Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Respiratory Tract DiseasesUnited States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)SmokeHazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)GeorgiaEpidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)New JerseyVolatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.CaliforniaPolycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Tillandsia: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavonols.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Housing: Living facilities for humans.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Coal Ash: Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.AcroleinEnvironmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Los AngelesTaiwanComplex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)MexicoCarbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.TexasUnited StatesHypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.HydrocarbonsPyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.West VirginiaEmergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
"Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - ... "CPDM Helps Coal Miners Avoid Hazardous Dust". U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2016-12-30. Retrieved ... TEOM-based devices have been approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for environmental air quality monitoring, and ...
"Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - ... U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. July 1997. Retrieved 2017-06-28. Ray, Alison E.; Vaughn, David L. ( ... It is important that the air conditioning system not cycle over the same period as the TEOM instrument, because this can cause ... TEOM devices operate continuously and do not need filter changes as frequently as high-volume air samplers. Mechanical noise ...
... regulations limiting the allowable concentrations of gaseous pollutants in the ambient air or in emissions to the ambient air. ... Various governmental agencies involved with environmental protection and with occupational safety and health have promulgated ... In most other nations, the reference ambient temperature for pollutant limits may be 0 °C or other values. 1 percent by volume ... This article presents a set of useful conversions and formulas for air dispersion modeling of atmospheric pollutants and for ...
Regulations that define and limit the concentration of pollutants in the ambient air or in gaseous emissions to the ambient air ... are issued by various national and state (or provincial) environmental protection and occupational health and safety agencies. ... Air pollutant concentrations, as measured or as calculated by air pollution dispersion modeling, must often be converted or ... Air pollutant concentrations expressed as mass per unit volume of atmospheric air (e.g., mg/m3, µg/m3, etc.) at sea level will ...
National Ambient Air Quality Standards) NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) Pollution in ... California Public Smog South Coast Air Quality Management District Timeline of major US environmental and occupational health ... Develop attainment plans for a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ambient air quality standards. California Air ... Attainment of federal and state ambient air quality standards. Implement the requirements of the California Clean Air Act and ...
"Seasonal ambient air pollution correlates strongly with spontaneous abortion in Mongolia" "World Bank: Air quality analysis of ... Cadmium has been identified as a chemical pollutant identified with toxic abortion in animals. Some more articles are: "Air ... Kumar, S. (2011). "Occupational, Environmental and Lifestyle Factors Associated With Spontaneous Abortion". Reproductive ... "Pereira LA, Loomis D, Conceicao GM, Braga AL, Arcas RM, Kishi HS: Association between air pollution and intrauterine mortality ...
Such standards generally are expressed as levels of specific air pollutants that are deemed acceptable in ambient air, and are ... Another set of standards, for indoor air in employment settings, is administered by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health ... U.S. EPA, What Are the Six Common Air Pollutants? U.S. EPA, Original list of hazardous air pollutants. U.S. EPA, Air Pollutants ... Air quality laws govern the emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere. A specialized subset of air quality laws regulate ...
... as a hazardous air pollutant under the Clean Air Act. With a relatively short half-life, it is not expected to bioaccumulate. ... Propene is usually stored as liquid under pressure, although it is also possible to store it safely as gas at ambient ... was established for occupational (8-hour time-weighted average) exposure. It is considered a volatile organic compound (VOC) ... Observed concentrations have been in the range of 0.1-4.8 parts per billion (ppb) in rural air, 4-10.5 ppb in urban air, and 7- ...
Energy portal Regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors ... Individual states with areas that do not attain the targets set by the EPA in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards must ... environmental and occupational health regulation Vehicle emissions control "US EPA approves California auto emissions standard ... EPA's air pollution score represents the amount of health-damaging and smog-forming airborne pollutants the vehicle emits. ...
At higher temperatures it is a reddish-brown gas that has a characteristic sharp, biting odor and is a prominent air pollutant ... For limits in other countries see the table in the Ambient air quality criteria article. Dinitrogen tetroxide Nitric oxide (NO ... Workers in industries where NO 2 is used are also exposed and are at risk for occupational lung diseases, and NIOSH has set ... The influence of indoor air pollutants on health is important because the majority of people in the world spend more than 80% ...
Particulate matter (PM) consist of a mixture of particle pollutants that remain in the air, and vary be region. These particles ... and women with occupational benzene exposure have been shown to have an increased rate of miscarriages. Paternal occupational ... Ambient ozone has been negatively associated with sperm concentration in men, chemicals associated with UOG operations (e.g., ... "Air pollutant exposure and preterm and term small-for-gestational-age births in Detroit, Michigan: Long-term trends and ...
Atmospheric chemistry Criteria air contaminants National Ambient Air Quality Standards (USA) Ozone Photochemical smog ... Health effects depend on ozone precursors, which is a group of pollutants, primarily generated during the combustion of fossil ... Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 15 (8): 629-634. doi:10.1080/10473220050075635. ISSN 1047-322X. PMID 10957818 ... WHO, 2008) The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed an Air Quality index to help explain air pollution ...
Air Programs (Parts 50 - 97) (Clean Air Act)National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria air contaminants ... National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Approval and Promulgation of State Plans for Designated ... Worker protection standards and enforcement by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Tolerances and exemptions from ... Air Pollution Controls (Parts 1039 - 1068) Clean Air Act (1970) Clean Air Act (1990) (Part 1400) National Environmental Policy ...
... setting National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Hazardous Air Pollutant ... 1947 - Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District created; first air pollution agency in the US. 1948 - Federal Water Pollution ... Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act 1965 - Solid Waste Disposal Act 1967 - California Air Resources Board established; set ... 1967 - Air Quality Act (amendment to CAA) 1969 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act 1969 - National Environmental Policy ...
... relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. ... Institute of Occupational Medicine Research Report TM/03/01. *The Mortality Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air ... Pollutants. Main articles: Pollutant and Greenhouse gas. An air pollutant is a material in the air that can have adverse ... Minor air pollutants include: *A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the ...
Sulfur trioxide Sulfur-iodine cycle National Ambient Air Quality Standards Sulfur dioxide, U.S. National Library of Medicine ... Sulfur dioxide is a major air pollutant and has significant impacts upon human health. In addition, the concentration of sulfur ... ISBN 0-8493-0487-3. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0575". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( ... Some sulfur dioxide is also produced by roasting pyrite and other sulfide ores in air. Play media Sulfur dioxide is the product ...
Toxic air pollution : a comprehensive study of non-criteria air pollutants. Chelsea, MI.: Lewis Publishers. ISBN 0-87371-057-6 ... the chromium exposures indoors were highly related to the levels found in house dust and not ambient air. In addition the use ... International Academy of Indoor Air Sciences, (Elected) 1999-Present Fellow, Collegium Ramazzini, Environmental & Occupational ... This standard for protection of public health was tightened to 0.75 ppm but remains as an 8-hour contact with the air pollutant ...
It is lighter than air, its density being 0.589 times that of air. It is easily liquefied due to the strong hydrogen bonding ... The U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a 15-minute exposure limit for gaseous ammonia of 35 ppm ... Lower ambient temperatures reduce the rate of algal photosynthesis so less ammonia is removed by any algae present. Within an ... In some cases, the ammonia is discharged to the marine environment where it acts as a pollutant. The Whyalla steelworks in ...
... and National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). In 1972 the Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments ... which created regulatory programs governing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), State Implementation Plans (SIPs), ... Ciencia y Trabajo is a regional Latin American occupational and environmental health journal published by the Fundación ... By the end of 1970, President Richard Nixon had signed the Clean Air Act Extension, ...
In the province of Khuzestan it has led to the severe reduction of air quality. The amount of pollutants in the air has ... Ambient radiation heats dust and re-emits radiation into the microwave band, which may distort the cosmic microwave background ... Contamination control Dust bunny Dust explosion Lint (material) Medical geology Mineral dust Nephelometer Occupational dust ... In addition, if enough coal dust is dispersed within the air in a given area, in very rare circumstances, it can create an ...
In 1970, the Clean Air Act Amendments set six criteria air pollutants which are updated periodically by the National Air ... 1] - Clean Air Act (EPA)  - National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)  -Exposure Factors Handbook] by the US EPA ... Inhalation disorders Institution of Occupational Safety and Health Toolkit Trends in inhalation exposure: mid 1980s till ... Exposure is commonly understood to be the concentration of the airborne pollutant in the air at the mouth and nose boundary. ...
Surface ozone is one of the most common air pollutants and causes airway irritation. It can also reduce lung function. Studies ... Congress created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in response to the Occupational Safety and Health Act ... "Long-term ambient ozone concentration and the incidence of asthma in nonsmoking adults: the AHSMOG Study."Environmental ... A major cause of the conditions is due to pollutants in the air released by heavy industry (manufacturing plants, refineries, ...
Similarly, the concentration in the ambient air would apply to the time that the person spends outdoors, whereas the ... Methods for performing occupational exposure assessments can be found in "A Strategy for Assessing and Managing Occupational ... The direct approach measures the exposures to pollutants by monitoring the pollutant concentrations reaching the respondents. ... Air sampling measures the contaminant in the air as concentration units of ppmv (parts per million by volume), mg/m^3 ( ...
"National standards for criteria air pollutants in Australia - Air quality fact sheet". Environment.gov.au. Retrieved 1 February ... Consulate Air Quality Monitor and StateAir". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 24 December 2014. WHO , Ambient (outdoor) air ... Dis., 136 (1987), p. 1117 Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J. (2003). Exposure Assessment in Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology. ... See National Ambient Air Quality Standards) In October 2008, the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), within the ...
The collection of odor samples is more easily accomplished for a source emission than for odor in the ambient air. ... Dalton, P (2002). "Odor, irritation and perception of health risk". International Archives of Occupational and Environmental ... Salthammer, Tunga; Bahadir, Müfit (2009). "Occurrence, Dynamics and Reactions of Organic Pollutants in the Indoor Environment ... Odor sensory methods are available to monitor odor both from source emissions and in the ambient air. These two contexts ...
... it ran better when both it and the air it inhaled were warmer rather than at ambient temperature. Dieselization with dedicated ... "National Pollutant Inventory. Retrieved 2017-03-03.. *^ "Thousands of UK motorists removing diesel particulate filters". Auto ... U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration: Safety and Health Topics: Diesel Exhaust ... They thus use less fuel than rich burn spark ignition engines which use a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (just enough air to ...
1993) Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in nonsmokers. J Occup Med 35:909-915. ... 2006) Ambient air pollution and asthma exacerbations in children: An eight-city analysis. Am J Epidemiol 164:505-517. ... 2003) Particulate air pollutants and asthma. A paradigm for the role of oxidative stress in pm-induced adverse health effects. ... Particulate and gaseous air pollutants can promote inflammatory responses in the airways, which are a central feature of asthma ...
Outdoor allergens and air pollutants *Pollens. *Ambient air pollution. *The weather. *Occupational exposures *Asthma ...
Lastly, the authors will look at exposure to neurotoxicant ambient air pollutants estimated by where you have lived. ... The authors will look at environmental and occupational exposure to chemicals. The chemicals include metals (i.e., lead and ... The researchers will also use estimates of exposure to geographical pollutants and measure exposure biomarkers in biospecimens ... This study investigates the effect of combined exposures on development of ALS, including environmental, occupational, ...
Read chapter 5 Health Effects of Air Pollutants Detected at Joint Base Balad: Many veterans returning from the conflicts in ... Most of the long-term health risks that have been associated with PM10 in ambient air is now attributed to the PM2.5, part of ... Occupational & Environmental Medicine 53(9):606-612.. Pope, C. A., 3rd, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. ... 5 pollutants), eye (8 pollutants), skin (5 pollutants) and spleen (1 pollutant). The presence of multiple pollutants in the air ...
Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in nonsmokers. J Occup Med 1993;35:909-915. ... Some also adjusted for housing conditions and other indoor air pollutants, occupational exposures, and outdoor air pollutants. ... Long-term particulate and other air pollutants and lung function in nonsmokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:289-298. ... Factors that were controlled included age, sex, education, occupational exposures, atopy, and outdoor air pollution. Only two ...
Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in non-smokers. J Occup Med1993;35:909-15. ... Ozone is a powerful oxidant and air pollutant that has been shown to exacerbate pre-existing asthma,78-83 but some evidence ... Summertime haze air air pollution and children with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med1997;155:654-60. ... Health effects of outdoor air pollution. Committee of the Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly of the American ...
1993) Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in nonsmokers. J Occup Med 35:909-915, . ... 1985) Indoor air pollution and its effect on pulmonary function of adult non-smoking women: III. Passive smoking and pulmonary ... 1994) Indoor air pollution and asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:1400-1406, . ... 1990) Passive smoking, air pollution, and acute respiratory symptoms in a diary study of student nurses. Am Rev Respir Dis 141: ...
Air Pollution Monitoring and Modeling. Ambient Air Pollutants. Analytical Chemistry. Biological Monitoring, Biomarkers. ... Air pollution and autism related disorders. Neurotoxicity of air pollution. Air pollution and neurodegenerative diseases. ... Air pollution health effects. Occupational epidemiological studies. Estimation of health effects from environmental and ... Indoor Air. Industrial Chemistry. Industrial Hygiene. Occupational Exposure. Pesticides. Polycyclic Hydrocarbons. Trace ...
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and related compounds such as PCBs, brominated flame retardants, ... for POPs have mainly been used as integrating (long-term) samplers for ambient (outdoor) air. However, there are several ... Occupational and indoor air exposure to persistent organic pollutants: A review of passive sampling techniques and needs P. ... Occupational and indoor air exposure to persistent organic pollutants: A review of passive sampling techniques and needs ...
APPENDIX B. National Ambient Air Quality Standards. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. APPENDIX C. ... National Occupational Standards. Regulations for OSHA-Designated Occupational Carcinogens. APPENDIX D. Glossary of Toxicology ... Benzene and Air Pollution. Benzene and Water Pollution. SUMMARY. APPENDIX A. National Primary Drinking Water Standards. ... Urea-Formaldehyde Foam Insulation (UFFI). Risk Management of Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde. THE CASE of BENZENE. ...
Expertise: Air pollution monitoring and modeling; wood smoke; ambient air pollutants; diesel exhaust; indoor air; pesticides; ... Professor, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences. Attending physician, Occupational and Environmental ... Expertise: Agricultural safety and health; ambient air pollutants; childrens health; climate change; diesel exhaust; ... adverse health effects of community air pollution and in occupational lung disease. ...
... ambient air pollutants offers an opportunity to study the association of short-term increases in the traffic-related pollutants ... 2Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. ... Only one air quality measuring station used as a proxy for exposure of air pollutants for every individual of the whole capital ... The ambient air pollution in Reykjavik is not only due to traffic-related emissions from the high density of cars.4 In addition ...
1993) Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in nonsmokers. J Occup Med 35:909-915. ... 1994) Passive smoking exposure in adults and chronic respiratory symptoms (SAPALDIA Study). Swiss Study on Air Pollution and ... The multiphasic health check up questionnaire also contained 10 "Yes/No" items pertaining to self reported ever occupational ... Alcohol consumption, physical activity at work, hypertension, diabetes and occupational hazards according to level of total ...
7 PM is the most important air pollutant and affects more people than any other pollutants. There has been a large volume of ... Air pollution has become the worlds largest single environmental health risk. Exposure to ambient air pollution was estimated ... Exposure to ambient air pollution--does it affect semen quality and the level of reproductive hormones? Ann Hum Biol 2016;43:50 ... The effect of ambient air pollution on sperm quality. Environ Health Perspect 2010;118:203-9.doi:10.1289/ehp.0901022 ...
Thirty-eight volunteers were exposed for 2 hours to either filtered air or particles concentrated from ambient air in Chapel ... Key terms air pollutant; editorial; IHD; inflammation; ischemic heart disease; occupational exposure ... Inhalation of several occupational air pollutants causes chronic bronchitis and lung function impairment. Chronic bronchitis ( ... Studies of the relationship between occupational air pollutants and inflammatory markers, as well as IHD, will increase our ...
He has investigated the acute effects of inhalation exposures to ambient air pollutants in his human exposure laboratory at San ... Balmes studies the respiratory health effects of various air pollutants. He has a particular interest in occupational ... Balmes also is investigating genetic determinants of responses to air pollutants. He has led research, funded by the U.S. ... 5 Health Effects of Air Pollutants Detected at Joint Base Balad 47-62 ...
"Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - ... "CPDM Helps Coal Miners Avoid Hazardous Dust". U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2016-12-30. Retrieved ... TEOM-based devices have been approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for environmental air quality monitoring, and ...
"Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - ... U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. July 1997. Retrieved 2017-06-28. Ray, Alison E.; Vaughn, David L. ( ... It is important that the air conditioning system not cycle over the same period as the TEOM instrument, because this can cause ... TEOM devices operate continuously and do not need filter changes as frequently as high-volume air samplers. Mechanical noise ...
Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards program, it monitors six pollutants - carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards," www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg (2015). ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Exposome and Exposomics," www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/exposome (2014). ... Figure 2. In this in vitro model of the air-blood barrier in the lungs, two types of cells - epithelial cells and endothelial ...
... assessment and management of ambient air quality (96/62/EC); control of solvents (99/12/EC); the hazardous wastes directive; ... However long-term exposure to higher concentrations (usually only experienced in occupational settings) are toxic - damaging ... Toluene is a member of the BTEX group of pollutants. BTEX is the term used to describe a group of chemicals related to benzene ... They react with other air pollution and are broken down, returned to the earth or involved in the formation of photochemical ...
All humans are exposed to potential occupational or environmental toxins such as indoor or ambient air pollutants or unique ... No longer are occupational toxin exposures limited to blue-collar jobs in heavy industries such as mining and manufacturing; ... Occupational and environmental exposures play major roles in causing many forms of respiratory disease. ... For this reason, a unitary approach, jointly considering occupational and environmental respiratory disease, is employed in ...
A decline in air quality and rise in concentrations of certain air pollutants increases the risk of lung cancer ... Elucidating the effects of ambient temperature on UV radiation- induced skin cancers, including the amplification of non- ... Clarifying the lifecycle cancer risks of nuclear energy radiation, including through occupational and environmental exposures ... Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other hazardous air pollutants, through energy efficient power generation, lower vehicle ...
Atmospheric dispersion modeling is a widely used methodology for estimating ambient air concentrations of pollutants, based on ... For air pollutants, our knowledge and experience can characterize the processes by which the pollutants are formed and the ... Evidence of health impacts of sulfate and nitrate containing particles in ambient air. Inhalat Toxicol 2007; 19:419-449.. Reiss ... J Air Waste Manage Assoc 1995; 45:811-822. Reiss R, Ryan PB, Koutrakis P. Modeling ozone deposition onto indoor residential ...
Air pollution monitoring and modeling, wood smoke, ambient air pollutants, diesel exhaust, indoor air, pesticides, trace ... Professor, Department of Global Health and the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences. [email protected] ... Agricultural safety and health, ambient air pollutants, childrens health, climate change, diesel exhaust, pesticides, noise, ... Safe workplaces, clean air, public health outcomes associated with extreme heat and wildfire smoke exposures, risk ...
PollutionFine particulate matterIndoor airPersistent organic poOzonePriority pollutantsConcentrations of pollutantsInhalationVarious air pollutantsInflammationAllergensHazardous airParticlesToxic pollutantsCertain pollutantsIncomplete combustion of organicEnvironmental HealthCharacterizeEnvironmentsLevelsAdverseCarcinogensLungRisksEpidemiologyPAHsAsthmaGaseousMeasurementsEstimatesRespiratory diseaseChronicSpatialMixturesExposure AssessmentConclusionsDiesel exhaustEmissions and airBTEXNPDESToxicityLong-term exposure to airMorbidityToxinsChemicals
- The incidence of asthma has been associated with environmental factors, including combustion products in tobacco smoke, especially in utero, and in air pollution ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
- It is generally recognized that air pollution exacerbates asthma in children ( 8 ), and some studies suggest an effect on induction of asthma ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
- Effects of pollution are biologically plausible given emerging evidence from human experimental, animal, and in vitro studies suggesting that ambient particulate matter and gaseous co-pollutants cause oxidative stress and inflammation, which are important features of asthma pathogenesis ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
- Effects of air pollution on asthma and other respiratory conditions have been found to be greater among individuals of lower SES ( 19 , 20 ). (pnas.org)
- A possible mechanism by which SES may modify the effects of air pollution is psychological stress ( 6 , 21 ). (pnas.org)
- It is hypothesised that a major proportion of asthma is based on neutrophilic airway inflammation, possibly triggered by environmental exposure to bacterial endotoxin, particulate air pollution, and ozone, as well as viral infections. (bmj.com)
- Air pollution and autism related disorders. (washington.edu)
- Neurotoxicity of air pollution. (washington.edu)
- Air pollution and neurodegenerative diseases. (washington.edu)
- Benzene and Air Pollution. (routledge.com)
- Air pollution (including from wildfires) impacts on disadvantaged populations. (washington.edu)
- However, previous literature on exposure to air pollution and semen quality is inconsistent. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Exposure to ambient PM 2.5 air pollution is associated with a lower level of sperm normal morphology and a higher level of sperm concentration. (bmj.com)
- The health effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air pollution on semen quality are not clear. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions The results suggest that ambient H 2 S air pollution may increase mortality in Reykjavik, Iceland. (bmj.com)
- These effects have been found in short-term studies, which relate day-to-day variations in air pollution and health, and in long-term studies, which have followed cohorts of exposed people over time (2). (sjweh.fi)
- Exposure to PM 10 was significantly associated with the blood concentrations of fibrinogen, platelets, and white cells when measurements of air pollution and blood concentrations were performed the same day. (sjweh.fi)
- They react with other air pollution and are broken down, returned to the earth or involved in the formation of photochemical smog. (sepa.org.uk)
- AFO was positively associated with cooking with coal but not with other sources of household air pollution. (ersjournals.com)
- Household air pollution (HAP) has been proposed as an important risk factor for COPD in never-smokers, along with ambient air pollution, passive smoking, occupational exposure to air pollutants and factors associated with low socioeconomic status [ 2 , 5 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- Undertake an extensive measurement campaign that will characterize spatial distributions of key air quality parameters to inform the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE) modeling and health studies. (epa.gov)
- The study will generate crucial data on air pollution and asthma in low income settings in sub-Sahara Africa that is lacking in the international literature. (biomedcentral.com)
- Emission of pollutants from shipping contributes to ambient air pollution. (gu.se)
- Our aim was to estimate exposure to particulate air pollution (PM2.5) and health effects from shipping in countries around the Baltic Sea, as well as effects of the sulfur regulations for fuels enforced in 2015 by the Baltic Sulfur Emission Control Area (SECA). (gu.se)
- The temperature--morbidity relationship may be confounded or modified by sociodemographic factors and air pollution. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Assessment of Acrylonitrile as a Potential Air Pollution Problem. (epa.gov)
- As several of the effects of particulate matter in foundries are similar to those found after exposure to ambient air pollution, our results open new hypotheses about how air pollutants modify human health," he added. (scienceblog.com)
- Millions of Americans live in areas where air pollution levels are high enough to cause both acute and chronic health effects. (apha.org)
- Those Americans most exposed to air pollution are often low-income families and people of color living in close proximity to industrial air pollution sources and freeways. (apha.org)
- State and local agencies and health departments should collaborate with the EPA to address disproportionate exposures to air pollution in communities, improve communication with industry and the public on steps to reduce exposures, and incorporate air quality information into professional training, university degree programs, and K-12 science curricula. (apha.org)
- Health professionals should help government officials and the public recognize how the health benefits associated with clean air, including reduced hospital visits and fewer missed days at school and work due to illness, far outweigh the costs of air pollution control. (apha.org)
- Children and older adults are particularly at risk, and low-income and minority populations often suffer disproportionately from air pollution. (apha.org)
- Nevertheless, in 2015 about 121 million Americans still lived in counties having air pollution levels exceeding one or more of the national ambient air quality standards. (apha.org)
- This review will summarize recent evidence on how outdoor air pollution may represent an underappreciated yet critical linkage between urbanization and the emergence of cardiometabolic diseases, with a focus on type 2 DM. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Indoor air pollution is not discussed owing to the paucity of data. (diabetesjournals.org)
- It should be noted that our current understanding of air pollution-mediated cardiometabolic disease is derived from outdoor air pollution studies, with there being no good reasons to believe that the dose-response relationship to indoor air pollution will be any different. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In this review, the association between air pollution and type 2 DM is discussed unless this distinction cannot be made in the cited study (typically health registry data sets). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Air pollution in Asia, Latin America, and Africa is a significant public health burden, especially given the often extraordinarily high concentrations of pollutants (e.g., particulate matter), high population density, and pervasive nature of air pollution. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Efforts include the active support of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution and the Basel Convention, as well as the establishment of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation and the Chemicals Information Exchange and Networking Project. (cehn.org)
- The national pollutant models created here improve exposure assessment compared with traditional monitor-based approaches by capturing both regional and local-scale pollution variation. (nih.gov)
- WASHINGTON, D.C. - Air pollution is now the world's fourth leading cause of early death. (sciencenewsforstudents.org)
- Air pollution includes many substances that can cause illness and death. (sciencenewsforstudents.org)
- That air pollution is known to be a serious cause of a number of health effects," says Michael Brauer. (sciencenewsforstudents.org)
- Basically, they figured out how much this pollution increased the risk of death from different heart and lung diseases, based on pollutant levels measured in each country. (sciencenewsforstudents.org)
- Then they used that fraction together with data on death rates to calculate lives lost due to air pollution. (sciencenewsforstudents.org)
- Together, indoor and outdoor air pollution caused 5.5 million early deaths in 2013, the team concluded. (sciencenewsforstudents.org)
- Is Air Pollution Getting Worse or Better? (berkeleywellness.com)
- He is internationally recognized as an expert on the health effects of air pollution. (berkeleywellness.com)
- Here he discusses what we know about the state of air pollution and its effect on health in the U.S. and other parts of the world. (berkeleywellness.com)
- Air pollution is a public health concern in areas that are close to roadways. (berkeleywellness.com)
- So they face additional burdens on their health because these illnesses make them more susceptible to a given level of air pollution. (berkeleywellness.com)
- We're facing one of the largest public health crises of the 21st century when we look at air pollution in places like New Delhi and Beijing and many similar cities in Southeast Asia. (berkeleywellness.com)
- You have a confluence of very large populations and dramatically increasing levels of air pollution because of a number of things, including governments' not knowing how to formulate public policies to combat the air pollution that comes with the increasing growth, and dramatic increases in economic wealth leading to people purchasing private automobiles instead of using public transit or bicycles. (berkeleywellness.com)
- In China and India, you have a double threat: You have the air pollution that comes from burning solid fuels combined with pollution from the rapidly expanding industrial capacity and a shift to driving automobiles. (berkeleywellness.com)
- The levels of air pollution might be five to 10 times higher than what you find in American cities. (berkeleywellness.com)
- The World Health Organization estimates that more than 6 million people are prematurely dying every year from the combined effect of household air pollution and ambient air pollution. (berkeleywellness.com)
- Knowledge of the health effects of ambient air pollution has been well established for some years now. (anses.fr)
- The study included more than 7,000 adults (ages 45 to 84) living in Chicago, Los Angeles, Baltimore, St. Paul, New York City, and Winston-Salem, who were taking part in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution (MESA Air) and MESA Lung studies. (news-line.com)
- The study is titled, "Association Between Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Change in Quantitatively Assessed Emphysema and Lung Function" and was published online August 13 in the Journal of the American Medical Association. (news-line.com)
- In practice, the tasks are divided and shared among many entities responsible for controlling pollution, maintaining health, ensuring the safety of products, watching over occupational hygiene and regulating building and construction. (iloencyclopaedia.org)
- The establishment of a regulation is intended to limit or reduce the levels of pollution in indoor air. (iloencyclopaedia.org)
- This goal can be achieved by controlling the existing sources of pollution, diluting indoor air with outside air and checking the quality of available air. (iloencyclopaedia.org)
- Because tobacco smoke-attributable to the occupants of a building-is so often a cause of indoor air pollution, it deserves separate treatment. (iloencyclopaedia.org)
- Indoor Air Pollution from Gas Cooking and Infant Neurodevelopment. (academicpeds.org)
- This prospective birth cohort study examined the relationship between indoor air pollution from gas cooking and infant neurodevelopment. (academicpeds.org)
- Gas stoves are a common cause of indoor air pollution with emissions that include volatile organic compounds, particulates, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. (academicpeds.org)
- Investigators should consider studies with canine models of cardiopulmonary diseases, the application of novel immunological and molecular biology techniques, the phenomena of tolerance and adaptation to inhaled air pollution, and exposure atmospheres with increasing complexity, including fine and ultrafine particles. (naver.com)
- Often the vendors of ozone generators make statements and distribute material that lead the public to believe that these devices are always safe and effective in controlling indoor air pollution. (epa.gov)
- It was later decided to include nitions of carcinogens were based on pollution, occupational exposure to a review of lifestyle factors that are the January 2013 list of agents classified carcinogenic compounds, and lifestyle known to influence cancer risk. (who.int)
- On October 17, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) announced that it has classified air pollution as a human carcinogen. (scienceblogs.com)
- Although the composition of air pollution and exposure levels vary widely from place to place, IARC says its assessment is applicable worldwide and notes that exposures in rapidly industrializing countries with large populations have increased significantly in recent years. (scienceblogs.com)
- According to the IARC review of the latest scientific studies, exposure to air pollution increases the risk for lung cancer and for bladder cancer. (scienceblogs.com)
- IARC also evaluated particulate matter, a major component of air pollution, and concluded that it too is a human carcinogen. (scienceblogs.com)
- This is the first time outdoor air pollution has been classified as a cause of cancer. (scienceblogs.com)
- IARC notes that in 2010 - the most recent annual data available - approximately 223,000 deaths worldwide resulted from lung cancer prompted by air pollution. (scienceblogs.com)
- Meanwhile air pollution-related respiratory and cardiovascular diseases continue to decrease life expectancy worldwide. (scienceblogs.com)
- We now know that outdoor air pollution is not only a major risk to health in general, but also a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths," said Dr Kurt Straif of the IARC in the organization's announcement. (scienceblogs.com)
- Major sources of this carcinogenic air pollution, said the IARC in its announcement, include industrial and agricultural emissions, power generation and transportation. (scienceblogs.com)
- This means that in addition to visible sources of outdoor air pollution like vehicle exhaust and emissions from factory smoke stacks, this air pollution includes industrial chemicals such as solvents, metals, and numerous different hydrocarbon compounds. (scienceblogs.com)
- There are effective ways to reduce air pollution, and given the scale of the exposure affecting people worldwide, this report should send a strong signal to the international community to take action without further delay," said IARC director Dr. Christopher Wild in a statement. (scienceblogs.com)
- With rising temperatures as a result of global warming, the impact of increasing ozone air pollution on human health is likely to increase, they concluded. (medpagetoday.com)
- To explore whether ozone enhances the association between maximum temperature and cardiovascular mortality in the U.S., the researchers obtained data from the U.S. National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) website. (medpagetoday.com)
- The data contained time series information for health outcomes, air pollution, and weather conditions from January 1987 through December 2000. (medpagetoday.com)
- There's a growing body of evidence that points to a link between air pollution and premature birth, say the authors, while pregnant women with asthma are significantly more likely to have pregnancy complications, including underweight babies and pre-eclampsia. (healthcanal.com)
- Aghamolaie I, Lashkaripour G, Ghafoori M. Assessment of air pollution from cement industry. (ac.ir)
- Nowadayes, air pollution is considered as one of the most important problems of urbanization and industrial life and all members of the society is affected by this problem. (ac.ir)
- Air pollution and children's respiratory health Preface The environmental quality objectives (EQOs) adopted by the Swedish Parliament (the Riksdag) serve to guide Sweden's environmental efforts in their entirety. (spotidoc.com)
- Although the quality of outdoor air has substantially improved in recent years, air pollution from transport and heating still cause considerable health problems. (spotidoc.com)
- The National Board of Health and Welfare has recommended that a special environmental objective concerning children's health should be investigated.To boost this country's capacity to meet the requirements posed on our outdoor environment by a child-oriented perspective, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency assigned the Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM), part of Karolinska Institutet, to compile the present report, Air pollution and children's respiratory health. (spotidoc.com)
- Air pollution and children's respiratory health Summary In children, air pollution may cause, contribute to or aggravate respiratory diseases, which are a major cause of their ill-health. (spotidoc.com)
- Childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution is therefore of great concern, and has been discussed as a key aetiological factor. (spotidoc.com)
- This review summarises and evaluates the findings of recent epidemiological studies of how short- and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution affects respiratory health and allergic sensitisation in children. (spotidoc.com)
- In adults, air pollution is also known to contribute to cancer and heart disease. (spotidoc.com)
- and given the rarity of these diseases in childhood, air pollution is probably a minor contributory factor, at most, in terms of public health. (spotidoc.com)
- Moreover, there are no reports on possible effects, in the form of adult cancer and heart disease, of childhood exposure to air pollution. (spotidoc.com)
- Since respiratory tract symptoms are particularly prevalent in young children, elevated risks due to exposure to traffic-related air pollution have major implications for public health. (spotidoc.com)
- Effects of air pollution may be divided into short-term and long-term effects, depending on the time lag from exposure until they make themselves felt. (spotidoc.com)
- Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) originate from the incomplete combustion of organic matter and ambient air pollution by these is increasing. (ebscohost.com)
- Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. (diva-portal.org)
- The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). (diva-portal.org)
- We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 μg·m(-3) increase in NO2 exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV1 (-14.0 mL, 95%CI -25.8- -2.1) and FVC (-14.9 mL, 95% CI -28.7- -1.1). (diva-portal.org)
- This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe. (diva-portal.org)
- It was found that air pollution is a problem which cannot be ignored and immediate action should be taken to avoid future problems. (accord.org.za)
- Environmental pollution through air, water, soil and other factors, has become a serious issue throughout the world, especially in industrialised environments. (accord.org.za)
- The World Health Organisation (WHO) reported that an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually can be ascribed to urban outdoor air pollution (Morakinyo et al. (accord.org.za)
- Air pollution, with its detrimental effects on human health, could be a result of indiscriminate or uncontrolled burning or combustion of different substances such as coal. (accord.org.za)
- The effect of coal mining is not only limited to air pollution, but has further resulted in global warming all over the world. (accord.org.za)
- Air pollution is the 5th highest health risk factor for death in the world, 7 million people die every year. (lastinghealth.com)
- Air pollution causes one third of deaths from stroke, lung cancer and heart disease. (lastinghealth.com)
- Long term exposure to particulate air pollution can result in creating a health body burden . (lastinghealth.com)
- Exposure to air pollution can also age the lungs, shortening life expectancy. (lastinghealth.com)
- Air pollution can also result in lower fertility levels in women who are trying to conceive. (lastinghealth.com)
- Data on the association between air pollution and cerebrovascular disease in the US are limited. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The objective of this study was to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of ischemic cerebrovascular events in a US community. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This study provides data on environmental exposures and stroke risk in the US and suggests future research on ambient air pollution and stroke is warranted. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Air pollution is linked to cardiovascular disease in general, 1 - 6 and cardiac disease specifically. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 1 , 7 - 13 Data on the association between air pollution and stroke are more limited, although the underlying biologic mechanisms linking air pollution to ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease may be similar. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Most of the evidence linking air pollution and stroke is from time series analyses relating daily air pollution levels to daily counts of stroke deaths obtained from vital statistics or similar data sources. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- An association between air pollution and stroke mortality has also been noted in certain areas of the US. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To date, research on air pollution and incident stroke has primarily relied on routinely collected data sources, such as discharge diagnoses, to identify strokes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 19 , 21 - 25 In the United Kingdom, Canada and China, stroke admissions have been shown to be associated with higher levels of air pollution. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 19 , 22 , 24 , 25 US studies of Medicare claims data and other billing data have also demonstrated associations between air pollution levels and hospital admissions for total cerebrovascular disease and ischemic stroke specifically. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 21 , 23 , 26 A recent analysis from the Dijon Stroke Register in France found an association between air pollution levels and ischemic stroke risk using population-based data. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 27 Data considering the relationship between air pollution and incident stroke risk from population-based stroke studies in the US are not available. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Reported by: Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Br, Div of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, CDC. (cdc.gov)
- Instruments using TEOM have been designated as Federal Equivalent Methods by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for environmental air quality monitoring of both coarse and fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PMc). (wikipedia.org)
- We created 2006 national pollutant models for fine particulate matter [PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 )], nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), benzene, ethylbenzene, and 1,3-butadiene from routinely collected fixed-site monitoring data in Canada. (nih.gov)
- The study, the largest and longest of its kind, looked at whether exposures to four major pollutants-ground-level ozone, fine particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxide, and black carbon-were associated with the development of emphysema, measured by CT scan, and decline in lung function, measured by spirometry. (news-line.com)
- Ammonia has a cumulative effect when it combines with other ambient particles to create particulate and fine particulate matter resulting in the health problems associated with PM. (lastinghealth.com)
- While several air pollutants have been studied for their links to stroke and stroke mortality, including carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone, fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) has emerged as a pollutant of interest. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Our findings add additional evidence to the growing body of knowledge supporting the need for widespread implementation of clean indoor air policies to decrease the risk of adverse health consequences experienced by never smokers exposed to SHS. (biomedcentral.com)
- Naphthalene, the smallest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) possible carcinogen, is ubiquitous in ambient air with high volumes of vehicular traffic ( 1 ) and is elevated in indoor air when mothballs or stoves burning biomass fuels are used ( 2-4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in an office/non-residential building is determined by environmental aspects, covering the physical (lighting, acoustics, and thermal conditions), chemical (indoor air quality), and biological (microorganisms) origins. (springer.com)
- Hundreds of VOCs have been identified in indoor air. (springer.com)
- In managing IAQ, the preferred pathways are (i) emission source control, aiming at choosing low-emission indoor materials, building construction and renovation practices, (ii) ventilation to provide for appropriate indoor/outdoor air exchange, and (iii) periodic indoor air monitoring to comply with the given threshold. (springer.com)
- Irritancy and allergic responses induced by exposure to the indoor air chemical 4-oxopentanal. (springer.com)
- Evaluation of dicarbonyls generated in a simulated indoor air environment using an in vitro exposure system. (springer.com)
- 62.1-2013, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. (springer.com)
- Indoor Air, 18 (2), 156-170. (springer.com)
- Indoor Air, 18 (4), 335-345. (springer.com)
- Occurring of volatile organic compounds in indoor air. (springer.com)
- In T. Salthammer (Ed.), Organic Indoor Air Pollutants (pp. 171-184). (springer.com)
- In the year 2000, one of our 'HEALTHY & SAFE' Daily School Cleaning Program accounts received the prestigious, nationally-recognized E.P.A. Indoor Air Quality ' Tools for Schools' Excellence Award for its work to improve indoor air quality and protect the health of students and school staff. (cleaningpro.com)
- This affects indoor air quality, and it's also a big factor in terms of the outdoor air. (berkeleywellness.com)
- The setting of specific guides and standards for indoor air is the product of proactive policies in this field on the part of the bodies responsible for their establishment and for maintaining the quality of indoor air at acceptable levels. (iloencyclopaedia.org)
- This requires the establishment of specific maximum limits for the pollutants found in indoor air. (iloencyclopaedia.org)
- One of the most effective ways to reduce the levels of concentration of a pollutant in indoor air is to control the sources of contamination within the building. (iloencyclopaedia.org)
- Volume 11.07 provides standard procedures that assess ambient, indoor air, and workplace atmospheres. (environmental-expert.com)
- Load characteristics and inhalation risk assessment of benzene series (BTEX) pollutant in indoor air of Ghalyan and/or cigarette cafes compared to smoking-free cafes. (springer.com)
- Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and related compounds such as PCBs, brominated flame retardants, organochlorine pesticides and PAHs is regarded as an important environmental risk factor for humans. (rsc.org)
- The plausibility that environmental exposures are linked to metabolic disease is exemplified by persistent organic pollutants, toxins that have consistently shown to associate with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 DM. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Prospective cohort studies of subjects exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin or other persistent organic pollutants in occupational and other settings have reported increased risk of DM and IR ( 1 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The production and use of PCB, DDT, and DDE (a metabolite of DDT), have been banned or restricted by the Stockholm Agreement, along with several other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) considered to be the most hazardous to human health and the environment. (cehn.org)
- Vehicles emit precursors to several important secondary pollutants, including ozone and secondary organic aerosols , which requires a multipollutant emissions and air quality management strategy. (thisisms.com)
- Emissions of the six common pollutants for which there are national ambient air quality standards-carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide-have decreased by 65% since 1980. (apha.org)
- Taken together, the results of the experiments at the three UC campuses suggest that exposure to carbon and ammonium nitrate particles at concentrations approximately an order of magnitude higher than ambient air can induce adverse effects in animal models of allergic airway inflammation and the elderly as well as, in combination with a high-ambient exposure to ozone, in allergic asthmatic humans. (ca.gov)
- While we've seen declines in heavily polluted areas like Southern California in terms of most of the other pollutants that are regulated under the Clean Air Act , we have not seen the levels of decline in ozone that we would expect. (berkeleywellness.com)
- Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollutants, especially the pollutant ozone, accelerates the development of emphysema and age-related decline in lung function, even among people who have never smoked, according to a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. (news-line.com)
- Ambient concentrations of fine particulates and nitrous oxide, but not ozone, decreased significantly over the study period. (news-line.com)
- Ground-level ozone is produced when UV light reacts with pollutants from fossil fuels," adds Barr. (news-line.com)
- The findings support the hypothesis that long-term exposure to air pollutants at ambient levels might cause bronchitic lesions (sulphur oxide), emphysematous lesions (nitrogen dioxide) or fibrotic lesions (ozone). (naver.com)
- In developing Ozone Generators that are Sold as Air Cleaners , the EPA reviewed a wide assortment of this literature, including information provided by a leading manufacturer of ozone generating devices. (epa.gov)
- Terms such as "energized oxygen" or "pure air" suggest that ozone is a healthy kind of oxygen. (epa.gov)
- High outdoor ozone levels from air pollutants make hot weather an even more potent force for cardiovascular mortality, Cizao Ren, Ph.D., of the University of California at Irvine, and colleagues reported online in Occupational and Environmental Medicine . (medpagetoday.com)
- Both ambient ozone and temperature have been separately associated with human health, Dr. Ren said. (medpagetoday.com)
- Finally, they said, it is important to estimate interactive effects between temperature and multiple pollutants such as ozone, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide. (medpagetoday.com)
- The authors base their findings on almost 121,000 singleton births in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, between 1998 and 2006, national data on the prevalence of asthma among the children's mothers, and levels of the air pollutants ozone and vehicle exhaust (nitrogen oxide) in the Stockholm area. (healthcanal.com)
- But there did seem to be a link between exposure to ozone levels during the first three months of pregnancy and the risk of premature birth (before 37 weeks) and pre-eclampsia, after adjusting for factors likely to influence the results and seasonal variations in air pollutants, although not spatial variations in exposure. (healthcanal.com)
- Each rose by 4% for every 10 ug/m3 rise in ambient ozone during this period, the analysis indicated. (healthcanal.com)
- ANSES therefore received a formal request from the Ministries of Ecology and Health to propose a list of new priority pollutants for this air quality monitoring to supplement those already monitored. (anses.fr)
- In order to take into account the development of knowledge on pollutants and their emission sources, ANSES received a formal request from the Ministries of Ecology and Health to propose a list of new priority pollutants for the regulatory monitoring of air quality. (anses.fr)
- This expert appraisal work led to a list of 13 priority pollutants. (anses.fr)
- More than 100 PAHs have been characterised in nature, and 16 of which were classified as priority pollutants due to their wide distribution and toxicity (Figure 1 ) [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The idea that the inhalation of urban air pollutants may provoke an inflammatory process in the lungs and cause an increase in blood coagulability and, as a consequence, coronary heart disease was hypothesized by Anthony Seaton and his co-workers in 1995 (24). (sjweh.fi)
- He has investigated the acute effects of inhalation exposures to ambient air pollutants in his human exposure laboratory at San Francisco General Hospital and the chronic effects of such exposures in epidemiological studies with collaborators at the University of California, San Francisco and the University of California, Berkeley. (nap.edu)
- The disorders resulting from these exposures are diverse in nature, ranging from acute lung injury from toxic gas inhalation to subtle effects of environmental pollutants upon persons with asthma. (cdc.gov)
- Human exposure to naphthalene is primarily through inhalation, though ingestion and dermal absorption can be major contributors to exposure in both occupational and nonoccupational settings ( 5-7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- To improve our understanding of pulmonary responses initiated by the inhalation of pollutants over long periods of time, new concepts are needed. (naver.com)
- This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air pollutants on childhood respiratory health, with a specific focus on asthma and markers of airway inflammation (FeNO) in South African informal settlement areas by considering also pollen counts and meteorological factors. (biomedcentral.com)
- Elevated levels of nitric oxide in exhaled air (fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide, FeNO) are considered a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation in asthma and respiratory allergy management [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Exposure to pollutants and other allergens induces chronic airway inflammation by generation of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress. (ebscohost.com)
- Air polluted by particulate matter causes breathing problems and inflammation in the lining of the lungs, reducing key functions and immunity. (lastinghealth.com)
- At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although significant improvements have been made to aircraft ventilation systems, cabin occupants are still exposed to allergens and infectious agents, airflow rates that are lower than those in buildings, and air pressures and humidity levels that are lower than those normally present at or near sea level. (gao.gov)
- National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. (routledge.com)
- AGENCY: The EPA is proposing amendments to the national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing to address the results of the residual risk and technology review that the EPA is required to conduct by the Clean Air Act. (justia.com)
- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should aggressively address localized exposures to hazardous air pollutants and provide leadership in implementing innovative miniaturized monitoring technologies that promise to change the paradigm for air quality exposure assessment in the United States. (apha.org)
- Included among these older policy statements are 8912 (Public Health Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants) and 8530 (Ambient Air Quality Standards for Short-term Exposure to Sulfur Dioxide). (apha.org)
- Despite this progress, poor air quality and localized exposures to hazardous air pollutants remain problems in many urban areas, representing significant health risks for millions of Americans. (apha.org)
- he inks were tested for Hazardous Air Pollutants per U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 311 (testing conducted in 2010) and none were detected. (hp.com)
- 7 ' ' 2.1 Criteria Under the Clean Air Amendments of 1970 7 2.1.1 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants 9 2.1.2 National Ambient Air Quality Standards 10 2.1.3 Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources 11 2.1.4 Emission Standards for Moving Sources 12 a. (epa.gov)
- Air toxics, also known as hazardous air pollutants, were first identified in 1990 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) because of concerns about their impact on human health [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- One place to begin such action would be by reducing and eliminating carcinogens in industrial operations that produce large amounts of hazardous air pollutants. (scienceblogs.com)
- Thirty-eight volunteers were exposed for 2 hours to either filtered air or particles concentrated from ambient air in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. (sjweh.fi)
- These two types of particles, however, have traditionally been considered non-toxic to humans at concentrations typically found in California ambient air. (ca.gov)
- Moreover, the Agency insists on the need to supplement and sustain the acquisition of data in ambient air on ultrafine particles (UFPs) and carbon black, and to closely monitor these two substances in the long term given their potential health impacts. (anses.fr)
- Over the last ten years, many epidemiological studies have assessed changes in cardiac morbidity and mortality based on exposures to ambient to particles (Dockery et al. (environmental-expert.com)
- Young's objective is to develop an advanced instrument capable of determining the aerodynamic size, approximate shape and detailed chemical composition of single bioaerosol particles sampled directly from the ambient atmosphere. (uiowa.edu)
- Air is polluted by particles of harmful chemicals emitted during vehicle combustion, energy generation, and manufacturing processes. (lastinghealth.com)
- The particles we breath in from polluted air are known as Particulate Matter or PM. The term is used to describe the mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets in the air. (lastinghealth.com)
- Advances in knowledge on the toxicity of substances and their emissions in the atmosphere have shown that certain pollutants that may have an impact on human health are not currently taken into account in regulatory monitoring. (anses.fr)
- Exposure to certain pollutants that come from those substances could result in chronic health conditions such as increased respiratory problems, reduced lung function and cardiovascular diseases (Albers et al. (accord.org.za)
- He is also a professor of environmental health sciences at the University of California, Berkeley, and director of the Northern California Center for Occupational and Environmental Health. (nap.edu)
- He is a professor in the Department of Medicine at the University of California at San Francisco, Chief of the Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at San Francisco General Hospital, and Director of the Northern California Center for Occupational and Environmental Health. (ca.gov)
- The work was conducted in close cooperation with Stockholm County Council's Occupational and Environmental Medicine Unit, which was transferred to the IMM and renamed the Department of Occupational and Environmental Health on 1 January 2009. (spotidoc.com)
- For air pollutants, our knowledge and experience can characterize the processes by which the pollutants are formed and the magnitude and rate of emissions from the sources, followed by using the appropriate modeling tools and meteorological and geographical data to quantify the potential magnitude of exposure. (exponent.com)
- Provide SCAPE researchers with the methods and data to comprehensively characterize air pollutants relevant to the four projects and other cores. (epa.gov)
- The committee considers several of the air pollutants highlighted in Chapter 4 to be of concern because of their association with burn pit emissions (dioxins and dioxin-like compounds) and because some of the concentrations exceeded U.S. air quality standards (for example, particulate matter [PM]) or were in excess of concentrations found in polluted urban environments worldwide. (nap.edu)
- However, there are several reasons to develop PAS for monitoring of POPs in occupational and indoor environments. (rsc.org)
- Glucans stimulate innate immune responses and are responsible for bioaerosol-induced respiratory symptoms in both indoor and occupational environments. (uiowa.edu)
- The levels of particulate matter reported in Qatar were in the upper range of ambient air pollutants reported internationally, and may influence the country's future lung cancer burden. (who.int)
- Desalination rates were also enhanced, with levels of 40% measured for the PMDC and 24% for the air-cathode MDC. (rsc.org)
- A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. (biomedcentral.com)
- Because of the volatile nature of naphthalene, a box of naphthalene-containing mothballs can elevate indoor naphthalene levels to levels compatible with mid to upper level occupational exposure, with higher ambient concentrations in smaller apartments or enclosed areas ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Urinary levels of 1- and 2-naphthol are markers of occupational ( 12 ), vehicular traffic, household ( 5 ), and infant mothball exposure ( 13 ) and correlate significantly with naphthalene vapor levels in personal air monitors ( 5 , 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The World Health Organization (WHO) says people should not breathe in levels that, on average, exceed 10 micrograms per cubic meter (3.5 ounces per 35 cubic feet) of air. (sciencenewsforstudents.org)
- We further determined the relationship between blood NAPH levels and personal behavioural, job related parameters and various environmental factors that may further be associated with elevated risks of occupational exposures to PAHs. (biomedcentral.com)
- Air pollutant levels were estimated at each participant's home address. (news-line.com)
- There was no association between exposure to levels of vehicle exhaust and complications of pregnancy, nor were any associations found for any air pollutants and babies that were underweight at birth. (healthcanal.com)
- Based on the occupational history of the 2 patients and our review of the relevant literature addressing the occupational environment, we concluded that both patients had continuous exposure to high levels of asbestos while performing their jobs for 40 and 49 years, respectively.CONCLUSION: Both patients had a history of smoking and drinking (non-occupational personal risk factors). (bvsalud.org)
- The objectives of this study were to monitor the levels of asbestos fibers in ambient air of Mashhad, Iran during 2018, and to draw its Geographic Information System (GIS) distribution map for the city. (springer.com)
- Spatio-temporal variations of asbestos fibres levels in ambient air of a densely populated and industrialized city of Iran. (springer.com)
- The levels of certain air pollutants which are commonly linked with coal combustion and mining activities were assessed at five different schools around mines. (accord.org.za)
- We observed associations between recent PM 2.5 and O 3 exposure and ischemic stroke/TIA risk even in this community with relatively low pollutant levels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- HAPs are air pollutants which are not covered by ambient air quality standards but which, as defined in the Clean Air Act, may present a threat of adverse human health effects or adverse environmental effects. (hp.com)
- Asbestos, as with other pollutants in the air, has adverse effects on the health of human beings and animals. (springer.com)
- The results from this research recommends that suitable controlling policies should be regulated to reduce both ambient air asbestos and its adverse health endpoints in Mashhad. (springer.com)
- Sidestream smoke, emitted directly into the air during burning of a tobacco product between puffs, contains considerably higher concentrations of many carcinogens and toxic substances (table 2 ⇓ ), but is diluted into a larger volume of air. (ersjournals.com)
- Regulations for OSHA-Designated Occupational Carcinogens. (routledge.com)
- It also adds considerably to the health concerns for people whose work exposes them to chemicals identified as carcinogens - and raises questions about the health risks posed by exposure to multiple carcinogens and to pollutants that can compromise the ability to fight disease and infection. (scienceblogs.com)
- The role of oxygen free radicals in occupational and environmental lung diseases. (cdc.gov)
- Short-term exposure to air pollutants is a major risk factor for poor lung health. (news-line.com)
- The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. (diva-portal.org)
- Today, the relationship between presence of asbestos fibers in the air breathed by humans and developing serious diseases such as lung cancer (asbestosis) and mesothelioma has been proven. (springer.com)
- Occupational exposure to PAH's can cause higher incidence rates of lung and skin cancers. (lastinghealth.com)
- Concentration estimates from air dispersion models can be used in risk assessment to estimate potential health risks to affected populations. (exponent.com)
- The limited data on occupational exposure suggests that the greatest risks for workers in the construction industry are likely to be from environmental dust and related air pollutants. (who.int)
- In Pakistan, reports on occupational exposure and related health risks are almost non-existent, which reflects the scarce availability of survey data and criteria for determining whether an unsafe exposure has occurred. (biomedcentral.com)
- One is Clean Air, the objective being that air must be clean enough not to represent certain risks, including a risk to human health. (spotidoc.com)
- Dr. Tollerud has research expertise in environmental and occupational health, epidemiology, and immunology, and consulting experience in the areas of occupational and environmental respiratory disease, medical surveillance, and workplace injury prevention programs. (nap.edu)
- The study was co-led by Joel D. Kaufman, MD, MPH, professor of medicine, environmental & occupational health sciences, and epidemiology at the University of Washington. (news-line.com)
- We have also shown asthma to be associated with another oxidant pollutant, in utero tobacco smoke ( 4 , 14 - 16 ), results which are consistent with other studies of in utero and second hand smoke (SHS) exposure ( 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
- There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. (biomedcentral.com)
- Comprehensive characterization of air pollutants is developed by analyses of the detailed chemical and physical measurements conducted by the Center, along with those available from ambient air quality monitoring networks and special field campaigns. (epa.gov)
- The goals of this collaborative project are to compare instruments and methods for characterizing vehicle emissions, personal exposures and spatial distributions by deploying the CCAR measurement platform and sampling protocols in Atlanta for a 16-day period and to compare a limited set of spatially intensive mobile and fixed site measurements of selected pollutants with downscaled Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) predictions in Atlanta. (epa.gov)
- Since smoking was an important confounding factor that supplemented most of the actual occupational exposure, a study based on non-smoker subjects is needed to separate out the effects of smoking and other confounding factors that may obscure measurements of actual extent of occupational exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
- It also recommends creating a national data bank of existing measurements for pollutants that are not currently regulated but are found in ambient air. (anses.fr)
- The Agency also supports the need to develop a French data bank of existing measurements for ambient air pollutants that are not currently regulated, similar to that available for regulated pollutants, to facilitate access to these data for research and expert appraisal work. (anses.fr)
- Based on the results of the health effects research presented in this report, and the ambient concentration estimates, it appears that acrylonitrile as an air pollutant does not pose a threat to the health of the general population. (epa.gov)
- In multiple regression models, we incorporated satellite estimates and geographic predictor variables to capture background and regional pollutant variation and used deterministic gradients to capture local-scale variation. (nih.gov)
- For despite the advances in workplace safety that have been made in recent decades, the US Occupational Health and Safety Administration estimates that more than 850,000 people in the United States develop new work-related illnesses each year and approximately 60,000 people die from such diseases in the US each year. (scienceblogs.com)
- Globally , the International Labor Organization (ILO) estimates that approximately 80% of the 2.2 million people who die annually from occupational causes do so because of a work-related illness. (scienceblogs.com)
- He has a particular interest in occupational respiratory disease. (nap.edu)
- Occupational and environmental respiratory disease. (cdc.gov)
- Occupational and environmental exposures play major roles in causing many forms of respiratory disease. (cdc.gov)
- For this reason, a unitary approach, jointly considering occupational and environmental respiratory disease, is employed in this book. (cdc.gov)
- Firstly, to examine the association between ETS exposure and demographic, socioeconomic, occupational and physiological characteristics and secondly, to ascertain the independent cross sectional association of ETS exposure with self reported common acute and chronic health conditions. (bmj.com)
- More recent observations have provided additional links between exposure to environmental factors in air/water and propensity to chronic diseases ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- These variables include factors such as stress (mental and emotional), cultural and socioeconomic variables, chronic low-grade infection, and environmental pollutants ( Fig. 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Spatial and temporal characterization of the air pollutant mixtures and emission sources are determined by using extended receptor-oriented models, chemical transport models, regression approaches, hybrid methods and remote sensing applied over multiple scales. (epa.gov)
- The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR). (biomedcentral.com)
- Ambient temperature and morbidity: a review of epidemiological evidence. (thefreelibrary.com)
- OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we review rhe epidemiological evidence on the relationship between ambient temperature and morbidity. (thefreelibrary.com)
- DATA SOURCES AND Data EXTRACTION: We searched the PubMed database for epidemiological studies on ambient temperature and morbidity of noncommunicabie diseases published in refereed English journals before 30 June 2010. (thefreelibrary.com)
- The effect of ambient temperature on morbidity is a significant public health issue. (thefreelibrary.com)
- The pollutants listed in Table 5-1 were detected in at least 5% of the air monitoring samples collected at JBB in 2007 and 2009 (n = 47 chemicals). (nap.edu)
- Chemicals released to the environment can change their form, such as the rusting of iron, and can cross into other media, such as mercury being released into the air and eventually becoming methyl mercury when it interacts with water and eventually finds its way into some fish populations. (exponent.com)
- and contribution to the burden of cancer posure to chemicals and pollutants medical diagnostics (e.g. exposure to worldwide ( 2 ). (who.int)
- Among the additional pollutants are chemicals in pesticide drift and the invisible molecules of environmentally mobile persistent compounds emanating, not only from waste sites and industrial facilities, but also from finished products as they wear and weather. (scienceblogs.com)