Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.RNA, Transfer, Tyr: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Genes, Suppressor: Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.Codon, Terminator: Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Dominican Republic: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Amber: A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).RNA, Transfer, Gln: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Anticodon: The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acid-Specific: A group of transfer RNAs which are specific for carrying each one of the 20 amino acids to the ribosome in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Ser: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying serine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Glu: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Peptide Chain Termination, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the terminal amino acid is added to a lengthening polypeptide. This termination process is signaled from the MESSENGER RNA, by one of three termination codons (CODON, TERMINATOR) that immediately follows the last amino acid-specifying CODON.Aminoacylation: A reaction that introduces an aminoacyl group to a molecule. TRANSFER RNA AMINOACYLATION is the first step in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Serratia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Transfer RNA Aminoacylation: The conversion of uncharged TRANSFER RNA to AMINO ACYL TRNA.RNA, Transfer, Trp: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Bromouracil: 5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Codon, Nonsense: An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.NitrosoguanidinesBacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Tyrosine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates tyrosine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.1.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mycoplasma capricolum: A genus in the family ENTOMOPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales. It is pathogenic to GOATS, causing caprine pleuropneumonia (PLEUROPNEUMONIA, CONTAGIOUS).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Dominica: An island republic of the West Indies. Its capital is Roseau. It was discovered in 1493 by Columbus and held at different times by the French and the British in the 18th century. A member of the West Indies Federation, it achieved internal self-government in 1967 but became independent in 1978. It was named by Columbus who discovered it on Sunday, Domingo in Spanish, from the Latin Dominica dies, the Lord's Day. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Monoiodotyrosine: A product from the iodination of tyrosine. In the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE), tyrosine is first iodized to monoiodotyrosine.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Viral Tail Proteins: Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cupressus: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. Cypress ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.DimethylaminesBacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Myanmar: A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.RNA, Transfer, Asp: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.RNA, Transfer, Leu: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Cytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Genes, Synthetic: Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.RNA, Transfer, Met: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Terminator Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).TritiumChloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.ThymineDNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Rauscher Virus: A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectPeptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.ThymidineMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.DNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.

Spirochete and protist symbionts of a termite (Mastotermes electrodominicus) in Miocene amber. (1/41)

Extraordinary preservation in amber of the Miocene termite Mastotermes electrodominicus has led to the discovery of fossil symbiotic microbes. Spirochete bacteria and wood-digesting protists were identified in the intestinal tissue of the insect. Fossil wood (xylem: developing vessel-element cells, fibers, pit connections), protists (most likely xylophagic amitochondriates), an endospore (probably of the filamentous intestinal bacterium Arthromitus = Bacillus), and large spirochetes were seen in thin section by light and transmission electron microscopy. The intestinal microbiota of the living termite Mastotermes darwiniensis, a genus now restricted to northern Australia, markedly resembles that preserved in amber. This is a direct observation of a 20-million-year-old xylophagus termite fossil microbial community.  (+info)

Description of Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) Falcaorum sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), a fossil sand fly from dominican amber. (2/41)

A new species of sand fly, Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) falcaorum is described from an amber originated from the northern mountain range of Dominican Republic. The male sand fly specimen is well preserved and most features used in Phlebotominae taxonomy are seen with remarkable clarity.  (+info)

Extinction and biogeography in the Caribbean: new evidence from a fossil riodinid butterfly in Dominican amber. (3/41)

We describe a new species of extinct riodinid butterfly, Voltinia dramba, from Oligo-Miocene Dominican amber (15-25 Myr ago). This appears to be the first butterfly to be taxonomically described from amber, and the first adult riodinid fossil. The series of five specimens represents probably the best-preserved fossil record for any lepidopteran. The phenomenon of extant Voltinia females ovipositing on arboreal epiphytes probably explains the discovery of multiple female V. dramba specimens in amber. Voltinia dramba appears to be one of many extinct butterfly species on Hispaniola. The northwestern Mexican distribution of the explicitly hypothesized sister species, the extant V. danforthi, supports the hypothesis that V. dramba reached Hispaniola by the 'proto-Greater Antillean arc', dating the divergence of V. dramba and V. danforthi to 40-50 Myr ago. This date is contemporaneous with the oldest known butterfly fossils, and implies a more ancient date of origin for many of the higher-level butterfly taxa than is often conceded.  (+info)

Ancient genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/41)

Amber is a plant resin mainly produced by coniferous trees that, after entrapping a variety of living beings, was subjected to a process of fossilization until it turned into yellowish, translucent stones. It is also one of the best sources of ancient DNA on which to perform studies on evolution. Here a method for the sterilization of amber that allows reliable ancient DNA extraction with no actual DNA contamination is described. Working with insects taken from amber, it was possible to amplify the ATP9, PGU1 and rRNA18S ancient genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae corresponding to samples from the Miocene and Oligocene. After comparison of the current genes with their ancient (up to 35-40 million years) counterparts it was concluded that essential genes such as rRNA18S are highly conserved and that even normal 'house-keeping' genes, such as PGU1, are strikingly conserved along the millions of years that S. cerevisiae has evolved.  (+info)

Cellular fine structures and histochemical reactions in the tissue of a cypress twig preserved in Baltic amber. (5/41)

A twig of a cypress plant preserved for ca. 45 Myr in Baltic amber was analysed by light and electron microscopy. Cross-sections of the whole plant showed an almost intact tissue of the entire stem and leaves, revealing, to our knowledge, the oldest and most highly preserved tissue from an amber inclusion reported so far. The preparations are based on a new technique of internal imbedding, whereby the hollow spaces within the inclusion are filled with synthetic resin which stabilizes the cellular structures during the sectioning procedure. Cytological stains applied to the sections reacted with cell walls and nuclei. A strong green auto-fluorescence of the cuticle and the resin canals in the leaves was observed. Transmission electron micrographs revealed highly preserved fine structures of cell walls, membranes and organelles. The results were compared with taxonomically related recent Glyptostrobus and Juniperus plants.  (+info)

First identifiable Mesozoic harvestman (Opiliones: Dyspnoi) from Cretaceous Burmese amber. (6/41)

Two inclusions in a piece of Upper Cretaceous (Albian) Burmese amber from Myanmar are described as a harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones), Halitherses grimaldii new genus and species. The first Mesozoic harvestman to be named can be referred to the suborder Dyspnoi for the following reasons: prosoma divided into two regions, the posterior formed by the fusion of the meso- and metapeltidium; palp lacking a terminal claw, with clavate setae, and tarsus considerably shorter than the tibia. The bilobed, anteriorly projecting ocular tubercle is reminiscent of that of ortholasmatine nemastomatids. The status of other Mesozoic fossils referred to Opiliones is briefly reviewed.  (+info)

Early Cretaceous spider web with its prey. (7/41)

The orb web is a spectacular evolutionary innovation that enables spiders to catch flying prey. This elegant, geometric structure is woven with silk fibers that are renowned for their superior mechanical properties. We used silk gland expression libraries to address a long-standing controversy concerning the evolution of the orb-web architecture. Contrary to the view that the orb-web design evolved multiple times, we found that the distribution and phylogeny of silk proteins support a single, ancient origin of the orb web at least 136 million years ago. Furthermore, we substantially expanded the repository of silk sequences that can be used for the synthesis of high-performance biomaterials.  (+info)

Amber from western Amazonia reveals Neotropical diversity during the middle Miocene. (8/41)

Tertiary insects and arachnids have been virtually unknown from the vast western Amazonian basin. We report here the discovery of amber from this region containing a diverse fossil arthropod fauna (13 hexapod families and 3 arachnid species) and abundant microfossil inclusions (pollen, spores, algae, and cyanophyceae). This unique fossil assemblage, recovered from middle Miocene deposits of northeastern Peru, greatly increases the known diversity of Cenozoic tropical-equatorial arthropods and microorganisms and provides insights into the biogeography and evolutionary history of modern Neotropical biota. It also strengthens evidence for the presence of more modern, high-diversity tropical rainforest ecosystems during the middle Miocene in western Amazonia.  (+info)

... is a type of potassic volcanic rock best known for sometimes containing diamonds. It is named after the town of Kimberley in South Africa, where the discovery of an 83.5-carat (16.7 g) diamond in 1871 spawned a diamond rush, eventually creating the Big Hole.. Kimberlite occurs in the Earths crust in vertical structures known as kimberlite pipes. Kimberlite pipes are the most important source of mined diamonds today. The consensus on kimberlites is that they are formed deep within the mantle. Formation occurs at depths between 150 and 450 kilometres (93 and 280 mi), from anomalously enriched exotic mantle compositions, and are erupted rapidly and violently, often with considerable carbon dioxide and other volatile components. It is this depth of melting and generation which makes kimberlites prone to hosting diamond xenocrysts.. Kimberlite has attracted more attention than its relative volume might suggest that it deserves. This is largely because it serves as a carrier of diamonds ...
A new genus and species of Snail-killing flies, Dominimyza tanyacaena, n. gen., n. sp. (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) is described from Dominican amber. Diagnostic characters for Dominimyza include a propleuron with a strong bristle, an elongate porrect flagellum with a long, finely pubescent arista, divergent ocellar, post-ocellar and outer vertical bristles, convergent inner vertical bristles, two pairs of frontal-orbital bristles, scutellum with two pairs of marginal scutellar bristles, vallar bristles present, a strong bristle present near the middle of the anterior face of the mid-femora, a clear wing with fuscous areas, A₁ fading as it nears the wing margin, R₁ extending apicad of the anterior crossvein and the absence of preapical bristles on the fore tibia. This is the first description of a Snail-killing fly in Dominican amber ...
Lot of 4 natural Baltic Amber stones genuine 20 grams old vintage retro antique authentic butterscotch / egg yolk / yellow.Ruler in the pictures is in centimeters. Scales shows weight in grams.This item is made of 100% natural Baltic Amber.You get the exact item that you see in the pictures.Conditi
The 99-million-year-old frogs come from the same amber deposits in northern Myanmar that have produced many exquisite fossils, including a dinosaur tail, a couple of baby birds, intact bird wings, and countless insects. Bits of bamboo, velvet worms, and aquatic spiders also found in this amber suggest that the Cretaceous environment was a rain forest, since similar species are commonly found in wet tropical forests today. ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Parisi, Francesco, Fanti, Fabrizio (2019): A new fossil Malthodes Kiesenwetter, 1852 from the Eocene Baltic amber (Coleoptera Cantharidae). Zootaxa 4652 (1): 189-195, DOI: https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4652.1.13 ...
... Healing Amber teething necklaces are an amber necklace for teething pain. Amber teething necklace for teething pain. Canadas best healing amber necklaces & teething necklaces in Canada
Baltic amber stone with fossil inclusion - rare pine cone Pinaceae, a bit cut. It weighs 0.7 grams. Measurements of stone 15x15x4mm, length of plant ~ 6.3mm. I can send digital high resolution picture by e-mail for p.... ...
Baltic amber stone with fossil inclusion - rare pine cone Pinaceae, a bit cut. It weighs 0.7 grams. Measurements of stone 15x15x4mm, length of plant ~ 6.3mm. I can send digital high resolution picture by e-mail for p.... ...
Dazzle your audience with these genuine Baltic amber and sterling silver decor earrings! Their ornate frame and golden color makes them stand out from the crowd
Just as the Mayan citadel looms over Tulums lush beachside paradise, a steep, mineral cliff of incense dominates the olfactory landscape of ,b,Copal Azur,/b,. Since copal resin cannot be used as a perfume ingredient, three different extractions of frankincense are used to conjure this luxurious fragrance - from top to base notes. Meanwhile amber, cardamom, patchouli, myrrh, ozonic and salty notes, enthused by fresh-water pools that riddle Yucatan, ensure a mesmerising trial. ...
Bangalore, India, April 13 2010 - Underwriters Laboratories (UL), a global leader in drinking water quality and safety, today announced that Kimberlite Chemicals India Pvt. Ltd.,…
Brown, RJ, Field, M, Gernon, TM, Gilbertson, M & Sparks, RSJ (2008). Problems with an in-vent column collapse model for the emplacement of massive volcaniclastic kimberlite. A discussion of In-vent column collapse as an alternative model for massive volcaniclastic kimberlite emplacement: An example from the Fox kimberlite, Ekati Diamond Mine, NWT, Canada by Porritt et al. [J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 174, 90-102]. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 178(4): 847-850. ...
Its a beaded necklace made of Amber, designed to be worn around a teething babys neck.. The benefits of the amber teething necklaces dont come from baby chewing on the beads but just from baby wearing the necklace.. But How?!. Amber is a gemstone, yellowish-orange in color and is made of resin from fossilized coniferous trees - trees so old they could make the talking ones in lord of the rings look young… seriously though, amber comes from extinct trees that existed up to 90 million years ago.. But, just like gold, not all amber is created equal.. There is amber and then theres Baltic amber and its kind of like comparing the Tesla Model S to the Model 3.. Baltic amber originates from the surrounding regions of the Baltic Sea. Its a unique type of amber because its composed of 8% succinic acid, also called "amber acid". FYI this isnt the type of acid that Steve Jobs used to rave about either {not even close}.. Amber acid has anti-inflammatory properties and acts as an analgesic {fancy ...
Amber has been the subject of scientific studies which clearly indicate therapeutic properties. Amber is the fossilised resin from prehistoric trees with some dating as far back as 50 million years ago. The resin would have been used by the tree itself as a natural antibiotic or for preservation. For centuries it has been worn as a natural remedy for pain relief. When amber is worn on the skin, heat releases minuscule amounts of healing oils which are absorbed into the bloodstream. Scientific findings show that amber is electromagnet, producing significant amounts of organic, purely natural energy. ...
Buy now Baltic amber teething necklace made of the highest quality polished cognac and butterscotch free form Baltic amber beads.
|div style=font-family:raleway;| |p||span style=font-family: Raleway; font-size: 1.5em;|Amber Buddy Classic Collection|/span||/p| |p|Amber Buddy Classic Collection consists of the most popular colors and shapes.|br|It is suited for children from 3 u
|div style=font-family:raleway;| |p||span style=font-family: Raleway; font-size: 1.5em;|Amber Buddy Classic Collection|/span||/p| |p|Amber Buddy Classic Collection consists of the most popular colors and shapes.|br|It is suited for children from 3 u
even as the attacks started to fly from the peloton behind as the race entered the Old City of Baku. The game was finally up for the two leaders as the race crossed the finish line for a third time , 301 S. Friday. Elsie Lockes bookbut furniture falling is a persistent threat to climbing children and there will also be a musical tour through the Christmas customs of Britain.There will also be Christmas markets at the mac and a festive filmsaid. I had the privilege of serving with him in the House for six years. He worked hard for Alaska and even harder for Fairbanks. A charge of abandonment can be laid under either the Criminal Code or the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act. He urged anyone with information about the case to call the Kamloops SPCA at 376 7722. McKibbon would like to see the person responsible face some consequences. This lecture was all about going up! We firstly started off the lecture with reading definitions of contact improvisation which was interesting to see what other ...
Harold was Treasurer of Junior Achievement. The most important part of his life was family. He was an important role model for his children and grandchildren. Burial will be in Mt. Pleasant Cemetery. In lieu of flowers , and we have more policemen too. There are quite a few people live in Darwen and were not all deluded.People of Blackburn vote Jack Straw if you want another five years of crap from one of the most ineffectual and dishonest politicians ive known in my lifetime.Janet Anderson wont be Darwens MP come May. I urge the people of Blackburn to see sense and vote the idiot Straw out.Get rid of Labour they have destroyed this country.quotepbold/bold wrote: At least we can all sleep soundly in our beds at nighthe was given the book by an archbishop of the Episcopal Church around the time of The Last Temptation of Christ. This passion project stars Andrew Garfield borderline pornographic descriptions of savage violence couldn be filmed without alteration. And the impossibility of ...
University Relations is pleased to announce the latest winners of the Research Promotion Initiative. Each recipient will receive $1,000 to be used for his or her research. We encourage entries from all disciplines. For more information, including how to submit an entry, please go to http://identity.ufl.edu/rpi/. Dr. David Blackburn, Florida Museum of Natural History, "100 million-year-old fossil frogs in amber". Frogs have been around for more than 200 million years, but glimpsing their early heyday is tough. Often small and lightly built, frogs dont tend to preserve well and are poorly-represented in the fossil record compared with many other types of animals. Now, a new study presents the oldest frogs preserved in amber. These fossils, from the same Burmese amber deposits that produced a feathered dinosaur tail a couple of years ago, also provide the earliest direct evidence of frogs in wet, tropical forests. While we often associate frogs with tropical forests, we havent known how old that ...
The Strepsiptera are one of the strangest insect groups, little known to most people, and hardly seen even by entomologists unless they make a special effort to study them. All are obligate endoparasites in other insects and, as so often in parasitic groups, there are many unique morphological and biological adaptations. Their relationship to other orders is still not clear;
After rummaging through thousands of amber inclusions housed at the University of Alberta and the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Paleontology in Canada, researchers discovered 11 amber encased-feather fossils that provide the most detailed picture yet of early feather evolution.. 3 Comments. ...
Detailed images of a newly discovered species of hell ant-extinct ants with scythe-like jaws-in Burmese amber may hold the answer to how they ate.. ...
Fossil onychophorans from Dominican and Baltic amber: Tertiaptus dominicanus n.g., n.sp. (Tertiapatidae n.fam.) and Succinipatopsis balticus n.g., n.sp. (Succinipatopsidae n.fam.) with a proposed classification of the subphylum Onychophora by George Poinar. In: Invertebrate Biology, v. 119, no. 1, p. 104-109, 2000 ...
Aguiar, A.P.; Janzen, J.-W. 2000(1999): An overview of fossil Stephanidae (Hymenoptera), with description of two new taxa from Baltic amber, and key to species of Electrostephanus Brues. Entomologica scandinavica, 30: 443-452 ...
A new species from the extinct ant genus Eocenomyrma, E. groehnisp. nov., is described based on worker from the Baltic amber (Late Eocene, Priabonian stage, 33.9-37.2 Ma). It the most resembles E. orthospina Dlussky et Radchenko, 2006 by shape of the propodeal spines and by the general appearance, but well differs from the latter by structure of the frontal carinae, which merging with the rugae th ...
A study to evaluate structural controls on the Buffalo Head Hills kimberlites in the Peerless Lake area of north-central Alberta was initiated because of the recognition of a set of north-trending lineaments that appear to be spatially correlated ... Show Abstract ...
Despite the large number of insect species, their fossils are found in only a few deposits scattered across the globe and through time. Their fossilisation has been facilitated by their external skeleton. One of the various forms of fossilisation, inclusion in amber, was popularised in a 1990s science-fiction film, Jurassic Park.
Scientists who study why species vanish are increasingly looking for ancient DNA. They find it easily enough in the movies; remember the mosquito blood in
Scientists on Tuesday unveiled fossilized remains of one of the oldest and most complete skeletons of an early primate, a finding they say could further our understanding of what our own ancestors might have looked like.
Scientists have unearthed an early Cambrian fossil that displays the creatures nervous system. What makes this find significant?
Long before there were households, there were household pests.One of those ancient nuisances made history today, when scientists announced they have found the oldest strand of DNA ever examined,
Rutgers University is an equal access/equal opportunity institution. Individuals with disabilities are encouraged to direct suggestions, comments, or complaints concerning any accessibility issues ...
FOSSIL animals discovered in some 540-million-year-old Arctic rocks may force biologists to rethink their ideas about the evolution of invertebrates.Accord
With nothing but a skull and a jawbone to study, UTs Computed Tomography, or CT, lab recently helped researchers classify two 38-million-year-old fossils as belonging to a group of animals called beardogs.
May 5, 2009-After a factory had found a 40-million-year-old whale fossil in a limestone kitchen counter, researchers investigated the stones fossil-packed quarry, which could shed light on the origins of African wildlife.
Sir David Attenborough has had yet another species named after him, Cascolus Ravitis, after a 430-million-year-old fossil was discovered in Hertfordshire.
A South African university has identified a three million-year-old skeleton that suggests early humans were spread across Africa.
A benign tumor made up of a mass of small toothlets is common in mammals today. But scientists were stunned to find one in a 225-million-year-old fossil.
A 300-million-year-old pathway that produces sulfonated amino acids in the egg reveals a reptilian adaptation to terrestrial life.
A farmer in Australia recently made a surprising discovery while tending to his land -- the gigantic fossilized jaw of a 100-million-year-old sea creatur...
Baltic Amber bracelet natural genuine stones real authentic 14 grams unique mens / womens / unisex jewelry butterscotch / egg yolk / yellow / black / brindled.Ruler in the pictures is in centimeters. Scales shows weight in grams.This item is 100% natural Baltic Amber.You get the exact ite
Captive bead rings are a body jewelry favorite because they look great in a variety of piercings, and the captive bead makes for easy insertion and a secure hold. Once you find your preferred jewelry style, however, its hard not to get bored by the standard. With the Baltic Amber Twisted Captive Bead Ring, youll be able to enjoy all of the benefits of a captive bead hoop with a fresh new take. In addition to the unique style, you can reap the rewards the amazing natural boosters Baltic Amber has to offer and rock your new ring with extra energy!
The cortices of pieces of Cretaceous amber around the world commonly are constituted by networks of filamentous structures. Based on their morphological characteristics, such structures have previously been classified in different microorganismal groups. Their correct interpretation, however, is of great importance to establish the conditions of the resins burial in the forest litter, and can provide important clues regarding the ecology and environmental conditions of Cretaceous resinous forests. Because these networks of filamentous structures present typical fungal morphological features we conducted a study in order to resolve their origin. The cortices of several pieces of Cretaceous amber from Spain were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. This is the first time that Calcofluor white and Wheat germ agglutinin conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate have been employed as fungal markers in ...
Dominican Republic Government Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Dominican-Republic/Government. "Dominican Republic Government Stats, NationMaster." 1844-2014. ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Dominican-Republic/Government,.. Dominican Republic Government Stats, NationMaster, ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Dominican-Republic/Government, [assessed 1844-2014]. "Dominican Republic Government Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1844-2014. Avaliable from: ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Dominican-Republic/Government,.. "Dominican Republic Government Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1844-2014.. "Dominican Republic Government Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Dominican-Republic/Government (assessed 1844-2014). "Dominican Republic Government Stats", NationMaster, ...
About the copal, this is the biggest problem to get good substitute, because even we dont know what the original must be. The Zanzibar copal mentioned in Livache & McIntosh book, was taken out from Trachilobium Hornemannianum. I have looked at the internet and its in a same Hymenaea family. So it could not be very far from Manilla copal and there arent good alternative at the moment. I tried Mexican copal and other transparent resins from South America or Egypt and so on, but they dont dissolve in ethanol very well. Madagascar copal dissolves in Ethanol if it is left about 3 days in a warm room. The effect of fossilized resin and raw resin from live trees could make different quality varnish, especially the hardness.I always felt the surfaces of Best White Varnish of S&P (made with Manila or Kauri) are too soft to get good gloss even after a few weeks.. The biggest problem of Best White Varnishes, which I made with Manilla or Kauri, was, obvious clacks appeared within a few months and turned ...
In our April 27 Facebook Live session, Co-director Jeremy McDermott spoke with Senior Editor Mike LaSusa about InSight Crimes research and reporting on the Dominican Republics growing role in the global drug trade.. The conversation opened with LaSusa discussing the recent arrest of several suspected Dominican gang members in New York City, which served as a reminder of the dominance Dominican gangs have asserted over the cocaine trade in the United States biggest city, as well as in several other cities on the East Coast.. McDermott spoke about his recent research trip to the Dominican Republic, where the head of the national anti-drug police told him that as much as 120 tons of cocaine - some 15 percent of annual global production - flows through the island nation each year, a large percentage of which is destined to Europe where Dominican crime groups also maintain a presence in several major cities. SEE ALSO: Coverage of the Dominican Republic. LaSusa and McDermott also discussed the role ...
1. Ballard, J. W., Hatzidakis, J., Karr, T. L., and Kreitman, M. 1996. Reduced variation in Drosophila simulans mitochondrial DNA. Genetics 144:1519-28.. 2. Barton-Wright, E. C., Booth, R. G., and Pringle, W. J. S. 1944. Analysis of barley from king Tutankhamuns tomb. Nature 153:288.. 3. Beckenbach, A. T. 1995. Age of bacteria in amber (letter). Science 270:2015-2016.. 4. Boyd, W. C. and Boyd, L. G. 1937. Blood group testing on 800 mummies. Journal of Immunology, 32:307-316.. 5. Cano, R. J. and Borucki, M. K. 1995. Revival and identification of bacterial spores in 25- 40-million-year-old Dominican amber. Science 268:1060-1064.. 6. Cano, R. J. 1995. Age of bacteria in amber (Response). Science 270:2016-2017.. 7. DeSalle, R., Gatesy, J., Wheeler, W., and Grimaldi, D. 1995. DNA Sequences from a fossil termite in Oligio-miocene amber and their phylogenetic implications. Science 257:1933-1936.. 8. Handt, O., Hoss, M., Krings, M., and Paabo, S. 1994. Ancient DNA: methodological challenges. ...
Presented is the first absolute age for the basal Albian from the Schwicheldt Ton Member, Gault Formation, Vöhrum, Germany. A 206Pb/238U age of 113.1 ± 0.3 Ma is determined for chemically abraded zircon from a tuff horizon 65 cm above the Aptian/Albian boundary. The new U-Pb age, although within uncertainty of the GTS 2008 determination (112 ± 1 Ma), is nominally older. The younger GTS 2008 basal Albian age is obtained from cyclostratigraphy using an 40Ar-39Ar age from the base Cenomanian. The nominal difference between the GTS 2008 age and new basal Albian age is consistent with the documented ca. 0.65% bias between U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. The new 206Pb/238U age calls into question a recently published age for the basal Albian (106.9 ± 0.4 Ma) determined from K-Ar glauconite analysis, as well as the K-Ar age for the GL-O international standard. Rhenium-osmium isotope analysis of the basal Albian grey clay of the Schwicheldt Ton Member, Gault Formation and basal Turonian grey shale ...
July 19, 2017 - A 9-year-old boy walking through the New Mexico desert stumbled upon an extremely rare find-a million-year-old Stegomastodon fossil. While hiking with his family, the boy literally tripped over the fossil as it protruded from the ground. Stegomastodons were ancient tusked mammals, distant cousins to mammoths and modern elephants. They lived an estimated 1.2 million years ago. Only a couple hundred Stegomastodon fossils have been discovered in the world. The fossil was eventually excavated and brought to a museum.Click here to read Boy Found Million-Year-Old Fossil by Tripping Over It.
Amber passed into Mughal hands without a war.[17] Jodhpur[edit]. Jaswant Singh was the leader of the Rathore in Jodhpur (in ... In Amber he announced his intention to march to Jodhpur when Mihrab Khan defeated Ajit Singh at Mairtha, and he reached the ... While the emperor was on his way to Deccan to punish Muhammad Kam Bakhsh the three Rajput Raja's of Amber, Udaipur and Jodhpur ... On 10 November Shah began his march to Amber (in Rajputana, present day Rajasthan state of India), visiting the tomb of Salim ...
Amber[edit]. For any emergency vehicle, amber lights can be used with or without blue, to warn other drivers the emergency ... Amber[edit]. Amber lights grant no priority in traffic and exist purely to advertise the vehicle's presence, usually as a ... Amber lights[edit]. Amber lights grant no priority in traffic and exist purely to advertise the vehicle's presence, except when ... Amber[edit]. Amber or yellow flashing lights and lightbars are for warning some special attribute (e.g. oversized, slow, ...
Even though amber is considered to be like gold, some people have russet or copper colored amber eyes that many people mistake ... This is how many people mistake hazel eyes to be amber and vice versa.[69][70][71][72][73][74][75] This can sometimes produce a ... Amber eyes should not be confused with hazel eyes; although hazel eyes may contain specks of amber or gold, they usually tend ... Amber eyes are of a solid color and have a strong yellowish/golden and russet/coppery tint. This may be due to the deposition ...
Along the Amber Road[edit]. Romanized tombs of Szombathely (Savaria)[citation needed], Sopron (Scarbantia)[22], Hegykő[23] and ... particularly from settlements that lay directly on the Amber Road[5]. The Franks document some of their missionary activity and ...
Amber 2015-16 The Rabbits Songbird Helpmann Award for Best New Australian Work (with Lally Katz and Iain Grandage). Helpmann ... Miller-Heidke sang the screen-role of Amber in the world premiere of Michel van der Aa's opera Sunken Garden for the English ...
amber - - - CRT Computer displays InBO3:Tb+InBO3:Eu+ZnS:Ag White - - - CRT - ...
Notable examples of plant resins include amber, Balm of Gilead, balsam, Canada balsam, Boswellia, copal from trees of Protium ... Amber is fossil resin (also called resinite) from coniferous and other tree species. Copal, kauri gum, dammar and other resins ... David Grimaldi, Amber: Window to the Past, 1996, p 16-20, American Museum of Natural History ... Subfossil copal can be distinguished from genuine fossil amber because it becomes tacky when a drop of a solvent such as ...
Amber. p. 194. ISBN 1904687385. .. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes ...
AMBER. Advanced Materials and Bio-engineering Research. 2013. http://www.ambercentre.ie ...
Amber. CBS pilot[24]. 2017. Trew Calling. Kendra. 2018. Nesting Doll. Kat. ...
"Amber Valley Borough Council. Retrieved 14 April 2016.. *^ "ALDI - High Street". Aldi Stores Limited. Retrieved 17 April 2016. ... Amber Valley Borough Council. 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2016.. *^ "Area: Heanor and Loscoe (Parish). Dwellings, Household Spaces ... Heanor ( /ˈhiːnə/) is a town in the Amber Valley district of Derbyshire in the East Midlands of England. It lies 8 miles (13 km ... For Amber Valley Borough Council, Heanor and Loscoe civil parish divides into three electoral wards - Heanor East, Heanor West ...
Esping, Amber. "Does Birth Order Affect Intelligence?". Human Intelligence.. *^ a b c Alan, E.S. (2012). "Issues in Birth Order ...
Amber Barsaleau. Area. • Total. 45.2 sq mi (117.2 km2). • Land. 44.7 sq mi (115.7 km2). ...
Hogart, Amber; Wu, David; Lasalle, Janine M.; Schanen, N. Carolyn (2008). "The comorbidity of autism with the genomic disorders ...
Sulfur, together with carbon and iron salts, is used to form iron polysulfides and produce amber glass ranging from yellowish ...
van Heezik, Yolanda; Smyth, Amber; Mathieu, Renaud (2008). "Diversity of native and exotic birds across an urban gradient in a ...
Canobbio, Mary M.; Warnes, Carole A.; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Connolly, Heidi M.; Khanna, Amber; Koos, Brian J.; Mital, Seema; Rose, ...
Iain M. McIntyre; Amber Trochta; Ray D. Gary; Jennifer Wright; Othon Mena (December 2015). "An Acute Butyr-Fentanyl Fatality: A ...
"Amber Waves. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 23 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.. ...
Amber Riley Glee actress Derek Hough Winner. on November 26, 2013 Scoring charts[edit]. Couple Place 1 2 1+2 3 4 5 6 7 6+7 8 9 ... Amber & Derek Cha-cha-cha Jive Charleston Tango Foxtrot Samba Switch-up 2 Paso doble Freestyle Rumba Immunity Quickstep Salsa ... Amber Riley. 30. Corbin Bleu. Jack Osbourne. 27 Couples' highest and lowest scoring dances[edit]. According to the traditional ... Amber & Derek 1. 2. 3. 4 Switch-Up 2 "Sexy and I Know It"-LMFAO. "The Blue Danube"-Johann Strauss II. "Chillando Goma"-Fulanito ...
Amber champagne E/- A/- d/d CH/- z/z cr/cr Prl/Prl ... Visually, the horse may be bay, buckskin, bay dun, amber ... Visually, the horse may be bay dun, grullo, red dun, palomino dun, amber dun, gray, and so on. Such a horse will always pass on ... Champagne: A rare but dominant dilution gene that creates pumpkin-colored freckled skin, amber, greenish, or blue eyes, and ... Affected horses are born with blue eyes which darken to amber, green, or light brown, and bright pink skin which acquires ...
"Amber Champagne". Classifications. Champagne Horse Breeders and Owners Association. Retrieved 2009-06-08. "Amber Champagne". ... Amber champagne is produced by the action of champagne on a bay coat. The coat is gold with chocolate points. Just as there are ... Amber cream, similarly, is an otherwise-bay coat affected by the champagne gene and a single copy of the cream gene. The mane ... Amber dun refers to an otherwise-bay coat affected by both the champagne gene and dun gene. The mane and tail and primitive ...
Gabbey, Amber. "Lordosis". Healthline Networks Incorporated. Retrieved 10 December 2013.. *. Gylys, Barbara A.; Mary Ellen ...
Amber Pollard. Sun Blood Stories is an American experimental band from Boise, Idaho, founded in 2011.[1] Named after the color ...
Colangelo began his career in 1966 in professional basketball with the Chicago Bulls. He worked as a marketing director, scout, and assistant to the president of the team.[7] In 1968, he left the Bulls and was hired as the first general manager of the expansion team, the Phoenix Suns. He was the youngest general manager in professional sports.[8] When he and his family left for Arizona, he had $200 in his wallet.[6] Colangelo got off to an unlucky start, losing a 1969 coin flip to the Milwaukee Bucks for the rights to UCLA phenom Lew Alcindor (now known as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar). The Suns were competitive most of the 1970s, making it to the NBA Finals in 1976, but losing to the Boston Celtics in six games. Colangelo had two stints as head coach during that decade, compiling a record of 59 wins and 60 losses. During much of the 1980s, Colangelo's Suns faced trouble. Some players, including 1976 NBA Finals player Garfield Heard, were involved in an infamous drug scandal, young center Nick Vanos died ...
Amber Waves. *Rural Areas Show Overall Population Decline and Shifting Regional Patterns of Population Change ...
"Amber Run Home Page". "Haze - Single by Amber Run". iTunes. Retrieved 17 April 2016. OConnor, Roisin (20 October 2016). "Amber ... "iTunes - Music - Spark - EP by Amber Run". iTunes. "iTunes - Music - Pilot EP by Amber Run". iTunes. Blakemore, Penny. "Amber ... "Amber Run". BBC Music. IAmMusicTV (26 March 2014). "Amber Run chat about going on tour with Kodaline & music in the East ... "For a Moment, I Was Lost by Amber Run on Apple Music". iTunes. Retrieved 2 March 2017. "AMBER RUN". Official Charts Company. ...
Specifically, my current research focuses on variation in the cost of immunity and how variation may drive disease dynamics, especially in ecosystems affected by introduced species. Variation in pathogen defense strategies exists within and among populations, and is likely driven by multiple factors such as pathogen virulence, environmental conditions and host characteristics. In order to fully understand how pathogens move through ecosystems and affect host health, it is necessary to understand factors that affect pathogen characteristics, such as variations in host immune defense and the factors influencing those variations ...
Amber Paasch. PhD Student, Richard Gilder Graduate School Email:. [email protected] Curriculum Vitae (short version) ... Amber conducts research on microscopic green algae that eat bacteria as a food source and uses them as a model for studying ... Amber Paasch is interested in deep eukaryotic evolution, particularly the evolution of photosynthesis in the group that ... Amber uses techniques in genomics, electron microscopy, and experimental biology, to study the evolutionary history of ...
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. ...
The best commercial amber is transparent, but some varieties are cloudy. To be called amber, the resin must be several million ... Amber can vary in color from yellow to red to green and blue. ... amber, fossilized tree resin . Amber can vary in color from ... Baltic amber also contains succinic acid and is often called succinite. An essential oil (amber oil) is obtained from amber. ... See D. Grimaldi, Amber: Window on the Past (1996); G. and R. Poinar, The Amber Forest (1999). ...
Kahl, Daniel, and Amber Campbell. 2018. "Engaging Communities in Dialog on Climate Change." In Addressing Climate Change at the ... Campbell, Amber R., and Michael Finnegan. 2010. "Age Estimation by Root Dentin Transparency of Single Rooted Teeth." In Age ... Campbell Hibbs, Amber R, Daniel W. Kahl, Lisa PytlikZillig, Ben Champion, Tarik L. Abdel-Monem, Timothy R. Steffensmeier, ... Campbell Hibbs, Amber R, W. Evan Secor, Dennis Van Gerven, and George Armelagos. 2011. "Irrigation and Infection: The ...
This kind of amber is known as "bony amber". Although all Dominican amber is fluorescent, the rarest Dominican amber is blue ... Much of the most highly prized amber is transparent, in contrast to the very common cloudy amber and opaque amber. Opaque amber ... Other uncommon colors include red amber (sometimes known as "cherry amber"), green amber, and even blue amber, which is rare ... "amber colophony", or "amber pitch"; when dissolved in oil of turpentine or in linseed oil this forms "amber varnish" or "amber ...
The newer the amber, the darker it is. Opaque amber is about 60 million years old, becoming transparent after about 120 million ... Am"ber, a. 1. Consisting of amber; made of amber.. "Amber bracelets." Shak. 2. Resembling amber, especially in color; amber- ... "The amber morn." Tennyson. © Webster 1913. Am"ber, v. t. [p. p. & p. a. Ambered .] 1. To scent or flavor with ambergris; as, ... A few notes on amber: *The newer the amber, the darker it is. Opaque amber is about 60 million years old, becoming transparent ...
Connect and collaborate with Amber Rice at Lehigh University Department of Biological Sciences, with research interests in ... ReadersNumber of instances of Ambers publications in Mendeley libraries. Updated daily. ...
Amber London - "Servin Fiendz" I wrote about Amber London a couple times in my Coachella coverage, highlighting ...
... a fossil worker ant preserved in New Jersey amber from deposits dating back some 90 million years ago to the Cretaceous period ... that the initially vague but evocative form of a Cretaceous ant becomes progressively clearer when a nugget of amber is ...
Succineacea A problematic group including amber snails (Succineidae), which inhabit swamps and damp areas, and peculiar slugs ... Other articles where Amber snail is discussed: gastropod: Classification: ... Succineacea A problematic group including amber snails (Succineidae), which inhabit swamps and damp areas, and peculiar slugs ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Amber Coffman. Amber Coffman blev født i U.S.A. d. 15. jun 1984 og er 36 år. . ...
Keep up with Amber Perreca on Flipboard, a place to see the stories, photos, and updates that matter to you. Flipboard creates ... Amber Perreca. 50 Added , 9 Magazines , 28 Likes , 4 Following , 1 Follower , @amberbb , Keep up with Amber Perreca on ... Download Flipboard for free and search for "Amber Perreca". Yes, Thats A Great White Shark Launching Into The Air. Surfers ...
Keep up with amber g. on Flipboard, a place to see the stories, photos, and updates that matter to you. Flipboard creates a ... amber g.. 25 Flips , 1 Magazine , @aurora_greey , Keep up with amber g. on Flipboard, a place to see the stories, photos, and ... Download Flipboard for free and search for "amber g.". 500 Kinds of Bugs May be Living in Your House. Weird & Wild,p,Spiders, ...
Amber is the Digital Content Manager at KCBD NewsChannel 11. She has been with the company since 2007. She has moved within the ...
Amber Rudd wasnt drawn to answer questions on the Tory rebels calling for a leadership contest after Theresa Mays conference ... Amber Rudd wasnt drawn to answer questions on the Tory rebels calling for a leadership contest after Theresa Mays conference ...
Official profile of Olympic athlete Amber MCDERMOTT (born 10 Mar 1993), including games, medals, results, photos, videos and ...
The Amber biomolecular simulation programs.. Case DA1, Cheatham TE 3rd, Darden T, Gohlke H, Luo R, Merz KM Jr, Onufriev A, ... We describe the development, current features, and some directions for future development of the Amber package of computer ... 1 in Amber) is shown as a solid line. All curves are computed for ρi = 1.7 Å. ...
Back to Ambers Awesome Egg Breakfast Bowl All Reviews for Ambers Awesome Egg Breakfast Bowl ... Reviews for: Photos of Ambers Awesome Egg Breakfast Bowl. Reviews: Most Helpful ...
Merle Corey escapes from prison into Amber, a world of wonders and confusions where ... ... Blood of Amber. [Roger Zelazny; Linda Burr] -- Merle Corey, hero of Trumps of Doom (1985), escapes from prison with the help of ... Amber (Imaginary place)--Fiction. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Amber (Imaginary place)--Fiction"@en ;. .. ... schema:name "Amber novels." ;. .. amber_imaginary_place_fiction> ...
Amber pieces can be reworked and redeposited in younger deposits; therefore, dating amber is sometimes controversial. The amber ... The amber also contains some shell sand.. Of the many thousands of specimens of Burmese amber studied, only one ammonite is ... Burmese amber (from northern Myanmar) contains the most diverse biota of all known Cretaceous ambers (13, 14). Over the last ... The amber piece (BA18100) is deposited in the Lingpoge Amber Museum in Shanghai. Photographs were taken using a Zeiss AXIO Zoom ...
The entire nation has been gripped by abduction stories this summer, and weve heard of the Amber Alert system to get radio ...

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