community of epizoic gymnamoebae was found on the gills of turbots which revealed no gill abnormalities but slight behavioral signs indicative of suboptimal health status. The assemblage of the above-mentioned free-living amoebae capable of colonizing gill tissue of turbots was supplemented with species recognized in samples fixed from primary isolates for transmission electron microscopy. The pathogenic potential of epizoic gill amoebae in turbots is discussed. (+info)
Enteric parasites and AIDS. (6/284)OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiosis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review. (+info)
Apoptosis of primary-culture rat microglial cells induced by pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. (7/284)To determine whether trophozoites and lysates of pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. induce apoptosis in primary-culture microglial cells, transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examinations, assessment of DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis, and the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay were performed. When a trophozoite of pathogenic Acanthamoeba culbertsoni came in contact with a microglial cell, the digipodium was observed by TEM. Nuclear chromatin condensation was observed in 10% of microglial cells, while it was not revealed when they were cocultured with weakly pathogenic Acanthamoeba royreba trophozoites. DNA fragmentation in microglial cells cocultured with the A. culbertsoni lysate was detected by electrophoresis, showing DNA ladder formation, whereas it was hardly observed in microglial cells cocultured with A. royreba. DNA fragmentation of microglial cells was also confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. The fluorescence of TdT-stained apoptotic bodies became intensely visible with microglial cells cocultured with the A. culbertsoni lysate. In contrast, with microglial cells cocultured with the A. royreba lysate, only a background level of fluorescence of TdT-stained apoptotic bodies was detected. These results suggest that some rat microglial cells cocultured with pathogenic A. culbertsoni undergo cytopathic changes which show the characteristics of the apoptotic process, such as nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. (+info)
Isolation of Acanthamoeba-specific antibodies from a bacteriophage display library. (8/284)Acanthamoeba causes opportunistic eye infections in humans, which can lead to severe keratitis and may ultimately result in blindness. Current methods for identifying this organism rely on culture and microscopy. In this paper, we describe the isolation of antibody fragments that can be used for the unequivocal identification of Acanthamoeba. A bacteriophage antibody display library was used to isolate antibody fragments that bind specifically to Acanthamoeba. Individual clones were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. Four antibody clones that specifically bind to Acanthamoeba spp. were identified. (+info)
The most common symptoms of amebiasis are:
2. Abdominal pain
4. Blood in the stool
5. Rectal pain
6. Tenesmus (a feeling of needing to have a bowel movement even when the bowels are empty)
7. Weakness and fatigue
8. Loss of appetite
9. Nausea and vomiting
The infection is usually caused by ingesting food or water contaminated with feces, or by direct contact with someone who has the infection.
The disease is more common in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene, and can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as stool samples or blood tests.
Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications such as metronidazole or tinidazole, and supportive care to manage symptoms such as hydration, pain management, and nutritional support. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications such as perforation of the colon, peritonitis, or abscesses.
Prevention measures include proper hand washing, avoiding consumption of contaminated food or water, and good sanitation and hygiene practices. Vaccines are not available for amebiasis, but research is ongoing to develop one.
In severe cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or brain, and can cause life-threatening complications. The disease is typically spread through contaminated food or water, and can be diagnosed with a stool sample or blood test. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medication and supportive care to manage symptoms.
Prevention measures include proper hand washing, safe drinking water, and good sanitation practices. Dysentery, Amebic is a significant public health problem in developing countries where access to clean water and sanitation is limited.
Entamoebiasis is typically spread through the fecal-oral route, where the parasite is ingested from contaminated food or water. Risk factors for developing entamoebiasis include poor sanitation, lack of access to clean water, and poor hygiene practices.
The diagnosis of entamoebiasis typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests such as stool samples, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications such as metronidazole or tinidazole, which can effectively cure the infection.
Prevention measures for entamoebiasis include avoiding contaminated food and water, practicing good hygiene and sanitation, and avoiding close contact with individuals who are infected with the parasite. Vaccines are also being developed to prevent entamoebiasis, but they are not yet widely available.
Entamoebiasis is a significant public health problem in many developing countries, where it is a leading cause of gastrointestinal illness and death. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 50 million people worldwide are infected with Entamoeba histolytica each year, resulting in an estimated 4-8% mortality rate.
In summary, entamoebiasis is a serious gastrointestinal disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, which can lead to severe complications and death if left untreated. Prevention measures include avoiding contaminated food and water, practicing good hygiene and sanitation, and developing vaccines to prevent infection.
Prevention includes good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food. Vaccines are also available for people traveling to areas where the infection is common. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Some common types of lung diseases, parasitic include:
1. Aspergillosis: This is a fungal infection that can affect the lungs and other parts of the body. It is caused by the Aspergillus fungus and can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
2. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP): This is a type of pneumonia that is caused by the Pneumocystis jirovecii fungus and is more common in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or cancer.
3. Cryptococcosis: This is a fungal infection that can affect the lungs and central nervous system. It is caused by the Cryptococcus neoformans fungus and can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
4. Histoplasmosis: This is a fungal infection that can affect the lungs and other parts of the body. It is caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus and can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
5. Chagas disease: This is a parasitic infection that is caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite and can affect the heart and lungs, among other organs. It is more common in Latin America and can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
6. Leishmaniasis: This is a parasitic infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs. It is caused by the Leishmania parasite and can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
7. Strongyloidiasis: This is a parasitic infection that is caused by the Strongyloides stercoralis parasite and can affect the lungs and other parts of the body. It can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
8. Schistosomiasis: This is a parasitic infection that is caused by the Schistosoma parasite and can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs. It can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
9. Lymphatic filariasis: This is a parasitic infection that is caused by the Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi parasites and can affect the lymph nodes and other parts of the body, including the lungs. It can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
10. Tuberculosis: This is a bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs and can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and can be spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
It is important to note that these conditions are not mutually exclusive, and individuals may have more than one condition affecting their lungs at the same time. It is also important to note that other factors such as smoking, exposure to environmental pollutants, and underlying medical conditions can increase the risk of developing chronic lung disease.
A healthcare professional should be consulted for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of any suspected lung conditions.
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- Entamoeba histolytica infection in children and protection from subsequent amebiasis. (medscape.com)
- Abhyankar MM, Shrimal S, Gilchrist CA, Bhattacharya A, Petri WA Jr. The Entamoeba histolytica serum-inducible transmembrane kinase EhTMKB1-9 is involved in intestinal amebiasis. (medscape.com)
- Amebiasis is an intestinal (bowel) illness caused by a microscopic (tiny) parasite called Entamoeba histolytica , which is spread through human feces (poop). (ny.gov)
- Amoebiasis is an infectious disease caused by a one-celled parasite called Entamoeba histolytica, which causes both intestinal and extraintestinal infections. (quro.ai)
- Amoebiasis, also known amoebic dysentery, is an infection caused by any of the amobae of the Entamoeba group. (bhagwatiayurveda.com)
- These include protozoal infections: amoebiasis (Entamoeba spp. (who.int)
- A case of amebiasis was defined as laboratory -confirmed Entamoeba histolytica infection , regardless of presence of symptoms. (bvsalud.org)
- Amebic colitis, or invasive intestinal amebiasis, occurs when the mucosa is invaded. (cdc.gov)
- Background: Intestinal amebiasis with morphological lesions and clinical manifestations is uncommon in dogs. (ufrgs.br)
- Discussion: The diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis was based on clinical signs and by morphological characteristics on gross and microscopic examination, and was confirmed as E. histolytica by immunohistochemistry. (ufrgs.br)
- Occasionally, the parasite will spread to other organs (extraintestinal amebiasis), most commonly the liver. (cdc.gov)
- Additionally, serologic tests can help diagnose extraintestinal amebiasis. (cdc.gov)
- Aralen may also be prescribed to treat extraintestinal Amebiasis, an infection by the parasite entameba histolytica in tissues outside of the intestines. (northwestpharmacy.com)
- Some people with amebiasis may carry the parasite for weeks to years, often without symptoms, continually passing it in their feces. (ny.gov)
- What are the symptoms of amebiasis and when do they appear? (ny.gov)
- Amoebiasis can be present with no, mild, or severe symptoms. (bhagwatiayurveda.com)
- However, most people with amebiasis won't experience significant symptoms. (familyhealthcare.co.in)
- A 1994 analysis of Ramanujan's medical records and symptoms by Dr. D. A. B. Young concluded that it was much more likely he had hepatic amoebiasis, an illness then widespread in Madras, rather than tuberculosis. (imdb.com)
- The symptoms of Amebiasis include loose stool, abdominal cramping, and stomach pain. (northwestpharmacy.com)
- The majority of infections restricted to the lumen of the intestine ("luminal amebiasis") are asymptomatic. (cdc.gov)
- Parasitic infections of occupational origin are caused by protozoa, helminths, and arthropods and include malaria, amebiasis, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, and various less common blood and gastrointestinal infections. (cdc.gov)
- Amebiasis occurs mostly after travel to endemic areas, and stools usually contain blood or mucous. (medscape.com)
- A person gets amebiasis by putting anything in their mouth that has touched infected feces or by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the parasite. (ny.gov)
- Amoebiasis is usually transmitted by the fecal-oral route, but it can also be transmitted indirectly through contact with dirty hands or objects as well as by anal-oral contact. (bhagwatiayurveda.com)
- Invasive amebiasis. (medscape.com)
- This monograph encompasses a discussion of amebiasis not only from the standpoints of pathology, diagnosis and chemotherapy, as stated in the title, but from the aspects of epidemiology and pathogenesis as well. (ajtmh.org)
- Epidemiology of Domestically Acquired Amebiasis in Japan, 2000-2013. (bvsalud.org)
- Using immunohistochemistry with polyclonal anti-E. histolytica antibodies in the dilution of 1:1000, trophozoites were immunomarked, confirming the suspected amebiasis. (ufrgs.br)
- I am a 21 year old male suffering from chronic amebiasis for the past two to three years. (icliniq.com)
- Since amoebiasis is transmitted through contaminated food and water, it is often endemic in regions of the world with limited modern sanitation systems, including México, Central America, western South America, South Asia, and western and southern Africa. (bhagwatiayurveda.com)
- The mild form of amebiasis includes nausea (a feeling of sickness in the stomach), diarrhea (loose stool/poop), weight loss, stomach tenderness, and occasional fever. (ny.gov)
- Although people with diarrhea (loose stool/poop) due to amebiasis should not attend school or go to work, it is not necessary to exclude infected persons when they feel better and stools are normal. (ny.gov)
- Examination of stools (poop) under a microscope is the most common way for a doctor to diagnose amebiasis. (ny.gov)
- Amoebiasis was a treatable and often curable disease at the time. (imdb.com)
- Billet AC, Salmon Rousseau A, Piroth L, Martins C. An underestimated sexually transmitted infection: amoebiasis. (medscape.com)
- The development of the problem of differential diagnosis receives little attention, although there is a half-page discussion of the association of amebiasis and colonic malignancy. (ajtmh.org)
- Other medication for amebiasis are Nitroimidazole and Chloroquine . (icliniq.com)
- In the United States, amebiasis is most common among those who live in institutions or people who have traveled to an area where amebiasis is common. (medlineplus.gov)
- Amebiasis is common in tropical countries with underdeveloped sanitation. (familyhealthcare.co.in)
- The Merck Manual states that amebiasis is most common in the Indian subcontinent, parts of Central and South America, and parts of Africa. (familyhealthcare.co.in)
- What is the treatment for amebiasis? (ny.gov)
- Although the recent rise may have been due to enhanced detection by colonoscopy or reporting , the large number of asymptomatic cases, with reportedly unknown or heterosexual route of infection , has led to a better understanding of amebiasis in Japan and highlights the potential public health concern. (bvsalud.org)
- The majority of amebiasis cases occur in developing countries. (cdc.gov)
- Cases of Amebiasis must be reported to your local Medical Officer of Health under the Health Protection and Promotion Act. (bchu.org)
- Using national surveillance data during 2000-2013, reported cases of amebiasis were analyzed. (bvsalud.org)
- People with amebiasis should avoid sexual contact until the infection is treated and has cleared. (ny.gov)
- Does any blood test confirmed presence of amebiasis? (icliniq.com)
- Several antibiotics are available to treat amebiasis. (ny.gov)
- If infection is present along with amebiasis , then specific antibiotic needed according to the culture report. (icliniq.com)
- When not properly treated, dysentery can lie dormant for years and lead to hepatic amoebiasis. (imdb.com)
- Careful handwashing with soap and water after using the toilet or handling soiled diapers and proper disposal of sewage is the most important way to prevent amebiasis. (ny.gov)