Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Ambystoma mexicanum: A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Ambystomatidae: A family of the class Urodela which includes 4 living genera, about 33 species, and occurs only in North America. Adults are usually terrestrial, but the larval forms are aquatic.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.DNA Virus InfectionsLarva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Pleurodeles: A genus of aquatic newts belonging to the family Salamandridae and sometimes referred to as "spiny" tritons. There are two species P. waltlii and P. poireti. P. waltlii is commonly used in the laboratory. Since this genus adapts to aquarium living, it is easy to maintain in laboratories.Chromatophores: The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Parabiosis: The experimental joining of two individuals for the purpose of studying the effects of one on the other.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.TailKentuckyForelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.

Occupancy of the chromophore binding site of opsin activates visual transduction in rod photoreceptors. (1/599)

The retinal analogue beta-ionone was used to investigate possible physiological effects of the noncovalent interaction between rod opsin and its chromophore 11-cis retinal. Isolated salamander rod photoreceptors were exposed to bright light that bleached a significant fraction of their pigment, were allowed to recover to a steady state, and then were exposed to beta-ionone. Our experiments show that in bleach-adapted rods beta-ionone causes a decrease in light sensitivity and dark current and an acceleration of the dim flash photoresponse and the rate constants of guanylyl cyclase and cGMP phosphodiesterase. Together, these observations indicate that in bleach-adapted rods beta-ionone activates phototransduction in the dark. Control experiments showed no effect of beta-ionone in either fully dark-adapted or background light-adapted cells, indicating direct interaction of beta-ionone with the free opsin produced by bleaching. We speculate that beta-ionone binds specifically in the chromophore pocket of opsin to produce a complex that is more catalytically potent than free opsin alone. We hypothesize that a similar reaction may occur in the intact retina during pigment regeneration. We propose a model of rod pigment regeneration in which binding of 11-cis retinal to opsin leads to activation of the complex accompanied by a decrease in light sensitivity. The subsequent covalent attachment of retinal to opsin completely inactivates opsin and leads to the recovery of sensitivity. Our findings resolve the conflict between biochemical and physiological data concerning the effect of the occupancy of the chromophore binding site on the catalytic potency of opsin. We show that binding of beta-ionone to rod opsin produces effects opposite to its previously described effects on cone opsin. We propose that this distinction is due to a fundamental difference in the interaction of rod and cone opsins with retinal, which may have implications for the different physiology of the two types of photoreceptors.  (+info)

Modulation of glycine receptors in retinal ganglion cells by zinc. (2/599)

Effects of zinc, an endogenous neuromodulator in the central nervous system, on glycine receptors (GlyRs) in retinal ganglion cells were investigated by using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. Zn2+ at low concentration (<2 microM) potentiated the glycine-induced chloride current and at higher concentration (>10 microM) suppressed it. This biphasic regulatory action of zinc acted selectively on the fast component of the glycine-induced current mediated by the strychnine-sensitive GlyRs, but not on the slow component mediated by the 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid-sensitive GlyRs. Dose-response studies showed that 1 microM Zn2+ increased the maximum glycine response (I approximately) and shifted the EC50 to the left, suggesting that Zn2+ at low concentrations acts as an allosteric activator of the strychnine-sensitive GlyRs. Zn2+ at a concentration of 100 microM did not alter I approximately and shifted the EC50 to the right, indicating that Zn2+ at high concentrations acts as a competitive inhibitor of the GlyRs. Physiological functions of zinc modulation of GlyRs in retinal ganglion cells are discussed.  (+info)

Blastemal kinetics and pattern formation during amphibian limb regeneration. (3/599)

To investigate whether the uniqueness of proximal and distal limb regenerates could be attributed simply to differing blastemal growth characteristics, their increase in volume, cell number and cell-cycle times were determined. With respect to these parameters proximal and distal blastemas were identical and, furthermore, no evidence could be found for the existance of separate growth zones such as an apical proliferation centre or a progress zone within the blastema. It was therefore concluded that level-specific properties of the blastemal cells play the major role in determining the structure of the regenerate, not their growth characteristics. The only discernible difference was in the cell number within the two types of blastema at the onset of cartilage redifferentiation - proximal regenerates had 60% more cells. Thus it seems that the larger the pattern to be regenerated (the more proximal the amputation plane), the larger the primordium within which that pattern first appears. These two conclusions are discussed in relation to current theories of pattern formation during limb regeneration and development and a few way of envisaging the regeneration of pattern is described.  (+info)

Impulse encoding across the dendritic morphologies of retinal ganglion cells. (4/599)

Nerve impulse entrainment and other excitation and passive phenomena are analyzed for a morphologically diverse and exhaustive data set (n = 57) of realistic (3-dimensional computer traced) soma-dendritic tree structures of ganglion cells in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) retina. The neurons, including axon and an anatomically specialized thin axonal segment that is observed in every ganglion cell, were supplied with five voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels (plus leakage), which were distributed in accordance with those found in a recent study that employed an equivalent dendritic cylinder. A wide variety of impulse-entrainment responses was observed, including regular low-frequency firing, impulse doublets, and more complex patterns involving impulse propagation failures (or aborted spikes) within the encoder region, all of which have been observed experimentally. The impulse-frequency response curves of the cells fell into three groups called FAST, MEDIUM, and SLOW in approximate proportion as seen experimentally. In addition to these, a new group was found among the traced cells that exhibited an impulse-frequency response twice that of the FAST category. The total amount of soma-dendritic surface area exhibited by a given cell is decisive in determining its electrophysiological classification. On the other hand, we found only a weak correlation between the electrophysiological group and the morphological classification of a given cell, which is based on the complexity of dendritic branching and the physical reach or "receptive field" area of the cell. Dendritic morphology determines discharge patterns to dendritic (synaptic) stimulation. Orthodromic impulses can be initiated on the axon hillock, the thin axonal segment, the soma, or even the proximal axon beyond the thin segment, depending on stimulus magnitude, soma-dendritic membrane area, channel distribution, and state within the repetitive impulse cycle. Although a sufficiently high dendritic Na-channel density can lead to dendritic impulse initiation, this does not occur with our "standard" channel densities and is not seen experimentally. Even so, impulses initiated elsewhere do invade all except very thin dendritic processes. Impulse-encoding irregularities increase when channel conductances are reduced in the encoder region, and the F/I properties of the cells are a strong function of the calcium- and Ca-activated K-channel densities. Use of equivalent dendritic cylinders requires more soma-dendritic surface area than real dendritic trees, and the source of the discrepancy is discussed.  (+info)

Metabotropic GABA receptors facilitate L-type and inhibit N-type calcium channels in single salamander retinal neurons. (5/599)

1. Whole-cell voltage clamp experiments were performed on isolated spiking retinal neurons from the salamander retina. Calcium channel currents were studied using barium as the charge carrier while potassium and sodium currents were suppressed with TEA and TTX, respectively. 2. Baclofen, a metabotropic GABA receptor agonist, both enhanced and suppressed high-voltage-activated calcium channel current. Baclofen facilitated an L-type channel current, and this effect was not voltage dependent. As reported previously, baclofen inhibited an N-type channel current and this action was voltage dependent. 3. While the suppressive effect was mediated by a fast-acting, direct G-protein action, the facilitatory effect was slower and was blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), either GF-109203x or the PKC (19-36) sequence fragment. 4. The pharmacology of the inhibitory and facilitatory responses differed. Commonly used antagonists of metabotropic GABA receptors, CGP35348 and CGP55845, were more potent antagonists of the inhibitory response. Similarly, a selective agonist at the metabotropic GABA receptor, APMPA, was also more effective in eliciting the inhibitory response. 5. These observations indicate that there may be two baclofen-sensitive metabotropic GABA receptors with opposing effects on calcium channel current. This is the first description of a facilitatory action of GABAB receptors and indicates that GABA may not function exclusively as an inhibitory transmitter.  (+info)

Divalent cation selectivity is a function of gating in native and recombinant cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels from retinal photoreceptors. (6/599)

The selectivity of Ca2+ over Na+ is approximately 3.3-fold larger in cGMP-gated channels of cone photoreceptors than in those of rods when measured under saturating cGMP concentrations, where the probability of channel opening is 85-90%. Under physiological conditions, however, the probability of opening of the cGMP-gated channels ranges from its largest value in darkness of 1-5% to essentially zero under continuous, bright illumination. We investigated the ion selectivity of cGMP-gated channels as a function of cyclic nucleotide concentration in membrane patches detached from the outer segments of rod and cone photoreceptors and have found that ion selectivity is linked to gating. We determined ion selectivity relative to Na+ (PX/PNa) from the value of reversal potentials measured under ion concentration gradients. The selectivity for Ca2+ over Na+ increases continuously as the probability of channel opening rises. The dependence of PCa/PNa on cGMP concentration, in both rods and cones, is well described by the same Hill function that describes the cGMP dependence of current amplitude. At the cytoplasmic cGMP concentrations expected in dark-adapted intact photoreceptors, PCa/PNa in cone channels is approximately 7.4-fold greater than that in rods. The linkage between selectivity and gating is specific for divalent cations. The selectivity of Ca2+ and Sr2+ changes with cGMP concentration, but the selectivity of inorganic monovalent cations, Cs+ and NH4+, and organic cations, methylammonium+ and dimethylammonium+, is invariant with cGMP. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in rod photoreceptors are heteromeric assemblies of alpha and beta subunits. The maximal PCa/PNa of channels formed from alpha subunits of bovine rod channels is less than that of heteromeric channels formed from alpha and beta subunits. In addition, Ca2+ is a more effective blocker of channels formed by alpha subunits than of channels formed by alpha and beta subunits. The cGMP-dependent shift in divalent cation selectivity is a property of alphabeta channels and not of channels formed from alpha subunits alone.  (+info)

Sodium action potentials are not required for light-evoked release of GABA or glycine from retinal amacrine cells. (7/599)

Although most CNS neurons require sodium action potentials (Na-APs) for normal stimulus-evoked release of classical neurotransmitters, many types of retinal and other sensory neurons instead use only graded potentials for neurotransmitter release. The physiological properties and information processing capacity of Na-AP-producing neurons appear significantly different from those of graded potential neurons. To classify amacrine cells in this dichotomy, we investigated whether Na-APs, which are often observed in these cells, are required for functional light-evoked release of inhibitory neurotransmitters from these cells. We recorded light-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) from retinal ganglion cells, neurons directly postsynaptic to amacrine cells, and applied TTX to block Na-APs. In control solution, TTX application always led to partial suppression of the light-evoked IPSC. To isolate release from glycinergic amacrine cells, we used either bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, or picrotoxin, a GABAA and GABAC receptor antagonist. TTX application only partially suppressed the glycinergic IPSC. To isolate release from GABAergic amacrine cells, we used the glycine receptor blocker strychnine. TTX application only partially suppressed the light-evoked GABAergic IPSC. Glycinergic and GABAergic amacrine cells did not obviously differ in the usage of Na-APs for release. These observations, in conjunction with previous studies of other retinal neurons, indicate that amacrine cells, taken as a class, are the only type of retinal neuron that uses both Na-AP-dependent and -independent modes for light-evoked release of neurotransmitters. These results also provide evidence for another parallel between the properties of retinal amacrine cells and olfactory bulb granule cells.  (+info)

Spatial heterogeneity and function of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels in retinal amacrine neurons. (8/599)

The spatial distribution of ion channels within amacrine cells of the tiger salamander retina was studied using patch recording in the retinal slice preparation. By focally puffing kainate, GABA and glycine at amacrine cell processes in the inner plexiform layer, it was determined that the cell's glutamate receptors were located in a confined region of the processes near the soma, while glycine and GABA receptors were located throughout the processes. Likewise, similar techniques in conjunction with voltage steps demonstrated that voltage-gated sodium channels were located throughout the cell and were shown to generate sodium-dependent spikes, while only the processes contained voltage-gated calcium channels. These results suggest that this form of transient amacrine cell collects its excitatory synaptic inputs in a region confined to a central annular region near the soma, that the signal is actively propagated throughout its processes by voltage-gated sodium channels and that calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release of glycine from this neuron can occur throughout its processes. Thus, excitatory signals are collected in the processes near the soma, inhibitory signals throughout the processes and excitation is probably propagated throughout the processes of the amacrine cell.  (+info)

*Neoteny

Full neoteny is seen in Ambystoma mexicanum and some populations of Ambystoma tigrinum, which remain in their larval form for ... Ambystoma tigrinum retains its neotenous features for a similar reason, however the retention is permanent due to the lack of ... Snyder, R (1956). "Comparative Features of the Life Histories of Ambystoma gracile (Baird) from Populations at Low and High ... doi:10.1016/0020-7322(87)90022-5. Eagleson, G.; McKeown, B. (1978). "Changes in thyroid activity of Ambystoma gracile (Baird) ...

*Mole salamander

... since the species are more closely related to some Ambystoma species than those species are to others in Ambystoma. The stream- ... The genus name Ambystoma was given by Johann Jakob von Tschudi in 1839, and is traditionally translated as "cup-mouth",[ ... The mole salamanders (genus Ambystoma) are a group of advanced salamanders endemic to North America, the only genus in the ... Writing in 1907, Leonhard Stejneger offered a derivation of Ambystoma based on the contraction of a Greek phrase meaning "to ...

*Ranavirus

The genus Ranavirus is composed of 6 recognized viral species, 3 of which are known to infect amphibians (Ambystoma tigrinum ... Ambystoma tigrinum virus Bohle iridovirus Common midwife toad virus Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus European catfish ...

*Ambystoma talpoideum

Data related to Ambystoma talpoideum at Wikispecies Amphibian Species of the World: Ambystoma talpoideum University of Georgia ... The mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum) is a species of salamander found in much of the eastern and central United States, ... Geoffrey Hammerson (2004). "Ambystoma talpoideum". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T59069A11878224. doi: ... In its Red List of Threatened Species, the IUCN lists Ambystoma talpoideum as being "Least Concern" because the population ...

*Ambystoma rivulare

... is a species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family. It is endemic to Mexico. Its natural habitats ... Ambystoma rivulare. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 20 July 2007.. ...

*Argulus ambystoma

... is a species of branchiuran parasitic on the Lake Patzcuaro Salamander, Ambystoma dumerilii, sharing that ... Poly, William J. (2003). "Argulus ambystoma, a new species parasitic on the salamander Ambystoma dumerilii from Mexico ( ...

*Streamside salamander

The streamside salamander (Ambystoma barbouri) is a species of mole salamander from North America, occurring in several ... "Ambystoma barbouri". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T59053A11875949. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS. ...

*Reticulated flatwoods salamander

Ambystoma bishopi is a medium-sized species with a snout to vent length of 40 to 50 millimetres (1.6 to 2.0 in) and 14 to 16 ... Ambystoma bishopi is a terrestrial species. Breeding starts with the arrival of the rains in October. Eggs are laid in small ... Ambystoma bishopi is a burrowing species of salamander and lives among the leaf litter beneath longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ... Ambystoma cingulatum bishopi, new subspecies). Powell R, Conant R, Collins JT (2016). Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and ...

*Blunt-headed salamander

The blunt-headed Salamander (Ambystoma amblycephalum) is a mole salamander endemic to Mexico. It is only known from the ... Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Ambystoma amblycephalum Taylor, 1940". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version ... "Ambystoma amblycephalum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. ...

*Amphibian

... and Ambystoma". Copeia. 1964 (1): 196-201. doi:10.2307/1440850. JSTOR 1440850. Shaffer, H. Bradley (2005). "Ambystoma gracile ... The tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) is typical of the frogs and salamanders that hide under cover ready to ambush unwary ... The tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) also sometimes behaves in this way and may grow particularly large in the process. ... Some members of the genera Ambystoma and Dicamptodon have larvae that never fully develop into the adult form, but this varies ...

*Sacramento Mountain salamander

The only other salamander occurring in this area is the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) and that is more of a lowland ...

*Yellow-peppered salamander

IUCN (2016). "Ambystoma flavipiperatum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016.3. International Union for ... Dixon, James R. (1963). "A New Species of Salamander of the Genus Ambystoma from Jalisco, Mexico". Copeia. American Society of ... It was described as most similar to the Blunt-Headed Salamander, Ambystoma amblycephalum. Larvae have the same coloration as ... The yellow-peppered salamander (Ambystoma flavipiperatum) also known as the salamandra de Champala and the yellow-headed ...

*Barred tiger salamander

"Ambystoma mavortium". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 10 July 2006. AmphibiaWeb: Ambystoma mavortium. ... The barred tiger salamander or western tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium) is a species of mole salamander found from ... Brian Petirs (2002-01-08). "Ambystoma mavortium". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 2013-12-05. Barred tiger salamander in captivity[ ... permanent dead link] Caudata Culture: Tiger Salamanders Amphibian Species of the World: Ambystoma mavortium " ...

*Granular salamander

Ambystoma granulosum is endemic to a small area of central Mexico close to and just to the north west of Toluca in Mexico State ... The granular salamander or ajolote (Ambystoma granulosum) is a species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family. It is ... "Ambystoma granulosum Taylor, 1944". Globally Threatened Amphibian Species. Amphibians.org. Retrieved 2014-05-03. Shaffer, B., ... Ambystoma granulosum. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 20 July 2007.. ...

*Leora's stream salamander

2014b). Shaffer, H.B.; Parra-Olea, G.; Wake, D. (2008). "Ambystoma leorae". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008 ... The Leora's stream salamander or Ajolote (Ambystoma leorae) is a rare species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family. ... Ambystoma leorae) in Mexico. Conserv Genet 15: 49-59. Sunny A, Monroy-Vilchis O, Reyna-Valencia C, Zarco-González MM (2014b) ... Microhabitat Types Promote the Genetic Structure of a Micro-Endemic and Critically Endangered Mole Salamander (Ambystoma leorae ...

*Tarahumara salamander

The Tarahumara salamander (Ambystoma rosaceum) is a freshwater species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family, endemic ... Ambystoma rosaceum. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 20 July 2007. Kellie Whittaker (2010-12-20). " ...

*Tiger salamander

"Ambystoma californiense". IUCN Red List. LeClere, 2006 Iowa Herpetology Species account, photo and range map of the Tiger ... Hammerson, G.A.; Shaffer, H.B.; Church, D.; Parra-Olea, G; Wake, D (2008). "Ambystoma tigrinum". IUCN Red List of Threatened ... The tiger salamander or eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) is a North American species of mole salamander. Tiger ... The California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) (listed at Vulnerable), the barred tiger salamander (A. mavortium), ...

*Durango salamander

The Durango salamander or pine woods salamander, Ambystoma silvense, is a mole salamander. It is endemic to Mexico where it is ... Webb, R.; Wake, D.; Parra-Olea, G.; Papenfuss, T. (2008). "Ambystoma silvense". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. ...

*Spotted salamander

Ambystoma maculatum at CalPhotos Ambystoma maculatum: Information at ADW Spotted salamander at the Encyclopedia of Life Yellow- ... Ambystoma maculatum has several methods of defense, including hiding in burrows or leaf litter, autotomy of the tail, and a ... Hammerson, G. (2004). "Ambystoma maculatum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for ... "ADW: Ambystoma maculatum". Animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-15. Anna Petherick. "A solar salamander: Nature ...

*Northwestern salamander

Ambystoma gracile. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-2. Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States ... The northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile) inhabits the northwest Pacific Coast of North America. These fairly large ... Hammerson (2004). "Ambystoma gracile". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2006. International Union for Conservation ... Eagleson, G. W. (1976). A comparison of the life histories and growth patterns of populations of the salamander Ambystoma ...

*Taylor's salamander

... , Ambystoma taylori, is a species of salamander found only in Laguna Alchichica, a high-altitude (2,290 m ( ... Their heads are quite large, and their limbs are underdeveloped, as in most Ambystoma neotenes. They feed by buccal suction, ... Brandon, R. A.; Maruska, E. J.; Rumph, W. T. (1982) [1981]. "A new species of neotenic Ambystoma (Amphibia, Caudata) endemic to ... Taylor himself attempted to describe the species as Ambystoma subsalsum in 1943, but mistakenly used a Mexican or plateau tiger ...

*Small-mouth salamander

Ambystoma texanum Animal Diversity Web: Ambystoma texanum Amphibian Species of the World: Ambystoma texanum Illinois Natural ... Hammerson, G. (2004). "Ambystoma texanum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for ... The small-mouth salamander (Ambystoma texanum) is a species of mole salamander found in the central United States, from the ... The Kelley's Island salamander (Ambystoma nothagenes) was synonymized with A. texanum in 1995. The small-mouth salamander grows ...

*Ringed salamander

The ringed salamander (Ambystoma annulatum) is native to hardwood and mixed hardwood-pine forested areas in and around the ... IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2014). "Ambystoma annulatum". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2014: e. ...

*Puerto Hondo stream salamander

This species has been suggested to be the same species as the Lake Patzcuaro salamander, Ambystoma dumerilii, based on genetic ... Shaffer, H.B.; Flores-Villela, O.; Parra-Olea, G. & Wake, D. (2008). "Ambystoma ordinarium". IUCN Red List of Threatened ... cited at [1] Anderson, J. D. (1975). Ambystoma ordinarium. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study ... Anderson, J. D., and Worthington, R. D. (1971). The life history of the Mexican salamander Ambystoma ordinarium Taylor. ...

*California tiger salamander

"Ambystoma californiense - California Tiger Salamander". California Herps. Retrieved 2009-10-19. "Ambystoma californiense, ... Shaffer, H. B.; R. N. Fisher & S. E. Stanley (1993). Status report: the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense). ... The California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) is a vulnerable amphibian native to California. It is a mole ... IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Conservation International & NatureServe (2004). "Ambystoma ...
Each spring, North American spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) females each lay hundreds of eggs in shallow pools of water. Eggs are surrounded by jelly layers and are deposited as large gelatinous masses. Following deposition, masses are penetrated by a mutualistic green alga, Oophila amblystomatis, which enters individual egg capsules, proliferates and aggregates near the salamander embryo, providing oxygen that enhances development. We examined the effects of population density of intracapsular O. amblystomatis on A. maculatum embryos and show that larger algal populations promote faster embryonic growth and development. Also, we show that carbon fixed by O. amblystomatis is transferred to the embryos, providing the first evidence of direct translocation of photosynthate from a symbiont to a vertebrate host.. ...
Esta lista de anfibios de Estados Unidos incluye un total de 306 especies registradas en Estados Unidos, agrupadas en 2 órdenes: las salamandras (Caudata) y las ranas y sapos (Anura). Esta lista deriva de la base de datos de Amphibian Species of the World. Orden: Caudata. Familia: Ambystomatidae Ambystoma annulatum Cope, 1886 Ambystoma barbouri Kraus & Petranka, 1989 Ambystoma bishopi Goin, 1950 Ambystoma californiense Gray, 1853 Ambystoma cingulatum Cope, 1868 Ambystoma gracile (Baird, 1859) Ambystoma jeffersonianum (Green, 1827) Ambystoma laterale Hallowell, 1856 Ambystoma mabeei Bishop, 1928 Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird, 1850 Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw, 1802) Ambystoma mavortium Baird, 1850 Ambystoma opacum (Gravenhorst, 1807) Ambystoma talpoideum (Holbrook, 1838) Ambystoma texanum (Matthes, 1855) Ambystoma tigrinum (Green, 1825) Dicamptodon aterrimus (Cope, 1868) Dicamptodon copei Nussbaum, 1970 Dicamptodon ensatus (Eschscholtz, 1833) Dicamptodon tenebrosus (Baird & Girard, 1852) Orden: ...
Several studies have concluded that O. amblystomatis promotes faster embryonic growth and development and more synchronous hatching of eggs (Tattersall and Spiegelaar, 2008; Gilbert, 1944; Gilbert, 1942). In addition, Marco and Blaustein reported that algal population density was positively correlated with reduced mortality and larger, more-developed embryos in Ambystoma gracile (Marco and Blaustein, 2000). Our study also found a significant positive relationship between algal population density and embryonic growth and development. Although treatment condition was the primary predictor of embryo length and development throughout the experiment, increased O. amblystomatis abundance alone also had a significant positive effect on both length and development over 30 days. These positive effects are likely due to increased oxygen from photosynthesis (Valls and Mills, 2007; Pinder and Friet, 1994) in addition to receiving fixed carbon (discussed below).. Eggs maintained in the dark had lower algal ...
Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was induced 15-fold in Ambystoma tigrinum by intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene in corn oil, or 10-fold by addition of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons to the aqueous environment of the neotene animal. The cytochrome P-450-associated microsomal enzyme is similar to the inducible, one-gene, autosomal-dominant system typical in the laboratory mouse and man. Differences in optimal temperature for enzyme induction and activity were noted in organ culture of human and Ambystoma tissues, and ratios of benzpyrene metabolites differed between Ambystoma and Mus. The half life of enzyme activity induced in vivo was related to the excretion of hydrocarbon metabolites.
Boswell, T, Dunn, IC, Wilson, PW, Joseph, N, Burt, DW and Sharp, PJ (2006) Identification of a non-mammalian leptin-like gene: Characterization and expression in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). General and Comparative Endocrinology, 146 2: 157-166. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2005.08.001 ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum image
The Spotted Salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, - Care in Captivity - Part 1 written by former Bronx Zoo Zoologist Frank Indiviglio and brought to you by That Fish Place - That Pet Place and ThatPetPlace.com.
A scanning electron microscopic study in early gastrulae of Ambystoma maculatum showed that migrating presumptive mesodermal cells were strongly oriented toward the animal pole. They had lamellipodia and filopodia at their leading edges, and rounded or tapering, tail-like, trailing edges. Of the cells whose polarization could be determined unequivocally, 81% appeared to be directed in a quadrant toward the animal pole, and 93% were directed to some extent away from the blastopore. This strong orientation suggests that specific mechanisms direct cell movement, in addition to the non-specific dispersive mechanism of the contact inhibition of cell movement. There is a network of fine extracellular fibrils that covers the inner surface of the ectodermal layer. Filopodia of the migrating cells frequently attach to and appear to follow the fibrils, suggesting that the fibrils serve as a guiding substratum for cell attachment and movement. There are areas where the fibrils are apparently aligned along ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Ambystoma maculatum image
During the spring breeding season throughout the channeled scablands of eastern Washington, metamorphosed male and female blotched tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum) utilize oropharyngeal suction to capture large quantities of small aquatic invertebrates. Stomach content analysis on salamanders from three populations of this subspecies revealed that they consume the following taxa: Copepoda, Cladocera, Culicidae, Anostraca, and Chironomidae. Although the amount of energy obtained by adults via in-water feeding was not calculated, the large volume of aquatic invertebrate material flushed from salamander stomachs suggests that this feeding strategy should add significantly to their total annual nutrient consumption.
We have used pH-, Na-, and Cl-sensitive microelectrodes to study basolateral HCO3- transport in isolated, perfused proximal tubules of the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. In one series of experiments, we lowered basolateral pH (pHb) from 7.5 to 6.8 by reducing [HCO3-]b from 10 to 2 mM at a constant pCO2. This reduction of pHb and [HCO3-]b causes a large (approximately 0.35), rapid fall in pHi as well as a transient depolarization of the basolateral membrane. Returning pHb and [HCO3-]b to normal has the opposite effects. Similar reductions of luminal pH (pHl) and [HCO3-]l have only minor effects. The reduction of [HCO3-]b and pHb also produces a reversible fall in aiNa. In a second series of experiments, we reduced [Na+]b at constant [HCO3-]b and pHb, and also observed a rapid fall in pHi and a transient basolateral depolarization. These changes are reversed by returning [Na+]b to normal. The effects of altering [Na+]l in the presence of HCO3-, or of altering [Na+]b in the nominal absence of ...
Salamandra talpoidea Holbrook, 1838, N. Am. Herpetol., 3: 117, pl. 29. Type(s): Specimen figured on pl. 29 of the original; not known to still exist. Type locality: sea islands on the borders of South Carolina, USA.. Ambystoma ? talpoideum - Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 36.. Amblystoma talpoideum - Cope, 1868 1867, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 172.. Ambystoma talpoideum - Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 582.. Ambystoma (Ambystoma) talpoideum - Tihen, 1958, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 3: 3, 38; Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161. See comment under Ambystoma regarding subgenera. ...
So you are outside on a rainy, cold day in late winter, walking around your favorite vernal pool, and you find an Ambystoma salamander. These are the large North American salamanders that often (but not always!) live on land as adults, but migrate to breeding ponds to mate and lay eggs. Once youve got one of these salamanders in your had during the breeding season, how can you tell if it is a male or a female? In an earlier post, I showed how to tell apart male and female wood frogs during the breeding season based on the shape of the front limbs. That method wont work for spotted salamanders or other Ambystoma; instead youve got to look at the cloaca. The cloaca is the orifice just past the hindlimbs in salamanders. The cloaca serves two main functions: excretion and reproduction. During the breeding season, the cloaca of male Ambystoma are enlarged, while the cloaca of females remain smaller. If you can pick up your spotted salamander and flip it over, you can easily tell its sex. ...
Fohlmeister JF, Miller RF. Impulse encoding mechanisms of ganglion cells in the tiger salamander retina. J Neurophysiol 1997 Oct;78(4):1935-47 A reprint of this article can be obtained from http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/78/4/1935 This model is initially setup to produce figure 1 automatically. After viewing the currents, you may simulate figure 3a in the followng way. 1) close the 6 graph windows. 2) Destroy the SEClamp object by executing the statement objref VoltageClamp 3) Select the NEURONMainMenu/File/LoadSession menuitem and double click on the fig3a.ses file. 4) press the Init&Run button. The following parameter changes to the current working code supplied by Bob Millers lab were made in collaboration with Michael Hines in order to semi-quantitatively reproduce figures 1 and 3a. 1) Table 1 indicates that gnabar_spike = .05 S/cm2. However the curves for the Na-current portion of Fig 1 use the default mod file value of gnabar_spike = .04 . 2) The initial Ca Rev. Potential of Fig 1 ...
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Johnson, J. R., M. E. Ryan, S. J. Micheletti, and H. B. Shaffer. 2013. Short pond hydroperiod decreases fitness of non-indigenous hybrid salamanders. Animal Conservation. DOI: 10:1111/acv.12029.. Ryan, M. E., J. R. Johnson, B. M. Fitzpatrick, L. J. Lowenstein, A. M. Picco, and H. B. Shaffer. 2013. Agricultural landscape in California favor introduced hybrid tiger salamanders. Conservation Biology 27: 95102.. Wang, I. J., J. R. Johnson, B. B. Johnson, and H. B. Shaffer. 2011. Effective population size is strongly correlated with breeding pond size in the endangered California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense. Conservation Genetics 12:911-920.. Johnson, J. R., R. C. Thomson, S. J. Micheletti*, and H. B. Shaffer. 2011. The origin of tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) populations in California, Oregon, and Nevada: introductions or relicts? Conservation Genetics 12:355-370.. Johnson, J. R., B. B. Johnson, and H. B. Shaffer. 2010. Genotype and temperature affect locomotor performance in a ...
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Addresses: Olsson L, UPPSALA UNIV, DEPT ENVIRONM & DEV BIOL, NORBYVAGEN 18A, S-75236 UPPSALA, SWEDEN. REFERENCE CTR ONCOL, EXPTL DIV 2, I-33084 AVIANO, ITALY. CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIV, DEPT BIOL, CLEVELAND, OH 44106.Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2011-01-15 ...
Most of the remaining range, including population strongholds in eastern Alameda and Contra Costa counties and areas south and west of Millerton Lake in Madera and Fresno counties, is imminently threatened by urban development, conversion of natural habitat to agriculture, introduction of exotic predatory animals (bullfrogs, crayfish, various fishes) that temporarily may occupy salamander breeding habitat, and/or other anthropogenic factors (e.g., rodent control programs, vehicle-related mortality). Reduced ground squirrel populations might reduce the availability of burrows, which are important habitats during the dry season. The use of pesticides for mosquito abatement might reduce food resources for salamanders. Introduction of non-native tiger salamanders might harm populations through hybridization and/or competition. Contaminated runoff from roads might adversely affect salamanders in breeding sites. Localities in the Diablo Range, inner Coast Ranges, and Sierra Nevada foothills are not ...
Blue-spotted Salamander Ambystoma laterale (upper photo courtesy Cathy Keddy) is the most frequently encountered species in our area, often wandering into basements or garages, or turned up under wood; the red colour of the terrrestrial stage of the red-spotted newt serves as a warning to predators that the eft is poisonous. Efts such as this one photographed during MVFNs 2010 bioblitz near Almonte are the only salamanders youll see wandering aaround in daylight (lower photo courtesy Karen Thomson). On 19 Jan 2012 3:26 PM, Oldham, Michael (MNR) wrote:. , I ended up turning around and heading home, so wont be at this evenings MVFN meeting this evening. So sorry… It is still snowing very heavily here with lots of accumulation… I just got home and driving back from where I called, between Norwood and Havelock, was even worse than the drive there. Blowing snow, freezing rain, poor visibility, slow snow plows with impatient drivers and truckers trying to pass, slippery roads, snow squall ...
Larval Ambystoma annulatum were collected from two ponds in Stone County, Missouri during 1989-1990 for a food habits study. Larvae fed on a variety of organisms. The major food items consisted of microcrustaceans, nematodes, and dipteran larvae. The diet changed both with development and season. Temporal shifts in the diet were probably affected most by changes in prey availability. The larvae fed mostly on plankton and added benthos to their diet as they grew larger. Also, larger larvae ate more prey items than smaller larvae and were able to feed on larger prey items. However, larger prey items were not frequently present in the diet and gape size did not explain much of the variation in maximum prey size.
Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 85, provided a brief account and figure.Enderson, Quijada-Mascareñas, Turner, Rosen, and Bezy, 2009, Check List, 5: 632-672, reported the species in Chihuahua, Mexico.Lemos-Espinal, 2007, Anf. Rept. Chihuahua Mexico: 23-24, provided an account and suggested that he was unaware of any morphological distinction from Ambystoma mavortium. The diagnosis and range of this nominal species rests on a confusing literature, including an original description that contained inconsistent information (DRF); molecular evidence for the existence of this taxon has not been produced. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 97, provided a brief account, photo, and map. ...
This data was collected as part of the study [1]. It consists of preprocessed multi-electrode array recording from 160 salamander retinal ganglion cells responding to 297 repeats of a 19 s natural movie. The data is available in two formats: (1) a .mat file containing an array with dimensions "number of repeats" x "number of neurons" x "time in a repeat"; (2) a zipped .txt file containing the same data represented as an array with dimensions "number of neurons" x "number of samples", where the number of samples is equal to the product of the number of repeats and timebins within a repeat. The time dimension is divided into 20 ms time windows, and the array is binary indicating whether a given cell elicited at least one spike in a given time window during a particular repeat. See the reference below for details regarding collection and preprocessing: [1] Tkačik G, Marre O, Amodei D, Schneidman E, Bialek W, Berry MJ II. Searching for Collective Behavior in a Large Network of Sensory Neurons. PLoS ...
On the basis of earlier experimental results on amphibia and his own observations, Yntema (1955) came to the conclusion that the ear rudiment or the ectoderm surrounding it may be a source of mesectoderm for the ear capsule, at least in the heterotopic position. This is contrary to another view that the source of the cartilaginous ear capsule is of purely mesentodermal origin. The literature pertaining to these two points of view is reviewed by Yntema (1955) and Benoit (1957).. The purpose of the present investigation is to study further the extent of the ectomesenchymal contribution to the auditory capsule in the orthotopic position.. Ambystoma punctatum larvae were raised from eggs sent to this institute by Mr Glenn Gentry of Donelson, Tennessee. Some of the eggs were stained with Nile blue sulphate according to the method described by Detwiler (1917).. ...
Range Description This species is known only from central Mexico, in the Ajusco region of Distrito Federal and the adjoining state of Mexico, with a disjunctive population in the north-east of the state of Guerrero between Taxco and Tetipac. The type locality is 13km west of Villa Victoria. This species is found above 2,800m asl. Its distribution is very unclear, and it seems possible that some records are confused with those for Ambystoma altamirani (Shafer pers. comm.). Attempts to map its distribution should be considered highly provisional. Habitat and Ecology This species is associated with slow-flowing streams in pine or pine-oak forests. It does metamorphose, but the adults stay in water. Population There is very little information on its population status, except in the Special Reserve of the Monarch Butterfly, where a well-studied population appears to be stable. Population Trend Unknown Major Threats There has been very serious disturbance of the forest and stream habitats of this ...
mphibians are declining worldwide due to a variety of factors, including habitat loss and alteration, global climate change and predation and competition by non-native species. At the former Fort Ord in Monterey County, California the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is attempting to document changes in amphibian populations by surveying each year. One of the concerns of the BLM is that the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), a non-native species, will negatively impact native amphibians living on the former Ft. Ord. Several sensitive species such as the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum californiese), and the California red legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) could be impacted. The 1999 survey include 3 vernal pools and 2 stock ponds and was completed between March 15 and May 2, 1999. This survey focused on the tadpole or larval stage of the amphibian life cycle. The results of the presence survey were analyzed using Sorensens coefficient or quotient of similarity. The vernal pools compared
Life history: Like other members of the genus, these salamanders migrate to vernal pools in the late winter or early spring, where they use the sperm from males of other species to fertilize their eggs. The males sperm may simply stimulate unreduced eggs to develop, resulting in clones of the mother (similar to gynogenesis); replace an existing genome; or, increase the ploidy level (number of chromosomes) in the offspring. This mode of reproduction has been termed kleptogenesis (Bogart 2007), and results in unisexual offspring.. Little else is known about the specifics of their life history ...
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Those amphibians of our region that are represented as fossils are tied to water for reproduction. Eggs of these forms are laid in water and hatch into a larval, aquatic stage (the tadpole or pollywog). The larvae eventually undergo a gradual metamorphosis with some structures, such as external gills, being absorbed and other structures, such as legs, forming. Lacking waterproof skins, the adults must stay in habitats moist enough to prevent desiccation.. Our amphibians fall into two taxonomic orders: Caudata (salamanders) and Anura (frogs and toads). Except for California, the former is represented in the regional fossil record only by the genus Ambystoma. Adult salamanders often are found some distance from water, moving about during wet weather and otherwise sheltering in high-humidity microhabitats such as rodent burrows. Various anurans have been recovered from fossil sites within the region. As adults, some, such as the ranids and hylids, are tied closely to water, receiving some ...
One of the issues of course is to leave angelic space between plants. This way each one can have their being without having to touch others of their kind, and thereby avoid infection by communal antagonisms that lead to hysteria and some very poor behaviors. But I have been told that Peppers like to touch each other, they gain a strength of character, like a charging horde I guess, the Mongol of the Vegetable Garden. Either way, the better mental attitude from the Gardener during these trying times is a stiff jawed dourness and the odd passionless grunt for good luck ...
. Are you looking for a creative Mexican axolotl for your project? Then you have come to the right place! Choose from raster or vector formats. Mexican axolotl cartoon Mexican axolotl clip art Mexican axolotl vector Mexican axolotl illustration Mexican axolotl vector illustration
Background A major step during the evolution of tetrapods was their transition from water to land. This process involved the reduction or complete loss of the dermal bones that made up connections to the skull and a concomitant enlargement of the endochondral shoulder girdle. In the mouse the latter is derived from three separate embryonic sources: lateral plate mesoderm, somites, and neural crest. The neural crest was suggested to sustain the muscle attachments. How this complex composition of the endochondral shoulder girdle arose during evolution and whether it is shared by all tetrapods is unknown. Salamanders that lack dermal bone within their shoulder girdle were of special interest for a possible contribution of the neural crest to the endochondral elements and muscle attachment sites, and we therefore studied them in this context. Results We grafted neural crest from GFP+ fluorescent transgenic axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) donor embryos into white (d/d) axolotl hosts and followed the presence
2 examples:. The axolotl (Mexican salamander, Ambystoma mexicanum) has become a very useful model organism for studying limb and spinal cord regeneration because of its high regenerative capacity ...
The California Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma californiense, is an amphibian native to Northern California. Once considered to be a subspecies of Tiger Salamander, this specimen was recently designated as a separate species. It is classified as an endangered species in the counties of Sonoma and Santa Barbara.. The California Tiger Salamanders habitat is mostly grasslands throughout most of its range. It occurs from Sonoma County south to Santa Barbara County. It is found in vernal pools and isolated ponds along the Central Valley from Colusa County to Kern County, and along the coastal range.. On August 4, 2004, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed the California Tiger Salamander as threatened within the Central Valley range. In most areas of its range, populations have declined due primarily to habitat loss.. The California Tiger Salamander is a relatively large and secretive amphibian. It is endemic to the state of California. The adult grows to a length of 7 to 8 inches. It has a ...
Molecular Analysis of Tropomyosin Deficiency in Mutant Axolotl Hearts. The long term goal of our laboratory is to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate embryonic and post-embryonic cardiac development. The cardiac lethal mutation in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) has proven a useful tool for studying heart development in vertebrates. The naturally occurring mutation was discovered in 1968 by R. R. Humphrey in a dark stock of axolotls brought to the United States from Mexico. The cardiac non- function phenotype is a simple homozygous recessive mutation that results in failure of the affected hearts to beat. Mutant axolotl embryos are obtained from matings of heterozygous (+/c x +/c) parents, with twenty-five percent of the progeny expressing the mutant gene.. Electron microscopic analysis has demonstrated that the mutant axolotl hearts do not beat because they lack organized sarcomeres. In other words, the mutant hearts lack the contractile apparatus necessary ...
From the facts stated in this paper it is evident that the thymus gland of mammals contains a substance which is capable of producing tetany when fed to the larvæ of certain species of salamanders (Ambystoma opacum and Ambystoma maculatum). As long as the larvæ have not developed their own thymus glands, they are able, by means of some mechanism, to counterbalance the tetanic action of the thymus substance introduced in their food. When, however, the secretion from their own thymus glands is added to the thymus material introduced with the food, this mechanism of preventing tetany becomes inadequate and tetany ensues. In the larva of a third species of salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, this mechanism will prevent tetany even when the larvæ are fed on thymus.. In mammals the parathyroids are known to prevent tetany and are supposed either to absorb the tetany-producing substance and thus prevent its action or to change it into another non-toxic substance. It is at least probable that in the ...
The combined map distance of our 14 largest linkage groups (5251 cM) is consistent with previous studies that indicated a large genetic map for Ambystoma. By comparison, the combined map length of LG1 and LG2 is greater than the total map length of the mouse genome! Marker-based estimates of genome size vary greatly for Ambystoma (e.g., 2600-6276 cM in Armstrong 1984 and 7291 cM in Voss et al. 2001). This variation may be attributed to the large genome size of Ambystoma and the nonrobust nature of estimators; genotyping errors and missing data cause upward bias in size estimates and nonrandom distribution of markers with respect to recombinational distances causes downward bias (Chakravarti et al. 1991). We estimated genome size using linkage data from this study and the method of Hulbert et al. (1988). Analyses were performed separately for protein coding and anonymous marker classes and for the combined data set using several linkage thresholds (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cM; data not shown). ...
The ontogeny of immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis was followed at both cellular and serological levels in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) using polyclonal antibodies recognizing all Ig molecules and a set of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) specific for the C mu and Cv heavy Ig chain isotypes and for the light chain constituents shared by IgM and IgY molecules. Clusters of IgM- and of IgY-synthesizing lymphocytes, often located in separate sites, are first present in spleen sections of 7-week-old 25 mm larvae, about one month after differentiation of the spleen anlage (stage 39-40). In 12-week-old 30-35 mm larvae, the relative proportion of IgM- and IgY-synthesizing cells in the spleen is the same as that in adult animals. However, a marked enhancement of the spleen B cell compartment occurs from 5 to 9 months when Ig-positive cells represent about 88% of the lymphocytes population compared to 60% in adults. No structures equivalent to B cell germinal centers were observed at any stage of the ...
Neoteny has been observed in many other species. It is important to note the difference between partial and full neoteny when looking at other species in order to distinguish between juvenile traits that are only advantageous in the short term and traits that provide a benefit throughout the organisms life; this might then provide some insight into the cause of neoteny in those species. Partial neoteny is the retention of the larval form beyond the usual age of maturation with the possibility of the development of sexual organs progenesis, but eventually the organism still matures into the adult form; this can be seen in Lithobates clamitans. Full neoteny is seen in Ambystoma mexicanum and some populations of Ambystoma tigrinum, which remain in their larval form for the duration of their life.[30][31] Lithobates clamitans is partially neotenous: it delays its maturation through the winter season, because it is not advantageous for it to metamorphose into the adult form until there are more ...
Neoteny (/niːˈɒtɪni/ /niːˈɒtni/ or /niːˈɒtəni/, (also called juvenilization) is the delaying or slowing of the physiological (or somatic) development of an organism, typically an animal. Neoteny is found in modern humans. In progenesis (also called paedogenesis), sexual development is accelerated. Both neoteny and progenesis result in paedomorphism (or paedomorphosis), a type of heterochrony. Some authors define paedomorphism as the retention of larval traits, as seen in salamanders. Both neoteny and progenesis cause the retention in adults of traits previously seen only in the young. Such retention is important in evolutionary biology, domestication, and evolutionary developmental biology. The origins of the concept of neoteny have been traced to the Bible (as argued by Ashley Montagu) and to the poet William Wordsworths "The Child is the father of the Man" (as argued by Barry Bogin). The term itself was invented in 1885 by Julius Kollmann as he described the axolotls maturation ...
I got a tip that there were tiger salamanders with gills swimming around below Los Alamos reservoir, so I had to go see for myself. Theyre fabulous! Four to five inch salamanders with flattened tails and huge frilly gills behind their heads -- dozens of them, so many the pond is thick with them. Plenty of them are hanging out in the shallows or just below the surface of the water, obligingly posing for photos. I had stupidly brought only the pocket camera, not the DSLR -- and then the cameras battery turned out to be low -- so I was sparing with camera, but even so I was pleased at how well they came out, with the camera mostly managing to focus on the salamanders rather than (as I had feared) the surface of the murky water. I may go back soon with the DSLR. Its an easy, pleasant hike. Photos: Tiger Salamander larvae ...
So, I recently lost my entire tank (save for my pleco) to a catastrophic event of unknown cause. Ive gotten over it now and am ready to start anew. This time
1984). Location and function of voltagesensitive conductances in retinal rods of the salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. Journal of Physiology, 354, 203-223. 28 Paul Shin-Hyun Park Baylor, D. , Nunn, B. , & Schnapf, J. L. (1984). The photocurrent, noise and spectral sensitivity of rods of the monkey Macaca fascicularis. Journal of Physiology, 357, 575-607. Becker, R. , & Freedman, K. (1985). A comprehensive investigation of the mechanism and photophysics of isomerization of a protonated and unprotonated Schiff-base of 11-cis-retinal. L. (2003). Assessing structural elements that influence Schiff base stability: Mutants E113Q and D190N destabilize rhodopsin through different mechanisms. Vision Research, 43, 2991-3002. Janz, J. , Fay, J. , & Farrens, D. L. (2003). Stability of dark state rhodopsin is mediated by a conserved ion pair in intradiscal loop E-2. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278, 16982-16991. , Cornwall, M. , & Oprian, D. D. (2003). Opsin activation as a cause of congenital night ...
And that leads me to discussing one of the most challenging and confusing salamanders of southern Ontario: Jeffersons Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum). The Jeffs is largely restricted to south central Ontario, although ongoing research has had it turn up slightly beyond that area. It is a large salamander, with adults reaching 18-20 cm in total length. It is dark bluish black, with a few lighter whitish-bluish flecks, but not as large or as brightly marked as the Blue-spotted Salamander. What makes things especially challenging in identifying these salamanders in the field is a result of the unusual reproductive process and ultimate genetics of these two species. They hybridize, and there is a broad zone of hybridization. One can really only tell what kind one is by doing DNA analysis, which for these salamanders requires snipping a small tip of the tail, running it through a blender of sorts, and then examining the DNA. There are many variations of the genetic make-up of these hybrids, ...
Nearly 500 varieties of amphibians, spread throughout various continents on the planet, are collectively referred to as Salamander. Theyve the characteristics of the fellow amphibians, such as frogs as well as toads, yet tend to be unique within their own methods. Nearly all of the varieties associated with salamander possess appearance such as those associated with reptiles. Varieties, such because Hida Salamander, Marbled Salamander, Off-shore Giant Salamander, as well as Southern Bittorrent Salamander carefully resemble lizards. However, Olm as well as Two-toed Amphiuma look much like snakes. Higher Siren is actually another range with hardly visible braches, but its more of the eel-like entire body.. Steps in order to draw Salamander: From a good artistic perspective, the degree of difficulty within drawing the salamander is actually directly associated with the subspecies selected. Following guidelines can help you draw your personal salamander:. • Research image: You need to do a few ...
Salsite, ambystoma, axolotls in research, regeneration, limb regeneration, brain, metamorphosis, paedomorphosis, andersoni, mexicanum, tigrinum, stock center
The objective of this experiment is to determine whether or not axolotls can acquire spatial learning through the use of visual cues. Since salamanders, a very similar species to axolotls, have shown the ability to use landmarks as visual cues when finding food, axolotls should also be able to do so, since they are very closely related. The axolotls will be given a certain amount of time to find an escape hole, based on standardized visual cues. and with each trial, the time will be recorded. It is hypothesized that the amount of time required for the axolotl to escape the shallow water will change based on the placement of the visual cues and the amount of trials done. The independent variable will be the placement of the standardized cues, and the dependent variable will be the time it takes for the axolotl to escape. The amount of time for the experiment and data collection will be about 2 weeks. In those two weeks, using four axolotls, 140 trials will be conducted with each axolotl. Data ...
Salsite, ambystoma, axolotls in research, regeneration, limb regeneration, brain, metamorphosis, paedomorphosis, andersoni, mexicanum, tigrinum, stock center
Alone among vertebrates, urodele amphibians are able to regenerate lost body parts as adults. The key to this ability is that limb cells are triggered to dedifferentiate and reinitiate growth and pattern formation. Our strategy is to use axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) to discover the signals that trigger the regeneration response, in the belief that these signals have enormous potential and consequences for human health. Our long term goals are to identify the regeneration-enabling signals in limbs, in order to support progress towards the eventual application of these molecules to the improvement of human repair mechanisms. In current research, we are using assays derived from the extensive experimental history of regenerating limbs, to test the roles of several signaling molecules known to be essential for limb development. These assays are designed to examine the signals that initiate regeneration, those that are needed to establish a blastema, as well as those that are required for ...
Im trying to locate any axolotl cDNA or genomic libraries (preferably Ambystoma mexicanum) and I would be very grateful for any help from members of the urodeles newsgroup. For the cDNA libraries I am particularly interested in embryonic stages (up to tailbud) and in adult skeletal or cardiac muscle. Yours sincerely, Tim Mohun ****************************************************** T. J. Mohun National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK Tel: 0181-959 3666 x2522 Fax: 0181-906 4477 Internet: tmohun at nimr.mrc.ac.uk ...
2 1 2 3 8 3 1 4 Health promotion and accident prevention In view of midgestation metanephros demonstrating the nephrogenic cortex A and Al Awqati 1995 7 Mesangial Cells and Leads to Eversion of Tubule Differentiation The urinary excretion of 2a 6a monophosphate on renal function Fig 24 6 5 Resuscitation section If a nurse is that any interaction between the physis often multiple and at the 8 somite stage In contrast mutations leading to reduction in volume resuscitation and life threatening 19 C Below 32A C core warming is necessary to facilitate early identification of genes or the. 5 1 Ambystoma mexicanum Acta Physiol Scand 178 79a 160 Leake R D Hobel C J Thompson P Hughes J Kerjaschki D 1987 Partial characterization and localization of the hands and feet and in situ hybridization shows that patients have either been incubated with transgene DNA cut with the elaboration of foot processes on podocytes The GBM also provides safer and more difficult to obtain the original probe length in rat ...
Salamander is the common name applied to approximately 500 amphibian vertebrates with slender bodies, short legs, and long tails (order Caudata or Urodela). The moist skin of the amphibians limits them to habitats either near water or under some protection on moist ground, usually in a forest. Some species are aquatic throughout life, some take to the water intermittently, and some are entirely terrestrial as adults. Salamanders superficially resemble lizards, but are easily distinguished by their lack of scales. They are capable of regenerating lost limbs. Species of salamanders are numerous and found in most moist or aqueous habitats in the northern hemisphere. Most are small but some reach up to 5 feet in length. They live in brooks and ponds and other moist locations. North America has the hellbender and the mudpuppy which can reach the length of a foot. In Japan, China and the United States the giant salamander is found, which reaches 5 feet (1.5m) and weighs up to 30 kilograms [1] ...
The biggest result of our study is that we saw differences in captures," or the number of salamanders in a given area, ODonnell said. "The captures decreased in all three treatments relative to the untreated areas.". They found that salamander numbers they detected in the areas that were partially cleared or burned decreased, though removing the medium and small trees didnt have as much of an impact when they used statistics to control for undetected amphibians.. "In terms of true abundance, we saw a slight decline in the mid-story right away, but a rebound two years after the treatment," ODonnell said. "We may not have seen much of the effect of the prescribed fire but there could be a lag time in terms of seeing an effect on the population level.". In the burn areas, the researchers found that the leaf litter that salamanders spend most of their time buried under dropped a lot, affecting the way the amphibians used their habitat. The leaf litter on the ground rebounded after a year, but ...
Some, but not all, species of salamander hibernate during the winter months. Salamanders are classified as amphibians, and amphibians cannot regulate their own body temperatures....
Ecology of coastal giant salamanders, (Dicamptodon tenebrosus). Research into the genetic structure and history of giant salamander populations in the United States and Canada.
The axolotl (pronounced AHK-so-LA-tuhl) or walking fish is a rare Mexican salamander that forever looks like a teenager. It looks forever young.
ok dont take this as scietific fact as it is just a theory of mine but i believe it is very possable as we are able to regenerate cells as babies and as we are just a fetus but we loose the ability to coordinate our cells. it is the ability to coordinate there cells and cell memory that allows some creatures to regenerate and i believe that our liver is the key to unlocking man kinds full potential. your quetion should be is it possable to use stem cells to engineer a human liver but during its growth process to introduce hormones from a salamander or axolotl to mutate the DNA enough to create human cell with the ability of cell memory and coordination or if it is possable to locate the exact pair genes that give salamanders and axolotls the abilty to do this already and introduce that to human but i honestly dont really know what im talking about but someone proove my theory is absolutely impossable and ill shake ya hand ...
So a new study conducted by UC Davis research revealed interesting things from interbred salamanders, results that go against what was the dominant
Digital Morphology account of the extremely minute salamander, Thorius minutissimus, featuring CT-generated animations of the whole specimen
This tutorial shows how you can set up an Ubuntu 13.10 (Saucy Salamander) desktop that is a full-fledged replacement for a Windows desktop, i.e. that ...
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, it is known from fewer than five locations, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat and in the number of mature individuals ...
Love-starved online daters are reaching into their bag of tricks and theyre pulling out … a tiger? The Wall Street Journal reports theres been an increase of tigers in peoples online profiles across online dating websites. Apparently, some Tinder users are seeing tigers in one out of 10 profiles they view. A University of Wisconsin-Madison […]
Ride the ridges with the Tiger Vibe G5! Each bump adds an increase in tension with every thrust in and out, and the toy is curved to target the...
Tiger Shroff, who is all set to star in the Bollywood remake of Sylvester Stallones super-hit film Rambo, said he is planning to meet the 71-year-old actor
After Kurts Cars of Futures Past story on the Tucker 48, we thought wed take a look at another Tucker prototype that also ended up rather prescient in a few w
Every year around this time, many of us will make resolutions and promises to ourselves -- a few we will keep, and many well break. Some resolutions are ...
. Are you looking for an elegant illustration of a Cute Mexican Axolotl Cartoon for your project? Then you have come to the right place! Choose from raster or vector formats. Mexican Axolotl cartoon Mexican Axolotl clip art Mexican Axolotl vector Mexican Axolotl illustration Mexican Axolotl vector illustration
Esta lista de anfibios de Canadá incluye un total de 44 especies registradas en Canadá, agrupadas en 2 órdenes: las salamandras (Caudata) y las ranas y sapos (Anura). Esta lista deriva de la base de datos de Amphibian Species of the World. Orden: Caudata. Familia: Ambystomatidae Ambystoma gracile (Baird, 1859) Ambystoma jeffersonianum (Green, 1827) Ambystoma laterale Hallowell, 1856 Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird, 1850 Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw, 1802) Ambystoma mavortium Baird, 1850 Ambystoma texanum (Matthes, 1855) Ambystoma tigrinum (Green, 1825) Dicamptodon tenebrosus (Baird and Girard, 1852) Orden: Caudata. Familia: Plethodontidae Eurycea bislineata (Green, 1818) Gyrinophilus porphyriticus (Green, 1827) Hemidactylium scutatum (Temminck, 1838) Aneides vagrans Wake and Jackman, 1999 Desmognathus fuscus (Rafinesque, 1820) Desmognathus ochrophaeus Cope, 1859 Ensatina eschscholtzii Gray, 1850 Plethodon cinereus (Green, 1818) Plethodon idahoensis Slater and Slipp, 1940 Plethodon vehiculum ...
Background: The fish-tetrapod transition was one of the major events in vertebrate evolution and was enabled by many morphological changes. Although the transformation of paired fish fins into tetrapod limbs has been a major topic of study in recent years, both from paleontological and comparative developmental perspectives, the interest has focused almost exclusively on the distal part of the appendage and in particular the origin of digits. Relatively little attention has been paid to the transformation of the pelvic girdle from a small unipartite structure to a large tripartite weight-bearing structure, allowing tetrapods to rely mostly on their hindlimbs for locomotion. In order to understand how the ischium and the ilium evolved and how the acetabulum was reoriented during this transition, growth series of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri and the Mexican axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum were cleared and stained for cartilage and bone and immunostained for skeletal muscles. In order ...
Buy the Paperback Book The Development of the Larval Pigment Patterns in Triturus alpestris and Ambystoma mexicanum by Hans-Henning Epperlein at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on books over $25!
The Small-mouth salamander (Ambystoma texanum) is a mole salamander species and a member of the Ambystomatidae family. The species may also be referred to as the Texas salamander, the Porphyry salamander or the narrow-mouthed salamander.. The Small-mouthed salamander can be found in the central United States. The species ranges from Michigan to Nebraska, south to Texas and east to Tennessee. The Small-mouth salamander has also been found in Ontario, Canada.. The Small-mouth salamander inhabits moist areas that are relatively close to a water source. When on land, wet prairie, meadow, swamp and damp forest are all preferred habitats. A nocturnal species, the salamander remains hidden beneath logs, rock and leaf litter or in small mammal burrows.. The Small-mouth salamander commonly reaches lengths between 4.5 and 7 inches. Typical coloration is black or dark brown and its belly side is black. Light grey or silver spots or flecks are found on its dorsal (upper) side. Often male small-mouthed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones. AU - Thoreson, Wallace B. AU - Bryson, Eric J.. PY - 2004/12/5. Y1 - 2004/12/5. N2 - Background: GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl) was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results: Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca)) and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- ...
How to Take Care of Tiger Salamanders. Tiger salamanders are a pleasure to keep as pets. They are beautiful to observe and they dont bark late at night. They are larger, hardier and generally more interactive than other salamanders, which...
Dinoflagellates collected during red tide events in Bahia Mazatlan, Mexico during the early spring of 1999 and 2000 appeared under LM to belong to Prorocentrum mexicanum Osorio-Tafall. Observations with SEM of those populations showed marked differences in shape and microornamentation from the related species, Prorocentrum rhathymum Loeblich III, Sherley and Schmidt. In P. mexicanum, the presence and dimensions of poroids, the uneven distribution of trichocyst pores not located in depressions, and the general architecture of the periflagellar region are more closely related to Prorocentrum caribbaeum Faust. Also, P. mexicanum has a three-horned (sometimes two-horned) spine and is deeper in the anterior than the posterior region, whereas P. rhathymum has a simple small spine and its sagittal view is oval. Furthermore, the number and distribution of trichocyst pores in the periflagellar area is different between the two species, being located on both valves in P. mexicanum and only on the right ...
The rate of bicarbonate reabsorption (JHCO3) by in vitro initial collecting tubules (ICT) from aquatic- and land-phase Ambystoma tigrinum was measured. These animals intrinsically have different levels of plasma bicarbonate, 17.6 and 27.1 mM, respectively. ICT from both phases reabsorbed bicarbonate at 11 pmol X mm-1 X min-1 when perfused in solutions equilibrated with 3% CO2. The induction of metabolic acidosis or alkalosis had no effect on JHCO3 by in vitro ICT. JHCO3 was abolished when ICT from aquatic animals were perfused with solutions equilibrated with 1% CO2 and returned toward the control value when 3% CO2 was reintroduced. The effect of plasma CO2 partial pressure on JHCO3 of the ICT may explain, at least in part, the observed difference in plasma bicarbonate of the aquatic- and land-phase animals. JHCO3 was reduced to 22% of control with amiloride and to 42% of control when a Na+-free perfusate was used, but was insensitive to ethoxzolamide. These data are consistent with the presence of a
In 2012 Hoffmann came to Maine to study how urbanization was impacting vernal pools and the blue spotted salamanders. In Maine, salamanders may be the most abundant vertebrate-certainly more populous than people or moose. Scientists have estimated that in Maine the total weight of the salamander population actually exceeds that of people, but that is partly a function of Maines small human presence and vast woodlands. In any case, salamanders are a rarely seen but critical part of the ecosystem, in particular in the early spring when they are a feast of "little hamburgers" for hungry owls, skunks, and even just-out-of-hibernation bears who eat their eggs.. Hoffmann quickly realized that these salamanders, for all their importance, were scientifically mysterious. "Nobody had ever just followed a blue spotted salamander and seen where they lived and what types of wetland they liked." So Hoffmann got to work hiking to dozens of wetland sites, trapping and measuring and releasing scores of ...
I. Seasonal Migrations. Jordans salamanders have been found from April-November (Huheey and Stupka, 1967). Animals likely make vertical migrations, moving from the forest floor to underground sites with the onset of seasonally related cold or dry conditions, then back up to the forest floor with the return of favorable surface conditions.. J. Torpor (Hibernation). Subzero temperatures drive Jordans salamanders deep into burrows, where they remain underground, even during thaws.. K. Interspecific Associations/Exclusions. In the Great Smoky Mountains, the following species were encountered on experimental plots with Jordans salamanders: black-bellied salamanders (Desmognathus quadramaculatus), seal salamanders (D. monticola), Ocoee salamanders (D. ocoee), imitator salamanders (D. imitator), pygmy salamanders (D. wrighti), southern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon serratus), southern Appalachian salamanders (P. teyahalee), spring salamanders (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus), red salamanders ...
...Waterdogs theyre called these larvae of tiger salamanders used as l...With tiger salamander larvae anglers hope to catch largemouth bass c...They may be in for more than they bargained for: salamanders in bait s... These diseases have spread with the global trade in amphibians say...,Spring,fishing,season,arrives...,and,with,it,,amphibian,diseases,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Bassoon-RIBEYE interaction at the base of the photoreceptor ribbon. (A-C) Confocal laser-scanning micrographs of photoreceptor ribbon synapses double labele
Most of the largest vertebrate genomes are found in salamanders, a clade of amphibians that includes 686 species. Salamander genomes range in size from 14 to 120 Gb, reflecting the accumulation of lar
Caudates like salamanders are carnivores, dining on invertebrates such as earthworms, crickets, waxworms, spiders and bugs. A salamander generally prefers live food and may refuse to eat pellets. If...
Fragrant, star shaped, red, 1-2 inches acoss. Late summer to fall. Lustrous, dark green. Evergreen. Upright shrub. Moderate growth rate. Grows 6-8h x 5-6′ w.. ...
Worldwide, one in every three species of amphibian is endangered, 39 species have gone extinct in the last 500 years and another 130 species are suspected to have gone extinct in recent decades. Of the amphibians, salamanders have the highest portion
Free Online Library: Axolotl Appoints Robert Scarbrough as Director of Information Technology Operations. by Business Wire; Business, international Computer services industry Executives Appointments, resignations and dismissals Information technology services industry Vice presidents (Organizations)
Two very disparate images I know, but salamanders of course typically go through a metamorphosis. Once going out, I was just checking my appearance and how much I can resemble my mother at this age struck me. And no, I dont think wanting to be like ones mother (or father) is really part of being transgender, so forget that ...
Scientists hope that a rule making it illegal to import salamanders or move them across state lines, will help stop a deadly fungus ...
AbeBooks.com: Salamander practical farming techniques(Chinese Edition) (9787508260839) by CHEN QU XIANG and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
Rastlina: Agerát mexický * Ageratum houstonianum Red Sea * Syn: Ageratum mexicanum - letnička, záhonová rastlina, nápadné kvety...
A collaborative group of German and American researchers has identified the important biochemical processes involved in the regeneration of limbs of salama
The paper: Murthy, A. et al. (2014) A Crohns disease variant in Atg16l1 enhances its degradation by caspase 3. Nature 506:546-562. doi:10.1038/nature13044 Subject.... ...
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The tiger is a large, fierce feline, up to 9 feet long Tigers have striped fur, usually orange stripes on black with a white underbelly..
Relax and unwide in this high quality Tiger Corner Summerhouse by Tiger Sheds. Ideal for any garden, these corner summerhouses come with free UK delivery.
A bright flash, a loud bang and you suddenly hit the ground before the smoke clears. Feeling pain, you reach for the source and are surprised to find...
ConMed 60-8005-SYS System 5000 Electrosurgical Unit has programmable and pre-set modes and includes both monopolar and bipolar footswitches, and integrated storage.
印度老虎继续遭到偷猎,并被卖到中国。这不是一个贫困或机会主义捕猎的问题,而是有组织的犯罪活动:盗猎团伙协调他们的行动,并与城市里的经纪人保持联系,由后者安排贩运(有时通过尼泊尔)进入中国。这也提醒世人:我们不能仅仅依赖查获作为犯罪活动的指标;不断收集、分析和共享有关已知及可疑野生动物犯罪分子的情报是至关重要的。鉴于国际刑警组织(INTERPOL)将在7月初举行有关老虎犯罪的特别会议,印度、尼泊尔和中国有机会好好协调行动,捣毁从事老虎和其他亚洲大型猫科动物贸易的国际犯罪网络。 (印度那格浦尔):就在《印度时报》报道五只老虎被偷猎团伙的犯罪分子(这些人属于中央邦Katni 地区臭名远扬的Baheliya社区)杀死一天后,各方担心这些偷猎者在Vidarbha ...
Salamanders are ony o approximately 550 extant species o amphibians within the order Caudata.[1] Thay are typically characterized bi a superficially lizard-lik appearance, wi slender bodies, short noses, an lang tails. Aw kent fossil salamanders an aw extinct species faw unner the order Caudata, while sometimes the extant species are grouped thegither as the Urodela.[2] Salamanders hae never mair than fower taes on thair front legs an five on thair rear legs, but some species hae fewer. Thair moist skin uisually maks them reliant on habitats in or near watter, or unner some pertection (e.g., moist grund), eften in a wetland. Some salamander species are fully aquatic throughoot life, some tak tae the watter intermittently, an some are entirely terrestrial as adults. Unique amang vertebrates, thay are capable o regeneratin lost limbs, as well as ither body pairts. Mony o the members o the faimily Salamandridae are kent as esks.. The earliest kent salamander fossils hae been foond in geological ...
The Great Smoky Mountains are known as the "Salamander Capital of the World!" Salamanders are an especially abundant and diverse group in the Great Smokies. There are 30 species of salamanders within the boundaries of the Park. Since salamanders breathe through their skin they are more susceptible to water and air pollution. During this study, high school students will work in groups to collect and record data in taking an inventory in monitoring many of the salamanders found in the park. The field trip packet includes pre, onsite, and post-visit activities.. ...
My dissertation research focuses on answering questions regarding the behavioral responses of spotted salamander larvae (Ambystoma maculatum) to chemical cues from one of its natural predators, the red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens. First, I will determine (1) if prey behavior differs in response to local predator chemical cues versus cues from a series of geographically stratified populations of the same predator species and (2) whether larvae can distinguish among predator chemical cues when predator origin is held constant and origin of predator diet (spotted salamander larvae) is varied. I also will (3) take a closer look at the identity of the red-spotted newt chemical cue, with the prediction that it will be the endogenous toxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) or a TTX analogue. Other newt species are known to use TTX as an intraspecific signal of cannibalistic predation risk, and though TTX is found in the red-spotted newt, it has not been tested as a chemical signal. Finally, I plan to (4) ...
Disease is among the suspected causes of amphibian population declines, and an iridovirus and a chytrid fungus are the primary pathogens associated with amphibian mortalities. Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) and a closely related strain, Regina ranavirus (RRV), are implicated in salamander die-offs in Arizona and Canada, respectively. We report the complete sequence of the ATV genome and partial sequence of the RRV genome. Sequence analysis of the ATV/RRV genomes showed marked similarity to other ranaviruses, including tiger frog virus (TFV) and frog virus 3 (FV3), the type virus of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae), as well as more distant relationships to lymphocystis disease virus, Chilo iridescent virus, and infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus. Putative open reading frames (ORFs) in the ATV sequence identified 24 genes that appear to control virus replication and block antiviral responses. In addition, |50 other putative genes, homologous to ORFs in other iridoviral genomes but of
Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is an autosomal recessive kidney disease that is often associated with vision and/or brain defects. To date, 11 genes are known to cause NPHP. The gene products, while structurally unrelated, all localize to cilia or centrosomes. Although mouse models of NPHP are available for 9 of the 11 genes, none has been described for nephronophthisis 4 (Nphp4). Here we report a novel, chemically induced mutant, nmf192, that bears a nonsense mutation in exon 4 of Nphp4. Homozygous mutant Nphp4nmf192/nmf192 mice do not exhibit renal defects, phenotypes observed in human patients bearing mutations in NPHP4, but they do develop severe photoreceptor degeneration and extinguished rod and cone ERG responses by 9 weeks of age. Photoreceptor outer segments (OS) fail to develop properly, and some OS markers mislocalize to the inner segments and outer nuclear layer in the Nphp4nmf192/nmf192 mutant retina. Despite NPHP4 localization to the transition zone in the connecting cilia (CC), the CC ...
Globally, amphibian species have been in decline and a wide range of factors have been purported to be driving the decline. The Gulf Coastal Plain of Florida has a high degree of endemism and rarity and the biodiversity in the region includes a diverse suite of amphibian species. Degradation of habitat has been considered by many to be a major part of amphibian declines, however amphibian declines are complex and in many cases multiple factors are occurring in concert. My dissertation research examined aspects of habitat ecology and occupancy for two rare amphibians, Florida Bog Frog (Rana okaloosae) (Chapter 1, 2, and 3) and Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma bishopi) (Chapter 5), that are both restricted to the Northern Gulf Coastal Plain. Further, for R. okaloosae I examined the influence of a sympatric congener, Bronze Frog (R. clamitans clamitans), on microhabitat selection (Chapter 1) and growth of tadpoles (Chapter 4). My overall goal was to be able to elucidate factors that ...
The limb blastemal cells of an adult salamander regenerate the structures distal to the level of amputation, and the surface protein Prod 1 is a critical determinant of their proximodistal identity. The anterior gradient protein family member nAG is a secreted ligand for Prod 1 and a growth factor for cultured newt blastemal cells. nAG is sequentially expressed after amputation in the regenerating nerve and the wound epidermis-the key tissues of the stem cell niche-and its expression in both locations is abrogated by denervation. The local expression of nAG after electroporation is sufficient to rescue a denervated blastema and regenerate the distal structures. Our analysis brings together the positional identity of the blastema and the classical nerve dependence of limb regeneration.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trophic effect of transferrin on amphibian limb regeneration blastemas. AU - Mescher, Anthony. AU - Munaim, S. I.. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021280796&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021280796&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. VL - 230. SP - 485. EP - 490. JO - Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Comparative Experimental Biology. JF - Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Comparative Experimental Biology. SN - 0022-104X. IS - 3. ER - ...

Comparative pelvic development of the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri):...Comparative pelvic development of the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri):...

Comparative pelvic development of the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri): ... Comparative pelvic development of the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri): ... Development of the pelvic endoskeleton and musculature is very similar in Neoceratodus and Ambystoma. If the acetabulum is seen ... growth series of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri and the Mexican axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum were cleared and ...
more infohttps://espace.curtin.edu.au/handle/20.500.11937/9404

West Meade EcologyWest Meade Ecology

Spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) photo by Noah Charney Marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) photo by Noah Charney ... STREAMSIDE SALAMANDER (Ambystoma barbouri) A. barbouri in Kentucky, photo by Noah Charney ... Jefferson salamanders (Ambystoma jeffersonianum) look similar to streamside salamanders. photo by Noah Charney ...
more infohttp://www.westmeadenaturalist.org/barbouri.aspx

Ambystoma | amphibian genus | Britannica.comAmbystoma | amphibian genus | Britannica.com

Ambystoma, and about 32 species. Family Amphiumidae (congo eels) Large, to more than 100 cm; very elongated; aquatic to ... present; North America; 1 genus, Ambystoma, and about 32 species. Family Amphiumidae (congo eels) Large, to more than 100 cm; ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/animal/Ambystoma

Ambystoma cingulatum (Frosted Flatwoods Salamander)Ambystoma cingulatum (Frosted Flatwoods Salamander)

Ambystoma cingulatum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T1099A3236962. . Downloaded on 22 February 2018.. ... 2007) concluded that Ambystoma cingulatum should be split into two species, A. bishopi west of the Apalachicola-Flint rivers ... The following information pertains to the Ambystoma cingulatum/bishopi complex as a whole.. Post-larval individuals inhabit ... suggests that breeding population sizes are low relative to other Ambystoma (Palis, unpubl. data). However, this may be a site ...
more infohttp://www.iucnredlist.org/details/1099/0

Ambystoma californiense (California Tiger Salamander)Ambystoma californiense (California Tiger Salamander)

Ambystoma californiense. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T1098A3234573. . Downloaded on 26 February 2018.. ...
more infohttp://www.iucnredlist.org/details/1098/0

Small-mouth Salamander, Ambystoma texanum - RedorbitSmall-mouth Salamander, Ambystoma texanum - Redorbit

The Small-mouth salamander (Ambystoma texanum) is a mole salamander species and a member of the Ambystomatidae family. The ... Image Caption: Small-mouth salamander (Ambystoma texanum). Credit: Greg Schechter/Wikipedia (CC BY-SA 2.0) ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/reference/small-mouth-salamander-ambystoma-texanum/

AmphibiaWeb - Ambystoma opacumAmphibiaWeb - Ambystoma opacum

Marbled salamanders are one of two species of Ambystoma that breed on land (Petranka, 1998), and they are the only Ambystoma ... Ambystoma opacum Marbled Salamander. Subgenus: Xiphonura. family: Ambystomatidae © 2011 Michael Graziano (1 of 116). ... Marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum) range throughout much of the eastern United States from eastern Texas and Oklahoma, ... Ambystoma opacum (Gravenhorst, 1807). Marbled Salamander. David E. Scott. 1. Historical versus Current Distribution. ...
more infohttps://amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Ambystoma&where-species=opacum

AmphibiaWeb - Ambystoma jeffersonianumAmphibiaWeb - Ambystoma jeffersonianum

Because of the difficulty of distinguishing Jefferson salamanders (Ambystoma jeffersonianum) from those of unisexual Ambystoma ... Ambystoma jeffersonianum Jefferson Salamander. Subgenus: Xiphonura. family: Ambystomatidae © 2010 Todd Pierson (1 of 48). ... These unisexual Ambystoma populations typically use gynogenetic reproduction in which the unisexual females use male blue- ... Ambystoma jeffersonianum (Green, 1827). Jefferson Salamander. Robert Brodman. 1. Historical versus Current Distribution. ...
more infohttps://amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?query_src=aw_lists_genera_&where-genus=Ambystoma&where-species=jeffersonianum

California tiger salamander photo - Ambystoma californiense - G38039 | ArkiveCalifornia tiger salamander photo - Ambystoma californiense - G38039 | Arkive

a href=http://www.arkive.org/california-tiger-salamander/ambystoma-californiense/image-G38039.html#src=portletV3web title= ...
more infohttp://www.arkive.org/california-tiger-salamander/ambystoma-californiense/image-G38039.html

Ambystoma texanum (Matthes, 1855) | Amphibian Species of the WorldAmbystoma texanum (Matthes, 1855) | Amphibian Species of the World

Involved in widespread development of hybrid swarms with Ambystoma laterale, Ambystoma jeffersonianum, and Ambystoma tigrinum ( ... Phylogeny Urodela: 109-134, discussed complex hybridization with Ambystoma jeffersonianum, Ambystoma laterale, and Ambystoma ... Ambystoma texanum (Matthes, 1855) Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Ambystomatidae > Genus: Ambystoma > Species: ... J. Zool., 65: 2188-2201, who considered this named based on nonparthenogenetic hybrids of Ambystoma texanum x Ambystoma ...
more infohttp://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/Amphibia/Caudata/Ambystomatidae/Ambystoma/Ambystoma-texanum

Ambystoma tigrinum (Green, 1825) | Amphibian Species of the WorldAmbystoma tigrinum (Green, 1825) | Amphibian Species of the World

See comments under Ambystoma californiense, Ambystoma mavortium, Ambystoma tigrinum, and Ambystoma velasci. Last revised by ... Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum [in the broad sense of including Ambystoma mavortium and Ambystoma velasci]: Yarrow, 1882 ... U.S. Canada: 108 (written previously to the partition into Ambystoma mavortium, Ambystoma velasci, and Ambystoma tigrinum) and ... Phylogeny Urodela: 109-134, discussed complex hybridization with Ambystoma jeffersonianum, Ambystoma texanum, and Ambystoma ...
more infohttp://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/Amphibia/Caudata/Ambystomatidae/Ambystoma/Ambystoma-tigrinum

Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) - Caudata.orgAxolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) - Caudata.org

Threads in Forum : Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum). Forum Tools Search this Forum. Views: 21,341 Announcement: Axolotls are ... Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) A dedicated topic for those seeking help with Axolotls, showing off your photos, or just to talk ... Caudata.org , Newt & Salamander Forum , Beginner Newt, Salamander, Axolotl & Help Topics , Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) ...
more infohttps://www.caudata.org/forum/forumdisplay.php?f=48

Induction of Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase in Ambystoma tigrinum - Digital LibraryInduction of Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase in Ambystoma tigrinum - Digital Library

Differences in optimal temperature for enzyme induction and activity were noted in organ culture of human and Ambystoma tissues ... and ratios of benzpyrene metabolites differed between Ambystoma and Mus. The half life of enzyme activity induced in vivo was ... was induced 15-fold in Ambystoma tigrinum by intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene in corn oil, or 10-fold by ... Colvin, David P. Induction of Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase in Ambystoma tigrinum, thesis, December 1974; Denton, Texas. ( ...
more infohttps://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc663117/

Ambystoma Genomic ResourcesAmbystoma Genomic Resources

... ambystoma, axolotls in research, regeneration, limb regeneration, brain, metamorphosis, paedomorphosis, andersoni, mexicanum, ... We used comparative mapping to investigate the organization of genes in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), a species ...
more infohttp://www.ambystoma.org/genome-resources

Ambystoma talpoideum - WikipediaAmbystoma talpoideum - Wikipedia

Data related to Ambystoma talpoideum at Wikispecies Amphibian Species of the World: Ambystoma talpoideum University of Georgia ... The mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum) is a species of salamander found in much of the eastern and central United States, ... Geoffrey Hammerson (2004). "Ambystoma talpoideum". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T59069A11878224. doi: ... In its Red List of Threatened Species, the IUCN lists Ambystoma talpoideum as being "Least Concern" because the population ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambystoma_talpoideum

Ambystoma rivulare - WikipediaAmbystoma rivulare - Wikipedia

Ambystoma rivulare is a species of mole salamander in the Ambystomatidae family. It is endemic to Mexico. Its natural habitats ... Ambystoma rivulare. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 20 July 2007.. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambystoma_rivulare

Small-mouthed salamander (Ambystoma texanum) longevity, ageing, and life historySmall-mouthed salamander (Ambystoma texanum) longevity, ageing, and life history

Genus: Ambystoma. Species. Ambystoma texanum. Common name. Small-mouthed salamander. Synonyms. Ambystoma nothagenes, Salamandra ... AnAge entry for Ambystoma texanum Classification (HAGRID: 00116). Taxonomy. Kingdom: Animalia. Phylum: Chordata. Class: ...
more infohttp://genomics.senescence.info/species/entry.php?species=Ambystoma_texanum

Spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) | Minnesota Department of Natural ResourcesSpotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) | Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

Ambystoma maculatum. It may surprise many Minnesotans to learn that seven species of salamanders reside in our state. The lives ... In Minnesota, spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) werent documented until the spring of 2001 during surveys conducted by ...
more infohttps://www.dnr.state.mn.us/reptiles_amphibians/salamanders-spotted.html

Rôle des Smads lors du processus de régénération chez Ambystoma mexicanumRôle des Smads lors du processus de régénération chez Ambystoma mexicanum

This publication sets the stage for the use of the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) as an excellent model to study regeneration ... Rôle des Smads lors du processus de régénération chez Ambystoma mexicanum. Thesis or Dissertation ... Aussi, cette publication positionne laxolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) comme un excellent modèle pour étudier le processus de ...
more infohttps://papyrus.bib.umontreal.ca/xmlui/handle/1866/19320

Regeneration of Limb Joints in the Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum)Regeneration of Limb Joints in the Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum)

In spite of numerous investigations of regenerating salamander limbs, little attention has been paid to the details of how joints are reformed. An understanding of the process and mechanisms of joint regeneration in this model system for tetrapod limb regeneration would provide insights into developing novel therapies for inducing joint regeneration in humans. To this end, we have used the axolotl (Mexican Salamander) model of limb regeneration to describe the morphology and the expression patterns of marker genes during joint regeneration in response to limb amputation. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the mechanisms of joint formation whether it be development or regeneration are conserved. We also have determined that defects in the epiphyseal region of both forelimbs and hind limbs in the axolotl are regenerated only when the defect is small. As is the case with defects in the diaphysis, there is a critical size above which the endogenous regenerative response is not sufficient to
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0050615

Marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) progression from larva - Field Herp ForumMarbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) progression from larva - Field Herp Forum

Marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) progression from larvae to sub-adult.. A (1) by Bill McGighan, on Flickr. A (2) by Bill ... Marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) progression from larva. Dedicated exclusively to field herping. ...
more infohttp://www.fieldherpforum.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=24451

AQUATIC PREY TRANSPORT AND THE COMPARATIVE KINEMATICS OF AMBYSTOMA TIGRINUM FEEDING BEHAVIORS | Journal of Experimental BiologyAQUATIC PREY TRANSPORT AND THE COMPARATIVE KINEMATICS OF AMBYSTOMA TIGRINUM FEEDING BEHAVIORS | Journal of Experimental Biology

AQUATIC PREY TRANSPORT AND THE COMPARATIVE KINEMATICS OF AMBYSTOMA TIGRINUM FEEDING BEHAVIORS ... AQUATIC PREY TRANSPORT AND THE COMPARATIVE KINEMATICS OF AMBYSTOMA TIGRINUM FEEDING BEHAVIORS ... AQUATIC PREY TRANSPORT AND THE COMPARATIVE KINEMATICS OF AMBYSTOMA TIGRINUM FEEDING BEHAVIORS ... AQUATIC PREY TRANSPORT AND THE COMPARATIVE KINEMATICS OF AMBYSTOMA TIGRINUM FEEDING BEHAVIORS ...
more infohttp://jeb.biologists.org/content/187/1/159.article-info

Intracapsular algae provide fixed carbon to developing embryos of the salamander Ambystoma maculatum | Journal of Experimental...Intracapsular algae provide fixed carbon to developing embryos of the salamander Ambystoma maculatum | Journal of Experimental...

Ambystoma Genetic Stock Center, University of Kentucky, USA; viewed at www.ambystoma.org/education/embryo-staging-series; see ... Ambystoma maculatum egg masses were collected from a vernal pool in Bucks County, PA, USA on 28 March 2011 and 15 March 2012. ... 1995). Annual variation in breeding success of two syntopic species of Ambystoma salamanders. J. Herpetol. 29, 111-113. ... 1967). The morphogenesis of the stomach and intestine in the salamander Ambystoma maculatum. J. Morphol. 122, 345-365. ...
more infohttp://jeb.biologists.org/content/216/3/452

Experimental studies on a mutant gene (p) causing premature death of Ambystoma mexicanum embryos | DevelopmentExperimental studies on a mutant gene (p) causing premature death of Ambystoma mexicanum embryos | Development

Experimental studies on a mutant gene (p) causing premature death of Ambystoma mexicanum embryos ... Experimental studies on a mutant gene (p) causing premature death of Ambystoma mexicanum embryos ... Experimental studies on a mutant gene (p) causing premature death of Ambystoma mexicanum embryos ... Experimental studies on a mutant gene (p) causing premature death of Ambystoma mexicanum embryos ...
more infohttp://dev.biologists.org/content/39/1/139

What salamanders are not classified as tiger salamanders in the genus ambystoma - Caudata.orgWhat salamanders are not classified as tiger salamanders in the genus ambystoma - Caudata.org

What salamanders are not classified as tiger salamanders in the genus ambystoma Mole Salamanders but not tigers or axolotls ( ... These are the eastern tiger, Ambystoma tigrinum, the western tiger, Ambystoma mavortium, and the California tiger, Ambystoma ... The regulation specifically says Genus Ambystoma (tiger salamanders). Only a fraction of Ambystoma spp. are considered tiger ... Ambystoma). I was given the following response:. It doesn t restrict all members of Ambystoma, which are called mole ...
more infohttps://www.caudata.org/forum/showthread.php?t=105890
  • In order to understand how the ischium and the ilium evolved and how the acetabulum was reoriented during this transition, growth series of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri and the Mexican axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum were cleared and stained for cartilage and bone and immunostained for skeletal muscles. (edu.au)
  • Homologous muscles develop in the same order with the hypaxial musculature developing first, followed by the deep, then the superficial pelvic musculature.Conclusions: Development of the pelvic endoskeleton and musculature is very similar in Neoceratodus and Ambystoma. (edu.au)
  • Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was induced 15-fold in Ambystoma tigrinum by intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene in corn oil, or 10-fold by addition of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons to the aqueous environment of the neotene animal. (unt.edu)
  • In Mexico, basically all Ambystoma could be considered tigers, since they're all related to A.mavortium , and more distantly to A.californiense and A.tigrinum . (caudata.org)
  • This study evaluates the loads on the limb bones of the tiger salamander ( Ambystoma tigrinum ) and the Argentine black and white tegu ( Tupinambus merianae ) during terrestrial locomotion using three-dimensional measurements of the ground reaction force (GRF) and hindlimb kinematics, anatomical measurements of the femur and hindlimb muscles, and in vivo measurements of bone strain (tegus only). (clemson.edu)
  • Baily, J (1948) Supplementary observations on the geographic variation of Ambystoma macrodactylum. (springer.com)
  • Ambystoma gracile sites were larger, deeper, lower in elevation, had flocculent sediment higher in organic content, abundant coarse woody debris, and limited emergent/aquatic vegetation relative to A. macrodactylum sites. (usgs.gov)
  • Ambystoma macrodactylum sites were smaller, shallower, higher in elevation, had firm sediments low in organic content, and had a greater occurrence of emergent/aquatic vegetation than did A. gracile sites. (usgs.gov)
  • Anderson J, Graham R (1967) Vertical migration and stratification of larval Ambystoma . (springer.com)
  • Many of the axolotls raised in laboratories today, including most of those in the Ambystoma Genetic Stock Center, are descendants of those animals. (uky.edu)