A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
A family of the class Urodela which includes 4 living genera, about 33 species, and occurs only in North America. Adults are usually terrestrial, but the larval forms are aquatic.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A genus of aquatic newts belonging to the family Salamandridae and sometimes referred to as "spiny" tritons. There are two species P. waltlii and P. poireti. P. waltlii is commonly used in the laboratory. Since this genus adapts to aquarium living, it is easy to maintain in laboratories.
The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
The experimental joining of two individuals for the purpose of studying the effects of one on the other.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Professional or volunteer members of a fire department who are trained to suppress fire and respond to related emergency.
A plant genus of the family HAMAMELIDACEAE. The sap is a source of storax, which should not be confused with the similar named STYRAX genus.
A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.
A plant genus of the family MAGNOLIACEAE. The germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones costunolide, parthenolide, and costunolide diepoxide have been isolated from the leaves. Bark contains honokiol and magnolol. Parts are an ingredient of Banxia Houpo Tang.
Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.
A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.
A plant genus of the family NYSSACEAE (or Cornaceae by some).
A plant genus of the family STYRACACEAE. Sap of these Asian trees are a source of a balsam (BALSAMS). This styrax balsam is 3/4 coniferyl benzoate, 1/8 free BENZOIC ACID, along with benzyl cinnamate, vanillin, and TRITERPENES.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous rodents through chemical, biological, or other means.
The species Panthera tigris, a large feline inhabiting Asia. Several subspecies exist including the Siberian tiger and Sumatran tiger.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoorganotrophic and strictly aerobic. They have been isolated from multiple hypersaline environments that vary widely in chemical and physical properties.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
A benign familial disorder, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia with considerable daily fluctuations of the bilirubin level.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A genus of aquatic newts in the Salamandridae family. During breeding season many Triturus males have a dorsal crest which also serves as an accessory respiratory organ. One of the common Triturus species is Triturus cristatus (crested newt).
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains protoanemonin, anemonin, and ranunculin.

Occupancy of the chromophore binding site of opsin activates visual transduction in rod photoreceptors. (1/599)

The retinal analogue beta-ionone was used to investigate possible physiological effects of the noncovalent interaction between rod opsin and its chromophore 11-cis retinal. Isolated salamander rod photoreceptors were exposed to bright light that bleached a significant fraction of their pigment, were allowed to recover to a steady state, and then were exposed to beta-ionone. Our experiments show that in bleach-adapted rods beta-ionone causes a decrease in light sensitivity and dark current and an acceleration of the dim flash photoresponse and the rate constants of guanylyl cyclase and cGMP phosphodiesterase. Together, these observations indicate that in bleach-adapted rods beta-ionone activates phototransduction in the dark. Control experiments showed no effect of beta-ionone in either fully dark-adapted or background light-adapted cells, indicating direct interaction of beta-ionone with the free opsin produced by bleaching. We speculate that beta-ionone binds specifically in the chromophore pocket of opsin to produce a complex that is more catalytically potent than free opsin alone. We hypothesize that a similar reaction may occur in the intact retina during pigment regeneration. We propose a model of rod pigment regeneration in which binding of 11-cis retinal to opsin leads to activation of the complex accompanied by a decrease in light sensitivity. The subsequent covalent attachment of retinal to opsin completely inactivates opsin and leads to the recovery of sensitivity. Our findings resolve the conflict between biochemical and physiological data concerning the effect of the occupancy of the chromophore binding site on the catalytic potency of opsin. We show that binding of beta-ionone to rod opsin produces effects opposite to its previously described effects on cone opsin. We propose that this distinction is due to a fundamental difference in the interaction of rod and cone opsins with retinal, which may have implications for the different physiology of the two types of photoreceptors.  (+info)

Modulation of glycine receptors in retinal ganglion cells by zinc. (2/599)

Effects of zinc, an endogenous neuromodulator in the central nervous system, on glycine receptors (GlyRs) in retinal ganglion cells were investigated by using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. Zn2+ at low concentration (<2 microM) potentiated the glycine-induced chloride current and at higher concentration (>10 microM) suppressed it. This biphasic regulatory action of zinc acted selectively on the fast component of the glycine-induced current mediated by the strychnine-sensitive GlyRs, but not on the slow component mediated by the 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid-sensitive GlyRs. Dose-response studies showed that 1 microM Zn2+ increased the maximum glycine response (I approximately) and shifted the EC50 to the left, suggesting that Zn2+ at low concentrations acts as an allosteric activator of the strychnine-sensitive GlyRs. Zn2+ at a concentration of 100 microM did not alter I approximately and shifted the EC50 to the right, indicating that Zn2+ at high concentrations acts as a competitive inhibitor of the GlyRs. Physiological functions of zinc modulation of GlyRs in retinal ganglion cells are discussed.  (+info)

Blastemal kinetics and pattern formation during amphibian limb regeneration. (3/599)

To investigate whether the uniqueness of proximal and distal limb regenerates could be attributed simply to differing blastemal growth characteristics, their increase in volume, cell number and cell-cycle times were determined. With respect to these parameters proximal and distal blastemas were identical and, furthermore, no evidence could be found for the existance of separate growth zones such as an apical proliferation centre or a progress zone within the blastema. It was therefore concluded that level-specific properties of the blastemal cells play the major role in determining the structure of the regenerate, not their growth characteristics. The only discernible difference was in the cell number within the two types of blastema at the onset of cartilage redifferentiation - proximal regenerates had 60% more cells. Thus it seems that the larger the pattern to be regenerated (the more proximal the amputation plane), the larger the primordium within which that pattern first appears. These two conclusions are discussed in relation to current theories of pattern formation during limb regeneration and development and a few way of envisaging the regeneration of pattern is described.  (+info)

Impulse encoding across the dendritic morphologies of retinal ganglion cells. (4/599)

Nerve impulse entrainment and other excitation and passive phenomena are analyzed for a morphologically diverse and exhaustive data set (n = 57) of realistic (3-dimensional computer traced) soma-dendritic tree structures of ganglion cells in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) retina. The neurons, including axon and an anatomically specialized thin axonal segment that is observed in every ganglion cell, were supplied with five voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels (plus leakage), which were distributed in accordance with those found in a recent study that employed an equivalent dendritic cylinder. A wide variety of impulse-entrainment responses was observed, including regular low-frequency firing, impulse doublets, and more complex patterns involving impulse propagation failures (or aborted spikes) within the encoder region, all of which have been observed experimentally. The impulse-frequency response curves of the cells fell into three groups called FAST, MEDIUM, and SLOW in approximate proportion as seen experimentally. In addition to these, a new group was found among the traced cells that exhibited an impulse-frequency response twice that of the FAST category. The total amount of soma-dendritic surface area exhibited by a given cell is decisive in determining its electrophysiological classification. On the other hand, we found only a weak correlation between the electrophysiological group and the morphological classification of a given cell, which is based on the complexity of dendritic branching and the physical reach or "receptive field" area of the cell. Dendritic morphology determines discharge patterns to dendritic (synaptic) stimulation. Orthodromic impulses can be initiated on the axon hillock, the thin axonal segment, the soma, or even the proximal axon beyond the thin segment, depending on stimulus magnitude, soma-dendritic membrane area, channel distribution, and state within the repetitive impulse cycle. Although a sufficiently high dendritic Na-channel density can lead to dendritic impulse initiation, this does not occur with our "standard" channel densities and is not seen experimentally. Even so, impulses initiated elsewhere do invade all except very thin dendritic processes. Impulse-encoding irregularities increase when channel conductances are reduced in the encoder region, and the F/I properties of the cells are a strong function of the calcium- and Ca-activated K-channel densities. Use of equivalent dendritic cylinders requires more soma-dendritic surface area than real dendritic trees, and the source of the discrepancy is discussed.  (+info)

Metabotropic GABA receptors facilitate L-type and inhibit N-type calcium channels in single salamander retinal neurons. (5/599)

1. Whole-cell voltage clamp experiments were performed on isolated spiking retinal neurons from the salamander retina. Calcium channel currents were studied using barium as the charge carrier while potassium and sodium currents were suppressed with TEA and TTX, respectively. 2. Baclofen, a metabotropic GABA receptor agonist, both enhanced and suppressed high-voltage-activated calcium channel current. Baclofen facilitated an L-type channel current, and this effect was not voltage dependent. As reported previously, baclofen inhibited an N-type channel current and this action was voltage dependent. 3. While the suppressive effect was mediated by a fast-acting, direct G-protein action, the facilitatory effect was slower and was blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), either GF-109203x or the PKC (19-36) sequence fragment. 4. The pharmacology of the inhibitory and facilitatory responses differed. Commonly used antagonists of metabotropic GABA receptors, CGP35348 and CGP55845, were more potent antagonists of the inhibitory response. Similarly, a selective agonist at the metabotropic GABA receptor, APMPA, was also more effective in eliciting the inhibitory response. 5. These observations indicate that there may be two baclofen-sensitive metabotropic GABA receptors with opposing effects on calcium channel current. This is the first description of a facilitatory action of GABAB receptors and indicates that GABA may not function exclusively as an inhibitory transmitter.  (+info)

Divalent cation selectivity is a function of gating in native and recombinant cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels from retinal photoreceptors. (6/599)

The selectivity of Ca2+ over Na+ is approximately 3.3-fold larger in cGMP-gated channels of cone photoreceptors than in those of rods when measured under saturating cGMP concentrations, where the probability of channel opening is 85-90%. Under physiological conditions, however, the probability of opening of the cGMP-gated channels ranges from its largest value in darkness of 1-5% to essentially zero under continuous, bright illumination. We investigated the ion selectivity of cGMP-gated channels as a function of cyclic nucleotide concentration in membrane patches detached from the outer segments of rod and cone photoreceptors and have found that ion selectivity is linked to gating. We determined ion selectivity relative to Na+ (PX/PNa) from the value of reversal potentials measured under ion concentration gradients. The selectivity for Ca2+ over Na+ increases continuously as the probability of channel opening rises. The dependence of PCa/PNa on cGMP concentration, in both rods and cones, is well described by the same Hill function that describes the cGMP dependence of current amplitude. At the cytoplasmic cGMP concentrations expected in dark-adapted intact photoreceptors, PCa/PNa in cone channels is approximately 7.4-fold greater than that in rods. The linkage between selectivity and gating is specific for divalent cations. The selectivity of Ca2+ and Sr2+ changes with cGMP concentration, but the selectivity of inorganic monovalent cations, Cs+ and NH4+, and organic cations, methylammonium+ and dimethylammonium+, is invariant with cGMP. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in rod photoreceptors are heteromeric assemblies of alpha and beta subunits. The maximal PCa/PNa of channels formed from alpha subunits of bovine rod channels is less than that of heteromeric channels formed from alpha and beta subunits. In addition, Ca2+ is a more effective blocker of channels formed by alpha subunits than of channels formed by alpha and beta subunits. The cGMP-dependent shift in divalent cation selectivity is a property of alphabeta channels and not of channels formed from alpha subunits alone.  (+info)

Sodium action potentials are not required for light-evoked release of GABA or glycine from retinal amacrine cells. (7/599)

Although most CNS neurons require sodium action potentials (Na-APs) for normal stimulus-evoked release of classical neurotransmitters, many types of retinal and other sensory neurons instead use only graded potentials for neurotransmitter release. The physiological properties and information processing capacity of Na-AP-producing neurons appear significantly different from those of graded potential neurons. To classify amacrine cells in this dichotomy, we investigated whether Na-APs, which are often observed in these cells, are required for functional light-evoked release of inhibitory neurotransmitters from these cells. We recorded light-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) from retinal ganglion cells, neurons directly postsynaptic to amacrine cells, and applied TTX to block Na-APs. In control solution, TTX application always led to partial suppression of the light-evoked IPSC. To isolate release from glycinergic amacrine cells, we used either bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, or picrotoxin, a GABAA and GABAC receptor antagonist. TTX application only partially suppressed the glycinergic IPSC. To isolate release from GABAergic amacrine cells, we used the glycine receptor blocker strychnine. TTX application only partially suppressed the light-evoked GABAergic IPSC. Glycinergic and GABAergic amacrine cells did not obviously differ in the usage of Na-APs for release. These observations, in conjunction with previous studies of other retinal neurons, indicate that amacrine cells, taken as a class, are the only type of retinal neuron that uses both Na-AP-dependent and -independent modes for light-evoked release of neurotransmitters. These results also provide evidence for another parallel between the properties of retinal amacrine cells and olfactory bulb granule cells.  (+info)

Spatial heterogeneity and function of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels in retinal amacrine neurons. (8/599)

The spatial distribution of ion channels within amacrine cells of the tiger salamander retina was studied using patch recording in the retinal slice preparation. By focally puffing kainate, GABA and glycine at amacrine cell processes in the inner plexiform layer, it was determined that the cell's glutamate receptors were located in a confined region of the processes near the soma, while glycine and GABA receptors were located throughout the processes. Likewise, similar techniques in conjunction with voltage steps demonstrated that voltage-gated sodium channels were located throughout the cell and were shown to generate sodium-dependent spikes, while only the processes contained voltage-gated calcium channels. These results suggest that this form of transient amacrine cell collects its excitatory synaptic inputs in a region confined to a central annular region near the soma, that the signal is actively propagated throughout its processes by voltage-gated sodium channels and that calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release of glycine from this neuron can occur throughout its processes. Thus, excitatory signals are collected in the processes near the soma, inhibitory signals throughout the processes and excitation is probably propagated throughout the processes of the amacrine cell.  (+info)

Define Ambystoma tigrinum. Ambystoma tigrinum synonyms, Ambystoma tigrinum pronunciation, Ambystoma tigrinum translation, English dictionary definition of Ambystoma tigrinum. Noun 1. Ambystoma tigrinum - widely distributed brown or black North American salamander with vertical yellowish blotches tiger salamander ambystomid,...
Several studies have concluded that O. amblystomatis promotes faster embryonic growth and development and more synchronous hatching of eggs (Tattersall and Spiegelaar, 2008; Gilbert, 1944; Gilbert, 1942). In addition, Marco and Blaustein reported that algal population density was positively correlated with reduced mortality and larger, more-developed embryos in Ambystoma gracile (Marco and Blaustein, 2000). Our study also found a significant positive relationship between algal population density and embryonic growth and development. Although treatment condition was the primary predictor of embryo length and development throughout the experiment, increased O. amblystomatis abundance alone also had a significant positive effect on both length and development over 30 days. These positive effects are likely due to increased oxygen from photosynthesis (Valls and Mills, 2007; Pinder and Friet, 1994) in addition to receiving fixed carbon (discussed below).. Eggs maintained in the dark had lower algal ...
Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was induced 15-fold in Ambystoma tigrinum by intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene in corn oil, or 10-fold by addition of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons to the aqueous environment of the neotene animal. The cytochrome P-450-associated microsomal enzyme is similar to the inducible, one-gene, autosomal-dominant system typical in the laboratory mouse and man. Differences in optimal temperature for enzyme induction and activity were noted in organ culture of human and Ambystoma tissues, and ratios of benzpyrene metabolites differed between Ambystoma and Mus. The half life of enzyme activity induced in vivo was related to the excretion of hydrocarbon metabolites.
A scanning electron microscopic study in early gastrulae of Ambystoma maculatum showed that migrating presumptive mesodermal cells were strongly oriented toward the animal pole. They had lamellipodia and filopodia at their leading edges, and rounded or tapering, tail-like, trailing edges. Of the cells whose polarization could be determined unequivocally, 81% appeared to be directed in a quadrant toward the animal pole, and 93% were directed to some extent away from the blastopore. This strong orientation suggests that specific mechanisms direct cell movement, in addition to the non-specific dispersive mechanism of the contact inhibition of cell movement. There is a network of fine extracellular fibrils that covers the inner surface of the ectodermal layer. Filopodia of the migrating cells frequently attach to and appear to follow the fibrils, suggesting that the fibrils serve as a guiding substratum for cell attachment and movement. There are areas where the fibrils are apparently aligned along ...
During the spring breeding season throughout the channeled scablands of eastern Washington, metamorphosed male and female blotched tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum) utilize oropharyngeal suction to capture large quantities of small aquatic invertebrates. Stomach content analysis on salamanders from three populations of this subspecies revealed that they consume the following taxa: Copepoda, Cladocera, Culicidae, Anostraca, and Chironomidae. Although the amount of energy obtained by adults via in-water feeding was not calculated, the large volume of aquatic invertebrate material flushed from salamander stomachs suggests that this feeding strategy should add significantly to their total annual nutrient consumption.
Salamandra talpoidea Holbrook, 1838, N. Am. Herpetol., 3: 117, pl. 29. Type(s): Specimen figured on pl. 29 of the original; not known to still exist. Type locality: sea islands on the borders of South Carolina, USA.. Ambystoma ? talpoideum - Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 36.. Amblystoma talpoideum - Cope, 1868 1867, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 172.. Ambystoma talpoideum - Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 582.. Ambystoma (Ambystoma) talpoideum - Tihen, 1958, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 3: 3, 38; Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161. See comment under Ambystoma regarding subgenera. ...
Northwestern Naturalist publishes on the biology of birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles, and fish in the western United States and Canada.
Fohlmeister JF, Miller RF. Impulse encoding mechanisms of ganglion cells in the tiger salamander retina. J Neurophysiol 1997 Oct;78(4):1935-47 A reprint of this article can be obtained from http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/78/4/1935 This model is initially setup to produce figure 1 automatically. After viewing the currents, you may simulate figure 3a in the followng way. 1) close the 6 graph windows. 2) Destroy the SEClamp object by executing the statement objref VoltageClamp 3) Select the NEURONMainMenu/File/LoadSession menuitem and double click on the fig3a.ses file. 4) press the Init&Run button. The following parameter changes to the current working code supplied by Bob Millers lab were made in collaboration with Michael Hines in order to semi-quantitatively reproduce figures 1 and 3a. 1) Table 1 indicates that gnabar_spike = .05 S/cm2. However the curves for the Na-current portion of Fig 1 use the default mod file value of gnabar_spike = .04 . 2) The initial Ca Rev. Potential of Fig 1 ...
The axolotl is a popular exotic pet like its relative, the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigerinum). As for all poikilothermic organisms, lower temperatures result in slower metabolism and a very unhealthily reduced appetite. Temperatures at approximately 16 °C (61 °F) to 18 °C (64 °F) are suggested for captive axolotls to ensure sufficient food intake; stress resulting from more than a days exposure to lower temperatures may quickly lead to disease and death, and temperatures higher than 24 °C (75 °F) may lead to metabolic rate increase, also causing stress and eventually death.[25][26] Chlorine, commonly added to tapwater, is harmful to axolotls. A single axolotl typically requires a 40-litre (11-US-gallon) tank with a water depth of at least 15 cm (6 in). Axolotls spend the majority of the time at the bottom of the tank.[citation needed] Salts, such as Holtfreters solution, are usually added to the water to prevent infection.[27] In captivity, axolotls eat a variety of readily available ...
The axolotl is a popular exotic pet like its relative, the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigerinum). As for all poikilothermic organisms, lower temperatures result in slower metabolism and a very unhealthily reduced appetite. Temperatures at approximately 16 °C (61 °F) to 18 °C (64 °F) are suggested for captive axolotls to ensure sufficient food intake; stress resulting from more than a days exposure to lower temperatures may quickly lead to disease and death, and temperatures higher than 24 °C (75 °F) may lead to metabolic rate increase, also causing stress and eventually death.[26][27] Chlorine, commonly added to tapwater, is harmful to axolotls. A single axolotl typically requires a 40-litre (11-US-gallon) tank with a water depth of at least 15 cm (6 in). Axolotls spend the majority of the time at the bottom of the tank.[citation needed]. Salts, such as Holtfreters solution, are usually added to the water to prevent infection.[28]. In captivity, axolotls eat a variety of readily ...
Columbia, MO 65211. e-mail: bnsd36,at,mail.mizzou.edu. Research Interests. I have been involved in undergraduate research at the University of Missouri-Columbia since my sophomore year and joined the Eggert Lab in summer 2011. My research interests include conservation ecology and population genetics, primarily focusing on reptiles and amphibians. In the past, I worked with the Semlitsch lab and focused on amphibian convservation and behavioral responses to habitat fragmentation. I participated in the Life Sciences Research Opportunity Program and studied desiccation risk in spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) movement and behavior. Currently, I am working with the Eggert Lab and focusing on landscape genetics with slimy salamander (Plethodon albagula) populations across Missouri.. I am currently pursuing a B.S. in Biological Sciences and plan to graduate spring 2012. In the future, I plan on continuing my research of the life sciences in graduate school and earn a Ph.D. in ...
The Western tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium) was designated the official state amphibian of Colorado in 2012; a large amphibian that can grow to 14 inches.
As salamanders (member of the amphibian order Caudata), axolotls lack scales and claws, have the presence of a tail in all larvae, juveniles, and adults, and have forelimbs and hindlimbs that are typically about the same size and set at right angles to the body (Larson et al. 2006). They have the characteristically slender bodies, short legs, long tails, and moist, smooth skin of salamanders. Salamanders generally have a biphasic life cycle, typified by an aquatic larval stage with external gills and a terrestrial adult form that utilizes lungs or breathes through moist skin (Larson et al. 2006). However, axolotls typically remain aquatic throughout life, not undergoing metamorphosis to a terrestrial adult but retaining their juvenile features. They can undergo transformation to the adult form under certain experimental and environmental conditions. Axolotls are members of the Ambystoma tigrinum (Tiger salamander)-complex, along with all other Mexican species of Ambystoma. Ambystoma, the mole ...
Johnson, J. R., M. E. Ryan, S. J. Micheletti, and H. B. Shaffer. 2013. Short pond hydroperiod decreases fitness of non-indigenous hybrid salamanders. Animal Conservation. DOI: 10:1111/acv.12029.. Ryan, M. E., J. R. Johnson, B. M. Fitzpatrick, L. J. Lowenstein, A. M. Picco, and H. B. Shaffer. 2013. Agricultural landscape in California favor introduced hybrid tiger salamanders. Conservation Biology 27: 95102.. Wang, I. J., J. R. Johnson, B. B. Johnson, and H. B. Shaffer. 2011. Effective population size is strongly correlated with breeding pond size in the endangered California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense. Conservation Genetics 12:911-920.. Johnson, J. R., R. C. Thomson, S. J. Micheletti*, and H. B. Shaffer. 2011. The origin of tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) populations in California, Oregon, and Nevada: introductions or relicts? Conservation Genetics 12:355-370.. Johnson, J. R., B. B. Johnson, and H. B. Shaffer. 2010. Genotype and temperature affect locomotor performance in a ...
Addresses: Olsson L, UPPSALA UNIV, DEPT ENVIRONM & DEV BIOL, NORBYVAGEN 18A, S-75236 UPPSALA, SWEDEN. REFERENCE CTR ONCOL, EXPTL DIV 2, I-33084 AVIANO, ITALY. CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIV, DEPT BIOL, CLEVELAND, OH 44106.Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2011-01-15 ...
Most of the remaining range, including population strongholds in eastern Alameda and Contra Costa counties and areas south and west of Millerton Lake in Madera and Fresno counties, is imminently threatened by urban development, conversion of natural habitat to agriculture, introduction of exotic predatory animals (bullfrogs, crayfish, various fishes) that temporarily may occupy salamander breeding habitat, and/or other anthropogenic factors (e.g., rodent control programs, vehicle-related mortality). Reduced ground squirrel populations might reduce the availability of burrows, which are important habitats during the dry season. The use of pesticides for mosquito abatement might reduce food resources for salamanders. Introduction of non-native tiger salamanders might harm populations through hybridization and/or competition. Contaminated runoff from roads might adversely affect salamanders in breeding sites. Localities in the Diablo Range, inner Coast Ranges, and Sierra Nevada foothills are not ...
Blue-spotted Salamander Ambystoma laterale (upper photo courtesy Cathy Keddy) is the most frequently encountered species in our area, often wandering into basements or garages, or turned up under wood; the red colour of the terrrestrial stage of the red-spotted newt serves as a warning to predators that the eft is poisonous. Efts such as this one photographed during MVFNs 2010 bioblitz near Almonte are the only salamanders youll see wandering aaround in daylight (lower photo courtesy Karen Thomson). On 19 Jan 2012 3:26 PM, Oldham, Michael (MNR) wrote:. , I ended up turning around and heading home, so wont be at this evenings MVFN meeting this evening. So sorry… It is still snowing very heavily here with lots of accumulation… I just got home and driving back from where I called, between Norwood and Havelock, was even worse than the drive there. Blowing snow, freezing rain, poor visibility, slow snow plows with impatient drivers and truckers trying to pass, slippery roads, snow squall ...
This data was collected as part of the study [1]. It consists of preprocessed multi-electrode array recording from 160 salamander retinal ganglion cells responding to 297 repeats of a 19 s natural movie. The data is available in two formats: (1) a .mat file containing an array with dimensions number of repeats x number of neurons x time in a repeat; (2) a zipped .txt file containing the same data represented as an array with dimensions number of neurons x number of samples, where the number of samples is equal to the product of the number of repeats and timebins within a repeat. The time dimension is divided into 20 ms time windows, and the array is binary indicating whether a given cell elicited at least one spike in a given time window during a particular repeat. See the reference below for details regarding collection and preprocessing: [1] Tkačik G, Marre O, Amodei D, Schneidman E, Bialek W, Berry MJ II. Searching for Collective Behavior in a Large Network of Sensory Neurons. PLoS ...
1. The effects of injection of (a) Schockaerts extract of anterior pituitary, (b) Van Dyke & Wallen-Lawrences phyone and (c) prolactin, upon the growth of larval neotenic Amblystoma tigrinum, have been investigated. The normal growthrate was established before injections were begun and controls were injected with muscle extract.. 2. The dosage adopted in all cases was equivalent to 1 mg. of fresh tissue per gram of axolotl per day. This was probably supramaximal.. 3. Schockaerts extract and phyone caused a marked increase in the rate of growth, prolactin a slight increase.. 4. Of the ten animals injected with Schockaerts extract, all except one showed some of the signs usually associated with metamorphosis in A. tigrinum. The other experimental animals did not.. 5. In no case were there any abnormal changes in the bodily proportions or in the shape of the skeleton.. 6. The growth of half the animals after injections had been stopped was also investigated. In the case of most of the animals ...
mphibians are declining worldwide due to a variety of factors, including habitat loss and alteration, global climate change and predation and competition by non-native species. At the former Fort Ord in Monterey County, California the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is attempting to document changes in amphibian populations by surveying each year. One of the concerns of the BLM is that the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), a non-native species, will negatively impact native amphibians living on the former Ft. Ord. Several sensitive species such as the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum californiese), and the California red legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) could be impacted. The 1999 survey include 3 vernal pools and 2 stock ponds and was completed between March 15 and May 2, 1999. This survey focused on the tadpole or larval stage of the amphibian life cycle. The results of the presence survey were analyzed using Sorensens coefficient or quotient of similarity. The vernal pools compared
Hello folks how often do you feed your A.opacum? i notice if i feed them twice per week they easily become obese easily. my fire salamanders does not get...
Those amphibians of our region that are represented as fossils are tied to water for reproduction. Eggs of these forms are laid in water and hatch into a larval, aquatic stage (the tadpole or pollywog). The larvae eventually undergo a gradual metamorphosis with some structures, such as external gills, being absorbed and other structures, such as legs, forming. Lacking waterproof skins, the adults must stay in habitats moist enough to prevent desiccation.. Our amphibians fall into two taxonomic orders: Caudata (salamanders) and Anura (frogs and toads). Except for California, the former is represented in the regional fossil record only by the genus Ambystoma. Adult salamanders often are found some distance from water, moving about during wet weather and otherwise sheltering in high-humidity microhabitats such as rodent burrows. Various anurans have been recovered from fossil sites within the region. As adults, some, such as the ranids and hylids, are tied closely to water, receiving some ...
Morphology is the physical expression of a species evolutionary history and adaptation to its environment and as such is tied to ecology. Salamander larvae have historically been separated into pond-type and stream-type groups based on their morphology, however no studies have been performed quantifying the relationship between morphology and ecology. In this study I utilized in-situ behavioral observations, morphological measurements, and in-lab performance tests of Dicamptodon tenebrosus (stream-type) and Ambystoma gracile (pond-type) to examine the relationship between salamander larval morphology and ecology. In the field, behavior was video recorded during nighttime surveys; afterwards animals were captured and limb measurements were taken. Flow resistance was measured in the lab using a flow chamber and water velocity meter. Swim escapes were video recorded in lab trials and analyzed using video analysis software. In the field, aquatic walking was the predominant form of movement observed in
Hello, Id been pondering what to put in a vacant aquarium for awhile. Since CA banned all Ambystoma, Ive been cut off from my usual caudate fix. I had...
One of the issues of course is to leave angelic space between plants. This way each one can have their being without having to touch others of their kind, and thereby avoid infection by communal antagonisms that lead to hysteria and some very poor behaviors. But I have been told that Peppers like to touch each other, they gain a strength of character, like a charging horde I guess, the Mongol of the Vegetable Garden. Either way, the better mental attitude from the Gardener during these trying times is a stiff jawed dourness and the odd passionless grunt for good luck ...
. Are you looking for a creative Mexican axolotl for your project? Then you have come to the right place! Choose from raster or vector formats. Mexican axolotl cartoon Mexican axolotl clip art Mexican axolotl vector Mexican axolotl illustration Mexican axolotl vector illustration
BACKGROUND: The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is considered a hopeful monster because it exhibits an adaptive and derived mode of development - paedomorphosis - that has evolved rapidly and independently among tiger salamanders. Unlike related tiger salamanders that undergo metamorphosis, axolotls retain larval morphological traits into adulthood and thus present an adult body plan that differs dramatically from the ancestral (metamorphic) form. The basis of paedomorphic development was investigated by comparing temporal patterns of gene transcription between axolotl and tiger salamander larvae (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) that typically undergo a metamorphosis. RESULTS: Transcript abundances from whole brain and pituitary were estimated via microarray analysis on four different days post hatching (42, 56, 70, 84 dph) and regression modeling was used to independently identify genes that were differentially expressed as a function of time in both species. Collectively, more differentially
The California Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma californiense, is an amphibian native to Northern California. Once considered to be a subspecies of Tiger Salamander, this specimen was recently designated as a separate species. It is classified as an endangered species in the counties of Sonoma and Santa Barbara.. The California Tiger Salamanders habitat is mostly grasslands throughout most of its range. It occurs from Sonoma County south to Santa Barbara County. It is found in vernal pools and isolated ponds along the Central Valley from Colusa County to Kern County, and along the coastal range.. On August 4, 2004, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed the California Tiger Salamander as threatened within the Central Valley range. In most areas of its range, populations have declined due primarily to habitat loss.. The California Tiger Salamander is a relatively large and secretive amphibian. It is endemic to the state of California. The adult grows to a length of 7 to 8 inches. It has a ...
Molecular Analysis of Tropomyosin Deficiency in Mutant Axolotl Hearts. The long term goal of our laboratory is to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate embryonic and post-embryonic cardiac development. The cardiac lethal mutation in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) has proven a useful tool for studying heart development in vertebrates. The naturally occurring mutation was discovered in 1968 by R. R. Humphrey in a dark stock of axolotls brought to the United States from Mexico. The cardiac non- function phenotype is a simple homozygous recessive mutation that results in failure of the affected hearts to beat. Mutant axolotl embryos are obtained from matings of heterozygous (+/c x +/c) parents, with twenty-five percent of the progeny expressing the mutant gene.. Electron microscopic analysis has demonstrated that the mutant axolotl hearts do not beat because they lack organized sarcomeres. In other words, the mutant hearts lack the contractile apparatus necessary ...
From the facts stated in this paper it is evident that the thymus gland of mammals contains a substance which is capable of producing tetany when fed to the larvæ of certain species of salamanders (Ambystoma opacum and Ambystoma maculatum). As long as the larvæ have not developed their own thymus glands, they are able, by means of some mechanism, to counterbalance the tetanic action of the thymus substance introduced in their food. When, however, the secretion from their own thymus glands is added to the thymus material introduced with the food, this mechanism of preventing tetany becomes inadequate and tetany ensues. In the larva of a third species of salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, this mechanism will prevent tetany even when the larvæ are fed on thymus.. In mammals the parathyroids are known to prevent tetany and are supposed either to absorb the tetany-producing substance and thus prevent its action or to change it into another non-toxic substance. It is at least probable that in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantal mEPSCs and residual glutamate. T2 - How horizontal cell responses are shaped at the photoreceptor ribbon synapse. AU - Cadetti, Lucia. AU - Bartoletti, Theodore M.. AU - Thoreson, Wallace B.. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - At the photoreceptor ribbon synapse, glutamate released from vesicles at different positions along the ribbon reaches the same postsynaptic receptors. Thus, vesicles may not exert entirely independent effects. We examined whether responses of salamander retinal horizontal cells evoked by light or direct depolarization during paired recordings could be predicted by summation of individual miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). For EPSCs evoked by depolarization of rods or cones, linear convolution of mEPSCs with photoreceptor release functions predicted EPSC waveforms and changes caused by inhibiting glutamate receptor desensitization. A low-affinity glutamate antagonist, kynurenic acid (KynA), preferentially reduced later components of ...
Were saddened to learn that the alien-looking Axolotl salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum), aka Mexican walking fish or Mexican water monster, is seriously
The combined map distance of our 14 largest linkage groups (5251 cM) is consistent with previous studies that indicated a large genetic map for Ambystoma. By comparison, the combined map length of LG1 and LG2 is greater than the total map length of the mouse genome! Marker-based estimates of genome size vary greatly for Ambystoma (e.g., 2600-6276 cM in Armstrong 1984 and 7291 cM in Voss et al. 2001). This variation may be attributed to the large genome size of Ambystoma and the nonrobust nature of estimators; genotyping errors and missing data cause upward bias in size estimates and nonrandom distribution of markers with respect to recombinational distances causes downward bias (Chakravarti et al. 1991). We estimated genome size using linkage data from this study and the method of Hulbert et al. (1988). Analyses were performed separately for protein coding and anonymous marker classes and for the combined data set using several linkage thresholds (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cM; data not shown). ...
Understanding how the germ layers are formed is one of the key questions of developmental biology. Abundant studies in the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis have described that maternal and vegetally localised mRNAs for VegT and Vg1 contribute greatly to the formation of mesoderm and endoderm in the developing embryo. Within Xenopus mesendoderm gene-regulatory network (GRN), Wnt/β-catenin as well as Nodal and Mix family members have been shown to play important roles. The involvement of several members of the Nodal and Mix gene families with redundant functions makes the mesendoderm GRN surprisingly complex and difficult to study in Xenopus laevis. By contrast, mouse and humans have only single copies of Nodal and Mix. Since urodeles have an embryology that is basal to amphibians and that has most likely also been conserved during the evolution of amniotes, including mammals, we have investigated the Mix and Nodal genes in the urodele Axolotl in the hope that their gene families contained fewer ...
Neoteny has been observed in many other species. It is important to note the difference between partial and full neoteny when looking at other species in order to distinguish between juvenile traits that are only advantageous in the short term and traits that provide a benefit throughout the organisms life; this might then provide some insight into the cause of neoteny in those species. Partial neoteny is the retention of the larval form beyond the usual age of maturation with the possibility of the development of sexual organs progenesis, but eventually the organism still matures into the adult form; this can be seen in Lithobates clamitans. Full neoteny is seen in Ambystoma mexicanum and some populations of Ambystoma tigrinum, which remain in their larval form for the duration of their life.[30][31] Lithobates clamitans is partially neotenous: it delays its maturation through the winter season, because it is not advantageous for it to metamorphose into the adult form until there are more ...
Salsite, ambystoma, axolotls in research, regeneration, limb regeneration, brain, metamorphosis, paedomorphosis, andersoni, mexicanum, tigrinum, stock center
It was a pleasant suprise when i first saw my leucistic axolotls spawning a few weeks ago (especially since i got them as two females), and after eggs being laid, and 18-22 days of incubation, I have hatchlings ...
I got a tip that there were tiger salamanders with gills swimming around below Los Alamos reservoir, so I had to go see for myself. Theyre fabulous! Four to five inch salamanders with flattened tails and huge frilly gills behind their heads -- dozens of them, so many the pond is thick with them. Plenty of them are hanging out in the shallows or just below the surface of the water, obligingly posing for photos. I had stupidly brought only the pocket camera, not the DSLR -- and then the cameras battery turned out to be low -- so I was sparing with camera, but even so I was pleased at how well they came out, with the camera mostly managing to focus on the salamanders rather than (as I had feared) the surface of the murky water. I may go back soon with the DSLR. Its an easy, pleasant hike. Photos: Tiger Salamander larvae ...
The premature death (p) mutation is a recessive lethal, which, in the homozygous condition, gives rise to a complex of abnormalities. The mutant embryos develop only to stage 37, at which time disintegration of superficial tissue begins. Many of the abnormalities observed in sections of the stage-37 mutant embryo are related to its failure to establish a functioning circulatory system, or to the resulting edema and/or ascites that distend the abdomen and flanks. There are, however, abnormalities of heart, liver, gill and muscle development which cannot be attributed to lack of circulation and edema. All of these abnormalities can be indirectly related to the endoderm, particularly the anterior and dorsal endoderm. The findings, therefore, suggest that the mutation leads to a fairly general defect of the endoderm.. ...
So, I recently lost my entire tank (save for my pleco) to a catastrophic event of unknown cause. Ive gotten over it now and am ready to start anew. This time
1984). Location and function of voltagesensitive conductances in retinal rods of the salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. Journal of Physiology, 354, 203-223. 28 Paul Shin-Hyun Park Baylor, D. , Nunn, B. , & Schnapf, J. L. (1984). The photocurrent, noise and spectral sensitivity of rods of the monkey Macaca fascicularis. Journal of Physiology, 357, 575-607. Becker, R. , & Freedman, K. (1985). A comprehensive investigation of the mechanism and photophysics of isomerization of a protonated and unprotonated Schiff-base of 11-cis-retinal. L. (2003). Assessing structural elements that influence Schiff base stability: Mutants E113Q and D190N destabilize rhodopsin through different mechanisms. Vision Research, 43, 2991-3002. Janz, J. , Fay, J. , & Farrens, D. L. (2003). Stability of dark state rhodopsin is mediated by a conserved ion pair in intradiscal loop E-2. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278, 16982-16991. , Cornwall, M. , & Oprian, D. D. (2003). Opsin activation as a cause of congenital night ...
The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is one of the most fascinating animals you can ever put in your aquarium. Here are the basics of starting an axolotl tank.
And that leads me to discussing one of the most challenging and confusing salamanders of southern Ontario: Jeffersons Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum). The Jeffs is largely restricted to south central Ontario, although ongoing research has had it turn up slightly beyond that area. It is a large salamander, with adults reaching 18-20 cm in total length. It is dark bluish black, with a few lighter whitish-bluish flecks, but not as large or as brightly marked as the Blue-spotted Salamander. What makes things especially challenging in identifying these salamanders in the field is a result of the unusual reproductive process and ultimate genetics of these two species. They hybridize, and there is a broad zone of hybridization. One can really only tell what kind one is by doing DNA analysis, which for these salamanders requires snipping a small tip of the tail, running it through a blender of sorts, and then examining the DNA. There are many variations of the genetic make-up of these hybrids, ...
Nearly 500 varieties of amphibians, spread throughout various continents on the planet, are collectively referred to as Salamander. Theyve the characteristics of the fellow amphibians, such as frogs as well as toads, yet tend to be unique within their own methods. Nearly all of the varieties associated with salamander possess appearance such as those associated with reptiles. Varieties, such because Hida Salamander, Marbled Salamander, Off-shore Giant Salamander, as well as Southern Bittorrent Salamander carefully resemble lizards. However, Olm as well as Two-toed Amphiuma look much like snakes. Higher Siren is actually another range with hardly visible braches, but its more of the eel-like entire body.. Steps in order to draw Salamander: From a good artistic perspective, the degree of difficulty within drawing the salamander is actually directly associated with the subspecies selected. Following guidelines can help you draw your personal salamander:. • Research image: You need to do a few ...
Salsite, ambystoma, axolotls in research, regeneration, limb regeneration, brain, metamorphosis, paedomorphosis, andersoni, mexicanum, tigrinum, stock center
The objective of this experiment is to determine whether or not axolotls can acquire spatial learning through the use of visual cues. Since salamanders, a very similar species to axolotls, have shown the ability to use landmarks as visual cues when finding food, axolotls should also be able to do so, since they are very closely related. The axolotls will be given a certain amount of time to find an escape hole, based on standardized visual cues. and with each trial, the time will be recorded. It is hypothesized that the amount of time required for the axolotl to escape the shallow water will change based on the placement of the visual cues and the amount of trials done. The independent variable will be the placement of the standardized cues, and the dependent variable will be the time it takes for the axolotl to escape. The amount of time for the experiment and data collection will be about 2 weeks. In those two weeks, using four axolotls, 140 trials will be conducted with each axolotl. Data ...
Cover: Image of an Ambystoma mexicanum limb that has been stained with alizarin red (bone) and alcian blue (cartilage). An ectopic limb (right side) was induced to grow from a wound on the limb proper by deviating a severed nerve and grafting tissue from the opposite limb axis into the wound site. This assay, known as the accessory limb assay, makes it possible to test each of the critical components of limb regeneration: (1) the wound, (2) neurotrophic factors and (3) positional information. Understanding the role of each of these components during limb regeneration in the adult A. mexicanum will bring us closer to harnessing the regenerative capacity in humans. Image by Catherine McCusker from the Gardiner/Bryant research group. See article by McCusker and Gardiner on page 593. ...
Salsite, ambystoma, axolotls in research, regeneration, limb regeneration, brain, metamorphosis, paedomorphosis, andersoni, mexicanum, tigrinum, stock center
Alone among vertebrates, urodele amphibians are able to regenerate lost body parts as adults. The key to this ability is that limb cells are triggered to dedifferentiate and reinitiate growth and pattern formation. Our strategy is to use axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) to discover the signals that trigger the regeneration response, in the belief that these signals have enormous potential and consequences for human health. Our long term goals are to identify the regeneration-enabling signals in limbs, in order to support progress towards the eventual application of these molecules to the improvement of human repair mechanisms. In current research, we are using assays derived from the extensive experimental history of regenerating limbs, to test the roles of several signaling molecules known to be essential for limb development. These assays are designed to examine the signals that initiate regeneration, those that are needed to establish a blastema, as well as those that are required for ...
Im trying to locate any axolotl cDNA or genomic libraries (preferably Ambystoma mexicanum) and I would be very grateful for any help from members of the urodeles newsgroup. For the cDNA libraries I am particularly interested in embryonic stages (up to tailbud) and in adult skeletal or cardiac muscle. Yours sincerely, Tim Mohun ****************************************************** T. J. Mohun National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK Tel: 0181-959 3666 x2522 Fax: 0181-906 4477 Internet: tmohun at nimr.mrc.ac.uk ...
In previous publications (Eyal-Giladi & Eyal, 1962; Eyal & Eyal-Giladi, 1963) some of the macroscopic effects produced by chlorpromazine (CPZ) on the development and growth rate of Axolotl embryos have been reported. They include different abnormalities (microcephaly, defects in eyes, gills and pigmentation) depending on the CPZ concentration used and the length of the immersion period. In addition, larvae subjected to high CPZ concentrations and longer time of treatment proved, at the time of fixation, to be smaller than the controls, whereas larvae treated by low CPZ concentrations tended to grow bigger than the controls.. The teratogenic effect and the influence on growth being established, a microscopic examination of the same material was undertaken.. Three experimental series were run, each starting with a different initial developmental stage (Harrisons stages 10-11, 15-16 and 29-30 respectively). Specias (Paris) CPZ chlorhydrate powder was dissolved in sterile tap water.. ...
Its adorableness aside, the Mexican axolotl is a salamander of particular interest to scientists. On the molecular level, the animal seems to have a
Salamander is the common name applied to approximately 500 amphibian vertebrates with slender bodies, short legs, and long tails (order Caudata or Urodela). The moist skin of the amphibians limits them to habitats either near water or under some protection on moist ground, usually in a forest. Some species are aquatic throughout life, some take to the water intermittently, and some are entirely terrestrial as adults. Salamanders superficially resemble lizards, but are easily distinguished by their lack of scales. They are capable of regenerating lost limbs. Species of salamanders are numerous and found in most moist or aqueous habitats in the northern hemisphere. Most are small but some reach up to 5 feet in length. They live in brooks and ponds and other moist locations. North America has the hellbender and the mudpuppy which can reach the length of a foot. In Japan, China and the United States the giant salamander is found, which reaches 5 feet (1.5m) and weighs up to 30 kilograms [1] ...
Salamander is the common name applied to approximately 500 amphibian vertebrates with slender bodies, short legs, and long tails (order Caudata or Urodela). The moist skin of the amphibians limits them to habitats either near water or under some protection on moist ground, usually in a forest. Some species are aquatic throughout life, some take to the water intermittently, and some are entirely terrestrial as adults. Salamanders superficially resemble lizards, but are easily distinguished by their lack of scales. They are capable of regenerating lost limbs. Species of salamanders are numerous and found in most moist or aqueous habitats in the northern hemisphere. Most are small but some reach up to 5 feet in length. They live in brooks and ponds and other moist locations. North America has the hellbender and the mudpuppy which can reach the length of a foot. In Japan, China and the United States the giant salamander is found, which reaches 5 feet (1.5m) and weighs up to 30 kilograms [1] ...
The biggest result of our study is that we saw differences in captures, or the number of salamanders in a given area, ODonnell said. The captures decreased in all three treatments relative to the untreated areas.. They found that salamander numbers they detected in the areas that were partially cleared or burned decreased, though removing the medium and small trees didnt have as much of an impact when they used statistics to control for undetected amphibians.. In terms of true abundance, we saw a slight decline in the mid-story right away, but a rebound two years after the treatment, ODonnell said. We may not have seen much of the effect of the prescribed fire but there could be a lag time in terms of seeing an effect on the population level.. In the burn areas, the researchers found that the leaf litter that salamanders spend most of their time buried under dropped a lot, affecting the way the amphibians used their habitat. The leaf litter on the ground rebounded after a year, but ...
This article is about baby axolotls, especially baby axolotl care. We will discuss the food, habitat, and other related questions to baby axolotl care.Hope
Biologists have determined that this tiny cave salamander, nicknamed the human fish has a maximum lifespan of 100 years. For a creature of that size, thats quite unusual: The salamander, also called olm and Proteus, has a maximum lifespan of over 100 years, concludes the new study, published in the latest Royal Society Biology Letters. Thats nearly double the age of other often-elderly amphibians: the Japanese giant salamander (55 years), the African bullfrog (45 years), the common European toad (40...
Some, but not all, species of salamander hibernate during the winter months. Salamanders are classified as amphibians, and amphibians cannot regulate their own body temperatures....
Ecology of coastal giant salamanders, (Dicamptodon tenebrosus). Research into the genetic structure and history of giant salamander populations in the United States and Canada.
2015). "Ambystoma mavortium". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T199970A2623523. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS. ... "Sonora tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi)". ECOS Environmental Conservation Online System. U.S. Fish and Wildlife ... "Ambystoma rosaceum". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on October 23, 2020. Retrieved ... "Ambystoma mavortium ". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on August 22, 2019. ...
The streamside salamander (Ambystoma barbouri) is a species of mole salamander from North America, occurring in several ... "Ambystoma barbouri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T59053A11875949. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS. ...
Ambystoma bishopi is a medium-sized species with a snout to vent length of 40 to 50 millimetres (1.6 to 2.0 in) and 14 to 16 ... Ambystoma bishopi is a terrestrial species. Breeding starts with the arrival of the rains in October. Eggs are laid in small ... Ambystoma bishopi is a burrowing species of salamander and lives among the leaf litter beneath longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ... Ambystoma cingulatum bishopi, new subspecies). Powell R, Conant R, Collins JT (2016). Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and ...
California Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma californiense) x Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium) - California tiger ... "Ambystoma californiense". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved 25 April 2020. Balharry, E.; Staines, B. W.; ...
The blunt-headed Salamander (Ambystoma amblycephalum) is a mole salamander endemic to Mexico. It is only known from the ... Retrieved 8 March 2014.old-form url Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Ambystoma amblycephalum Taylor, 1940". Amphibian Species of the ... "Ambystoma amblycephalum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. ...
... and Ambystoma". Copeia. 1964 (1): 196-201. doi:10.2307/1440850. JSTOR 1440850. Shaffer, H. Bradley (2005). "Ambystoma gracile ... The tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) is typical of the frogs and salamanders that hide under cover ready to ambush unwary ... The tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) also sometimes behaves in this way and may grow particularly large in the process. ... Some members of the genera Ambystoma and Dicamptodon have larvae that never fully develop into the adult form, but this varies ...
The only other salamander occurring in this area is the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) and that is more of a lowland ...
IUCN (2016). "Ambystoma flavipiperatum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.old-form url ... It was described as most similar to the Blunt-Headed Salamander, Ambystoma amblycephalum. Larvae have the same coloration as ... The yellow-peppered salamander (Ambystoma flavipiperatum) also known as the salamandra de Champala and the yellow-headed ... Dixon, James R. (1963). "A New Species of Salamander of the Genus Ambystoma from Jalisco, Mexico". Copeia. American Society of ...
The barred tiger salamander or western tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium) is a species of mole salamander found from ... Brian Petirs (2002-01-08). "Ambystoma mavortium". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 2013-12-05. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ...
Ambystoma granulosum is subject to high mortality rates in early stages of development in nature due to insufficient nutrition ... Ambystoma granulosum. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 20 July 2007. v t e. ... The granular salamander or ajolote (Ambystoma granulosum) is a species of mole salamander in the family Ambystomatidae. It is ... doi:10.22438/jeb/38/6(SI)/09.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) "Ambystoma granulosum Taylor, 1944". Globally ...
2014b). Shaffer, H.B.; Parra-Olea, G.; Wake, D. (2008). "Ambystoma leorae". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e. ... The Leora's stream salamander or ajolote (Ambystoma leorae) is a rare species of mole salamander in the family Ambystomatidae. ... Ambystoma leorae) in Mexico. Conserv Genet 15: 49-59. Sunny A, Monroy-Vilchis O, Reyna-Valencia C, Zarco-González MM (2014b) ... Microhabitat Types Promote the Genetic Structure of a Micro-Endemic and Critically Endangered Mole Salamander (Ambystoma leorae ...
2015). "Ambystoma mavortium". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T199970A2623523. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS. ... Hammerson, G. (2004). "Ambystoma opacum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T59065A11864879. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK. ... 2015). "Ambystoma texanum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T59071A56561668. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS. ... Hammerson, G. (2004). "Ambystoma talpoideum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T59069A11878224. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK ...
The Tarahumara salamander (Ambystoma rosaceum) is a freshwater species of mole salamander in the family Ambystomatidae, endemic ... IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2015). "Ambystoma rosaceum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T59068A53974550 ...
The Durango salamander or pine woods salamander, Ambystoma silvense, is a mole salamander. It is endemic to Mexico where it is ... Webb, R.; Wake, D.; Parra-Olea, G.; Papenfuss, T. (2008). "Ambystoma silvense". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. ...
The northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile) is a species of mole salamander that inhabits the northwest Pacific coast of ... Hammerson (2004). "Ambystoma gracile". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved 12 May 2006.old-form url Snyder, R. ... Ambystoma gracile. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-2. Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States ... Eagleson, G. W. (1976). A comparison of the life histories and growth patterns of populations of the salamander Ambystoma ...
... , Ambystoma taylori, is a species of salamander found only in Laguna Alchichica, a high-altitude (2,290 m ( ... Their heads are quite large, and their limbs are underdeveloped, as in most Ambystoma neotenes. They feed by buccal suction, ... Taylor himself attempted to describe the species as Ambystoma subsalsum in 1943, but mistakenly used a Mexican or plateau tiger ... "Taylor's Salamander (Ambystoma taylori)". EDGE of Existence programme (Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered species ...
Ambystoma texanum Animal Diversity Web: Ambystoma texanum Amphibian Species of the World: Ambystoma texanum Illinois Natural ... Hammerson, G. (2004). "Ambystoma texanum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved 2015-01-16.old-form url "Larval ... The small-mouth salamander (Ambystoma texanum) is a species of mole salamander found in the central United States, from the ... The Kelley's Island salamander (Ambystoma nothagenes) was synonymized with A. texanum in 1995. The small-mouth salamander grows ...
... s are members of the tiger salamander, or Ambystoma tigrinum, species complex, along with all other Mexican species of ... The axolotl is a popular exotic pet like its relative, the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigerinum). As for all poikilothermic ... It is not certain that Ambystoma velasci specimens were not included in the original shipment.[citation needed] Vilem ... Gresens, Jill (2004). "An Introduction to the Mexican Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum)". Lab Animal. 33 (9): 41-47. doi:10.1038/ ...
Ambystoma and Taricha spp. spawn large numbers of small eggs in quiet ponds where many large predators are unlikely. Most dusky ... Ambystoma mexicanum, an aquatic salamander, is a species protected under the Mexican UMA (Unit for Management and conservation ... It is important to note that although there is a level of limited genetic diversity due to Ambystoma populations, such as the ... Skin secretions of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) fed to rats have been shown to produce aversion to the flavor, and ...
Full neoteny is seen in Ambystoma mexicanum and some populations of Ambystoma tigrinum, which remain in larval form throughout ... Ambystoma tigrinum retains its neoteny for a similar reason; however, the retention is permanent due to the lack of available ... "Ambystoma tigrinum". Amphibia Web. Foster, M. (1987). "Delayed maturation, neoteny, and social system differences in two ... Snyder, R (1956). "Comparative Features of the Life Histories of Ambystoma gracile (Baird) from Populations at Low and High ...
This species has been suggested to be the same species as the Lake Patzcuaro salamander, Ambystoma dumerilii, based on genetic ... Shaffer, H.B.; Flores-Villela, O.; Parra-Olea, G. & Wake, D. (2008). "Ambystoma ordinarium". IUCN Red List of Threatened ... cited at [1] Anderson, J. D. (1975). Ambystoma ordinarium. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study ... Anderson, J. D., and Worthington, R. D. (1971). The life history of the Mexican salamander Ambystoma ordinarium Taylor. ...
"Ambystoma californiense - California Tiger Salamander". California Herps. Retrieved 2009-10-19. "Ambystoma californiense, ... There is also a hybrid between the California tiger salamander and an introduced Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum ... Shaffer, H. B.; R. N. Fisher & S. E. Stanley (1993). Status report: the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense). ... The California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) is a vulnerable amphibian native to California. It is a mole ...
... who did extensive fieldwork studying Ambystoma and other amphibians and reptiles in Mexico. Like all neotenic Ambystoma species ... Ambystoma andersoni is listed as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List. Brad Shaffer; Oscar Flores-Villela; Gabriela Parra ... Anderson's salamander (Ambystoma andersoni) is a neotenic salamander from Zacapu Lagoon in the Mexican state of Michoacán. This ... The lake is located within the Mesa Central portion of Mexico, an area home to many neotenic Ambystoma species. It is temperate ...
The Jefferson salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum) is a mole salamander native to the northeastern United States, southern and ... "Jefferson Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum)". Species. Ontario Nature. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved ... IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2015). "Ambystoma jeffersonianum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e. ... Ambystoma jeffersonianum is often found in the same habitat as the spotted salamander. The larvae are carnivorous, typically ...
Ambystoma velasci is locally threatened by habitat loss due to urbanization, forest clearance, and water extraction, and also ... The plateau tiger salamander or Mexican tiger salamander (Ambystoma velasci) is a species of mole salamander in the family ... Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Ambystoma velasci (Dugès, 1888)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. ... "Ambystoma velasci". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T62130287A53974804. Retrieved 21 August 2020. ...
Ambystoma laterale species account and conservation status Bogart, J P; Bartoszek, J; Noble, D W A; Bi, K (2009). "Sex in ... Female Tremblay's salamanders (Ambystoma tremblayi) breed with male blue-spotted salamanders from March to April. Eggs are laid ... Hammerson, G. (2004). "Ambystoma laterale". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved 2015-01-16.old-form url ... The blue-spotted salamander (Ambystoma laterale) is a mole salamander native to the Great Lakes states and northeastern United ...
Ambystoma opacum) C Small-mouth salamander (Ambystoma texanum) R Streamside salamander (Ambystoma barbouri) R, NT Family ... Ambystoma jeffersonianum) U Spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) C Marbled salamander ( ... Ambystoma barbouri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T59053A11875949. https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/59053/ ...
The marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) is a species of mole salamander found in the eastern United States. The marbled ... Hammerson, G. (2004). "Ambystoma opacum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T59065A11864879. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK. ... "Species Profile: Marbled Salamander (Ambystoma opacum) , SREL Herpetology". srelherp.uga.edu. Retrieved 2019-10-17. "Salamander ...
... (Ambystoma mabeei) is a species of mole salamander found in tupelo and cypress bottoms in pinewoods, open ... "Ambystoma mabeei ". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 6 December 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link). ... Geoffrey Hammerson; Joseph Mitchell (2004). "Ambystoma mabeei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T59062A11864333. ...
Franziska Sandmeier (2013-05-11). "Ambystoma rosaceum". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 2013-12-10. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ...
Ambystoma, and about 32 species. Family Amphiumidae (congo eels) Large, to more than 100 cm; very elongated; aquatic to ... present; North America; 1 genus, Ambystoma, and about 32 species. Family Amphiumidae (congo eels) Large, to more than 100 cm; ...
The Small-mouth salamander (Ambystoma texanum) is a mole salamander species and a member of the Ambystomatidae family. The ... Image Caption: Small-mouth salamander (Ambystoma texanum). Credit: Greg Schechter/Wikipedia (CC BY-SA 2.0) ...
Ambystoma cingulatum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T1099A3236962. . Downloaded on 22 February 2018.. ... 2007) concluded that Ambystoma cingulatum should be split into two species, A. bishopi west of the Apalachicola-Flint rivers ... The following information pertains to the Ambystoma cingulatum/bishopi complex as a whole.. Post-larval individuals inhabit ... suggests that breeding population sizes are low relative to other Ambystoma (Palis, unpubl. data). However, this may be a site ...
Ambystoma californiense. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T1098A3234573. . Downloaded on 26 February 2018.. ...
Ambystoma talpoideum University of Georgia: Mole salamander Illinois Natural History Survey: Ambystoma talpoideum. ... Ambystoma talpoideum, the mole salamander, is a species of salamander found in much of the eastern and central United States, ... Geoffrey Hammerson (2004). "Ambystoma talpoideum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T59069A11878224. doi:10.2305/ ... In its Red List of Threatened Species, the IUCN lists Ambystoma talpoideum as being "Least Concern" because the population ...
Argulus ambystoma is a species of branchiuran parasitic on the Lake Patzcuaro Salamander, Ambystoma dumerilii, sharing that ... Poly, William J. (2003). "Argulus ambystoma, a new species parasitic on the salamander Ambystoma dumerilii from Mexico ( ...
Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird, 1849. Long-Toed Salamander. David S. Pilliod. Julie A. Fronzuto. 1. Historical versus Current ... Ambystoma macrodactylum Long-toed Salamander, Eastern Long-Toed Salamander, Santa Cruz Long-Toed Salamander, Northern Long-Toed ... The subspecies, Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum, is both State listed endangered and Federally listed endangered. ... Historical and current distributions of long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) are similar; there is no evidence of a ...
Ambystoma maculatum Spotted Salamander. Subgenus: Ambystoma. family: Ambystomatidae © 2010 Todd Pierson (1 of 128). ... Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw, 1802). Spotted Salamander. Wesley K. Savage. Kelly R. Zamudio. 1. Historical versus Current ... Spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) are distributed throughout the interior and Atlantic Coastal Plains of the eastern ... 2002) found that the presence of other Ambystoma caused spotted salamander larvae to occupy refuges more and decrease their ...
Ambystoma tigrinum synonyms, Ambystoma tigrinum pronunciation, Ambystoma tigrinum translation, English dictionary definition of ... Noun 1. Ambystoma tigrinum - widely distributed brown or black North American salamander with vertical yellowish blotches tiger ... Ambystoma tigrinum. Also found in: Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to Ambystoma tigrinum: Ambystoma mexicanum, ... Histological Characteristics of Gills and Dorsal Skin in Ambystoma leorae and Ambystoma rivulare: Morphological Changes for ...
a href=http://www.arkive.org/california-tiger-salamander/ambystoma-californiense/image-G38039.html#src=portletV3web title= ...
Ambystoma species Ambystoma rivulare Name. Synonyms. Ambystoma rivularis (Taylor, 1940). Rhyacosiredon rivularis Taylor, 1940. ... Ambystoma rivulare (Taylor, 1940). Common names. Michoacan stream salamander in language.. Michoacan stream siredon in language ... Ambystoma rivulare (Taylor, 1940) Dataset GBIF Backbone Taxonomy Rank SPECIES http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ...
Involved in widespread development of hybrid swarms with Ambystoma laterale, Ambystoma jeffersonianum, and Ambystoma tigrinum ( ... Phylogeny Urodela: 109-134, discussed complex hybridization with Ambystoma jeffersonianum, Ambystoma laterale, and Ambystoma ... Ambystoma texanum (Matthes, 1855) Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Ambystomatidae > Genus: Ambystoma > Species: ... J. Zool., 65: 2188-2201, who considered this named based on nonparthenogenetic hybrids of Ambystoma texanum x Ambystoma ...
See comments under Ambystoma californiense, Ambystoma mavortium, Ambystoma tigrinum, and Ambystoma velasci. Last revised by ... Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum [in the broad sense of including Ambystoma mavortium and Ambystoma velasci]: Yarrow, 1882 ... U.S. Canada: 108 (written previously to the partition into Ambystoma mavortium, Ambystoma velasci, and Ambystoma tigrinum) and ... Phylogeny Urodela: 109-134, discussed complex hybridization with Ambystoma jeffersonianum, Ambystoma texanum, and Ambystoma ...
Glycosaminoglycans compositional analysis of Urodele axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and Porcine Retina. *So Young Kim1. , ... Kim, S.Y., Kundu, J., Williams, A. et al. Glycosaminoglycans compositional analysis of Urodele axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) ... Voss, S.R., Epperlein, H.H., Tanaka, E.M.: Ambystoma mexicanum, the axolotl: a versatile amphibian model for regeneration, ... Svistunov, S.A., Mitashov, V.I.: Proliferative activity of the pigment epithelium and regenerating retinal cells in Ambystoma ...
Ambystoma mexicanum) is a critically endangered salamander species and a model organism for regenerative and developmental ... Page, R. B. & Voss, S. R. Induction of metamorphosis in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum). Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2009, ... Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is a critically endangered salamander species and a model organism for regenerative and ... Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), a salamander species of amphibians, possess experimentally validated features, such as high ...
Differences in optimal temperature for enzyme induction and activity were noted in organ culture of human and Ambystoma tissues ... and ratios of benzpyrene metabolites differed between Ambystoma and Mus. The half life of enzyme activity induced in vivo was ... was induced 15-fold in Ambystoma tigrinum by intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene in corn oil, or 10-fold by ... Colvin, David P. Induction of Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase in Ambystoma tigrinum, thesis, December 1974; Denton, Texas. ( ...
Threads in Forum : Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum). Forum Tools Search this Forum. Views: 21,341 Announcement: Axolotls are ... Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) A dedicated topic for those seeking help with Axolotls, showing off your photos, or just to talk ... Caudata.org , Newt & Salamander Forum , Beginner Newt, Salamander, Axolotl & Help Topics , Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) ...
Ambystoma californiense may not persist in Southwest Park over the long-term, but the data from our study should inform ... Ambystoma californiense is endemic to the lowlands of central California, habitats that are also highly attractive areas for ... Captures of Ambystoma californiense and land use characteristics surrounding the Southwest Park breeding pool. Captures are ... The relationship between pool depth and Ambystoma californiense migrating to the pool. Percent values are from trap captures ...
The Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, is a strictly aquatic species that persists currently in two highly threatened and ... The Case of Ambystoma mexicanum (Caudata, Ambystomatidae)," Annales Zoologici Fennici, 47(4), 223-238, (1 August 2010) Include: ... confirmed low genetic differentiation and a recurrent lack of monophyly in many of the taxa belonging to the Ambystoma tigrinum ... The Case of Ambystoma mexicanum (Caudata, Ambystomatidae)," Annales Zoologici Fennici 47(4), 223-238, (1 August 2010). https:// ...
Amphibien, Salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, Reptilien oder Insekten: wählen Sie die passenden Etiketten für Ihre Verkaufsanlage. ...
Genus: Ambystoma. Species. Ambystoma maculatum. Common name. Spotted salamander. Synonyms. Lacerta maculatum, Lacerta ... AnAge entry for Ambystoma maculatum Classification (HAGRID: 00111). Taxonomy. Kingdom: Animalia. Phylum: Chordata. Class: ...
Genus: Ambystoma. Species. Ambystoma texanum. Common name. Small-mouthed salamander. Synonyms. Ambystoma nothagenes, Salamandra ... AnAge entry for Ambystoma texanum Classification (HAGRID: 00116). Taxonomy. Kingdom: Animalia. Phylum: Chordata. Class: ...
Bandpass Filtering at the Rod to Second-Order Cell Synapse in Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) Retina. Cecilia E. Armstrong-Gold ... Bandpass Filtering at the Rod to Second-Order Cell Synapse in Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) Retina ... Bandpass Filtering at the Rod to Second-Order Cell Synapse in Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) Retina ... Bandpass Filtering at the Rod to Second-Order Cell Synapse in Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) Retina ...
AQUATIC PREY TRANSPORT AND THE COMPARATIVE KINEMATICS OF AMBYSTOMA TIGRINUM FEEDING BEHAVIORS ... AQUATIC PREY TRANSPORT AND THE COMPARATIVE KINEMATICS OF AMBYSTOMA TIGRINUM FEEDING BEHAVIORS ... AQUATIC PREY TRANSPORT AND THE COMPARATIVE KINEMATICS OF AMBYSTOMA TIGRINUM FEEDING BEHAVIORS ... AQUATIC PREY TRANSPORT AND THE COMPARATIVE KINEMATICS OF AMBYSTOMA TIGRINUM FEEDING BEHAVIORS ...
Ambystoma maculatum. It may surprise many Minnesotans to learn that seven species of salamanders reside in our state. The lives ... In Minnesota, spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) werent documented until the spring of 2001 during surveys conducted by ...
Ambystoma Cell Type. squamous epithelial cell Cellular Component. desmosome cell-cell junction keratin filament cell-cell ... Lower, a portion of the basal surface of a cell in the epidermis of a larval salamander Ambystoma punctatum shows hemi- ... John Albright, M.A. Listgargen, Elizabeth Hay (2011) CIL:11209, Phodopus, Ambystoma, squamous epithelial cell. CIL. Dataset. ...
Ambystoma Genetic Stock Center, University of Kentucky, USA; viewed at www.ambystoma.org/education/embryo-staging-series; see ... Ambystoma maculatum egg masses were collected from a vernal pool in Bucks County, PA, USA on 28 March 2011 and 15 March 2012. ... 1995). Annual variation in breeding success of two syntopic species of Ambystoma salamanders. J. Herpetol. 29, 111-113. ... 1967). The morphogenesis of the stomach and intestine in the salamander Ambystoma maculatum. J. Morphol. 122, 345-365. ...
Buy the Paperback Book The Development of the Larval Pigment Patterns in Triturus alpestris and Ambystoma mexicanum by Hans- ... The Development of the Larval Pigment Patterns in Triturus alpestris and Ambystoma mexicanum. byHans-Henning Epperlein, Jan ... Title:The Development of the Larval Pigment Patterns in Triturus alpestris and Ambystoma mexicanumFormat:PaperbackDimensions: ... Customer Reviews of The Development of the Larval Pigment Patterns in Triturus alpestris and Ambystoma mexicanum. ...
Ambystoma macrodactylum) is a widespread inhabitant of the Cordilleran Region of western North America. The Cordilleran ice ... Anderson J, Graham R (1967) Vertical migration and stratification of larval Ambystoma. Copeia 1967: 371-374Google Scholar ... Palis JG (1997) Breeding migration of Ambystoma cingulatum in Florida. Journal of Herpetology 31: 71-78Google Scholar ... Powell GL, Russell AP, Nelson SJ, Hamilton IM, Graham KL (1997b) The status of the long-toed salamander Ambystoma macrodactylum ...
This publication sets the stage for the use of the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) as an excellent model to study regeneration ... Rôle des Smads lors du processus de régénération chez Ambystoma mexicanum. Thesis or Dissertation ... Aussi, cette publication positionne laxolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) comme un excellent modèle pour étudier le processus de ...
  • Humans cannot regenerate retina, however, axolotl ( Ambystoma mexicanum ), a laboratory-bred salamander, can regenerate retinal tissue throughout adulthood. (springer.com)
  • Axolotl ( Ambystoma mexicanum ) is a critically endangered salamander species and a model organism for regenerative and developmental biology. (nature.com)
  • Axolotls ( Ambystoma mexicanum ) A dedicated topic for those seeking help with Axolotls, showing off your photos, or just to talk about them. (caudata.org)
  • The Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum , is a strictly aquatic species that persists currently in two highly threatened and isolated populations. (bioone.org)
  • Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences confirmed low genetic differentiation and a recurrent lack of monophyly in many of the taxa belonging to the Ambystoma tigrinum species group, including A. mexicanum , but clustered the Chapultepec samples with other A. mexicanum samples. (bioone.org)
  • Aussi, cette publication positionne l'axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) comme un excellent modèle pour étudier le processus de régénération épimorphique ainsi que l'importance de la signalisation TGF-β. (umontreal.ca)
  • This publication sets the stage for the use of the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) as an excellent model to study regeneration and the importance of TGF- for the process. (umontreal.ca)
  • IR-Met and IR-Leu enkephalin content in the axolotl brain (Ambystoma mexicanum). (semanticscholar.org)
  • The peptides met- and leu-enkephalin were identified in the telencephalon, rombencephalon, diencephalon and hypophysis of Ambystoma mexicanum brain by radioimmunoassay procedure. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity is localized in luteinizing hormone-producing cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We used a custom microarray gene chip to characterize gene expression responses of axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) to an emerging viral pathogen, Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV). (amphibiatree.org)
  • The Ambystoma mexicanum has a large genome composed of repetitive DNA components and functional elements (Smith et al . (inquiriesjournal.com)
  • The mexican axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is a member of a family of salamanders with large nuclear genomes. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Expressed sequence tag (EST) markers were developed for Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum (Eastern tiger salamander) and for A. mexicanum (Mexican axolotl) to generate the first comprehensive linkage map for these model amphibians. (genetics.org)
  • Body parts of the Ambystoma mexicanum will regenerate. (dwazoo.com)
  • plural axolotls or rarely axolomeh [3] ), Ambystoma mexicanum , [2] also known as the Mexican walking fish , is a neotenic salamander related to the tiger salamander . (wikipedia.org)
  • Axolotl (or ajolote) is the common name for the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum, which is the best-known of the Mexican neotenic mole salamanders belonging to the Tiger Salamander complex. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In order to understand how the ischium and the ilium evolved and how the acetabulum was reoriented during this transition, growth series of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri and the Mexican axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum were cleared and stained for cartilage and bone and immunostained for skeletal muscles. (edu.au)
  • An extensive molecular toolkit makes the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) a key representative salamander for molecular investigations. (nih.gov)
  • Bohonak and Whiteman (1999) estimated that thousands of Branchinecta coloradensis eggs were transported per year among a complex of mountain ponds by salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum , and that about 0.9% of these eggs were viable. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tiger salamanders ( Ambystoma tigrinum ) had no clear temporal activity patterns. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ontogenic delays in effects of nitrite exposure on Tiger salamanders ( Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In Minnesota, spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) weren't documented until the spring of 2001 during surveys conducted by the Minnesota Biological Survey . (mn.us)
  • Several species of mole salamanders in the genus Ambystoma are targeted by various state, provincial, and federal agencies for conservation. (amnh.org)
  • The blue-spotted salamander, Ambystoma laterale (LL) and the Jefferson salamander, A. jeffersonianum (JJ) have both been listed for protection in various parts of their ranges, but the identification of these salamanders is confusing because they often coexist with unisexual individuals that are mostly polyploid and use the sexual species as sperm donors. (amnh.org)
  • I manipulated the density of ringed salamanders (Ambystoma annulatum) over 10 levels and compared the model fit of four functional forms of body size, body condition, date of metamorphosis survival, and percent lipids. (umsystem.edu)
  • Ambystoma annulatum (Ringed Salamander) is a species of amphibians in the family mole salamanders . (eol.org)
  • These salamanders are members of the Ambystoma jeffersonianum complex which consists of two diploid species (the northern A. laterale and the southern A. jeffersonianum) and two all-female, triploid species (A. tremblayi and A. platineum). (bsu.edu)
  • During the spring breeding season throughout the channeled scablands of eastern Washington, metamorphosed male and female blotched tiger salamanders ( Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum ) utilize oropharyngeal suction to capture large quantities of small aquatic invertebrates. (byu.edu)
  • Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) is a lethal virus originally isolated from Sonora tiger salamanders Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi in the San Rafael Valley in southern Arizona. (int-res.com)
  • In most Ambystoma, including the widely distributed and familiar tiger salamanders (A. tigrinum complex), mating occurs during the early spring in ponds where the eggs are laid, often in visible clumps attached to submerged objects. (tolweb.org)
  • The age of unisexual salamanders of the genus Ambystoma is contentious. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ultimate goal of this study is to assess fitness trade-offs in a polymorphic population of Tiger Salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum, using six microsatellite sequences as genetic markers to assign parentage. (murraystate.edu)
  • Axolotls should not be confused with waterdogs, the larval stage of the closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum and Ambystoma mavortium) , which is widespread in much of North America which also occasionally become neotenic. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Ambystoma, the mole salamanders, is a genus of salamanders endemic to North America. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Bos D.H. & DeWoody J.A. (2005) Molecular characterization of major histocompatibility complex class II alleles in wild tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). (purdue.edu)
  • The genus has become famous due to the presence of axolotl, widely used in research, and the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum, Ambystoma mavortium) . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Each spring, North American spotted salamander ( Ambystoma maculatum ) females each lay hundreds of eggs in shallow pools of water. (biologists.org)
  • The spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw 1802), is common throughout North America and has served as a model organism for studying this unique alga-vertebrate symbiosis. (biologists.org)
  • A scanning electron microscopic study in early gastrulae of Ambystoma maculatum showed that migrating presumptive mesodermal cells were strongly oriented toward the animal pole. (biologists.org)
  • 1 genus, Ambystoma , and about 32 species. (britannica.com)
  • The Small-mouth salamander ( Ambystoma texanum ) is a mole salamander species and a member of the Ambystomatidae family. (redorbit.com)
  • 2007) concluded that Ambystoma cingulatum should be split into two species, A. bishopi west of the Apalachicola-Flint rivers and A. cingulatum east of those rivers. (iucnredlist.org)
  • Ambystoma talpoideum, the mole salamander, is a species of salamander found in much of the eastern and central United States, from Florida to Texas, north to Illinois, east to Kentucky, with isolated populations in Virginia and Indiana. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its Red List of Threatened Species, the IUCN lists Ambystoma talpoideum as being "Least Concern" because the population trend is stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Argulus ambystoma is a species of branchiuran parasitic on the Lake Patzcuaro Salamander, Ambystoma dumerilii, sharing that species' very limited range in Lago de Pátzcuaro, Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • Argulus ambystoma, a new species parasitic on the salamander Ambystoma dumerilii from Mexico (Crustacea: Branchiura: Argulidae)" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ambystomatide species endemic to Mexico are members of the Ambystoma tigrinum complex. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ranavirosis is caused by ico-sahedral cytoplasmic DNA viruses that belong to the family Iridoviridae, in particular by 4 species of Ranavirus: Frog Virus 3 (FV3), Bohle iridovirus, Ambystoma tigrinum virus, and a possible species Rana catesbeiana virus Z. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Study species include not only the red-cockaded woodpecker and Saint Francis' satyr but also two amphibian species, the eastern tiger salamander ( Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and Carolina gopher frog (Rana capito capito), both of which are listed by North Carolina as threatened at the state level. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ambystoma gracile (Baird) and Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird are common salamander species occupying key trophic positions in mountain ponds and lakes of Mount Rainier National Park (MORA). (usgs.gov)
  • Unlike most vertebrate species, linkage map size in Ambystoma is not strongly correlated with chromosome arm number. (genetics.org)
  • THE tiger salamander ( Ambystoma tigrinum ) species complex consists of several closely related and phenotypically diverse taxa that range from central Mexico to southern Canada ( S haffer and M c K night 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • Many relationships are very tentative because of conflicts among taxonomic characters, particularly in the clade shown as the sister group to Ambystoma californiense (A. tigrinum and related Mexican species, see discussion below). (tolweb.org)
  • Two species, Ambystoma platineum and A. tremblayi, are chromosomal triploids originating from ancient hybridization between A. jeffersonianum and A. laterale (Hedges et al. (tolweb.org)
  • The Sonora tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi Lowe is a genetically distinct race restricted to about 30 small ponds in the San Rafael Valley in southern Arizona, USA, which was added recently to the USA Federal List of Endangered Species. (int-res.com)
  • It is proposed that this cytological marker identifies these two chromosomes as being derived from A. laterale and lends further support to the hypothesis that A. tremblayi is 'two-thirds A. laterale and one-third A. jeffersonianum' as proposed by Uzzell inhis studies of the Ambystoma jeffersonianum complex. (bsu.edu)
  • This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of genome exchange among unisexuals of the Ambystoma laterale -jeffersonianum complex from 10 sites in the northern part of their distribution. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Successful breeding of Ambystoma opacum. (caudata.org)
  • Marbled salamander ( Ambystoma opacum ) progression from larvae to sub-adult. (fieldherpforum.com)
  • The long-toed salamander ( Ambystoma macrodactylum ) is a widespread inhabitant of the Cordilleran Region of western North America. (springer.com)
  • Baily, J (1948) Supplementary observations on the geographic variation of Ambystoma macrodactylum. (springer.com)
  • Ambystoma gracile sites were larger, deeper, lower in elevation, had flocculent sediment higher in organic content, abundant coarse woody debris, and limited emergent/aquatic vegetation relative to A. macrodactylum sites. (usgs.gov)
  • Ambystoma macrodactylum sites were smaller, shallower, higher in elevation, had firm sediments low in organic content, and had a greater occurrence of emergent/aquatic vegetation than did A. gracile sites. (usgs.gov)
  • Genetic covariance structure of growth in the salamander Ambystoma macrodactylum. (readabstracts.com)
  • The phenotypic and genetic covariance structure of length and mass growth trajectories in a natural population of larval ambystoma macrodactylum is described by using function-valued quantitative genetic analyses and principal decomposition. (readabstracts.com)
  • Geckos were obtained from Serpi&Co (Crespellano, Bologna, Italy), larval Ambystoma tigrinum from Charles D. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lower, a portion of the basal surface of a cell in the epidermis of a larval salamander Ambystoma punctatum shows hemi-desmosomes spaced at regular intervals. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Anderson J, Graham R (1967) Vertical migration and stratification of larval Ambystoma . (springer.com)
  • Predation on larval Ambystoma annulatum was studied in 1991-1993. (missouristate.edu)
  • To assess the influence of urbanization on amphibian life histories, we collected demographic and phenologic data on an urban population of the California tiger salamander ( Ambystoma californiense ) in Sonoma County, California. (bioone.org)
  • Distribution, habitats and life-history variation in the tiger Salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum , in east-central and southeast Arizona. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Growth and foraging consequences of faeultative paedomorphosis in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, a mass mitigation of tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum between a wetland and upland site intersected the Trans-Canada Highway, Alberta, in the late 1990s. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study evaluates the loads on the limb bones of the tiger salamander ( Ambystoma tigrinum ) and the Argentine black and white tegu ( Tupinambus merianae ) during terrestrial locomotion using three-dimensional measurements of the ground reaction force (GRF) and hindlimb kinematics, anatomical measurements of the femur and hindlimb muscles, and in vivo measurements of bone strain (tegus only). (clemson.edu)
  • Barred tiger salamander or western tiger salamander ( Ambystoma mavortium ) photo by OpenCage on Wikipedia (use permitted with attribution / share alike). (statesymbolsusa.org)
  • The Western tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium) was designated the official state amphibian of Colorado in 2012 (Illinois and Kansas also recognize tiger salamander as an official symbol). (statesymbolsusa.org)
  • 1. Solitary rod inner segments were obtained by enzymatic dissociation of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) retina. (nih.gov)
  • Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum (Arizona Tiger salamander) inhabits montane ecosystems throughout Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico. (murraystate.edu)
  • Electrogenic uptake of glutamate and aspartate into glial cells isolated from the salamander (Ambystoma) retina. (deepdyve.com)
  • The following information pertains to the Ambystoma cingulatum/bishopi complex as a whole. (iucnredlist.org)
  • The Ambystoma cingulatum (flatwoods salamander) is a slender, small-headed mole salamander that rarely exceeds 5 in (13 cm) in length when fully mature. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Formerly Ambystoma cingulatum before split into eastern frosted frosted flatwood salamander (A. cingulatum) and western A. bishopi. (outdooralabama.com)
  • We identified 14 large linkage groups (125.5-836.7 cM) that presumably correspond to the 14 haploid chromosomes in the Ambystoma genome. (genetics.org)
  • Presumably, the large physical genome size (∼30 Gbp) is a major determinant of map size in Ambystoma. (genetics.org)
  • This new collection of EST-based PCR markers will better enable the Ambystoma system by facilitating development of new molecular probes, and the linkage map will allow comparative studies of this important vertebrate group. (genetics.org)
  • Recent and ancient evolutionary histories of unisexual Ambystoma were proposed by a few separate studies that constructed phylogenies using mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome b gene vs. non-coding region). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to other studies showing that unisexual Ambystoma represent the most ancient unisexual vertebrates, a recent study by Robertson et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results support a monophyletic lineage for unisexual Ambystoma that shares its most recent common ancestor with an A. barbouri lineage from western Kentucky. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We reject a recent origin of unisexual Ambystoma and provide strong evidence that unisexual Ambystoma are the most ancient unisexual vertebrates known to exist. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The likely presence of an ancient cytochrome b numt in some Kentucky A. barbouri represents a molecular "fossil" reinforcing the hypothesis that these individuals are some of the closest extant relatives to unisexual Ambystoma . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Jancovich JK, Davidson EW, Seiler A, Jacobs BL, Collins JP (2001) Transmission of the Ambystoma tigrinum virus to alternative hosts. (int-res.com)