Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Respiratory Tract DiseasesUnited States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)SmokeHazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)GeorgiaEpidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)New JerseyVolatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.CaliforniaPolycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Tillandsia: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavonols.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Housing: Living facilities for humans.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Coal Ash: Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.AcroleinEnvironmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Los AngelesTaiwanComplex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)MexicoCarbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.TexasUnited StatesHypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.HydrocarbonsPyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.West VirginiaEmergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
"Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - ... "CPDM Helps Coal Miners Avoid Hazardous Dust". U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2016-12-30. Retrieved ... TEOM-based devices have been approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for environmental air quality monitoring, and ...
"Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - ... U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. July 1997. Retrieved 2017-06-28. Ray, Alison E.; Vaughn, David L. ( ... It is important that the air conditioning system not cycle over the same period as the TEOM instrument, because this can cause ... TEOM devices operate continuously and do not need filter changes as frequently as high-volume air samplers. Mechanical noise ...
... regulations limiting the allowable concentrations of gaseous pollutants in the ambient air or in emissions to the ambient air. ... Various governmental agencies involved with environmental protection and with occupational safety and health have promulgated ... In most other nations, the reference ambient temperature for pollutant limits may be 0 °C or other values. 1 percent by volume ... This article presents a set of useful conversions and formulas for air dispersion modeling of atmospheric pollutants and for ...
Regulations that define and limit the concentration of pollutants in the ambient air or in gaseous emissions to the ambient air ... are issued by various national and state (or provincial) environmental protection and occupational health and safety agencies. ... Air pollutant concentrations, as measured or as calculated by air pollution dispersion modeling, must often be converted or ... Air pollutant concentrations expressed as mass per unit volume of atmospheric air (e.g., mg/m3, µg/m3, etc.) at sea level will ...
National Ambient Air Quality Standards) NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) Pollution in ... California Public Smog South Coast Air Quality Management District Timeline of major US environmental and occupational health ... Develop attainment plans for a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ambient air quality standards. California Air ... Attainment of federal and state ambient air quality standards. Implement the requirements of the California Clean Air Act and ...
"Seasonal ambient air pollution correlates strongly with spontaneous abortion in Mongolia" "World Bank: Air quality analysis of ... Cadmium has been identified as a chemical pollutant identified with toxic abortion in animals. Some more articles are: "Air ... Kumar, S. (2011). "Occupational, Environmental and Lifestyle Factors Associated With Spontaneous Abortion". Reproductive ... "Pereira LA, Loomis D, Conceicao GM, Braga AL, Arcas RM, Kishi HS: Association between air pollution and intrauterine mortality ...
Such standards generally are expressed as levels of specific air pollutants that are deemed acceptable in ambient air, and are ... Another set of standards, for indoor air in employment settings, is administered by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health ... U.S. EPA, What Are the Six Common Air Pollutants? U.S. EPA, Original list of hazardous air pollutants. U.S. EPA, Air Pollutants ... Air quality laws govern the emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere. A specialized subset of air quality laws regulate ...
... as a hazardous air pollutant under the Clean Air Act. With a relatively short half-life, it is not expected to bioaccumulate. ... Propene is usually stored as liquid under pressure, although it is also possible to store it safely as gas at ambient ... was established for occupational (8-hour time-weighted average) exposure. It is considered a volatile organic compound (VOC) ... Observed concentrations have been in the range of 0.1-4.8 parts per billion (ppb) in rural air, 4-10.5 ppb in urban air, and 7- ...
Energy portal Regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors ... Individual states with areas that do not attain the targets set by the EPA in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards must ... environmental and occupational health regulation Vehicle emissions control "US EPA approves California auto emissions standard ... EPA's air pollution score represents the amount of health-damaging and smog-forming airborne pollutants the vehicle emits. ...
At higher temperatures it is a reddish-brown gas that has a characteristic sharp, biting odor and is a prominent air pollutant ... For limits in other countries see the table in the Ambient air quality criteria article. Dinitrogen tetroxide Nitric oxide (NO ... Workers in industries where NO 2 is used are also exposed and are at risk for occupational lung diseases, and NIOSH has set ... The influence of indoor air pollutants on health is important because the majority of people in the world spend more than 80% ...
Particulate matter (PM) consist of a mixture of particle pollutants that remain in the air, and vary be region. These particles ... and women with occupational benzene exposure have been shown to have an increased rate of miscarriages. Paternal occupational ... Ambient ozone has been negatively associated with sperm concentration in men, chemicals associated with UOG operations (e.g., ... "Air pollutant exposure and preterm and term small-for-gestational-age births in Detroit, Michigan: Long-term trends and ...
Atmospheric chemistry Criteria air contaminants National Ambient Air Quality Standards (USA) Ozone Photochemical smog ... Health effects depend on ozone precursors, which is a group of pollutants, primarily generated during the combustion of fossil ... Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 15 (8): 629-634. doi:10.1080/10473220050075635. ISSN 1047-322X. PMID 10957818 ... WHO, 2008) The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed an Air Quality index to help explain air pollution ...
Air Programs (Parts 50 - 97) (Clean Air Act)National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria air contaminants ... National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Approval and Promulgation of State Plans for Designated ... Worker protection standards and enforcement by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Tolerances and exemptions from ... Air Pollution Controls (Parts 1039 - 1068) Clean Air Act (1970) Clean Air Act (1990) (Part 1400) National Environmental Policy ...
... setting National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Hazardous Air Pollutant ... 1947 - Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District created; first air pollution agency in the US. 1948 - Federal Water Pollution ... Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act 1965 - Solid Waste Disposal Act 1967 - California Air Resources Board established; set ... 1967 - Air Quality Act (amendment to CAA) 1969 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act 1969 - National Environmental Policy ...
... relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. ... Institute of Occupational Medicine Research Report TM/03/01. *The Mortality Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air ... Pollutants. Main articles: Pollutant and Greenhouse gas. An air pollutant is a material in the air that can have adverse ... Minor air pollutants include: *A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the ...
Sulfur trioxide Sulfur-iodine cycle National Ambient Air Quality Standards Sulfur dioxide, U.S. National Library of Medicine ... Sulfur dioxide is a major air pollutant and has significant impacts upon human health. In addition, the concentration of sulfur ... ISBN 0-8493-0487-3. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0575". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( ... Some sulfur dioxide is also produced by roasting pyrite and other sulfide ores in air. Play media Sulfur dioxide is the product ...
Toxic air pollution : a comprehensive study of non-criteria air pollutants. Chelsea, MI.: Lewis Publishers. ISBN 0-87371-057-6 ... the chromium exposures indoors were highly related to the levels found in house dust and not ambient air. In addition the use ... International Academy of Indoor Air Sciences, (Elected) 1999-Present Fellow, Collegium Ramazzini, Environmental & Occupational ... This standard for protection of public health was tightened to 0.75 ppm but remains as an 8-hour contact with the air pollutant ...
It is lighter than air, its density being 0.589 times that of air. It is easily liquefied due to the strong hydrogen bonding ... The U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a 15-minute exposure limit for gaseous ammonia of 35 ppm ... Lower ambient temperatures reduce the rate of algal photosynthesis so less ammonia is removed by any algae present. Within an ... In some cases, the ammonia is discharged to the marine environment where it acts as a pollutant. The Whyalla steelworks in ...
... and National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). In 1972 the Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments ... which created regulatory programs governing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), State Implementation Plans (SIPs), ... Ciencia y Trabajo is a regional Latin American occupational and environmental health journal published by the Fundación ... By the end of 1970, President Richard Nixon had signed the Clean Air Act Extension, ...
In the province of Khuzestan it has led to the severe reduction of air quality. The amount of pollutants in the air has ... Ambient radiation heats dust and re-emits radiation into the microwave band, which may distort the cosmic microwave background ... Contamination control Dust bunny Dust explosion Lint (material) Medical geology Mineral dust Nephelometer Occupational dust ... In addition, if enough coal dust is dispersed within the air in a given area, in very rare circumstances, it can create an ...
In 1970, the Clean Air Act Amendments set six criteria air pollutants which are updated periodically by the National Air ... 1] - Clean Air Act (EPA) [2] - National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) [3] -Exposure Factors Handbook] by the US EPA ... Inhalation disorders Institution of Occupational Safety and Health Toolkit Trends in inhalation exposure: mid 1980s till ... Exposure is commonly understood to be the concentration of the airborne pollutant in the air at the mouth and nose boundary. ...
Surface ozone is one of the most common air pollutants and causes airway irritation. It can also reduce lung function. Studies ... Congress created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in response to the Occupational Safety and Health Act ... "Long-term ambient ozone concentration and the incidence of asthma in nonsmoking adults: the AHSMOG Study."Environmental ... A major cause of the conditions is due to pollutants in the air released by heavy industry (manufacturing plants, refineries, ...
Similarly, the concentration in the ambient air would apply to the time that the person spends outdoors, whereas the ... Methods for performing occupational exposure assessments can be found in "A Strategy for Assessing and Managing Occupational ... The direct approach measures the exposures to pollutants by monitoring the pollutant concentrations reaching the respondents. ... Air sampling measures the contaminant in the air as concentration units of ppmv (parts per million by volume), mg/m^3 ( ...
"National standards for criteria air pollutants in Australia - Air quality fact sheet". Environment.gov.au. Retrieved 1 February ... Consulate Air Quality Monitor and StateAir". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 24 December 2014. WHO , Ambient (outdoor) air ... Dis., 136 (1987), p. 1117 Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J. (2003). Exposure Assessment in Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology. ... See National Ambient Air Quality Standards) In October 2008, the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), within the ...
The collection of odor samples is more easily accomplished for a source emission than for odor in the ambient air.[26] ... Dalton, P (2002). "Odor, irritation and perception of health risk". International Archives of Occupational and Environmental ... Salthammer, Tunga; Bahadir, Müfit (2009). "Occurrence, Dynamics and Reactions of Organic Pollutants in the Indoor Environment ... Odor sensory methods are available to monitor odor both from source emissions and in the ambient air. These two contexts ...
... it ran better when both it and the air it inhaled were warmer rather than at ambient temperature. Dieselization with dedicated ... "National Pollutant Inventory. Retrieved 2017-03-03.. *^ "Thousands of UK motorists removing diesel particulate filters". Auto ... U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration: Safety and Health Topics: Diesel Exhaust ... They thus use less fuel than rich burn spark ignition engines which use a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (just enough air to ...
1993) Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in nonsmokers. J Occup Med 35:909-915. ... 2006) Ambient air pollution and asthma exacerbations in children: An eight-city analysis. Am J Epidemiol 164:505-517. ... 2003) Particulate air pollutants and asthma. A paradigm for the role of oxidative stress in pm-induced adverse health effects. ... Particulate and gaseous air pollutants can promote inflammatory responses in the airways, which are a central feature of asthma ...
Outdoor allergens and air pollutants *Pollens. *Ambient air pollution. *The weather. *Occupational exposures *Asthma ...
Lastly, the authors will look at exposure to neurotoxicant ambient air pollutants estimated by where you have lived. ... The authors will look at environmental and occupational exposure to chemicals. The chemicals include metals (i.e., lead and ... The researchers will also use estimates of exposure to geographical pollutants and measure exposure biomarkers in biospecimens ... This study investigates the effect of combined exposures on development of ALS, including environmental, occupational, ...
Read chapter 5 Health Effects of Air Pollutants Detected at Joint Base Balad: Many veterans returning from the conflicts in ... Most of the long-term health risks that have been associated with PM10 in ambient air is now attributed to the PM2.5, part of ... Occupational & Environmental Medicine 53(9):606-612.. Pope, C. A., 3rd, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. ... 5 pollutants), eye (8 pollutants), skin (5 pollutants) and spleen (1 pollutant). The presence of multiple pollutants in the air ...
Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in nonsmokers. J Occup Med 1993;35:909-915. ... Some also adjusted for housing conditions and other indoor air pollutants, occupational exposures, and outdoor air pollutants. ... Long-term particulate and other air pollutants and lung function in nonsmokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:289-298. ... Factors that were controlled included age, sex, education, occupational exposures, atopy, and outdoor air pollution. Only two ...
Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in non-smokers. J Occup Med1993;35:909-15. ... Ozone is a powerful oxidant and air pollutant that has been shown to exacerbate pre-existing asthma,78-83 but some evidence ... Summertime haze air air pollution and children with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med1997;155:654-60. ... Health effects of outdoor air pollution. Committee of the Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly of the American ...
1993) Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in nonsmokers. J Occup Med 35:909-915, . ... 1985) Indoor air pollution and its effect on pulmonary function of adult non-smoking women: III. Passive smoking and pulmonary ... 1994) Indoor air pollution and asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:1400-1406, . ... 1990) Passive smoking, air pollution, and acute respiratory symptoms in a diary study of student nurses. Am Rev Respir Dis 141: ...
Air Pollution Monitoring and Modeling. Ambient Air Pollutants. Analytical Chemistry. Biological Monitoring, Biomarkers. ... Air pollution and autism related disorders. Neurotoxicity of air pollution. Air pollution and neurodegenerative diseases. ... Air pollution health effects. Occupational epidemiological studies. Estimation of health effects from environmental and ... Indoor Air. Industrial Chemistry. Industrial Hygiene. Occupational Exposure. Pesticides. Polycyclic Hydrocarbons. Trace ...
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and related compounds such as PCBs, brominated flame retardants, ... for POPs have mainly been used as integrating (long-term) samplers for ambient (outdoor) air. However, there are several ... Occupational and indoor air exposure to persistent organic pollutants: A review of passive sampling techniques and needs P. ... Occupational and indoor air exposure to persistent organic pollutants: A review of passive sampling techniques and needs ...
APPENDIX B. National Ambient Air Quality Standards. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. APPENDIX C. ... National Occupational Standards. Regulations for OSHA-Designated Occupational Carcinogens. APPENDIX D. Glossary of Toxicology ... Benzene and Air Pollution. Benzene and Water Pollution. SUMMARY. APPENDIX A. National Primary Drinking Water Standards. ... Urea-Formaldehyde Foam Insulation (UFFI). Risk Management of Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde. THE CASE of BENZENE. ...
Expertise: Air pollution monitoring and modeling; wood smoke; ambient air pollutants; diesel exhaust; indoor air; pesticides; ... Professor, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences. Attending physician, Occupational and Environmental ... Expertise: Agricultural safety and health; ambient air pollutants; childrens health; climate change; diesel exhaust; ... adverse health effects of community air pollution and in occupational lung disease. ...
... ambient air pollutants offers an opportunity to study the association of short-term increases in the traffic-related pollutants ... 2Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. ... Only one air quality measuring station used as a proxy for exposure of air pollutants for every individual of the whole capital ... The ambient air pollution in Reykjavik is not only due to traffic-related emissions from the high density of cars.4 In addition ...
1993) Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in nonsmokers. J Occup Med 35:909-915. ... 1994) Passive smoking exposure in adults and chronic respiratory symptoms (SAPALDIA Study). Swiss Study on Air Pollution and ... The multiphasic health check up questionnaire also contained 10 "Yes/No" items pertaining to self reported ever occupational ... Alcohol consumption, physical activity at work, hypertension, diabetes and occupational hazards according to level of total ...
7 PM is the most important air pollutant and affects more people than any other pollutants. There has been a large volume of ... Air pollution has become the worlds largest single environmental health risk. Exposure to ambient air pollution was estimated ... Exposure to ambient air pollution--does it affect semen quality and the level of reproductive hormones? Ann Hum Biol 2016;43:50 ... The effect of ambient air pollution on sperm quality. Environ Health Perspect 2010;118:203-9.doi:10.1289/ehp.0901022 ...
Thirty-eight volunteers were exposed for 2 hours to either filtered air or particles concentrated from ambient air in Chapel ... Key terms air pollutant; editorial; IHD; inflammation; ischemic heart disease; occupational exposure ... Inhalation of several occupational air pollutants causes chronic bronchitis and lung function impairment. Chronic bronchitis ( ... Studies of the relationship between occupational air pollutants and inflammatory markers, as well as IHD, will increase our ...
He has investigated the acute effects of inhalation exposures to ambient air pollutants in his human exposure laboratory at San ... Balmes studies the respiratory health effects of various air pollutants. He has a particular interest in occupational ... Balmes also is investigating genetic determinants of responses to air pollutants. He has led research, funded by the U.S. ... 5 Health Effects of Air Pollutants Detected at Joint Base Balad 47-62 ...
"Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - ... "CPDM Helps Coal Miners Avoid Hazardous Dust". U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2016-12-30. Retrieved ... TEOM-based devices have been approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for environmental air quality monitoring, and ...
"Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - ... U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. July 1997. Retrieved 2017-06-28. Ray, Alison E.; Vaughn, David L. ( ... It is important that the air conditioning system not cycle over the same period as the TEOM instrument, because this can cause ... TEOM devices operate continuously and do not need filter changes as frequently as high-volume air samplers. Mechanical noise ...
Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards program, it monitors six pollutants - carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards," www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg (2015). ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Exposome and Exposomics," www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/exposome (2014). ... Figure 2. In this in vitro model of the air-blood barrier in the lungs, two types of cells - epithelial cells and endothelial ...
... assessment and management of ambient air quality (96/62/EC); control of solvents (99/12/EC); the hazardous wastes directive; ... However long-term exposure to higher concentrations (usually only experienced in occupational settings) are toxic - damaging ... Toluene is a member of the BTEX group of pollutants. BTEX is the term used to describe a group of chemicals related to benzene ... They react with other air pollution and are broken down, returned to the earth or involved in the formation of photochemical ...
All humans are exposed to potential occupational or environmental toxins such as indoor or ambient air pollutants or unique ... No longer are occupational toxin exposures limited to blue-collar jobs in heavy industries such as mining and manufacturing; ... Occupational and environmental exposures play major roles in causing many forms of respiratory disease. ... For this reason, a unitary approach, jointly considering occupational and environmental respiratory disease, is employed in ...
A decline in air quality and rise in concentrations of certain air pollutants increases the risk of lung cancer ... Elucidating the effects of ambient temperature on UV radiation- induced skin cancers, including the amplification of non- ... Clarifying the lifecycle cancer risks of nuclear energy radiation, including through occupational and environmental exposures ... Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other hazardous air pollutants, through energy efficient power generation, lower vehicle ...
Atmospheric dispersion modeling is a widely used methodology for estimating ambient air concentrations of pollutants, based on ... For air pollutants, our knowledge and experience can characterize the processes by which the pollutants are formed and the ... Evidence of health impacts of sulfate and nitrate containing particles in ambient air. Inhalat Toxicol 2007; 19:419-449.. Reiss ... J Air Waste Manage Assoc 1995; 45:811-822. Reiss R, Ryan PB, Koutrakis P. Modeling ozone deposition onto indoor residential ...
Air pollution monitoring and modeling, wood smoke, ambient air pollutants, diesel exhaust, indoor air, pesticides, trace ... Professor, Department of Global Health and the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences. [email protected] ... Agricultural safety and health, ambient air pollutants, childrens health, climate change, diesel exhaust, pesticides, noise, ... Safe workplaces, clean air, public health outcomes associated with extreme heat and wildfire smoke exposures, risk ...
  • Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and related compounds such as PCBs, brominated flame retardants, organochlorine pesticides and PAHs is regarded as an important environmental risk factor for humans. (rsc.org)
  • The plausibility that environmental exposures are linked to metabolic disease is exemplified by persistent organic pollutants, toxins that have consistently shown to associate with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 DM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Prospective cohort studies of subjects exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin or other persistent organic pollutants in occupational and other settings have reported increased risk of DM and IR ( 1 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The production and use of PCB, DDT, and DDE (a metabolite of DDT), have been banned or restricted by the Stockholm Agreement, along with several other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) considered to be the most hazardous to human health and the environment. (cehn.org)
  • ANSES therefore received a formal request from the Ministries of Ecology and Health to propose a list of new priority pollutants for this air quality monitoring to supplement those already monitored. (anses.fr)
  • In order to take into account the development of knowledge on pollutants and their emission sources, ANSES received a formal request from the Ministries of Ecology and Health to propose a list of new priority pollutants for the regulatory monitoring of air quality. (anses.fr)
  • This expert appraisal work led to a list of 13 priority pollutants. (anses.fr)
  • More than 100 PAHs have been characterised in nature, and 16 of which were classified as priority pollutants due to their wide distribution and toxicity (Figure 1 ) [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although significant improvements have been made to aircraft ventilation systems, cabin occupants are still exposed to allergens and infectious agents, airflow rates that are lower than those in buildings, and air pressures and humidity levels that are lower than those normally present at or near sea level. (gao.gov)
  • The pulmonary system is particularly vulnerable to ROS-induced injury because of its continuous exposure to toxic pollutants from a wide variety of sources in the ambient air. (cdc.gov)
  • Comprehensive characterization of air pollutants is developed by analyses of the detailed chemical and physical measurements conducted by the Center, along with those available from ambient air quality monitoring networks and special field campaigns. (epa.gov)
  • The goals of this collaborative project are to compare instruments and methods for characterizing vehicle emissions, personal exposures and spatial distributions by deploying the CCAR measurement platform and sampling protocols in Atlanta for a 16-day period and to compare a limited set of spatially intensive mobile and fixed site measurements of selected pollutants with downscaled Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) predictions in Atlanta. (epa.gov)
  • Since smoking was an important confounding factor that supplemented most of the actual occupational exposure, a study based on non-smoker subjects is needed to separate out the effects of smoking and other confounding factors that may obscure measurements of actual extent of occupational exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It also recommends creating a national data bank of existing measurements for pollutants that are not currently regulated but are found in ambient air. (anses.fr)
  • The Agency also supports the need to develop a French data bank of existing measurements for ambient air pollutants that are not currently regulated, similar to that available for regulated pollutants, to facilitate access to these data for research and expert appraisal work. (anses.fr)
  • Based on the results of the health effects research presented in this report, and the ambient concentration estimates, it appears that acrylonitrile as an air pollutant does not pose a threat to the health of the general population. (epa.gov)
  • In multiple regression models, we incorporated satellite estimates and geographic predictor variables to capture background and regional pollutant variation and used deterministic gradients to capture local-scale variation. (nih.gov)
  • For despite the advances in workplace safety that have been made in recent decades, the US Occupational Health and Safety Administration estimates that more than 850,000 people in the United States develop new work-related illnesses each year and approximately 60,000 people die from such diseases in the US each year. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Globally , the International Labor Organization (ILO) estimates that approximately 80% of the 2.2 million people who die annually from occupational causes do so because of a work-related illness. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Spatial and temporal characterization of the air pollutant mixtures and emission sources are determined by using extended receptor-oriented models, chemical transport models, regression approaches, hybrid methods and remote sensing applied over multiple scales. (epa.gov)
  • The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Explore the interplay between certain early life events, characterizations of air pollutant mixtures developed as part of the Center's Mixtures Characterization Toolkit (MC Toolkit), and a range of pediatric health outcomes using two large, population-based birth cohorts. (epa.gov)
  • Population exposure assessment methods that capture local-scale pollutant variability are needed for large-scale epidemiological studies and surveillance, policy, and regulatory purposes. (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant short-term effect of ambient temperature on total and cause-specific morbidities. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Section 402(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) provides for EPA to authorize a State to administer its own National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program. (epa.gov)
  • The pollutants listed in Table 5-1 were detected in at least 5% of the air monitoring samples collected at JBB in 2007 and 2009 (n = 47 chemicals). (nap.edu)
  • Chemicals released to the environment can change their form, such as the rusting of iron, and can cross into other media, such as mercury being released into the air and eventually becoming methyl mercury when it interacts with water and eventually finds its way into some fish populations. (exponent.com)
  • and contribution to the burden of cancer posure to chemicals and pollutants medical diagnostics (e.g. exposure to worldwide ( 2 ). (who.int)
  • Among the additional pollutants are chemicals in pesticide drift and the invisible molecules of environmentally mobile persistent compounds emanating, not only from waste sites and industrial facilities, but also from finished products as they wear and weather. (scienceblogs.com)