An amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action.
Pivaloyloxymethyl ester of amdinocillin that is well absorbed orally, but broken down to amdinocillin in the intestinal mucosa. It is active against gram-negative organisms and used as for amdinocillin.
A sulfathiazole antibacterial agent.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).

tRNA synthetase mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 are resistant to the gyrase inhibitor novobiocin. (1/94)

In previous studies we demonstrated that mutations in the genes cysB, cysE, and cls (nov) affect resistance of Escherichia coli to novobiocin (J. Rakonjac, M. Milic, and D. J. Savic, Mol. Gen. Genet. 228:307-311, 1991; R. Ivanisevic, M. Milic, D. Ajdic, J. Rakonjac, and D. J. Savic, J. Bacteriol. 177:1766-1771, 1995). In this work we expand this list with mutations in rpoN (the gene for RNA polymerase subunit sigma54) and the tRNA synthetase genes alaS, argS, ileS, and leuS. Similarly to resistance to the penicillin antibiotic mecillinam, resistance to novobiocin of tRNA synthetase mutants appears to depend upon the RelA-mediated stringent response. However, at this point the overlapping pathways of mecillinam and novobiocin resistance diverge. Under conditions of stringent response induction, either by the presence of tRNA synthetase mutations or by constitutive production of RelA protein, inactivation of the cls gene diminishes resistance to novobiocin but not to mecillinam.  (+info)

A Canadian national surveillance study of urinary tract isolates from outpatients: comparison of the activities of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, and ciprofloxacin. The Canadian Urinary Isolate Study Group. (2/94)

Ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, and ciprofloxacin mean resistance rates for 2,000 urinary tract isolates collected from outpatients across Canada in 1998 were 41.1, 19.2, 14.7, 5.0, and 1.8%, respectively. For Escherichia coli isolates alone (n = 1,681) comparable rates were 41. 0, 18.9, 7.4, 0.1, and 1.2%, respectively. The majority of E. coli isolates resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or ciprofloxacin were susceptible (MIC, <16 microg/ml) to mecillinam.  (+info)

Selected amplification of the cell division genes ftsQ-ftsA-ftsZ in Escherichia coli. (3/94)

Rapidly growing Escherichia coli is unable to divide in the presence of the antibiotic mecillinam, whose direct target is penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2), responsible for the elongation of the cylindrical portion of the cell wall. Division can be restored in the absence of PBP2 activity by increasing the concentration of the cell division proteins FtsQ, FtsA, and FtsZ. We tried to identify regulators of the ftsQ-ftsA-ftsZ operon among mecillinam-resistant mutants, which include strains overexpressing these genes. By insertional mutagenesis with mini-Tn10 elements, we selected for insertions that conferred mecillinam resistance. Among 15 such mutants, 7 suppressed the thermosensitivity of the ftsZ84(Ts) mutant, strongly suggesting that they had increased FtsZ activity. In all 7 cases, however, the mutants resulted from a duplication of the ftsQAZ region. These duplications seemed to result from multiple events, suggesting that no simple insertional inactivation can result in a mutant with sufficiently amplified ftsQAZ expression to confer mecillinam resistance. The structure of the duplications suggests a general method for constructing directed duplications of precise sequences.  (+info)

Affinities of beta-lactams for penicillin binding proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis and their antichlamydial activities. (4/94)

Binding affinities of beta-lactam antibiotics for the three penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) from Chlamydia trachomatis were determined in vitro and compared with their antichlamydial activities. Mecillinam selectively inhibited PBP1, with a 50% inhibitory concentration for PBP1 binding (0.2 microg/ml) similar to the MIC (0.1 microg/ml) and minimum bactericidal concentration (0.25 microg/ml). Although the other beta-lactams inhibited a wider range of PBPs than mecillinam, their antichlamydial activities were inferior to that of mecillinam.  (+info)

Constitutive septal murein synthesis in Escherichia coli with impaired activity of the morphogenetic proteins RodA and penicillin-binding protein 2. (5/94)

The pattern of peptidoglycan (murein) segregation in cells of Escherichia coli with impaired activity of the morphogenetic proteins penicillin-binding protein 2 and RodA has been investigated by the D-cysteine-biotin immunolabeling technique (M. A. de Pedro, J. C. Quintela, J.-V. Holtje, and H. Schwarz, J. Bacteriol. 179:2823-2834, 1997). Inactivation of these proteins either by amdinocillin treatment or by mutations in the corresponding genes, pbpA and rodA, respectively, leads to the generation of round, osmotically stable cells. In normal rod-shaped cells, new murein precursors are incorporated all over the lateral wall in a diffuse manner, being mixed up homogeneously with preexisting material, except during septation, when strictly localized murein synthesis occurs. In contrast, in rounded cells, incorporation of new precursors is apparently a zonal process, localized at positions at which division had previously taken place. Consequently, there is no mixing of new and old murein. Old murein is preserved for long periods of time in large, well-defined areas. We propose that the observed patterns are the result of a failure to switch off septal murein synthesis at the end of septation events. Furthermore, the segregation results confirm that round cells of rodA mutants do divide in alternate, perpendicular planes as previously proposed (K. J. Begg and W. D. Donachie, J. Bacteriol. 180:2564-2567, 1998).  (+info)

Novel S-benzylisothiourea compound that induces spherical cells in Escherichia coli probably by acting on a rod-shape-determining protein(s) other than penicillin-binding protein 2. (6/94)

Random screening for inhibitors of chromosome partitioning in Escherichia coli was done by the anucleate cell blue assay. A novel S-benzylisothiourea derivative, S-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)isothiourea, tentatively named A22, was found to induce spherical cells and spherical anucleate cells in E. coli. Mecillinam, a specific inhibitor of penicillin-binding protein 2, which induces spherical cells in E. coli, also caused anucleate cell production. Spherical cells induced by treatment with either A22 or mecillinam varied in size, and anucleate cells seemed to be more frequent among the smaller cells. These results suggest that loss of the rod shape in E. coli leads to asymmetric cell division that results in production of anucleate cells. No competition was observed even in the presence of a 10-fold excess A22 in an in vitro assay of 14C-penicillin G binding, but mecillinam specifically inhibited binding of 14C-penicillin G to penicillin-binding protein 2. Simultaneous treatment with mecillinam and cephalexin, a specific inhibitor of penicillin-binding protein 3, induced lysis of E. coli cells, but a combination of A22 and cephalexin did not. These results suggest that the target molecule(s) of A22 was not penicillin-binding protein 2. A22 may act on a rod-shape-determining protein(s) other than penicillin-binding protein 2, such as RodA or MreB.  (+info)

Effects of sulfamethizole and amdinocillin against Escherichia coli strains (with various susceptibilities) in an ascending urinary tract infection mouse model. (7/94)

Resistance to antibiotics used for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is increasing worldwide. The impact of in vitro resistance on clinical outcome in UTIs requires further study, since most studies of both humans and animals have evaluated only the efficacy of antibiotics toward bacteria susceptible in vitro. We were interested in evaluating the relationship between the in vitro antibacterial effect and the in vivo efficacy after antibiotic treatment. We simulated a natural ascending UTI by use of the ascending UTI mouse model and used Escherichia coli strains with various susceptibilities to amdinocillin (mecillinam) and sulfamethizole. Mice were treated for 3 days with antibiotic doses approximating human urinary tract concentrations after a standard oral dose. For a susceptible strain (MIC, 0.5 micro g/ml) and a resistant strain (MIC, 128 micro g/ml), respectively, there were significant reductions in bacterial counts in the urine, bladder, and kidneys after treatment with amdinocillin, whereas for a strain for which the MIC was 16 micro g/ml, there was a significant reduction in bacterial counts in the kidneys only (P < 0.05). Treatment with sulfamethizole resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial counts in all samples from a susceptible strain (MIC, 128 micro g/ml) and a resistant strain (MIC, 512 micro g/ml). Infection with a sulII gene-positive strain (MIC, >2,048 micro g/ml) could not be treated with sulfamethizole, as no effect could be demonstrated in the urine, bladder, or kidneys. For amdinocillin, there was no clear-cut relationship between the in vitro susceptibility and the in vivo outcome, while for sulfamethizole, we found a relationship between the MIC for the strain and the effect in the urinary tract.  (+info)

The pharmacokinetics of mecillinam and pivmecillinam in pregnant and non-pregnant women. (8/94)

1. The pharmacokinetics of parenteral mecillinam (n = 27) and oral pivmecillinam (n = 12) were studied in pregnant (n = 27) and non-pregnant (n = 12) subjects. 2. In early pregnancy (9-14 weeks of gestation) the mean peak plasma drug concentration (Cmax = 19 +/- 9 micrograms ml-1) after an intravenous injection of 200 mg mecillinam was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) and the volume of distribution (V = 49 +/- 20.1) significantly larger (P less than 0.05) than in non-pregnant subjects (Cmax = 35 +/- 18 micrograms ml-1, V = 29 +/- 12.1). In late pregnancy (39-40 weeks of gestation) the plasma mean peak concentration (Cmax = (29 +/- 14 micrograms ml-1) after parenteral administration of 200 mg mecillinam was slightly lower and the volume of distribution (V = 65 +/- 29.1, V = 0.9 +/- 0.4 l kg-1) significantly larger than that in non-pregnant subjects (V = 0.4 +/- 0.3 l kg-1). Also after oral administration of 200 mg pivmecillinam, equimolar to 136.5 mg mecillinam, the mean peak plasma concentration in pregnant subjects (Cmax = 1.8 +/- 1.2 micrograms ml-1) was slightly lower than that in non-pregnant subjects (Cmax = 1.7 +/- 1.2 micrograms ml-1). 3. The mean half-life of elimination after parenteral administration of mecillinam was significantly longer during both early (t1/2,Z = 133 +/- 38 min, P less than 0.05) and late pregnancy (t1/2,Z = 107 +/- 41 min, P less than 0.05) as compared with the non-pregnant state (t1/2,Z = 75 +/- 21 min).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Amdinocillin." It is possible that there might be a misunderstanding or a spelling mistake in the term. There is no antibiotic or pharmaceutical drug known as Amdinocillin in medical literature, according to my knowledge up to 2021. If you have any more information or context regarding this term, I would be happy to help further.

Amoxicillin pivoxil is not a commonly used medical term, but I believe you are referring to Amoxicillin, which is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections. Pivoxil is a form of esterification that is used to improve the absorption and bioavailability of Amoxicillin when administered orally.

Amoxicillin pivoxil is a prodrug, which means it is converted into its active form (Amoxicillin) in the body after ingestion. The pivoxil ester is rapidly hydrolyzed in the intestinal mucosa and liver to release Amoxicillin, making it easier to absorb and more effective at treating bacterial infections.

The medical definition of Amoxicillin is:

A semi-synthetic antibiotic derived from Penicillin, used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and dental infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial death. Amoxicillin is available in various formulations, including tablets, capsules, chewable tablets, and oral suspensions.

Therefore, Amoxicillin pivoxil can be considered a specific formulation of Amoxicillin that has been modified to improve its absorption and bioavailability.

Sulfamethizole is an antibacterial drug, specifically a sulfonamide. It is defined as a synthetic antibacterial agent that is chemically related to sulfanilamide and is used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Sulfamethizole works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria through interfering with the synthesis of bacterial folic acid.

Here's a brief medical definition:

Sulfamethizole (sul-fa-meth-i-zole): A synthetic antibacterial agent, chemically related to sulfanilamide, used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria. It functions as a folic acid antagonist, preventing bacterial growth by interfering with the synthesis of bacterial folic acid.

Please note that this definition is intended to be concise and informative for educational purposes. For more detailed information or medical advice, consult a healthcare professional.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

... (INN) or amdinocillin (USAN) is an extended-spectrum penicillin antibiotic of the amidinopenicillin class that binds ... Neu HC (1985). "Amdinocillin: a novel penicillin. Antibacterial activity, pharmacology and clinical use". Pharmacotherapy. 5 (1 ... Pham P, Bartlett JG (August 28, 2008). "Amdinocillin (Mecillinam)". Point-of-Care Information Technology ABX Guide. Johns ...
The therapeutic efficacy of mecillinam (amdinocillin), amoxicillin, and ampicillin can be decreased when used in combination ...
Kerrn MB, Frimodt-Møller N, Espersen F (March 2003). "Effects of sulfamethizole and amdinocillin against Escherichia coli ...
... (INN) or amdinocillin pivoxil (USAN, trade names Selexid, Penomax and Coactabs) is an orally active prodrug of ...
... amdinocillin MeSH D03.438.260.825.124.036 - amdinocillin pivoxil MeSH D03.438.260.825.249 - cyclacillin MeSH D03.438.260.825. ... amdinocillin MeSH D03.605.084.737.124.036 - amdinocillin pivoxil MeSH D03.605.084.737.249 - cyclacillin MeSH D03.605.084.737. ...
... amdinocillin MeSH D02.065.589.099.750.124.036 - amdinocillin pivoxil MeSH D02.065.589.099.750.249 - cyclacillin MeSH D02.065. ...
Explore the 1 paper that mention a possible interaction between Amdinocillin and Leucine. ...
Mecillinam (INN) or amdinocillin (USAN) is an extended-spectrum penicillin antibiotic of the amidinopenicillin class that binds ... Neu HC (1985). "Amdinocillin: a novel penicillin. Antibacterial activity, pharmacology and clinical use". Pharmacotherapy. 5 (1 ... Pham P, Bartlett JG (August 28, 2008). "Amdinocillin (Mecillinam)". Point-of-Care Information Technology ABX Guide. Johns ...
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AMDINOCILLIN 50180 AMIKACIN 50182 AMILORIDE 50183 AMINACRINE 50185 AMINO ACIDS 50190 AMINOACETIC ACID 50195 AMINOBENZOIC ACID ...
Amdinocillin Susc Islt Code System Concept Status. Published. Code System Preferred Concept Name. Amdinocillin [Susceptibility] ...
Amdinocillin D2.886.675.966.500.750.124 D2.886.108.750.124. D4.75.80.875.99.221.750.124. Amdinocillin Pivoxil D2.886.675.966. ...
Amdinocillin D2.886.675.966.500.750.124 D2.886.108.750.124. D4.75.80.875.99.221.750.124. Amdinocillin Pivoxil D2.886.675.966. ...
BACKGROUND: Mecillinam (amdinocillin) is active against Gram-negative bacteria. Clinical data on the efficacy of IV mecillinam ...
In this concept cloud, the sizes of the concepts are based not only on the number of corresponding publications, but also how relevant the concepts are to the overall topics of the publications, how long ago the publications were written, whether the person was the first or senior author, and how many other people have written about the same topic. The largest concepts are those that are most unique to this person ...
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Mecillinam(Amdinocillin or amidinocillin). *Streptozotocin(STZ or NSC-85998 or Streptozocin or U 9889 and Zanosar) ...
Limited information indicates that amdinocillin produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in ... Amdinocillin (pivmecillinam; the pivaloyl ester of mecillinam) is not commercially available in the United States, but is ... Amdinocillin No authors listed In: Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of ... Amdinocillin (pivmecillinam; the pivaloyl ester of mecillinam) is not commercially available in the United States, but is ...
Limited information indicates that amdinocillin produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in ... Amdinocillin (pivmecillinam; the pivaloyl ester of mecillinam) is not commercially available in the United States, but is ... Amdinocillin - Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®). Amdinocillin - Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®). ... Maternal Levels. Four women who were 4 or 6 days postpartum were given a single 100 mg dose of amdinocillin. The drug was not ...
Amdinocillin D2.886.675.966.500.750.124 D2.886.108.750.124. D4.75.80.875.99.221.750.124. Amdinocillin Pivoxil D2.886.675.966. ...
Amdinocillin,create,30-MAR-07,(null),(null) C65230,Amlodipine_Maleate,create,30-MAR-07,(null),(null) C65231,Amodiaquine,create, ...
The fluoroquinolones and pivmecillinam (amdinocillin pivoxil), although effective against Sd1 infection, are costly and usually ...
Amdinocillin Current Synonym true false 159104011 Amdinocillin Current Synonym true false 159105012 Mecillinam Current Synonym ...
Amdinocillin Preferred Term Term UI T001722. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ... Amdinocillin Preferred Concept UI. M0000876. Registry Number. V10579P3QZ. Related Numbers. 32887-01-7. Scope Note. An ... Amdinocillin. Tree Number(s). D02.065.589.099.750.124. D02.886.108.750.124. D03.633.100.300.750.124. Unique ID. D000560. RDF ... use AMDINOCILLIN to search MECILLINAM 1978-84. History Note. 85; was MECILLINAM see under PENICILLANIC ACIDS 1978-84. Date ...
Amdinocillin Preferred Term Term UI T001722. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ... Amdinocillin Preferred Concept UI. M0000876. Registry Number. V10579P3QZ. Related Numbers. 32887-01-7. Scope Note. An ... Amdinocillin. Tree Number(s). D02.065.589.099.750.124. D02.886.108.750.124. D03.633.100.300.750.124. Unique ID. D000560. RDF ... use AMDINOCILLIN to search MECILLINAM 1978-84. History Note. 85; was MECILLINAM see under PENICILLANIC ACIDS 1978-84. Date ...
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Amdinocillin D2.886.675.966.500.750.124 D2.886.108.750.124. D4.75.80.875.99.221.750.124. Amdinocillin Pivoxil D2.886.675.966. ...
D5.750.78.840.109 Amdinocillin D2.886.675.966.500.750.124 D2.886.108.750.124 D4.75.80.875.99.221.750.124 Amdinocillin Pivoxil ...
... amdinocillin bound this PBP at higher concentrations (1.33 to 2.94 mg/L). Penicillins specifically targeted PBP2 in strain ATCC ...
Amdinocillin. ©2016 DrugLead US FDA&EMEA. ...
Mecillinam(Amdinocillin or amidinocillin). *Streptozotocin(STZ or NSC-85998 or Streptozocin or U 9889 and Zanosar) ...
... incontinence Amdinocillin Pivoxil,Amdinocillin Pivoxil Amdinocillin pivoxil,Amdinocillin pivoxil Amebic skin ulceration,Amebic ...
... incontinence Amdinocillin Pivoxil,Amdinocillin Pivoxil Amdinocillin pivoxil,Amdinocillin pivoxil Amebic skin ulceration,Amebic ...

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