Liquidambar: A plant genus of the family HAMAMELIDACEAE. The sap is a source of storax, which should not be confused with the similar named STYRAX genus.Acer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.Magnolia: A plant genus of the family MAGNOLIACEAE. The germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones costunolide, parthenolide, and costunolide diepoxide have been isolated from the leaves. Bark contains honokiol and magnolol. Parts are an ingredient of Banxia Houpo Tang.Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.Fraxinus: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.Nyssa: A plant genus of the family NYSSACEAE (or Cornaceae by some).Styrax: A plant genus of the family STYRACACEAE. Sap of these Asian trees are a source of a balsam (BALSAMS). This styrax balsam is 3/4 coniferyl benzoate, 1/8 free BENZOIC ACID, along with benzyl cinnamate, vanillin, and TRITERPENES.Cyprus: An island republic in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Its capital is Nicosia. It was colonized by the Phoenicians and ancient Greeks and ruled successively by the Assyrian, Persian, Ptolemaic, Roman, and Byzantine Empires. It was under various countries from the 12th to the 20th century but became independent in 1960. The name comes from the Greek Kupros, probably representing the Sumerian kabar or gabar, copper, famous in historic times for its copper mines. The cypress tree is also named after the island. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p308 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p134)Taxodium: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE. Members contain taxodione and taxodone, which are diterpenoid quinone methide tumor inhibitors.Clethraceae: A plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Rodent Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous rodents through chemical, biological, or other means.NevadaTigers: The species Panthera tigris, a large feline inhabiting Asia. Several subspecies exist including the Siberian tiger and Sumatran tiger.Halorubrum: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoorganotrophic and strictly aerobic. They have been isolated from multiple hypersaline environments that vary widely in chemical and physical properties.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Ambystoma mexicanum: A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Off-Road Motor Vehicles: Motorized, recreational vehicles used on non-public roads. They include all-terrain vehicles, dirt-bikes, minibikes, motorbikes, trailbikes, and snowmobiles. Excludes MOTORCYCLES, which are considered public road vehicles.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Tongue DiseasesJaw DiseasesGene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)BooksComputer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Rorippa: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that includes several marshy plants. The common name of watercress is also used for NASTURTIUM & TROPAEOLUM.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Book SelectionBook Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Triturus: A genus of aquatic newts in the Salamandridae family. During breeding season many Triturus males have a dorsal crest which also serves as an accessory respiratory organ. One of the common Triturus species is Triturus cristatus (crested newt).MuseumsReptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.MichiganContingent Negative Variation: A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.Catalogs, LibraryCatalogs as Topic: Ordered compilations of item descriptions and sufficient information to afford access to them.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.FloridaInformation Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Cola: A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.PhilippinesCurcuma: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE that contains CURCUMIN and curcuminoids.DibenzothiazepinesMedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)

Relative contributions of bipolar cell and amacrine cell inputs to light responses of ON, OFF and ON-OFF retinal ganglion cells. (1/6)

Light-evoked postsynaptic currents (lePSCs) were recorded from ON, OFF and ON-OFF ganglion cells in dark-adapted salamander retinal slices under voltage clamp conditions, and the cell morphology was examined using Lucifer yellow fluorescence with confocal microscopy. The current-voltage relations of the lePSCs in all three types of ganglion cells are approximately linear within the cells' physiological range. The average chloride/cation conductance ratio (Deltag(Cl)(NR)/Deltag(C)(NR)) of the lePSCs is near 3, suggesting that ganglion cell light responses are associated with a greater postsynaptic conductance change at the amacrine-ganglion cell inhibitory synapses than at the bipolar-ganglion cell excitatory synapses. By comparing the charge transfer of lePSCs in normal Ringer's and in picrotoxin+strychnine+Imidazole-4-acidic acid, we found that the GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine-bipolar cell feedback synapses decreased the light-induced glutamatergic vesicle release from bipolar cells to all ganglion cells, and the degree of release reduction varied widely from ganglion cell to ganglion cell, with a range of 3-28 fold.  (+info)

The chromaffin cells of urodele amphibians. (2/6)

Different conditions in the arrangement of the adrenal gland are observed in urodeles. The gland consists of islets scattered on the ventral surface of the kidneys, the amount, size and position of the islets varying consistently within different families and even within genera. The infraordinal variation also extends to the fine structure of the gland, as observed in 14 species belonging to 6 different families. The ultrastructural characteristics of chromaffin cells and their relationships with interrenal cells appear to be related to the phyletic position. In primitive urodeles (Sirenidae, Proteidae) the chromaffin cells are isolated or in small groups, mostly separated from interrenal cells and often in contact with renal cells. In neourodeles (Amphiumidae, Ambystomidae, Salamandridae, Plethodontidae) the chromaffin cells appear generally grouped and intermingled with steroidogenic cells. Some cytological characteristics of chromaffin cells, such as nerve supply and the shape and electron density of chromaffin granules exhibit a variability related to phyletic position.  (+info)

The transplantation of eyes to genetically eyeless salamanders: visual projections and somatosensory interactions. (3/6)

Eyes were transplanted from normal axolotls to eyeless mutants, and several anatomical and physiological observations were made on the central visual centers in these animals. Some central projections were bilateral to the optic centers of the thalamus and midbrain, some traveled ipsilaterally to the same centers, and the rest grew down the spinal cord. This is similar to what has been found in eyes transplanted to normal hosts. The type of projection made in eyeless hosts correlated with the site of nerve entry into the CNS as in control hosts. Thus, the transplanted projection did not appear to be influenced by the host's optic nerves and tracts or lack of them. In spite of the transplanted optic fibers' taking abnormal paths, they made normally organized topographic maps on the host tecta. The visual and somatosensory topographic projections to the tectum were found to be in near perfect register normally, but in eyeless mutants to which rotated eyes had been transplanted, they were not. Acetylcholinesterase activity, found in the primary optic neuropil in normal animals, was greatly diminished in eyeless mutants, yet normal mutants with grafted eyes. Finally, transplantation of an eye to an eyeless mutant corrected the abnormally dark pigmentation caused by eyelessness but only in those cases of bilateral central innervation.  (+info)

Pigment patterns of larval salamanders (Ambystomatidae, Salamandridae): the role of the lateral line sensory system and the evolution of pattern-forming mechanisms. (4/6)

In many species of salamanders, pigment cells derived from the neural crest give rise to a horizontal stripe pattern in hatchling larvae. A defining element of these horizontal stripe patterns is a region over the middle of the myotomes that is relatively free of melanophores. This study shows that formation of a "melanophore-free region" and horizontal stripe pattern in Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum (family Ambystomatidae) correlates with the development of the trunk lateral line sensory system. Moreover, prevention of lateral line development results in greater densities of melanophores in the middle of the flank, essentially eliminating the melanophore-free region in this taxon. A phylogenetic survey also revealed that ablation of the lateral lines has qualitatively similar effects on melanophores in seven of eight additional taxa (Ambystomatidae: A. barbouri, A. maculatum, A. talpoideum; Salamandridae: Notophthalmus viridescens, Pleurodeles waltl, Taricha granulosa, T. rivularis). In Taricha torosa, however, a superficially similar melanophore-free region forms prior to lateral line development, and ablation of the lateral lines does not perturb the horizontal stripe pattern. Finally, heterospecific grafting experiments demonstrated that T. torosa lateral lines are competent to generate a melanophore-free region, and T. torosa melanophores are competent to respond to cues associated with the lateral lines. These results indicate that lateral line-dependent pattern-forming mechanisms are common and probably ancestral within the families Ambystomatidae and Salamandridae and suggest that these ancestral mechanisms have been retained in T. torosa as redundant, lateral line-dependent mechanisms for stripe formation have evolved.  (+info)

Large, rapidly evolving intergenic spacers in the mitochondrial DNA of the salamander family Ambystomatidae (Amphibia: Caudata). (5/6)

We report the presence, in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of all of the sexual species of the salamander family Ambystomatidae, of a shared 240-bp intergenic spacer between tRNAThr and tRNAPro. We place the intergenic spacer in context by presenting the sequence of 1,746 bp of mtDNA from Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum, describe the nucleotide composition of the intergenic spacer in all of the species of Ambystomatidae, and compare it to other coding and noncoding regions of Ambystoma and several other vertebrate mtDNAs. The nucleotide substitution rate of the intergenic spacer is approximately three times faster than the substitution rate of the control region, as shown by comparisons among six Ambystoma macrodactylum sequences and eight members of the Ambystoma tigrinum complex. We also found additional inserts within the intergenic spacers of five species that varied from 87-444 bp in length. The presence of the intergenic spacer in all sexual species of Ambystomatidae suggests that it arose at least 20 MYA and has been a stable component of the ambystomatid mtDNA ever since. As such, it represents one of the few examples of a large and persistent intergenic spacer in the mtDNA of any vertebrate clade.  (+info)

Intraspecific heterochrony and life history evolution: decoupling somatic and sexual development in a facultatively paedomorphic salamander. (6/6)

Morphological features such as size and shape are the most common focus in studies of heterochronic change. Frequently, these easily observed and measured features are treated as a major target of selection, potentially ignoring traits more closely related to fitness. We question the primacy of morphological data in studies of heterochrony, and instead suggest that principal sources of fitness, such as life history characteristics, are not only the chief targets of selection, but changes in them may necessitate changes in other (subordinate) elements of the organism. We use an experimental approach to investigate the timing of metamorphosis and maturation in a facultatively paedomorphic salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum. We determine that individuals possessing the well-known paedomorphic phenotype are peramorphic with regard to maturation, through the process of predisplacement (an earlier onset of maturation). Combining the well studied ecology of dimorphic A. talpoideum populations with theories of heterochronic mechanisms and life history evolution, we conclude that age at maturation is the principal target of selection and that morphological changes are secondary effects. Increased attention to the intimate connection between life history evolution and heterochrony is the most promising route to a better understanding of both.  (+info)

*Long-toed salamander

A. macrodactylum is a member of the Ambystomatidae, also known as the mole salamanders. The Ambystomatidae originated ... Ambystomatidae was isolated to the southeast of the mid-Continental or Western Interior Seaway during the Cretaceous (~145.5-66 ... Larson A (1996). "Ambystomatidae". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2010-01-14. Stebbins RA (2003). A Field Guide to Western ... The Ambystomatidae are also members of suborder Salamandroidea, which includes all the salamanders capable of internal ...

*David M. Sever

Ambystomatidae and Dicamptodontidae. J. Morphol. 212:305-322. Sever, D. M. 1983b. Eurycea junaluska. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. ...

*Mole salamander

Data related to Ambystomatidae at Wikispecies Media related to Ambystomatidae at Wikimedia Commons Tree of Life: Ambystomatidae ... In 2006, a large study of amphibian systematics placed Dicamptodon back within Ambystomatidae, based on cladistic analysis. ... Rhyacosiredon was previously considered a separate genus within the family Ambystomatidae. However, cladistic analysis of the ... the only genus in the family Ambystomatidae. The group has become famous due to the presence of the axolotl (A. mexicanum), ...

*Ambystoma rivulare

... is a species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family. It is endemic to Mexico. Its natural habitats ...

*Pacific giant salamander

Except for their size, they are similar to the mole salamander family (Ambystomatidae), in which they were originally included ... Ambystomatidae)" (PDF). Miscellaneous Publications Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, No. 149. Retrieved 2011-09-29. ...

*California giant salamander

Ambystomatidae)" (PDF). Miscellaneous Publications Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, No. 149. Retrieved 2011-09-29. ...

*Puerto Hondo stream salamander

Ambystomatidae). The Southwestern Naturalist, 28(1), 100-102. cited at [1] Anderson, J. D. (1975). Ambystoma ordinarium. ...

*List of amphibians and reptiles of Oregon

... is a mole salamander in the family Ambystomatidae. This species, typically 4.1-8.9 cm (1 3/5-3½ in) long when mature, is ...

*Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Rainier National Park

Family: Mole Salamanders Ambystomatidae Northwestern Salamander (Ambystoma gracile) inhabits the northwest Pacific coast of ...

*List of amphibians and reptiles of Olympic National Park

The Long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum, Baird 1849) is a mole salamander in the family Ambystomatidae. This species ...

*Granular salamander

The granular salamander or ajolote (Ambystoma granulosum) is a species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family. It is ...

*Reticulated flatwoods salamander

... an amphibian in the family Ambystomatidae. The species is native to a small portion of the southeastern coastal plain of the ...

*Spotted salamander

Ambystomatidae)". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 100A (3): 653-660. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(91)90385-P. Ruth, Benjamin ...

*Stanley E. Trauth

Ambystomatidae), from Northern Louisiana". Journal of Parasitology. 94 (3): 727-730. doi:10.1645/GE-1414.1. Chadron State ...

*Leora's stream salamander

The Leora's stream salamander or Ajolote (Ambystoma leorae) is a rare species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family. ...

*Tarahumara salamander

The Tarahumara salamander (Ambystoma rosaceum) is a freshwater species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family, endemic ...

*Plateau tiger salamander

... is a species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family. It is endemic to Mexico, although its range might extend to the ...

*Obligation

... whereas species belonging to the Ambystomatidae are facultative paedomorphs. In the Catholic Church, Holy Days of Obligation or ...

*Heterochrony

Ambystomatidae) and Notophthalmus viridescens (Salamandridae): The ecological morphology of two neotenic strategies". Journal ...

*Torrent salamander

Originally the genus Rhyacotriton was placed in the family Ambystomatidae, later in the family Dicamptodontidae, and finally in ...

*List of threatened reptiles and amphibians of the United States

EN IUCN Family Ambystomatidae (mole salamanders) Reticulated flatwoods salamander (Ambystoma bishopi) VU IUCN California tiger ...

*List of MeSH codes (B01)

... ambystomatidae MeSH B01.150.900.090.608.080.068 --- ambystoma MeSH B01.150.900.090.608.080.068.525 --- ambystoma mexicanum MeSH ...

*List of amphibians of Texas

Family Ambystomatidae (Mole Salamanders) Genus Ambystoma Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander) Ambystoma mavortium (Barred ...

*List of amphibians

Family Ambystomatidae - Mole salamanders, 37 species. The genus Dicamptodon (4 species) is considered a distinct family, ... Ascaphidae From Ambystomatidae: Dicamptodontidae From Caeciliidae: Scolecomorphidae, Typhlonectidae From Ichthyophiidae: ...

*Salamander

In the families Ambystomatidae and Salamandridae, the male's tail, which is larger than that of the female, is used during the ...
Las salamandras topo (Ambystomatidae) son un clado de anfibios caudados compuesto por 37 especies endémicas de México y Estados Unidos. El grupo estuvo un tiempo conformado sólo por el género Ambystoma, tras haber incluido a los géneros Dicamptodon y Rhyacotriton, los cuales a su vez pasaron a formar grupos monotípicos. Sin embargo, Frost et al (2006) reubicó a Dicamptodon en Ambystomatidae, siendo este cambio posteriormente aceptado por el Centro de Herpetología de Norteamérica.[1]​ Actualmente, hay una controversia sobre esta reubicación.[2]​ Cladograma basado en Good (1989).[3]​ También se conoce el género extinto: Sanchizia[2]​ Dubois & Raffaëlli, 2012 Frost, D. R. et al. (2006). The Amphibian Tree of Life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1-291. Dubois, A. and Raffaëlli, J. (2012): A new ergotaxonomy of the order Urodela Duméril, 1805 (Amphibia, Batrachia). Alytes 28 (3-4): 77-161. Good, D. A. (1989) Hybridization and cryptic species in ...
The mole salamanders (genus Ambystoma) are a group of advanced salamanders endemic to North America, the only genus in the family Ambystomatidae. The group has become famous due to the presence of the axolotl (A. mexicanum), widely used in research, and the tiger salamander (A. tigrinum, A. mavortium) which is the official amphibian of many states, and often sold as a pet. Terrestrial mole salamanders are identified by having wide, protruding eyes, prominent costal grooves, and thick arms. Most have vivid patterning on dark backgrounds, with marks ranging from deep blue spots to large yellow bars depending on the species. Terrestrial adults spend most of their lives underground in burrows, either of their own making or abandoned by other animals. Some northern species may hibernate in these burrows throughout the winter. They live alone and feed on any available invertebrate. Adults spend little time in the water, only returning to the ponds of their birth to breed. All mole salamanders are ...
Streamside salamanders are members of the Mole-salamander family (Ambystomatidae), so called because of their habit of living in mole (and other small mammal) tunnels, often up to a few meters under ground. Related species include marbled salamanders (A. opacum), spotted .salamanders (A. maculatum), and Jefferson salamanders (A. jeffersonianum). In latin, Amby means "a cup" and stoma means "mouth." This refers to their wide cup-shaped mouths designed for gobbling up invertebrates and maybe the other larval amphibians that they eat when they themsleves are larvae. (These wide mouths also make them look like theyre constantly grinning.) Most of their adult lives (perhaps 6-15 years), are spent underground in well defined territories. The other mole salamanders are known to partake in mass migrations during breeding season in which each individual crawls out of his/her mole tunnel to walk hundreds of meters downhill to a particular breeding pond. After a week or so, the salamanders disperse from ...
The Small-mouth salamander (Ambystoma texanum) is a mole salamander species and a member of the Ambystomatidae family. The species may also be referred to as the Texas salamander, the Porphyry salamander or the narrow-mouthed salamander.. The Small-mouthed salamander can be found in the central United States. The species ranges from Michigan to Nebraska, south to Texas and east to Tennessee. The Small-mouth salamander has also been found in Ontario, Canada.. The Small-mouth salamander inhabits moist areas that are relatively close to a water source. When on land, wet prairie, meadow, swamp and damp forest are all preferred habitats. A nocturnal species, the salamander remains hidden beneath logs, rock and leaf litter or in small mammal burrows.. The Small-mouth salamander commonly reaches lengths between 4.5 and 7 inches. Typical coloration is black or dark brown and its belly side is black. Light grey or silver spots or flecks are found on its dorsal (upper) side. Often male small-mouthed ...
Complex cognition and relatively large brains are distributed across various taxa, and many primarily verbal hypotheses exist to explain such diversity. Yet, mathematical approaches formalizing verbal hypotheses would help deepen the understanding of brain and cognition evolution. With this aim, we combine elements of life history and metabolic theories to formulate a metabolically explicit mathematical model for brain life history evolution. We assume that some of the brains energetic expense is due to production (learning) and maintenance (memory) of energy-extraction skills (or cognitive abilities, knowledge, information, etc.). We also assume that individuals use such skills to extract energy from the environment, and can allocate this energy to grow and maintain the body, including brain and reproductive tissues. The model can be used to ask what fraction of growth energy should be allocated at each age, given natural selection, to growing brain and other tissues under various biological ...
Disclosed is a photolithographic pattern-forming material capable of giving a fine patterned resist layer rapidly and being used repeatedly. The pattern-forming material is a multilayered body comprising a substrate and a photoresist layer thereon which is overlaid with a three-layered composite film for near-field light generation consisting of an intermediate layer of a non-linear optical material such as antimony sandwiched between two dielectric layers. When irradiated with active rays focused on the optically nonlinear layer, a fine optical window or light scattering point is formed therein where a near-field light is generated to pattern-wise expose the photoresist layer.
Literature in evolutionary psychology suggests that mate choice has been the primary mechanism of sexual selection in humans, but this conclusion conforms neither to theoretical predictions nor available evidence. Contests override other mechanisms of sexual selection; that is, when individuals can exclude their competitors by force or threat of force, mate choice, sperm competition, and other mechanisms are impossible. Mates are easier to monopolize in two dimensional mating environments, such as land, than in three-dimensional environments, such as air, water, and trees. Thus, two-dimensional mating environments may tend to favor the evolution of contests. The two-dimensionality of the human mating environment, along with phylogeny, the spatial and temporal clustering of mates and competitors, and anatomical considerations, predict that contest competition should have been the primary mechanism of sexual selection in men. A functional analysis supports this prediction. Mens traits are better ...
And, more importantly, are all peoples equally suited, in a neuroendocrinological sense, to live under the regimentation which is bound to come in a vastly overcrowded world? These are questions that I cannot answer, and the very mention of them is considered indecent in my country. Do the minds of all races work in the same fashion, do not their emotions differ with differences in their hormonal peculiarities, and is it not possible that cultures vary to a certain extent in terms of these variations? These questions require research, and the results may mar the vision of a single world culture. People are genetically and culturally different, and short of a global police state run by persons yet to be determined, entrusted with the power to perform chromosomal surgery and interspecific transplants, they will remain different for a long time to come. If the world is to become united, the union must be a loose confederation of very different units, or it will not long endure ...
There are some striking patterns in the results already. 85% of the A00 so far are from the Bangwa (Nweh) people, and 15% from the Nkongho-Mbo. This is despite the fact that nearly 57% of the samples collected were from Mbo, and only 37% were from Bangwa. Once all the results have been fully tabulated, we can provide more complete statistics. It will take a while to transcribe all the rich data from those handwritten sheets into electronic spreadsheets. [. . .] Whats next? Matthew would like to head back to the field quite soon, in the second half of October, when the school where he teaches has a break. Our current plan is for him to visit the region of the Bamileke people. Matthew, an ethno-historian, has said "The similarity in names, language, dancing style and all other aspects of life suggest that the Bangwa are 90 percent Bamileke." By testing a good number of Bamileke, well be able to see whether the heritage they share includes A00, or not. It is possible that the A00 among the Bangwa ...
For evolutionary biologists, our findings have at least two important implications. First, the number of children ever born has been used as a proxy for fitness, given the diminishing child mortality rate in contemporary societies [4,23,36]. Additive genetic variance therefore indicates currently ongoing natural selection under environmental equilibrium within populations: if all else equal, genes that lead to a higher number of offspring will have a higher frequency in future generations. Due to natural selection, Fisher predicted additive genetic variance in fertility to be (close to) zero in the absence of gene environment interaction, since genes that reduce fitness are passed on to the next generation to a lesser extent thereby reducing their frequencies [16]. Nevertheless, we find significant additive genetic influences on fitness traits such as NEB and AFB - substantial yet lower than heritabilities observed for morphological traits such as height [14,15,23,43]. Finding significant ...
Abstract: Many complex mesoscopic systems, ranging from synthetic colloids to active biological cells, exhibit a rich variety of pattern-forming behavior. In this talk, I will show you how anisotropy in two model systems, anisotropic shaped colloids and bacterial communities, affect complex pattern formation. During the directed self-assembly of colloidal systems, shape anisotropy can greatly influence resulting structures. We have developed a technique called roughness controlled depletion attraction which allows us to probe the phase space of 2D Brownian systems for a variety of anisotropic shapes such as triangles, squares, and other polygons. We have discovered several unanticipated effects, such as local chiral symmetry breaking in a triatic liquid crystal phase of uniform triangles. Anisotropy also plays a large role in the formation of bacterial communities called biofilms. Biofilms are a major human health hazard as well as being an impediment in many industrial and medical settings. By ...
Resembling neatly stacked rows of driftwood abandoned by receding tides, particles left by a confined, evaporating droplet can create beautiful and complex patterns. The natural, pattern-forming process could find use in ...
As a recent Miller Fellow, I have become interested in studying and developing biological genetic circuits that can perform programmable computations. While I dont think cellular based computing can rival the speed of silicon computing, I do believe that a cellular system that can be programmed is an extremely powerful tool for applications we can only begin to imagine. In its simplest incarnation, programmatic control of gene expression would be an invaluable tool for metabolic engineers trying to coax bacteria into producing drugs. More creatively, we might see bacterial cells that can form patterns with each other, and carry out instructions once specific patterns are formed. Recent work suggests that these goals are indeed feasible, but that we are in the exciting beginnings of this adventure! For more information, see the work of Jay Keasling on producing anti-malarial drugs inside bacteria, and Ron Weiss on pattern-forming bacteria. In addition to scientific research, I am involved in ...
Definitions and overview of the history evolution, natural selection, and evolution controversies. Includes brief mentions of evolution scientists.
Esta lista de anfibios de Estados Unidos incluye un total de 306 especies registradas en Estados Unidos, agrupadas en 2 órdenes: las salamandras (Caudata) y las ranas y sapos (Anura). Esta lista deriva de la base de datos de Amphibian Species of the World. Orden: Caudata. Familia: Ambystomatidae Ambystoma annulatum Cope, 1886 Ambystoma barbouri Kraus & Petranka, 1989 Ambystoma bishopi Goin, 1950 Ambystoma californiense Gray, 1853 Ambystoma cingulatum Cope, 1868 Ambystoma gracile (Baird, 1859) Ambystoma jeffersonianum (Green, 1827) Ambystoma laterale Hallowell, 1856 Ambystoma mabeei Bishop, 1928 Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird, 1850 Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw, 1802) Ambystoma mavortium Baird, 1850 Ambystoma opacum (Gravenhorst, 1807) Ambystoma talpoideum (Holbrook, 1838) Ambystoma texanum (Matthes, 1855) Ambystoma tigrinum (Green, 1825) Dicamptodon aterrimus (Cope, 1868) Dicamptodon copei Nussbaum, 1970 Dicamptodon ensatus (Eschscholtz, 1833) Dicamptodon tenebrosus (Baird & Girard, 1852) Orden: ...
Organisms experience competing selective pressures, which can obscure the mechanisms driving evolution. Daphniaambigua is found in lakes where a predator, the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) either doe
Duellman, W. E. 1993. Amphibian Species of the World: Additions and Corrections. Univ. of Kansas Printing Service. Lawrence, KS.. Duellman, W. E. and L. Trueb. 1986. Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World. Allen Press and the Association of Systematics Collections. Lawrence, Kansas.. Hecht, M. K. and J. L. Edwards. 1977. The methodology of phylogenetic inference above the species level. Pp. 3-51 in M. K. Hecht, P. C. Goody and B. M. Hecht (eds.) Major Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution. Plenum Press, New York.. Larson, A. 1991. A molecular perspective on the evolutionary relationships of the salamander families. Evolutionary Biology 25:211-277.. Larson, A. and W. W. Dimmick. 1993. Phylogenetic relationships of the salamander families: A analysis of congruence among morphological and molecular characters. Herpetological Monographs 7:77-93.. Larson, A., D. W. Weisrock, and K. H. Kozak. 2003. Phylogenetic systematics of salamanders (Amphibia: ...
Duellman, W. E. 1993. Amphibian Species of the World: Additions and Corrections. Univ. of Kansas Printing Service. Lawrence, KS.. Duellman, W. E. and L. Trueb. 1986. Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World. Allen Press and the Association of Systematics Collections. Lawrence, Kansas.. Hecht, M. K. and J. L. Edwards. 1977. The methodology of phylogenetic inference above the species level. Pp. 3-51 in M. K. Hecht, P. C. Goody and B. M. Hecht (eds.) Major Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution. Plenum Press, New York.. Larson, A. 1991. A molecular perspective on the evolutionary relationships of the salamander families. Evolutionary Biology 25:211-277.. Larson, A. and W. W. Dimmick. 1993. Phylogenetic relationships of the salamander families: A analysis of congruence among morphological and molecular characters. Herpetological Monographs 7:77-93.. Larson, A., D. W. Weisrock, and K. H. Kozak. 2003. Phylogenetic systematics of salamanders (Amphibia: ...
en] Current theories on the alternative mating tactics suppose that individuals may opt for particular behavioral patterns depending of their morphological status. Facultative paedomorphosis in newts and salamanders is a suitable process to explore this question because it implies the coexistence of two different morphological morphs differing by the presence of gills and epigamic traits. The aim of this study was to find out whether paedomorphs and metamorphs use similar tactics to attract mates in the presence of a rival and whether there are differences in sexual activity and success between alternative morphs. Sexual interactions in triadic encounters were staged and analyzed in a standardized experimental design. The two kinds of males did not differ in terms of sexual activity, spermatophore deposition or female responsiveness. Both rival paedomorphic and metamorphic males exhibited sexual interference, but in most encounters, intruders just disturbed the courting pair. Sperm transfer ...
Salamandridae is a family of salamanders consisting of true salamanders and newts. Currently, 74 species (with more expected) have been identified in the Northern Hemisphere - Europe, Asia, the northern tip of Africa, and North America. Salamandrids are distinguished from other salamanders by the lack of rib or costal grooves along the sides of their bodies and by their rough skin. With a few exceptions, salamandrids have patterns of bright and contrasting colours. They have four well-developed limbs, with four toes on the fore limbs, and (in most cases) five toes on the hind limbs. They vary from 7 to 30 cm (3 to 12 in) in length. The alpine salamander and Lanzas alpine salamander give birth to live young, without a tadpole stage, but the other species lay their eggs in water. Some newts are neotenic, being able to reproduce before they are fully metamorphosed. Cladograms based on the work of Pyron and Wiens (2011) and modified using Mikko Haaramo The genera Chioglossa, Lyciasalamandra, ...
Crucial for the dorsoventral patterning is the BMP / Chordi n interaction (Dpp / short gastrulation in Drosophila). For some systems there are indications components have properties as we expect for pattern-forming systems. BMP and Chordin inhibit each other ([8-12], for review (13,14]). Two components that mutually inhibit each other behave as if positive autoregulation is involved. For instance, an increase of the first component leads to an enforced repression of the second, which, in turn, leads to a further increase of the first as if this substance would be directly positively autoregulating. To obtain a balanced activation of BMP and Chordin at opposite positions, a third component is anticipated that acts antagonistically on one of these indirectly self-enhancing reactions. A candidate is the Anti-Dorsalizing Morphogenetic Protein (ADMP) [15]. Its properties have been frequently regarded as counterintuitive: being expressed in the organizer, but its function is to reduce organizer ...
gene expression profiles (log10 relative concentrations) in both X. laevis and X. tropicalis is shown fitted by sigmoids.(C) Plots of t1 (time of induction) for pairs of genes with ,0.8 goodness of fit in both species. The green line is unity and the red is fitted to the data.(D) Plots of h1 (range of expression). Same format as (C).(E and F) Heterochrony/heterometry phase-plane for families of transcription factors (E) and several signaling pathways (F). The circles and lines indicate the mean and standard deviation of each gene sets heterochronies and heterometries. The transcription factor families are helix-loop-helix (PF00010, 27 genes with sigmoids), Homeobox (IPR001356, 74 genes), Zinc finger (C2H2 type, IPR007087, 24 genes), T-box (IPR001699, 5 genes), Fox ...
Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesnt cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. ...
The monophyly of European newts of the genus Triturus within the family Salamandridae has for decades rested on presumably homologous behavioral and morphological characters. Molecular data challenge this hypothesis, but the phylogenetic position of Triturus within the Salamandridae has not yet been convincingly resolved. We addressed this issue and the temporal divergence of Triturus within the Salamandridae with novel Bayesian approaches applied to DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S and cytb). We included 38 salamandrid species comprising all 13 recognized species of Triturus and 16 out of 17 salamandrid genera. A clade comprising all the "Newts" can be separated from the "True Salamanders" and Salamandrina clades. Within the "Newts" well-supported clades are: Tylototriton-Pleurodeles, the "New World Newts" (Notophthalmus-Taricha), and the "Modern Eurasian Newts" (Cynops, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton = together the "Modern Asian Newts", Calotriton, Euproctus, Neurergus ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Wielstra, B., Litvinchuk, S. N., Naumov, B., Tzankov, N., Arntzen, J. W. (2013): A revised taxonomy of crested newts in the Triturus karelinii group (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae), with the description of a new species. Zootaxa 3682 (3): 441-453, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3682.3.5 ...
A major goal of genomic and reproductive biology is to understand the evolution of sex determination and sex chromosomes. Species of the 2 genera of the Salamander family Proteidae - |i|Necturus
We report on a new mode interaction found in electroconvection experiments on the nematic liquid crystal mixture Phase V in planar geometry. The mode interaction (codimension two) point occurs at a critical value of the frequency of the driving AC voltage. For frequencies below this value the primary pattern-forming instability at the onset voltage is an oblique stationary instability involving oblique rolls, and above this value it is an oscillatory instability giving rise to normal traveling rolls (oriented perpendicular to and traveling in the director direction). The transition has been confirmed by measuring the roll angle and the dominant frequency of the time series, as both quantities exhibit a discontinuous jump across zero when the AC frequency is varied near threshold. The globally coupled system of Ginzburg-Landau equations that qualitatively describe this mode interaction is constructed, and the resulting normal form, in which slow spatial variations of the mode amplitudes are ignored, is
This is primarily an old world family with six representatives in North America (Stebbins 1985), one of which can be found in Idaho, Taricha granulosa (Rough-skinned Newt). Characteristics of the family include vomerine teeth in two long rows (Goin and Goin 1971),the absence of a nasolabial groove, no parasphenoid_teeth ...
Approximately 55 extant species in 15 genera are recognized in this morphologically and behaviorally diverse family of salamanders. Geographic distribution is the largest of any salamander family, with four disjunct centers. Salamandrids occur primarily in Europe (throughout most of Europe, South into northern Africa and east into Asia), and Asia (especially India, Southern China, and mainland Southeast Asia). Two genera are endemic to North America.. The salamandrids are informally subdivided into two subgroups, the "true salamanders" (including the genera Chioglossa, Mertensiella, and Salamandra), and the newts (the remaining genera). The "true salamanders" tend to be smooth skinned, while the newts are unlike all other salamanders in having rough skin that is not slimy.. Most adult salamandrids are small, rarely exceeding 20 cm in length, and brightly colored. All salamandrids have toxic skin secretions (some produce tetrodotoxins), and many have bright warning coloration that is used in ...
Cryogenic 6572 (MCZ:Cryo:6572); Pachytriton archospotus; Asia: China: Jiangxi; Jinggangshan, Mt. Jinggang; Animalia Chordata Amphibia Lissamphibia Caudata Salamandroidea Salamandridae Pachytriton archospotus;
Tylototriton é um género de salamandra da família Salamandridae. Tylototriton asperrimus Unterstein, 1930 Tylototriton hainanensis Fei, Ye e Yang, 1984 Tylototriton kweichowensis Fang e Chang, 1932 Tylototriton shanjing Nussbaum, Brodie e Yang, 1995 Tylototriton taliangensis Liu, 1950 Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson, 1871 Tylototriton wenxianensis Fei, Ye e Yang, 1984 Tylototriton zeigleri Nishikawa, Matsui e Nguyen, 2013 O Wikispecies tem informações sobre: Tylototriton Nishikawa, Kanto; Masafumi Matsui, Tao Thien Nguyen (1 de fevereiro de 2013). «A New Species of Tylototriton from Northern Vietnam (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae)». Current Herpetology. 32 (1): 34-49. ISSN 1345-5834. doi:10.5358/hsj.32.34. Consultado em 27 de março de 2013 A referência emprega parâmetros obsoletos ,coautor= (ajuda) Portal de anfíbios e ...
Brightsmith, D. J. 2005. Competition, predation and nest niche shifts among tropical cavity nesters: phylogeny and natural history evolution of parrots (Psittaciformes) and trogons (Trogoniformes). Journal of Avian Biology 36:64-73.. Collar, N.J. 1997. Psittacidae (Parrots). Pages 280-477 in Handbook of the Birds of the World. J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, eds. BirdLife International and Lynx Editions, Cambridge, UK and Barcelona.. de Kloet, R. S. and S. R. de Kloet. 2005. The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36:706-721. Forshaw, J. M. 2006. Parrots of the World. Princeton University Press.. Forshaw, J. and W. T. Cooper. 2002 Australian Parrots, 3rd edn. Robina Press, Queensland, Australia. Higgins, P. J. 1999 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, vol. 4: Parrots to Dollarbird. Oxford University Press, ...
Brightsmith, D. J. 2005. Competition, predation and nest niche shifts among tropical cavity nesters: phylogeny and natural history evolution of parrots (Psittaciformes) and trogons (Trogoniformes). Journal of Avian Biology 36:64-73.. Collar, N.J. 1997. Psittacidae (Parrots). Pages 280-477 in Handbook of the Birds of the World. J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, eds. BirdLife International and Lynx Editions, Cambridge, UK and Barcelona.. de Kloet, R. S. and S. R. de Kloet. 2005. The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36:706-721. Forshaw, J. M. 2006. Parrots of the World. Princeton University Press.. Forshaw, J. and W. T. Cooper. 2002 Australian Parrots, 3rd edn. Robina Press, Queensland, Australia. Higgins, P. J. 1999 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, vol. 4: Parrots to Dollarbird. Oxford University Press, ...
Beside our main interest in rather large-scale biogeography and phylogeography of the Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East and Mediterranean, we also conduct a research on the Central European (mainly Czech and Slovak) reptiles and amphibians. In collaboration with the team from the Comenius University in Bratislava and National Museum in Prague we study population genetics and morphological variation in the contact zone of two slow-worm species (Anguis fragilis and A. colchica). We also found a unique paedomorphic population of the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris) in Central Bohemia, Czech Republic:. Gvoždík V., Javůrková V., Kopecký O., 2013: First evidence of a paedomorphic population of the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris) in the Czech Republic. Acta Herpetologica 8 (1): 53- ...
Salamanders are ony o approximately 550 extant species o amphibians within the order Caudata.[1] Thay are typically characterized bi a superficially lizard-lik appearance, wi slender bodies, short noses, an lang tails. Aw kent fossil salamanders an aw extinct species faw unner the order Caudata, while sometimes the extant species are grouped thegither as the Urodela.[2] Salamanders hae never mair than fower taes on thair front legs an five on thair rear legs, but some species hae fewer. Thair moist skin uisually maks them reliant on habitats in or near watter, or unner some pertection (e.g., moist grund), eften in a wetland. Some salamander species are fully aquatic throughoot life, some tak tae the watter intermittently, an some are entirely terrestrial as adults. Unique amang vertebrates, thay are capable o regeneratin lost limbs, as well as ither body pairts. Mony o the members o the faimily Salamandridae are kent as esks.. The earliest kent salamander fossils hae been foond in geological ...
Fire salamander (salmandra salamandra from family Salamandridae) live an area Middle and South Europe. HD Stock Footage Clip. Medium shot.
Fire salamander (salmandra salamandra from family Salamandridae) live an area Middle and South Europe. HD Stock Footage Clip. Medium shot.
Nishikawa, K., J.-p. Jiang, M. Matsui, and Y.-m. Mo. 2011. Unmasking Pachytriton labiatus (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae), with description of a new species of Pachytriton from Guangxi, China. Zoological Science. Tokyo 28: 453-461 ...
Yang, D.-d., J.-p. Jiang, Y.-h. Shen, and D.-b. Fei. 2014. A new species of the genus Tylototriton (Urodela: Salamandridae) from northeastern Hunan Province, China. Asian Herpetological Research 5: 1-11 ...
Skull is one of the commonest parts of the skeleton used to opine on the sex of an individual. Sexual dimorphism is insignificant in the pre-pubertal age group. Although adult skulls show a few non-metrical and metrical differences, there is paedomorphic tendency in the human skulls of either sex (William PL et al 1995). Absolute sexual differences seldom exist (Bass 1955). Further, hormones, nutritional status, cultural differences and environmental factors affect these variations. Skulls from different geographical areas vary much. Skull shapes may also vary within a population and even among the closely related.. Traditionally sexing of the skull has been based on the non-metrical traits (Krogman 1962, Berry 1975). Non-metrical differences are mainly in facial skeleton, vault and mandible.. There are a few studies, which have used exhaustive list of metrical parameters for sexing of the skulls (Keen 1950, Hanihara 1959, Steyn and Iscan 1997, Stewart 1948). Keen (1950) has chosen a large ...
Cryogenic 6536 (MCZ:Cryo:6536); Pachytriton granulosus; Asia: China: Zhejiang; Lishui, Mt. Jiulong; Animalia Chordata Amphibia Lissamphibia Caudata Salamandroidea Salamandridae Pachytriton granulosus;
Cryogenic 6568 (MCZ:Cryo:6568); Pachytriton granulosus; Asia: China: Zhejiang; Lishui, Jiyun; Animalia Chordata Amphibia Lissamphibia Caudata Salamandroidea Salamandridae Pachytriton granulosus;
ABSTRACT: The yellow-spotted mountain newt Neurergus microspilotus (Caudata: Salamandridae) is listed as Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In spite of its conservation status and laws protecting it, the species continues to decline in the wild. A captive breeding program was successfully established to support the species recovery. To learn more about the species ecology and winter mortality, 24 juveniles reared in captivity were released on 4 occasions in a small spring enclosure from July to September 2012 and monitored until December, when they disappeared for overwintering. In 12 visits to the site before and after overwintering, a total of 31 individuals were identified. Based on an average diurnal detection probability for this newt (0.61 ± 0.19 SD), the observed newts during the pre-overwintering period were estimated to represent 6.5 to 41.0% of the reintroduced newts. The newts observed after overwintering were 13 to 28% of the reintroduced newts. This ...
A molecular phylogeny of the salamandrid genus Neurergus was reconstructed based on two sections of the 12S and 16S mitochondrial ribosomal genes (810 bp), 19 allozyme and three plasma protein loci. When representative species of all closely related salamandrid groups were included, mitochondrial data provided evidence for monophyly of Neurergus within the Salamandridae. Mitochondrial and allozyme data showed homogenous intrageneric tree topologies, but different estimates of times of separation. We calibrated the evolutionary rate to 0.46% pairwise sequence divergence per million years. Accordingly Neurergus diverged 18 million years ago (mya) from a lineage that comprised Euproctus asper and large bodied newts of the genus Triturus. A split around 11 mya produced two major clades within Neurergus. Further separation within the southern 'N. crocatus-clade' (comprising N. crocatus, N. microspilotus and N. kaiseri) occurred ca. 5 mya. The northern 'N. strauchii-clade' separated into N
Fascinating! This is consistent with the integral role of the timing of developmental processes in the development of phenotypic traits. There is resurgence in evolutionary biology (including within the neurosciences--which I discuss in my recent JevoHealth paper on play and human brain development) in recognizing the role of heterochrony (changes in timing of developmental processes in a descendant relative to its ancestors) in the evolution of new or altered traits. Evolution acts most powerfully through that which is easiest to change--which often turns out to be the timing of developmentally-programmed traits. If the modern world keeps up its leptinogenic environment, we may find the trait of early sexual maturity become canalized in our species. I wonder what the long-term consequences of this would be for human society and civilization. Sounds like a fascinating topic for a sci fi story, because it will take too many generations for the human species to lose its phenotypic plasticity in ...
And that leads me to discussing one of the most challenging and confusing salamanders of southern Ontario: Jeffersons Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum). The Jeffs is largely restricted to south central Ontario, although ongoing research has had it turn up slightly beyond that area. It is a large salamander, with adults reaching 18-20 cm in total length. It is dark bluish black, with a few lighter whitish-bluish flecks, but not as large or as brightly marked as the Blue-spotted Salamander. What makes things especially challenging in identifying these salamanders in the field is a result of the unusual reproductive process and ultimate genetics of these two species. They hybridize, and there is a broad zone of hybridization. One can really only tell what kind one is by doing DNA analysis, which for these salamanders requires snipping a small tip of the tail, running it through a blender of sorts, and then examining the DNA. There are many variations of the genetic make-up of these hybrids, ...
So a new study conducted by UC Davis research revealed interesting things from interbred salamanders, results that go against what was the dominant
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum image
Ozark blind cave salamanders, known also as ghost lizards and grotto salamanders, live in subterranean systems in the Ozark Mountains -- and nowhere else in the world. Theyre pretty rare, and they often dwell in almost inaccessible caverns, so scientists still are learning about the behavior and quirks of this ...
Digital Morphology account of the extremely minute salamander, Thorius minutissimus, featuring CT-generated animations of the whole specimen
Palaeo- and archaeostomatopods (Hoplocarida:Crustacea) from the Bear Gulch Limestone, Mississippian (Namurian), of central Montana, Ronald A. Jenner, Cees H.J. Hof, Frederick R. Schram [TOC] [Abstract] [Article] ...
An endangered Texas salamander hangs on thanks to a grab bag of protective laws. But will rampant development and a Trump administration spell its doom?
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, it is known from fewer than five locations, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat and in the number of mature individuals ...
Not just whale bones but all bones. Osedax worms are those bone-eating snot flowers, purveyor of all rotten and whale-like, masters of polyandry, and more diverse than we thought. Researchers here at MBARI placed cow bones, in constructed bone trees, on the seafloor and found Osedax fancies them too. Not as much though! Densities were significantly lower than those typical of whale bones.. Figure above from Jones et al. (2007). Figure 1. (a) Deployed bone tree adjacent towhale-2893 during May 2006. (b) In situ close-up fromhigh definition video of Osedax rubiplumus and O. nude-palp-A on cow bone adjacent to whale-1820. (c) Close-up of the four palps from O. nude-palp-A showing paired blood vessels in each palp and absence of pinnules. (d )Dwarf (paedomorphic) males isolated fromthe tube of O. rubiplumus specimen shown in (b).. Write up in Nature News.. Paper at Proceedings of the Royal Society. ...
Butler, R. J. and Goswami, A. (2008) Body size evolution in Mesozoic birds: little evidence for Copes rule. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 21 (6). pp. 1673-1682. DOI 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01594.x Sanchez-Villagra, M. R. and Goswami, A. and Weisbecker, V. and Mock, O. and Kuratani, S. (2008) Conserved relative timing of cranial ossification patterns in early mammalian evolution. Evolution & Development, 10 (5). pp. 519-530. DOI 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2008.00267.x Goswami, A. and Weisbecker, V. and Sanchez-Villagra, MR (2008) Developmental Modularity and the Marsupial-Placental Dichotomy. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. Weisbecker, V. and Goswami, A. and Wroe, S. and Sanchez-Villagra, M. R. (2008) Ossification heterochrony in the therian postcranial skeleton and the marsupial-placental. Evolution, 62 (8). pp. 2027-2041. DOI 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00424.x ...
Ecology of coastal giant salamanders, (Dicamptodon tenebrosus). Research into the genetic structure and history of giant salamander populations in the United States and Canada.
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The young man at the office took Sal out of the box. He said he thought it was an Arboreal Salamander, and, back home, I find that the photos on the Californiaherps site do show pictures of potential twins of Sal. After posing for 1 photo -- not usually allowed, but I pleaded -- Sal was left in the care of wildlife rescue, where hell be put in an incubator and get some nourishment. Theyll also try to find out how to help him, flopping onto ones back once a day is just a deadly habit to be in if one is a white-bellied salamander ...
Two very disparate images I know, but salamanders of course typically go through a metamorphosis. Once going out, I was just checking my appearance and how much I can resemble my mother at this age struck me. And no, I dont think wanting to be like ones mother (or father) is really part of being transgender, so forget that ...
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AmbystomatidaeAmbystomatidae

... Mole Salamanders. Allan Larson Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... The Ambystomatidae formerly contained the genera Dicamptodon and Rhyacotriton, both of which are now placed in their own ... The family Ambystomatidae contains only two extant genera, Ambystoma and Rhyacosiredon, with the latter comprising 4 species ... Rhyacotriton is only a distant relative of these genera, however, and should not be placed in the family Ambystomatidae. ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/Ambystoma+tigrinum

Family Ambystomatidae - definition of family Ambystomatidae by The Free DictionaryFamily Ambystomatidae - definition of family Ambystomatidae by The Free Dictionary

family Ambystomatidae synonyms, family Ambystomatidae pronunciation, family Ambystomatidae translation, English dictionary ... Noun 1. family Ambystomatidae - New World salamanders Ambystomatidae amphibian family - any family of amphibians Caudata, order ... family Ambystomatidae. Also found in: Thesaurus, Wikipedia.. Related to family Ambystomatidae: Ambystoma tigrinum, tiger ... A PHYLOGENY FOR THE SALAMANDER FAMILY AMBYSTOMATIDAE BASED ON A NUCLEAR MARKER.. Abstracts of papers presented at the 2009 ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/family+Ambystomatidae

Fish/Amphibian IndexFish/Amphibian Index

Family Ambystomatidae. Ambystoma-Mole Salamanders. Family Plethodontidae. Aneides lugubris-Arboreal Salamander. Batrachoseps sp ...
more infohttps://www.utep.edu/leb/pleistNM/Fishamphibindex.htm

Ambystoma texanum (Matthes, 1855) | Amphibian Species of the WorldAmbystoma texanum (Matthes, 1855) | Amphibian Species of the World

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Ambystomatidae > Genus: Ambystoma > Species: Ambystoma texanum Salamandra texana ...
more infohttp://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/Amphibia/Caudata/Ambystomatidae/Ambystoma/Ambystoma-texanum

Ambystoma tigrinum (Green, 1825) | Amphibian Species of the WorldAmbystoma tigrinum (Green, 1825) | Amphibian Species of the World

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Ambystomatidae > Genus: Ambystoma > Species: Ambystoma tigrinum Siren operculata ...
more infohttp://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/Amphibia/Caudata/Ambystomatidae/Ambystoma/Ambystoma-tigrinum

Lab Quiz 2~Salamander Diversity Flashcards by Josh Delgado | BrainscapeLab Quiz 2~Salamander Diversity Flashcards by Josh Delgado | Brainscape

within Ambystomatidae. ~Pacific giant salamanders (Pacific NW US). ~inhabit moist coniferous forests with cold streams or cold ... Within Ambystomatidae. ~courtship may involve migration of huge numbers of individuals to breeding ponds, males arrive first, ... Protieidae, Salamandridae, Ambystomatidae, Rhyacotritonidae, Amphiumidae, Plethodontidae.. ~extreme amount of diversity, with ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/lab-quiz-2-salamander-diversity-597966/packs/1062103

Axolotl - WikipediaAxolotl - Wikipedia

Ambystomatidae at Curlie. *Follow the Eggs, Hatchlings and Juveniles. *Mating Dance and Laying Eggs ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axolotl

Spotted salamander - WikipediaSpotted salamander - Wikipedia

Ambystomatidae)". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 100A (3): 653-660. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(91)90385-P.. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spotted_Salamander

Ambystoma cingulatum (Frosted Flatwoods Salamander)Ambystoma cingulatum (Frosted Flatwoods Salamander)

Ambystomatidae. Scientific Name:. Ambystoma cingulatum (Cope, 1867). Common Name(s): English. -. Frosted Flatwoods Salamander. ...
more infohttp://www.iucnredlist.org/details/1099/0

Ambystoma californiense (California Tiger Salamander)Ambystoma californiense (California Tiger Salamander)

Ambystomatidae. Scientific Name:. Ambystoma californiense Gray, 1853. Common Name(s): English. -. California Tiger Salamander. ...
more infohttp://www.iucnredlist.org/details/1098/0

Vertebrate Zoology by Maggie M. on PreziVertebrate Zoology by Maggie M. on Prezi

Ambystomatidae. Ascaphidae. Leiopelmatidae. Pipidae. Scaphiopodidae. Ranidae. Microhylidae. Ranoidea. Dendrobatidae. Hylidae. ...
more infohttps://prezi.com/u7sm8wqnirrw/vertebrate-zoology/

Amphibians - Devils Tower National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)Amphibians - Devils Tower National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)

MOLE SALAMANDERS - (AMBYSTOMATIDAE):. *Tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum) R. TOADS - (BUFONIDAE):. *Great ...
more infohttps://www.nps.gov/deto/learn/nature/amphibians.htm

Salamander - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSalamander - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ambystomatidae. Mole salamanders. Marbled Salamander (Ambystoma opacum). Amphiumidae. Amphiumas or Congo eels. Two-toed ...
more infohttps://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salamander

Axolotl - New World EncyclopediaAxolotl - New World Encyclopedia

As salamanders (member of the amphibian order Caudata), axolotls lack scales and claws, have the presence of a tail in all larvae, juveniles, and adults, and have forelimbs and hindlimbs that are typically about the same size and set at right angles to the body (Larson et al. 2006). They have the characteristically slender bodies, short legs, long tails, and moist, smooth skin of salamanders.. Salamanders generally have a biphasic life cycle, typified by an aquatic larval stage with external gills and a terrestrial adult form that utilizes lungs or breathes through moist skin (Larson et al. 2006). However, axolotls typically remain aquatic throughout life, not undergoing metamorphosis to a terrestrial adult but retaining their juvenile features. They can undergo transformation to the adult form under certain experimental and environmental conditions.. Axolotls are members of the Ambystoma tigrinum (Tiger salamander)-complex, along with all other Mexican species of Ambystoma. Ambystoma, the mole ...
more infohttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Axolotl

Dichotomous Key/Amphibia - Wikibooks, open books for an open worldDichotomous Key/Amphibia - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Dicamptodontidae, Salamandridae, Ambystomatidae, Proteidae, Rhyacotritonidae, Amphiumidae. 16[edit]. *Metamorphosis *Present ( ...
more infohttps://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Dichotomous_Key/Amphibia

University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Amphibian and Reptile CatalogueUniversity of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Amphibian and Reptile Catalogue

AMBYSTOMATIDAE Genus AMBYSTOMA Species LATERALE Collector HENRY WILBUR Month APRIL. Day 19. Year 1970 Country UNITED STATES ...
more infohttps://quod.lib.umich.edu/a/amph3ic/x-206322/nofile

University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Amphibian and Reptile CatalogueUniversity of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Amphibian and Reptile Catalogue

AMBYSTOMATIDAE Genus AMBYSTOMA Collector GEO H COONS Month JULY. Day 21. Year 1908 Country UNITED STATES State MICHIGAN County ...
more infohttps://quod.lib.umich.edu/a/amph3ic/x-37927/nofile

Nonindigenous Aquatic SpeciesNonindigenous Aquatic Species

Ambystomatidae. Ambystoma gracile Northwestern Salamander. Collection info. Point Map. Species Profile. Animated Map Freshwater ...
more infohttps://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/SpeciesList.aspx?HUCNumber=3

AmphibiaWeb - Ambystoma opacumAmphibiaWeb - Ambystoma opacum

family: Ambystomatidae © 2011 Michael Graziano (1 of 116). Conservation Status (definitions) IUCN (Red List) Status. Least ...
more infohttps://amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Ambystoma&where-species=opacum

AmphibiaWeb - Ambystoma jeffersonianumAmphibiaWeb - Ambystoma jeffersonianum

family: Ambystomatidae © 2010 Todd Pierson (1 of 48). Conservation Status (definitions) IUCN (Red List) Status. Least Concern ( ...
more infohttps://amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?query_src=aw_lists_genera_&where-genus=Ambystoma&where-species=jeffersonianum

Nonindigenous Aquatic SpeciesNonindigenous Aquatic Species

Ambystomatidae. Ambystoma mavortium mavortium Barred Tiger Salamander. Collection info. Point Map. Species Profile. Animated ...
more infohttps://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/SpeciesList.aspx?HUCNumber=13

Axolotl - WikipediaAxolotl - Wikipedia

Ambystomatidae at Curlie. *Follow the Eggs, Hatchlings and Juveniles. *Mating Dance and Laying Eggs ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axolotl

Anfibios - Wikipedia, a enciclopedia libreAnfibios - Wikipedia, a enciclopedia libre

Familia Ambystomatidae. *Familia Amphiumidae. *Familia Cryptobranchidae. *Familia Dicamptodontidae. *Familia Hynobiidae. * ...
more infohttps://gl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anfibio

Axolotl | Utahs Hogle ZooAxolotl | Utah's Hogle Zoo

The axolotl will stay in its larval form, retaining features such as gills, all of its life into adulthood. These larval form adults are termed paedomorphic. Should the axolotl undergo metamorphosis (triggered by the drying up of pools), it is transformed into the Mexican salamander. Somehow Lake Xochimilco environment favors paedomorphosis, perhaps due to an insufficient quantity of iodine in the water, which is necessary to produce the hormone thyroxine. (Thyroxine is produced in the animals pituitary. The tissues are sensitive to this, thereby triggering metamorphosis). Or it may be due to cold lake temperatures in which thyroxine has little effect. ...
more infohttp://www.hoglezoo.org/meet_our_animals/animal_finder/Axolotl/

Small-mouthed salamander (Ambystoma texanum) longevity, ageing, and life historySmall-mouthed salamander (Ambystoma texanum) longevity, ageing, and life history

Family: Ambystomatidae. Genus: Ambystoma. Species. Ambystoma texanum. Common name. Small-mouthed salamander. Synonyms. ...
more infohttp://genomics.senescence.info/species/entry.php?species=Ambystoma_texanum
  • The Ambystomatidae are also members of suborder Salamandroidea, which includes all the salamanders capable of internal fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • e) In the family Ambystomatidae: Mole salamanders. (wa.gov)
  • After spending most of the year underground, these salamanders-spotteds, Jeffersons, tigers and others of the family Ambystomatidae-take advantage of wet, moderate conditions to emerge and hightail it (relatively speaking) toward woodland depressions called vernal pools. (nwf.org)