Amdinocillin: An amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action.Amdinocillin Pivoxil: Pivaloyloxymethyl ester of amdinocillin that is well absorbed orally, but broken down to amdinocillin in the intestinal mucosa. It is active against gram-negative organisms and used as for amdinocillin.Sulfamethizole: A sulfathiazole antibacterial agent.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.BaltimorePenicillanic Acid: A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Ambroxol: A metabolite of BROMHEXINE that stimulates mucociliary action and clears the air passages in the respiratory tract. It is usually administered as the hydrochloride.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.BoliviaEcuadorBiotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Moraceae: The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.BrazilCaliforniaGenomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.BostonGlucosaminePolysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.PolysaccharidesQueensland: A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Diclofenac: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.PeptidoglycanBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.

tRNA synthetase mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 are resistant to the gyrase inhibitor novobiocin. (1/94)

In previous studies we demonstrated that mutations in the genes cysB, cysE, and cls (nov) affect resistance of Escherichia coli to novobiocin (J. Rakonjac, M. Milic, and D. J. Savic, Mol. Gen. Genet. 228:307-311, 1991; R. Ivanisevic, M. Milic, D. Ajdic, J. Rakonjac, and D. J. Savic, J. Bacteriol. 177:1766-1771, 1995). In this work we expand this list with mutations in rpoN (the gene for RNA polymerase subunit sigma54) and the tRNA synthetase genes alaS, argS, ileS, and leuS. Similarly to resistance to the penicillin antibiotic mecillinam, resistance to novobiocin of tRNA synthetase mutants appears to depend upon the RelA-mediated stringent response. However, at this point the overlapping pathways of mecillinam and novobiocin resistance diverge. Under conditions of stringent response induction, either by the presence of tRNA synthetase mutations or by constitutive production of RelA protein, inactivation of the cls gene diminishes resistance to novobiocin but not to mecillinam.  (+info)

A Canadian national surveillance study of urinary tract isolates from outpatients: comparison of the activities of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, and ciprofloxacin. The Canadian Urinary Isolate Study Group. (2/94)

Ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, and ciprofloxacin mean resistance rates for 2,000 urinary tract isolates collected from outpatients across Canada in 1998 were 41.1, 19.2, 14.7, 5.0, and 1.8%, respectively. For Escherichia coli isolates alone (n = 1,681) comparable rates were 41. 0, 18.9, 7.4, 0.1, and 1.2%, respectively. The majority of E. coli isolates resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or ciprofloxacin were susceptible (MIC, <16 microg/ml) to mecillinam.  (+info)

Selected amplification of the cell division genes ftsQ-ftsA-ftsZ in Escherichia coli. (3/94)

Rapidly growing Escherichia coli is unable to divide in the presence of the antibiotic mecillinam, whose direct target is penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2), responsible for the elongation of the cylindrical portion of the cell wall. Division can be restored in the absence of PBP2 activity by increasing the concentration of the cell division proteins FtsQ, FtsA, and FtsZ. We tried to identify regulators of the ftsQ-ftsA-ftsZ operon among mecillinam-resistant mutants, which include strains overexpressing these genes. By insertional mutagenesis with mini-Tn10 elements, we selected for insertions that conferred mecillinam resistance. Among 15 such mutants, 7 suppressed the thermosensitivity of the ftsZ84(Ts) mutant, strongly suggesting that they had increased FtsZ activity. In all 7 cases, however, the mutants resulted from a duplication of the ftsQAZ region. These duplications seemed to result from multiple events, suggesting that no simple insertional inactivation can result in a mutant with sufficiently amplified ftsQAZ expression to confer mecillinam resistance. The structure of the duplications suggests a general method for constructing directed duplications of precise sequences.  (+info)

Affinities of beta-lactams for penicillin binding proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis and their antichlamydial activities. (4/94)

Binding affinities of beta-lactam antibiotics for the three penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) from Chlamydia trachomatis were determined in vitro and compared with their antichlamydial activities. Mecillinam selectively inhibited PBP1, with a 50% inhibitory concentration for PBP1 binding (0.2 microg/ml) similar to the MIC (0.1 microg/ml) and minimum bactericidal concentration (0.25 microg/ml). Although the other beta-lactams inhibited a wider range of PBPs than mecillinam, their antichlamydial activities were inferior to that of mecillinam.  (+info)

Constitutive septal murein synthesis in Escherichia coli with impaired activity of the morphogenetic proteins RodA and penicillin-binding protein 2. (5/94)

The pattern of peptidoglycan (murein) segregation in cells of Escherichia coli with impaired activity of the morphogenetic proteins penicillin-binding protein 2 and RodA has been investigated by the D-cysteine-biotin immunolabeling technique (M. A. de Pedro, J. C. Quintela, J.-V. Holtje, and H. Schwarz, J. Bacteriol. 179:2823-2834, 1997). Inactivation of these proteins either by amdinocillin treatment or by mutations in the corresponding genes, pbpA and rodA, respectively, leads to the generation of round, osmotically stable cells. In normal rod-shaped cells, new murein precursors are incorporated all over the lateral wall in a diffuse manner, being mixed up homogeneously with preexisting material, except during septation, when strictly localized murein synthesis occurs. In contrast, in rounded cells, incorporation of new precursors is apparently a zonal process, localized at positions at which division had previously taken place. Consequently, there is no mixing of new and old murein. Old murein is preserved for long periods of time in large, well-defined areas. We propose that the observed patterns are the result of a failure to switch off septal murein synthesis at the end of septation events. Furthermore, the segregation results confirm that round cells of rodA mutants do divide in alternate, perpendicular planes as previously proposed (K. J. Begg and W. D. Donachie, J. Bacteriol. 180:2564-2567, 1998).  (+info)

Novel S-benzylisothiourea compound that induces spherical cells in Escherichia coli probably by acting on a rod-shape-determining protein(s) other than penicillin-binding protein 2. (6/94)

Random screening for inhibitors of chromosome partitioning in Escherichia coli was done by the anucleate cell blue assay. A novel S-benzylisothiourea derivative, S-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)isothiourea, tentatively named A22, was found to induce spherical cells and spherical anucleate cells in E. coli. Mecillinam, a specific inhibitor of penicillin-binding protein 2, which induces spherical cells in E. coli, also caused anucleate cell production. Spherical cells induced by treatment with either A22 or mecillinam varied in size, and anucleate cells seemed to be more frequent among the smaller cells. These results suggest that loss of the rod shape in E. coli leads to asymmetric cell division that results in production of anucleate cells. No competition was observed even in the presence of a 10-fold excess A22 in an in vitro assay of 14C-penicillin G binding, but mecillinam specifically inhibited binding of 14C-penicillin G to penicillin-binding protein 2. Simultaneous treatment with mecillinam and cephalexin, a specific inhibitor of penicillin-binding protein 3, induced lysis of E. coli cells, but a combination of A22 and cephalexin did not. These results suggest that the target molecule(s) of A22 was not penicillin-binding protein 2. A22 may act on a rod-shape-determining protein(s) other than penicillin-binding protein 2, such as RodA or MreB.  (+info)

Effects of sulfamethizole and amdinocillin against Escherichia coli strains (with various susceptibilities) in an ascending urinary tract infection mouse model. (7/94)

Resistance to antibiotics used for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is increasing worldwide. The impact of in vitro resistance on clinical outcome in UTIs requires further study, since most studies of both humans and animals have evaluated only the efficacy of antibiotics toward bacteria susceptible in vitro. We were interested in evaluating the relationship between the in vitro antibacterial effect and the in vivo efficacy after antibiotic treatment. We simulated a natural ascending UTI by use of the ascending UTI mouse model and used Escherichia coli strains with various susceptibilities to amdinocillin (mecillinam) and sulfamethizole. Mice were treated for 3 days with antibiotic doses approximating human urinary tract concentrations after a standard oral dose. For a susceptible strain (MIC, 0.5 micro g/ml) and a resistant strain (MIC, 128 micro g/ml), respectively, there were significant reductions in bacterial counts in the urine, bladder, and kidneys after treatment with amdinocillin, whereas for a strain for which the MIC was 16 micro g/ml, there was a significant reduction in bacterial counts in the kidneys only (P < 0.05). Treatment with sulfamethizole resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial counts in all samples from a susceptible strain (MIC, 128 micro g/ml) and a resistant strain (MIC, 512 micro g/ml). Infection with a sulII gene-positive strain (MIC, >2,048 micro g/ml) could not be treated with sulfamethizole, as no effect could be demonstrated in the urine, bladder, or kidneys. For amdinocillin, there was no clear-cut relationship between the in vitro susceptibility and the in vivo outcome, while for sulfamethizole, we found a relationship between the MIC for the strain and the effect in the urinary tract.  (+info)

The pharmacokinetics of mecillinam and pivmecillinam in pregnant and non-pregnant women. (8/94)

1. The pharmacokinetics of parenteral mecillinam (n = 27) and oral pivmecillinam (n = 12) were studied in pregnant (n = 27) and non-pregnant (n = 12) subjects. 2. In early pregnancy (9-14 weeks of gestation) the mean peak plasma drug concentration (Cmax = 19 +/- 9 micrograms ml-1) after an intravenous injection of 200 mg mecillinam was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) and the volume of distribution (V = 49 +/- 20.1) significantly larger (P less than 0.05) than in non-pregnant subjects (Cmax = 35 +/- 18 micrograms ml-1, V = 29 +/- 12.1). In late pregnancy (39-40 weeks of gestation) the plasma mean peak concentration (Cmax = (29 +/- 14 micrograms ml-1) after parenteral administration of 200 mg mecillinam was slightly lower and the volume of distribution (V = 65 +/- 29.1, V = 0.9 +/- 0.4 l kg-1) significantly larger than that in non-pregnant subjects (V = 0.4 +/- 0.3 l kg-1). Also after oral administration of 200 mg pivmecillinam, equimolar to 136.5 mg mecillinam, the mean peak plasma concentration in pregnant subjects (Cmax = 1.8 +/- 1.2 micrograms ml-1) was slightly lower than that in non-pregnant subjects (Cmax = 1.7 +/- 1.2 micrograms ml-1). 3. The mean half-life of elimination after parenteral administration of mecillinam was significantly longer during both early (t1/2,Z = 133 +/- 38 min, P less than 0.05) and late pregnancy (t1/2,Z = 107 +/- 41 min, P less than 0.05) as compared with the non-pregnant state (t1/2,Z = 75 +/- 21 min).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

  • Amdinocillin (mecillinam) is a β-lactam antibiotic that is used mainly for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. (
  • Amdinocillin (Mecillinam) is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide . (
  • The objectives of this study were to identify mutations that confer amdinocillin resistance on laboratory-isolated mutants and clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and to determine why amdinocillin resistance remains rare clinically even though resistance is easily selected in the laboratory. (
  • Furthermore, an affordable reimbursement scenario and proactive role adopted by the European Medical Agency (EMA) to evaluate the clinical trial investigation of amdinocillin prodrug in the treatment of pyelonephritis will accentuate the market growth in the region. (
  • Collaborative clinical laboratory study of a broth-disk test for determination of bacterial susceptibility to beta-lactams in combination with amdinocillin. (
  • The other treatment segment is anticipated to be the fastest-growing segment in the near future on account of promising clinical trial studies pertaining to the therapeutic efficacy and safety of amdinocillin in the treatment of pyelonephritis. (
  • Amdinocillin" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Furthermore, during digestion a period of daily doxorubicin for treatment, relatively low doses consist of the opioid antagonist amdinocillin were able were to disrupt operant performance, an effect indicative of precipitated a withdrawal. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Amdinocillin" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Amdinocillin" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • In in vitro and in vivo studies were used films to determine the interaction model of amdinocillin, an antiinflammatory agent, and sp1049c, a new hypocholesterolemic substance. (