Ambystomatidae: A family of the class Urodela which includes 4 living genera, about 33 species, and occurs only in North America. Adults are usually terrestrial, but the larval forms are aquatic.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Ambystoma mexicanum: A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Tigers: The species Panthera tigris, a large feline inhabiting Asia. Several subspecies exist including the Siberian tiger and Sumatran tiger.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Iguanas: Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.Liquidambar: A plant genus of the family HAMAMELIDACEAE. The sap is a source of storax, which should not be confused with the similar named STYRAX genus.Acer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.Magnolia: A plant genus of the family MAGNOLIACEAE. The germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones costunolide, parthenolide, and costunolide diepoxide have been isolated from the leaves. Bark contains honokiol and magnolol. Parts are an ingredient of Banxia Houpo Tang.Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.Fraxinus: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.Nyssa: A plant genus of the family NYSSACEAE (or Cornaceae by some).Styrax: A plant genus of the family STYRACACEAE. Sap of these Asian trees are a source of a balsam (BALSAMS). This styrax balsam is 3/4 coniferyl benzoate, 1/8 free BENZOIC ACID, along with benzyl cinnamate, vanillin, and TRITERPENES.Rodent Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous rodents through chemical, biological, or other means.NevadaHalorubrum: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoorganotrophic and strictly aerobic. They have been isolated from multiple hypersaline environments that vary widely in chemical and physical properties.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.LouisianaBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Puberty, Delayed: The lack of development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in a population. Delayed puberty can be classified by defects in the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the GONADS. These patients will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty whereas patients with SEXUAL INFANTILISM will not.New Orleans: City in Orleans Parish (county), largest city in state of LOUISIANA. It is located between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)BooksComputer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Rorippa: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that includes several marshy plants. The common name of watercress is also used for NASTURTIUM & TROPAEOLUM.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Valerian: A plant genus of the family VALERIANACEAE, order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is best known for the sedative use and valepotriate content of the roots. It is sometimes called Garden Heliotrope but is unrelated to true Heliotrope (HELIOTROPIUM).Lubricants: Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.FloridaInformation Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.

Relative contributions of bipolar cell and amacrine cell inputs to light responses of ON, OFF and ON-OFF retinal ganglion cells. (1/6)

Light-evoked postsynaptic currents (lePSCs) were recorded from ON, OFF and ON-OFF ganglion cells in dark-adapted salamander retinal slices under voltage clamp conditions, and the cell morphology was examined using Lucifer yellow fluorescence with confocal microscopy. The current-voltage relations of the lePSCs in all three types of ganglion cells are approximately linear within the cells' physiological range. The average chloride/cation conductance ratio (Deltag(Cl)(NR)/Deltag(C)(NR)) of the lePSCs is near 3, suggesting that ganglion cell light responses are associated with a greater postsynaptic conductance change at the amacrine-ganglion cell inhibitory synapses than at the bipolar-ganglion cell excitatory synapses. By comparing the charge transfer of lePSCs in normal Ringer's and in picrotoxin+strychnine+Imidazole-4-acidic acid, we found that the GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine-bipolar cell feedback synapses decreased the light-induced glutamatergic vesicle release from bipolar cells to all ganglion cells, and the degree of release reduction varied widely from ganglion cell to ganglion cell, with a range of 3-28 fold.  (+info)

The chromaffin cells of urodele amphibians. (2/6)

Different conditions in the arrangement of the adrenal gland are observed in urodeles. The gland consists of islets scattered on the ventral surface of the kidneys, the amount, size and position of the islets varying consistently within different families and even within genera. The infraordinal variation also extends to the fine structure of the gland, as observed in 14 species belonging to 6 different families. The ultrastructural characteristics of chromaffin cells and their relationships with interrenal cells appear to be related to the phyletic position. In primitive urodeles (Sirenidae, Proteidae) the chromaffin cells are isolated or in small groups, mostly separated from interrenal cells and often in contact with renal cells. In neourodeles (Amphiumidae, Ambystomidae, Salamandridae, Plethodontidae) the chromaffin cells appear generally grouped and intermingled with steroidogenic cells. Some cytological characteristics of chromaffin cells, such as nerve supply and the shape and electron density of chromaffin granules exhibit a variability related to phyletic position.  (+info)

The transplantation of eyes to genetically eyeless salamanders: visual projections and somatosensory interactions. (3/6)

Eyes were transplanted from normal axolotls to eyeless mutants, and several anatomical and physiological observations were made on the central visual centers in these animals. Some central projections were bilateral to the optic centers of the thalamus and midbrain, some traveled ipsilaterally to the same centers, and the rest grew down the spinal cord. This is similar to what has been found in eyes transplanted to normal hosts. The type of projection made in eyeless hosts correlated with the site of nerve entry into the CNS as in control hosts. Thus, the transplanted projection did not appear to be influenced by the host's optic nerves and tracts or lack of them. In spite of the transplanted optic fibers' taking abnormal paths, they made normally organized topographic maps on the host tecta. The visual and somatosensory topographic projections to the tectum were found to be in near perfect register normally, but in eyeless mutants to which rotated eyes had been transplanted, they were not. Acetylcholinesterase activity, found in the primary optic neuropil in normal animals, was greatly diminished in eyeless mutants, yet normal mutants with grafted eyes. Finally, transplantation of an eye to an eyeless mutant corrected the abnormally dark pigmentation caused by eyelessness but only in those cases of bilateral central innervation.  (+info)

Pigment patterns of larval salamanders (Ambystomatidae, Salamandridae): the role of the lateral line sensory system and the evolution of pattern-forming mechanisms. (4/6)

In many species of salamanders, pigment cells derived from the neural crest give rise to a horizontal stripe pattern in hatchling larvae. A defining element of these horizontal stripe patterns is a region over the middle of the myotomes that is relatively free of melanophores. This study shows that formation of a "melanophore-free region" and horizontal stripe pattern in Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum (family Ambystomatidae) correlates with the development of the trunk lateral line sensory system. Moreover, prevention of lateral line development results in greater densities of melanophores in the middle of the flank, essentially eliminating the melanophore-free region in this taxon. A phylogenetic survey also revealed that ablation of the lateral lines has qualitatively similar effects on melanophores in seven of eight additional taxa (Ambystomatidae: A. barbouri, A. maculatum, A. talpoideum; Salamandridae: Notophthalmus viridescens, Pleurodeles waltl, Taricha granulosa, T. rivularis). In Taricha torosa, however, a superficially similar melanophore-free region forms prior to lateral line development, and ablation of the lateral lines does not perturb the horizontal stripe pattern. Finally, heterospecific grafting experiments demonstrated that T. torosa lateral lines are competent to generate a melanophore-free region, and T. torosa melanophores are competent to respond to cues associated with the lateral lines. These results indicate that lateral line-dependent pattern-forming mechanisms are common and probably ancestral within the families Ambystomatidae and Salamandridae and suggest that these ancestral mechanisms have been retained in T. torosa as redundant, lateral line-dependent mechanisms for stripe formation have evolved.  (+info)

Large, rapidly evolving intergenic spacers in the mitochondrial DNA of the salamander family Ambystomatidae (Amphibia: Caudata). (5/6)

We report the presence, in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of all of the sexual species of the salamander family Ambystomatidae, of a shared 240-bp intergenic spacer between tRNAThr and tRNAPro. We place the intergenic spacer in context by presenting the sequence of 1,746 bp of mtDNA from Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum, describe the nucleotide composition of the intergenic spacer in all of the species of Ambystomatidae, and compare it to other coding and noncoding regions of Ambystoma and several other vertebrate mtDNAs. The nucleotide substitution rate of the intergenic spacer is approximately three times faster than the substitution rate of the control region, as shown by comparisons among six Ambystoma macrodactylum sequences and eight members of the Ambystoma tigrinum complex. We also found additional inserts within the intergenic spacers of five species that varied from 87-444 bp in length. The presence of the intergenic spacer in all sexual species of Ambystomatidae suggests that it arose at least 20 MYA and has been a stable component of the ambystomatid mtDNA ever since. As such, it represents one of the few examples of a large and persistent intergenic spacer in the mtDNA of any vertebrate clade.  (+info)

Intraspecific heterochrony and life history evolution: decoupling somatic and sexual development in a facultatively paedomorphic salamander. (6/6)

Morphological features such as size and shape are the most common focus in studies of heterochronic change. Frequently, these easily observed and measured features are treated as a major target of selection, potentially ignoring traits more closely related to fitness. We question the primacy of morphological data in studies of heterochrony, and instead suggest that principal sources of fitness, such as life history characteristics, are not only the chief targets of selection, but changes in them may necessitate changes in other (subordinate) elements of the organism. We use an experimental approach to investigate the timing of metamorphosis and maturation in a facultatively paedomorphic salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum. We determine that individuals possessing the well-known paedomorphic phenotype are peramorphic with regard to maturation, through the process of predisplacement (an earlier onset of maturation). Combining the well studied ecology of dimorphic A. talpoideum populations with theories of heterochronic mechanisms and life history evolution, we conclude that age at maturation is the principal target of selection and that morphological changes are secondary effects. Increased attention to the intimate connection between life history evolution and heterochrony is the most promising route to a better understanding of both.  (+info)

The mole salamanders (genus Ambystoma) are a group of advanced salamanders endemic to North America, the only genus in the family Ambystomatidae. The group has become famous due to the presence of the axolotl (A. mexicanum), widely used in research, and the tiger salamander (A. tigrinum, A. mavortium) which is the official amphibian of many states, and often sold as a pet. Terrestrial mole salamanders are identified by having wide, protruding eyes, prominent costal grooves, and thick arms. Most have vivid patterning on dark backgrounds, with marks ranging from deep blue spots to large yellow bars depending on the species. Terrestrial adults spend most of their lives underground in burrows, either of their own making or abandoned by other animals. Some northern species may hibernate in these burrows throughout the winter. They live alone and feed on any available invertebrate. Adults spend little time in the water, only returning to the ponds of their birth to breed. All mole salamanders are ...
Streamside salamanders are members of the Mole-salamander family (Ambystomatidae), so called because of their habit of living in mole (and other small mammal) tunnels, often up to a few meters under ground. Related species include marbled salamanders (A. opacum), spotted .salamanders (A. maculatum), and Jefferson salamanders (A. jeffersonianum). In latin, Amby means "a cup" and stoma means "mouth." This refers to their wide cup-shaped mouths designed for gobbling up invertebrates and maybe the other larval amphibians that they eat when they themsleves are larvae. (These wide mouths also make them look like theyre constantly grinning.) Most of their adult lives (perhaps 6-15 years), are spent underground in well defined territories. The other mole salamanders are known to partake in mass migrations during breeding season in which each individual crawls out of his/her mole tunnel to walk hundreds of meters downhill to a particular breeding pond. After a week or so, the salamanders disperse from ...
The Small-mouth salamander (Ambystoma texanum) is a mole salamander species and a member of the Ambystomatidae family. The species may also be referred to as the Texas salamander, the Porphyry salamander or the narrow-mouthed salamander.. The Small-mouthed salamander can be found in the central United States. The species ranges from Michigan to Nebraska, south to Texas and east to Tennessee. The Small-mouth salamander has also been found in Ontario, Canada.. The Small-mouth salamander inhabits moist areas that are relatively close to a water source. When on land, wet prairie, meadow, swamp and damp forest are all preferred habitats. A nocturnal species, the salamander remains hidden beneath logs, rock and leaf litter or in small mammal burrows.. The Small-mouth salamander commonly reaches lengths between 4.5 and 7 inches. Typical coloration is black or dark brown and its belly side is black. Light grey or silver spots or flecks are found on its dorsal (upper) side. Often male small-mouthed ...
Complex cognition and relatively large brains are distributed across various taxa, and many primarily verbal hypotheses exist to explain such diversity. Yet, mathematical approaches formalizing verbal hypotheses would help deepen the understanding of brain and cognition evolution. With this aim, we combine elements of life history and metabolic theories to formulate a metabolically explicit mathematical model for brain life history evolution. We assume that some of the brains energetic expense is due to production (learning) and maintenance (memory) of energy-extraction skills (or cognitive abilities, knowledge, information, etc.). We also assume that individuals use such skills to extract energy from the environment, and can allocate this energy to grow and maintain the body, including brain and reproductive tissues. The model can be used to ask what fraction of growth energy should be allocated at each age, given natural selection, to growing brain and other tissues under various biological ...
Disclosed is a photolithographic pattern-forming material capable of giving a fine patterned resist layer rapidly and being used repeatedly. The pattern-forming material is a multilayered body comprising a substrate and a photoresist layer thereon which is overlaid with a three-layered composite film for near-field light generation consisting of an intermediate layer of a non-linear optical material such as antimony sandwiched between two dielectric layers. When irradiated with active rays focused on the optically nonlinear layer, a fine optical window or light scattering point is formed therein where a near-field light is generated to pattern-wise expose the photoresist layer.
Discovery of Anesthesia is one of the most important advancement of modern medicine. Attempts at producing a state of general anesthesia can be traced throughout recorded history in the writings of the ancient Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Indians, and Chinese. During the Middle Ages, which correspond roughly to what is sometimes referred to as the Islamic Golden Age, scientists and other scholars made significant advances in science and medicine in the Muslim…
And, more importantly, are all peoples equally suited, in a neuroendocrinological sense, to live under the regimentation which is bound to come in a vastly overcrowded world? These are questions that I cannot answer, and the very mention of them is considered indecent in my country. Do the minds of all races work in the same fashion, do not their emotions differ with differences in their hormonal peculiarities, and is it not possible that cultures vary to a certain extent in terms of these variations? These questions require research, and the results may mar the vision of a single world culture. People are genetically and culturally different, and short of a global police state run by persons yet to be determined, entrusted with the power to perform chromosomal surgery and interspecific transplants, they will remain different for a long time to come. If the world is to become united, the union must be a loose confederation of very different units, or it will not long endure ...
Some abstracts and videos from the 2013 Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology. Genetic genealogy comes of age: advances in the use of deep-rooted pedigrees in human evolutionary research (video) Author(s): Larmuseau, MHD, Van Geystelen, A, Decorte, R Summary: Research on the recent human evolution will benefit from the implementation of extended genetic genealogical data. The approach to combine deep-rooted pedigrees with genetic information advances the understanding of changes in the human population genetic structure during the last centuries. This recent advance is mainly based on the extensive growth of whole genome sequencing data and available genealogical data of high quality. Moreover, according to the latest genetic genealogical research the historical non-paternity rate in Western Europe is estimated around 1% per generation within the last four centuries, which means that the expected relationship between the legal genealogy and the genetics of DNA donors exists. ...
There are some striking patterns in the results already. 85% of the A00 so far are from the Bangwa (Nweh) people, and 15% from the Nkongho-Mbo. This is despite the fact that nearly 57% of the samples collected were from Mbo, and only 37% were from Bangwa. Once all the results have been fully tabulated, we can provide more complete statistics. It will take a while to transcribe all the rich data from those handwritten sheets into electronic spreadsheets. [. . .] Whats next? Matthew would like to head back to the field quite soon, in the second half of October, when the school where he teaches has a break. Our current plan is for him to visit the region of the Bamileke people. Matthew, an ethno-historian, has said "The similarity in names, language, dancing style and all other aspects of life suggest that the Bangwa are 90 percent Bamileke." By testing a good number of Bamileke, well be able to see whether the heritage they share includes A00, or not. It is possible that the A00 among the Bangwa ...
Abstract: Many complex mesoscopic systems, ranging from synthetic colloids to active biological cells, exhibit a rich variety of pattern-forming behavior. In this talk, I will show you how anisotropy in two model systems, anisotropic shaped colloids and bacterial communities, affect complex pattern formation. During the directed self-assembly of colloidal systems, shape anisotropy can greatly influence resulting structures. We have developed a technique called roughness controlled depletion attraction which allows us to probe the phase space of 2D Brownian systems for a variety of anisotropic shapes such as triangles, squares, and other polygons. We have discovered several unanticipated effects, such as local chiral symmetry breaking in a triatic liquid crystal phase of uniform triangles. Anisotropy also plays a large role in the formation of bacterial communities called biofilms. Biofilms are a major human health hazard as well as being an impediment in many industrial and medical settings. By ...
Resembling neatly stacked rows of driftwood abandoned by receding tides, particles left by a confined, evaporating droplet can create beautiful and complex patterns. The natural, pattern-forming process could find use in ...
As a recent Miller Fellow, I have become interested in studying and developing biological genetic circuits that can perform programmable computations. While I dont think cellular based computing can rival the speed of silicon computing, I do believe that a cellular system that can be programmed is an extremely powerful tool for applications we can only begin to imagine. In its simplest incarnation, programmatic control of gene expression would be an invaluable tool for metabolic engineers trying to coax bacteria into producing drugs. More creatively, we might see bacterial cells that can form patterns with each other, and carry out instructions once specific patterns are formed. Recent work suggests that these goals are indeed feasible, but that we are in the exciting beginnings of this adventure! For more information, see the work of Jay Keasling on producing anti-malarial drugs inside bacteria, and Ron Weiss on pattern-forming bacteria. In addition to scientific research, I am involved in ...
Shifts in ecological affinity correlate with changes in evolutionary regime in Xiphosura. Clades that invade nonmarine environments exhibit distinct differences in the prevalence of heterochronic traits in comparison to those that inhabit the marine realm (Fig. 6), with Austrolimulidae demonstrating increased prevalence of peramorphy, while paedomorphy is prevalent among Bellinurina (Fig. 7). Paedomorphic traits have long been recognized in bellinurines (Haug et al. Reference Haug, Van Roy, Leipner, Funch, Rudkin, Schöllmann and Haug2012; Lamsdell in press), including their retention of long, gracile prosomal appendages into adulthood; visible opisthosomal segmentation; and elongated dorsal prosomal shield spines. Austrolimulids, meanwhile, develop elongate and splayed prosomal genal spines; reduce the size of their opisthosomal tergopleura; and exhibit enlarged, posteriorly positioned lateral eyes-all of which are recognized as peramorphic conditions herein. Interestingly, lineages that make ...
Definitions and overview of the history evolution, natural selection, and evolution controversies. Includes brief mentions of evolution scientists.
Duellman, W. E. 1993. Amphibian Species of the World: Additions and Corrections. Univ. of Kansas Printing Service. Lawrence, KS.. Duellman, W. E. and L. Trueb. 1986. Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World. Allen Press and the Association of Systematics Collections. Lawrence, Kansas.. Hecht, M. K. and J. L. Edwards. 1977. The methodology of phylogenetic inference above the species level. Pp. 3-51 in M. K. Hecht, P. C. Goody and B. M. Hecht (eds.) Major Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution. Plenum Press, New York.. Larson, A. 1991. A molecular perspective on the evolutionary relationships of the salamander families. Evolutionary Biology 25:211-277.. Larson, A. and W. W. Dimmick. 1993. Phylogenetic relationships of the salamander families: A analysis of congruence among morphological and molecular characters. Herpetological Monographs 7:77-93.. Larson, A., D. W. Weisrock, and K. H. Kozak. 2003. Phylogenetic systematics of salamanders (Amphibia: ...
Duellman, W. E. 1993. Amphibian Species of the World: Additions and Corrections. Univ. of Kansas Printing Service. Lawrence, KS.. Duellman, W. E. and L. Trueb. 1986. Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World. Allen Press and the Association of Systematics Collections. Lawrence, Kansas.. Hecht, M. K. and J. L. Edwards. 1977. The methodology of phylogenetic inference above the species level. Pp. 3-51 in M. K. Hecht, P. C. Goody and B. M. Hecht (eds.) Major Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution. Plenum Press, New York.. Larson, A. 1991. A molecular perspective on the evolutionary relationships of the salamander families. Evolutionary Biology 25:211-277.. Larson, A. and W. W. Dimmick. 1993. Phylogenetic relationships of the salamander families: A analysis of congruence among morphological and molecular characters. Herpetological Monographs 7:77-93.. Larson, A., D. W. Weisrock, and K. H. Kozak. 2003. Phylogenetic systematics of salamanders (Amphibia: ...
en] Current theories on the alternative mating tactics suppose that individuals may opt for particular behavioral patterns depending of their morphological status. Facultative paedomorphosis in newts and salamanders is a suitable process to explore this question because it implies the coexistence of two different morphological morphs differing by the presence of gills and epigamic traits. The aim of this study was to find out whether paedomorphs and metamorphs use similar tactics to attract mates in the presence of a rival and whether there are differences in sexual activity and success between alternative morphs. Sexual interactions in triadic encounters were staged and analyzed in a standardized experimental design. The two kinds of males did not differ in terms of sexual activity, spermatophore deposition or female responsiveness. Both rival paedomorphic and metamorphic males exhibited sexual interference, but in most encounters, intruders just disturbed the courting pair. Sperm transfer ...
Salamandridae is a family of salamanders consisting of true salamanders and newts. Currently, 74 species (with more expected) have been identified in the Northern Hemisphere - Europe, Asia, the northern tip of Africa, and North America. Salamandrids are distinguished from other salamanders by the lack of rib or costal grooves along the sides of their bodies and by their rough skin. Their skin is very granular because of the number of poison glands. They also lack nasolabial grooves. Most species of Salamandridae have moveable eyelids but lack lacrimal glands. Nearly all salamandrids produce a potent toxin in their skin, with some species being deadly to many other animal species. With a few exceptions, salamandrids have patterns of bright and contrasting colours, most of these are to warn potential predators of their toxicity. They have four well-developed limbs, with four toes on the fore limbs, and (in most cases) five toes on the hind limbs. They vary from 7 to 30 cm (3 to 12 in) in ...
A sexually dimorphic characteristic, the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D ratio), has been shown to reflect the prenatal concentration of sex steroid hormones and to correlate with many personality, physiological, and life history traits. The correlations are usually stronger for the right than the left hand. Most studies have shown that the 2D:4D ratio does not vary with age or postnatal concentration of sex steroid hormones. Recently, a strong association between left hand 2D:4D ratio and infection with a common human parasite Toxoplasma has been reported. We hypothesized that the confounding effect of Toxoplasma infection on left hand 2D:4D ratio could be responsible for the stronger association between different traits and right hand rather than left hand 2D:4D ratio. This confounding effect of toxoplasmosis could also be responsible for the difficulty in finding an association between 2D:4D ratio and age or postnatal steroid hormone concentration. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the ...
Crucial for the dorsoventral patterning is the BMP / Chordi n interaction (Dpp / short gastrulation in Drosophila). For some systems there are indications components have properties as we expect for pattern-forming systems. BMP and Chordin inhibit each other ([8-12], for review (13,14]). Two components that mutually inhibit each other behave as if positive autoregulation is involved. For instance, an increase of the first component leads to an enforced repression of the second, which, in turn, leads to a further increase of the first as if this substance would be directly positively autoregulating. To obtain a balanced activation of BMP and Chordin at opposite positions, a third component is anticipated that acts antagonistically on one of these indirectly self-enhancing reactions. A candidate is the Anti-Dorsalizing Morphogenetic Protein (ADMP) [15]. Its properties have been frequently regarded as counterintuitive: being expressed in the organizer, but its function is to reduce organizer ...
gene expression profiles (log10 relative concentrations) in both X. laevis and X. tropicalis is shown fitted by sigmoids.(C) Plots of t1 (time of induction) for pairs of genes with ,0.8 goodness of fit in both species. The green line is unity and the red is fitted to the data.(D) Plots of h1 (range of expression). Same format as (C).(E and F) Heterochrony/heterometry phase-plane for families of transcription factors (E) and several signaling pathways (F). The circles and lines indicate the mean and standard deviation of each gene sets heterochronies and heterometries. The transcription factor families are helix-loop-helix (PF00010, 27 genes with sigmoids), Homeobox (IPR001356, 74 genes), Zinc finger (C2H2 type, IPR007087, 24 genes), T-box (IPR001699, 5 genes), Fox ...
Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesnt cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Wielstra, B., Litvinchuk, S. N., Naumov, B., Tzankov, N., Arntzen, J. W. (2013): A revised taxonomy of crested newts in the Triturus karelinii group (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae), with the description of a new species. Zootaxa 3682 (3): 441-453, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3682.3.5 ...
Welcome to the Comparative Functional Genomics Laboratory at the University of Guelph led by Dr. Andreas Heyland ([email protected]). Dr. Heylands laboratory uses novel functional genomics approaches to study the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of aquatic invertebrates. Specifically he investigates the function and evolution of hormonal and neurotransmitter signaling systems in the regulation of development and metamorphosis. His research includes Evolutionary development studies of marine invertebrate metamorphosis, eco-toxicogenomic approached to understand endocrine disruption in aquatic ecosystems and water remediation technologies. These projects are integrated with several national and international collaborations ranging form basic scientific work to industry partnerships.. Our research program includes the following projects:. 1) Application of Functional Genomics Approaches to Emerging Models. 2) Mechanisms of Life History Evolution. 3) Iodine and thyroid hormone function in ...
A major goal of genomic and reproductive biology is to understand the evolution of sex determination and sex chromosomes. Species of the 2 genera of the Salamander family Proteidae - |i|Necturus
This is primarily an old world family with six representatives in North America (Stebbins 1985), one of which can be found in Idaho, Taricha granulosa (Rough-skinned Newt). Characteristics of the family include vomerine teeth in two long rows (Goin and Goin 1971),the absence of a nasolabial groove, no parasphenoid_teeth ...
Approximately 55 extant species in 15 genera are recognized in this morphologically and behaviorally diverse family of salamanders. Geographic distribution is the largest of any salamander family, with four disjunct centers. Salamandrids occur primarily in Europe (throughout most of Europe, South into northern Africa and east into Asia), and Asia (especially India, Southern China, and mainland Southeast Asia). Two genera are endemic to North America.. The salamandrids are informally subdivided into two subgroups, the "true salamanders" (including the genera Chioglossa, Mertensiella, and Salamandra), and the newts (the remaining genera). The "true salamanders" tend to be smooth skinned, while the newts are unlike all other salamanders in having rough skin that is not slimy.. Most adult salamandrids are small, rarely exceeding 20 cm in length, and brightly colored. All salamandrids have toxic skin secretions (some produce tetrodotoxins), and many have bright warning coloration that is used in ...
Zhiyong YUAN, Ke JIANG, Limin DING, Liang ZHANG and Jing CHE, 2013. A New Newt of the Genus Cynops (Caudata: Salamandridae) from Guangdong, China.
Beside our main interest in rather large-scale biogeography and phylogeography of the Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East and Mediterranean, we also conduct a research on the Central European (mainly Czech and Slovak) reptiles and amphibians. In collaboration with the team from the Comenius University in Bratislava and National Museum in Prague we study population genetics and morphological variation in the contact zone of two slow-worm species (Anguis fragilis and A. colchica). We also found a unique paedomorphic population of the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris) in Central Bohemia, Czech Republic:. Gvoždík V., Javůrková V., Kopecký O., 2013: First evidence of a paedomorphic population of the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris) in the Czech Republic. Acta Herpetologica 8 (1): 53- ...
Fire salamander (salmandra salamandra from family Salamandridae) live an area Middle and South Europe. HD Stock Footage Clip. Medium shot.
Fire salamander (salmandra salamandra from family Salamandridae) live an area Middle and South Europe. HD Stock Footage Clip. Medium shot.
Yang, D.-d., J.-p. Jiang, Y.-h. Shen, and D.-b. Fei. 2014. A new species of the genus Tylototriton (Urodela: Salamandridae) from northeastern Hunan Province, China. Asian Herpetological Research 5: 1-11 ...
Skull is one of the commonest parts of the skeleton used to opine on the sex of an individual. Sexual dimorphism is insignificant in the pre-pubertal age group. Although adult skulls show a few non-metrical and metrical differences, there is paedomorphic tendency in the human skulls of either sex (William PL et al 1995). Absolute sexual differences seldom exist (Bass 1955). Further, hormones, nutritional status, cultural differences and environmental factors affect these variations. Skulls from different geographical areas vary much. Skull shapes may also vary within a population and even among the closely related.. Traditionally sexing of the skull has been based on the non-metrical traits (Krogman 1962, Berry 1975). Non-metrical differences are mainly in facial skeleton, vault and mandible.. There are a few studies, which have used exhaustive list of metrical parameters for sexing of the skulls (Keen 1950, Hanihara 1959, Steyn and Iscan 1997, Stewart 1948). Keen (1950) has chosen a large ...
Cryogenic 6536 (MCZ:Cryo:6536); Pachytriton granulosus; Asia: China: Zhejiang; Lishui, Mt. Jiulong; Animalia Chordata Amphibia Lissamphibia Caudata Salamandroidea Salamandridae Pachytriton granulosus;
Cryogenic 6568 (MCZ:Cryo:6568); Pachytriton granulosus; Asia: China: Zhejiang; Lishui, Jiyun; Animalia Chordata Amphibia Lissamphibia Caudata Salamandroidea Salamandridae Pachytriton granulosus;
ABSTRACT: The yellow-spotted mountain newt Neurergus microspilotus (Caudata: Salamandridae) is listed as Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In spite of its conservation status and laws protecting it, the species continues to decline in the wild. A captive breeding program was successfully established to support the species recovery. To learn more about the species ecology and winter mortality, 24 juveniles reared in captivity were released on 4 occasions in a small spring enclosure from July to September 2012 and monitored until December, when they disappeared for overwintering. In 12 visits to the site before and after overwintering, a total of 31 individuals were identified. Based on an average diurnal detection probability for this newt (0.61 ± 0.19 SD), the observed newts during the pre-overwintering period were estimated to represent 6.5 to 41.0% of the reintroduced newts. The newts observed after overwintering were 13 to 28% of the reintroduced newts. This ...
A molecular phylogeny of the salamandrid genus Neurergus was reconstructed based on two sections of the 12S and 16S mitochondrial ribosomal genes (810 bp), 19 allozyme and three plasma protein loci. When representative species of all closely related salamandrid groups were included, mitochondrial data provided evidence for monophyly of Neurergus within the Salamandridae. Mitochondrial and allozyme data showed homogenous intrageneric tree topologies, but different estimates of times of separation. We calibrated the evolutionary rate to 0.46% pairwise sequence divergence per million years. Accordingly Neurergus diverged 18 million years ago (mya) from a lineage that comprised Euproctus asper and large bodied newts of the genus Triturus. A split around 11 mya produced two major clades within Neurergus. Further separation within the southern 'N. crocatus-clade' (comprising N. crocatus, N. microspilotus and N. kaiseri) occurred ca. 5 mya. The northern 'N. strauchii-clade' separated into N
Fascinating! This is consistent with the integral role of the timing of developmental processes in the development of phenotypic traits. There is resurgence in evolutionary biology (including within the neurosciences--which I discuss in my recent JevoHealth paper on play and human brain development) in recognizing the role of heterochrony (changes in timing of developmental processes in a descendant relative to its ancestors) in the evolution of new or altered traits. Evolution acts most powerfully through that which is easiest to change--which often turns out to be the timing of developmentally-programmed traits. If the modern world keeps up its leptinogenic environment, we may find the trait of early sexual maturity become canalized in our species. I wonder what the long-term consequences of this would be for human society and civilization. Sounds like a fascinating topic for a sci fi story, because it will take too many generations for the human species to lose its phenotypic plasticity in ...
And that leads me to discussing one of the most challenging and confusing salamanders of southern Ontario: Jeffersons Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum). The Jeffs is largely restricted to south central Ontario, although ongoing research has had it turn up slightly beyond that area. It is a large salamander, with adults reaching 18-20 cm in total length. It is dark bluish black, with a few lighter whitish-bluish flecks, but not as large or as brightly marked as the Blue-spotted Salamander. What makes things especially challenging in identifying these salamanders in the field is a result of the unusual reproductive process and ultimate genetics of these two species. They hybridize, and there is a broad zone of hybridization. One can really only tell what kind one is by doing DNA analysis, which for these salamanders requires snipping a small tip of the tail, running it through a blender of sorts, and then examining the DNA. There are many variations of the genetic make-up of these hybrids, ...
So a new study conducted by UC Davis research revealed interesting things from interbred salamanders, results that go against what was the dominant
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ontogeny discombobulates phylogeny. T2 - Paedomorphosis and higher-level salamander relationships. AU - Wiens, John J. AU - Bonett, Ronald M.. AU - Chippindale, Paul T.. PY - 2005/2. Y1 - 2005/2. N2 - Evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo") has revolutionized evolutionary biology but has had relatively little impact on systematics. We show that similar large-scale developmental changes in distantly related lineages can dramatically mislead phylogenetic analyses based on morphological data. Salamanders are important model systems in many fields of biology and are of special interest in that many species are paedomorphic and thus never complete metamorphosis. A recent study of higher-level salamander phylogeny placed most paedomorphic families in a single clade based on morphological data. Here, we use new molecular and morphological data to show that this result most likely was caused by the misleading effects of paedomorphosis. We also provide a well-supported estimate of ...
Ozark blind cave salamanders, known also as ghost lizards and grotto salamanders, live in subterranean systems in the Ozark Mountains -- and nowhere else in the world. Theyre pretty rare, and they often dwell in almost inaccessible caverns, so scientists still are learning about the behavior and quirks of this ...
Digital Morphology account of the extremely minute salamander, Thorius minutissimus, featuring CT-generated animations of the whole specimen
BACKGROUND: The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is considered a hopeful monster because it exhibits an adaptive and derived mode of development - paedomorphosis - that has evolved rapidly and independently among tiger salamanders. Unlike related tiger salamanders that undergo metamorphosis, axolotls retain larval morphological traits into adulthood and thus present an adult body plan that differs dramatically from the ancestral (metamorphic) form. The basis of paedomorphic development was investigated by comparing temporal patterns of gene transcription between axolotl and tiger salamander larvae (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) that typically undergo a metamorphosis. RESULTS: Transcript abundances from whole brain and pituitary were estimated via microarray analysis on four different days post hatching (42, 56, 70, 84 dph) and regression modeling was used to independently identify genes that were differentially expressed as a function of time in both species. Collectively, more differentially
Palaeo- and archaeostomatopods (Hoplocarida:Crustacea) from the Bear Gulch Limestone, Mississippian (Namurian), of central Montana, Ronald A. Jenner, Cees H.J. Hof, Frederick R. Schram [TOC] [Abstract] [Article] ...
An endangered Texas salamander hangs on thanks to a grab bag of protective laws. But will rampant development and a Trump administration spell its doom?
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, it is known from fewer than five locations, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat and in the number of mature individuals ...
Butler, R. J. and Goswami, A. (2008) Body size evolution in Mesozoic birds: little evidence for Copes rule. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 21 (6). pp. 1673-1682. DOI 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01594.x Sanchez-Villagra, M. R. and Goswami, A. and Weisbecker, V. and Mock, O. and Kuratani, S. (2008) Conserved relative timing of cranial ossification patterns in early mammalian evolution. Evolution & Development, 10 (5). pp. 519-530. DOI 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2008.00267.x Goswami, A. and Weisbecker, V. and Sanchez-Villagra, MR (2008) Developmental Modularity and the Marsupial-Placental Dichotomy. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. Weisbecker, V. and Goswami, A. and Wroe, S. and Sanchez-Villagra, M. R. (2008) Ossification heterochrony in the therian postcranial skeleton and the marsupial-placental. Evolution, 62 (8). pp. 2027-2041. DOI 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00424.x ...
Japanese giant salamanders are the second-largest salamander species in the world. These long-lived salamanders lurk in rocky, fast-flowing streams in Japan. They have a single lung that they use to control buoyancy, not to breathe.
Ecology of coastal giant salamanders, (Dicamptodon tenebrosus). Research into the genetic structure and history of giant salamander populations in the United States and Canada.
A. macrodactylum is a member of the Ambystomatidae, also known as the mole salamanders. The Ambystomatidae originated ... Ambystomatidae was isolated to the southeast of the mid-Continental or Western Interior Seaway during the Cretaceous (~145.5-66 ... Larson A (1996). "Ambystomatidae". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2010-01-14. Stebbins RA (2003). A Field Guide to Western ... The Ambystomatidae are also members of suborder Salamandroidea, which includes all the salamanders capable of internal ...
Ambystomatidae and Dicamptodontidae. J. Morphol. 212:305-322. Sever, D. M. 1983b. Eurycea junaluska. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. ...
Ambystomatidae at Curlie. *Follow the Eggs, Hatchlings and Juveniles. *Mating Dance and Laying Eggs ...
Ambystomatidae)". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 100A (3): 653-660. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(91)90385-P.. ...
Ambystomatidae. Mole salamanders. Marbled Salamander (Ambystoma opacum). Amphiumidae. Amphiumas or Congo eels. Two-toed ...
Data related to Ambystomatidae at Wikispecies Media related to Ambystomatidae at Wikimedia Commons Tree of Life: Ambystomatidae ... In 2006, a large study of amphibian systematics placed Dicamptodon back within Ambystomatidae, based on cladistic analysis. ... Rhyacosiredon was previously considered a separate genus within the family Ambystomatidae. However, cladistic analysis of the ... the only genus in the family Ambystomatidae. The group has become famous due to the presence of the axolotl (A. mexicanum), ...
... is a species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family. It is endemic to Mexico. Its natural habitats ...
Except for their size, they are similar to the mole salamander family (Ambystomatidae), in which they were originally included ... Ambystomatidae)" (PDF). Miscellaneous Publications Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, No. 149. Retrieved 2011-09-29. ...
Ambystomatidae)" (PDF). Miscellaneous Publications Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, No. 149. Retrieved 2011-09-29. ...
Familia Ambystomatidae. *Familia Amphiumidae. *Familia Cryptobranchidae. *Familia Dicamptodontidae. *Familia Hynobiidae. * ...
Ambystomatidae). The Southwestern Naturalist, 28(1), 100-102. cited at [1] Anderson, J. D. (1975). Ambystoma ordinarium. ...
... is a mole salamander in the family Ambystomatidae. This species, typically 4.1-8.9 cm (1 3/5-3½ in) long when mature, is ...
Family: Mole Salamanders Ambystomatidae Northwestern Salamander (Ambystoma gracile) inhabits the northwest Pacific coast of ...
The Long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum, Baird 1849) is a mole salamander in the family Ambystomatidae. This species ...
The granular salamander or ajolote (Ambystoma granulosum) is a species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family. It is ...
... an amphibian in the family Ambystomatidae. The species is native to a small portion of the southeastern coastal plain of the ...
Ambystomatidae), from Northern Louisiana". Journal of Parasitology. 94 (3): 727-730. doi:10.1645/GE-1414.1. Chadron State ...
The Leora's stream salamander or Ajolote (Ambystoma leorae) is a rare species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family. ...
The Tarahumara salamander (Ambystoma rosaceum) is a freshwater species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family, endemic ...
... is a species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family. It is endemic to Mexico, although its range might extend to the ...
... whereas species belonging to the Ambystomatidae are facultative paedomorphs. In the Catholic Church, Holy Days of Obligation or ...
Ambystomatidae) and Notophthalmus viridescens (Salamandridae): The ecological morphology of two neotenic strategies". Journal ...
Originally the genus Rhyacotriton was placed in the family Ambystomatidae, later in the family Dicamptodontidae, and finally in ...
EN IUCN Family Ambystomatidae (mole salamanders) Reticulated flatwoods salamander (Ambystoma bishopi) VU IUCN California tiger ...
... ambystomatidae MeSH B01.150.900.090.608.080.068 --- ambystoma MeSH B01.150.900.090.608.080.068.525 --- ambystoma mexicanum MeSH ...
... Mole Salamanders. Allan Larson Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... The Ambystomatidae formerly contained the genera Dicamptodon and Rhyacotriton, both of which are now placed in their own ... The family Ambystomatidae contains only two extant genera, Ambystoma and Rhyacosiredon, with the latter comprising 4 species ... Rhyacotriton is only a distant relative of these genera, however, and should not be placed in the family Ambystomatidae. ...
ToL Scientific Contributors for Ambystomatidae. * Allan Larson Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA (Caudata) ... ToL Media Contributors for Ambystomatidae. * Allan Larson Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA ...
family Ambystomatidae synonyms, family Ambystomatidae pronunciation, family Ambystomatidae translation, English dictionary ... Noun 1. family Ambystomatidae - New World salamanders Ambystomatidae amphibian family - any family of amphibians Caudata, order ... family Ambystomatidae. Also found in: Thesaurus, Wikipedia.. Related to family Ambystomatidae: Ambystoma tigrinum, tiger ... A PHYLOGENY FOR THE SALAMANDER FAMILY AMBYSTOMATIDAE BASED ON A NUCLEAR MARKER.. Abstracts of papers presented at the 2009 ...
Ambystomatidae)," Annales Zoologici Fennici 47(4), 223-238, (1 August 2010). https://doi.org/10.5735/086.047.0401 ...
Family Ambystomatidae. Ambystoma-Mole Salamanders. Family Plethodontidae. Aneides lugubris-Arboreal Salamander. Batrachoseps sp ...
Ambystomatidae at Curlie. *Follow the Eggs, Hatchlings and Juveniles. *Mating Dance and Laying Eggs ...
Ambystomatidae)". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 100A (3): 653-660. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(91)90385-P.. ...
The longevity record for their close relative, A. annulatum, is four years, 11 months; however, many Ambystomatidae live 10 ...
MOLE SALAMANDERS - (AMBYSTOMATIDAE):. *Tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum) R. TOADS - (BUFONIDAE):. *Great ...
Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Ambystomatidae > Genus: Ambystoma > Species: Ambystoma texanum Salamandra texana ...
Ambystomatidae (part) Frost et al., 2006, replaced Dicamptodon as the sister taxon of Ambystoma, within Ambystomatidae. ... 2006) returned Dicamptodon to Ambystomatidae, where it had resided prior to 1976, because there was no phylogenetic reason to ... 2006) of Dicamptodon to Ambystomatidae was inappropriate due to substantial biological differences (the spinal nerve pattern ... as distinct from Ambystomatidae (i.e., Ambystoma) on the basis of their substantial biological differences (i.e., their ...
Ambystomatidae. Scientific Name:. Ambystoma cingulatum (Cope, 1867). Common Name(s): English. -. Frosted Flatwoods Salamander. ...
Ambystomatidae. Scientific Name:. Ambystoma californiense Gray, 1853. Common Name(s): English. -. California Tiger Salamander. ...
Ambystomatidae. Ascaphidae. Leiopelmatidae. Pipidae. Scaphiopodidae. Ranidae. Microhylidae. Ranoidea. Dendrobatidae. Hylidae. ...
A. macrodactylum is a member of the Ambystomatidae, also known as the mole salamanders. The Ambystomatidae originated ... Ambystomatidae was isolated to the southeast of the mid-Continental or Western Interior Seaway during the Cretaceous (~145.5-66 ... Larson A (1996). "Ambystomatidae". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2010-01-14. Stebbins RA (2003). A Field Guide to Western ... The Ambystomatidae are also members of suborder Salamandroidea, which includes all the salamanders capable of internal ...
Dicamptodontidae, Salamandridae, Ambystomatidae, Proteidae, Rhyacotritonidae, Amphiumidae. 16[edit]. *Metamorphosis *Present ( ...
Ambystomatidae. Mole salamanders. Marbled Salamander (Ambystoma opacum). Amphiumidae. Amphiumas or Congo eels. Two-toed ...
As salamanders (member of the amphibian order Caudata), axolotls lack scales and claws, have the presence of a tail in all larvae, juveniles, and adults, and have forelimbs and hindlimbs that are typically about the same size and set at right angles to the body (Larson et al. 2006). They have the characteristically slender bodies, short legs, long tails, and moist, smooth skin of salamanders. Salamanders generally have a biphasic life cycle, typified by an aquatic larval stage with external gills and a terrestrial adult form that utilizes lungs or breathes through moist skin (Larson et al. 2006). However, axolotls typically remain aquatic throughout life, not undergoing metamorphosis to a terrestrial adult but retaining their juvenile features. They can undergo transformation to the adult form under certain experimental and environmental conditions. Axolotls are members of the Ambystoma tigrinum (Tiger salamander)-complex, along with all other Mexican species of Ambystoma. Ambystoma, the mole ...
Ambystomatidae and Dicamptodontidae. J. Morphol. 212:305-322. Sever, D. M. 1983b. Eurycea junaluska. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. ...
within Ambystomatidae. ~Pacific giant salamanders (Pacific NW US). ~inhabit moist coniferous forests with cold streams or cold ... Within Ambystomatidae. ~courtship may involve migration of huge numbers of individuals to breeding ponds, males arrive first, ... Protieidae, Salamandridae, Ambystomatidae, Rhyacotritonidae, Amphiumidae, Plethodontidae.. ~extreme amount of diversity, with ...
AMBYSTOMATIDAE Genus AMBYSTOMA Species MACRODACTYLUM Collector R A NUSSBAUM & S JEANNE Month AUGUST. Day 24. Year 1978 Country ...
family: Ambystomatidae © 2006 Henk Wallays (1 of 139). Conservation Status (definitions) IUCN (Red List) Status. Least Concern ...
AMBYSTOMATIDAE Genus AMBYSTOMA Species LATERALE Collector HENRY WILBUR Month APRIL. Day 19. Year 1970 Country UNITED STATES ...
family: Ambystomatidae © 2010 Todd Pierson (1 of 128). Conservation Status (definitions) IUCN (Red List) Status. Least Concern ...
Ambystomatidae. Ambystoma gracile Northwestern Salamander. Collection info. Point Map. Species Profile. Animated Map Freshwater ...
  • Ana was a member of the lab during Fall 2010 and assisted in a number of projects, including a multi-locus phylogenetic study of the Ambystomatidae. (uky.edu)
  • The wildlife area contains extensive marshland and abundant temporary aquatic habitats (ponds, roadside ditches) that serve as breeding areas for anurans and pond breeding caudates (Ambystomatidae) that cannot coexist with predatory fish. (thefreedictionary.com)