RNA, Transfer, Tyr
RNA, Transfer, Gln
Genetic Complementation Test
Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases
RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl
RNA, Transfer, Amino Acid-Specific
RNA, Transfer, Ser
RNA, Transfer, Glu
Peptide Chain Termination, Translational
Molecular Sequence Data
RNA, Transfer, Trp
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Hepatitis Delta Virus
Viral Tail Proteins
Amino Acid Sequence
DNA Restriction Enzymes
RNA, Transfer, Asp
Bacteriophage phi X 174
RNA, Transfer, Leu
Centrifugation, Density Gradient
RNA, Transfer, Met
Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational
DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Viral Plaque Assay
Open Reading Frames
Simian virus 40
DNA Transposable Elements
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
Protein Structure, Secondary
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular
DNA Polymerase I
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Spirochete and protist symbionts of a termite (Mastotermes electrodominicus) in Miocene amber. (1/41)Extraordinary preservation in amber of the Miocene termite Mastotermes electrodominicus has led to the discovery of fossil symbiotic microbes. Spirochete bacteria and wood-digesting protists were identified in the intestinal tissue of the insect. Fossil wood (xylem: developing vessel-element cells, fibers, pit connections), protists (most likely xylophagic amitochondriates), an endospore (probably of the filamentous intestinal bacterium Arthromitus = Bacillus), and large spirochetes were seen in thin section by light and transmission electron microscopy. The intestinal microbiota of the living termite Mastotermes darwiniensis, a genus now restricted to northern Australia, markedly resembles that preserved in amber. This is a direct observation of a 20-million-year-old xylophagus termite fossil microbial community. (+info)
Description of Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) Falcaorum sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), a fossil sand fly from dominican amber. (2/41)A new species of sand fly, Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) falcaorum is described from an amber originated from the northern mountain range of Dominican Republic. The male sand fly specimen is well preserved and most features used in Phlebotominae taxonomy are seen with remarkable clarity. (+info)
Extinction and biogeography in the Caribbean: new evidence from a fossil riodinid butterfly in Dominican amber. (3/41)We describe a new species of extinct riodinid butterfly, Voltinia dramba, from Oligo-Miocene Dominican amber (15-25 Myr ago). This appears to be the first butterfly to be taxonomically described from amber, and the first adult riodinid fossil. The series of five specimens represents probably the best-preserved fossil record for any lepidopteran. The phenomenon of extant Voltinia females ovipositing on arboreal epiphytes probably explains the discovery of multiple female V. dramba specimens in amber. Voltinia dramba appears to be one of many extinct butterfly species on Hispaniola. The northwestern Mexican distribution of the explicitly hypothesized sister species, the extant V. danforthi, supports the hypothesis that V. dramba reached Hispaniola by the 'proto-Greater Antillean arc', dating the divergence of V. dramba and V. danforthi to 40-50 Myr ago. This date is contemporaneous with the oldest known butterfly fossils, and implies a more ancient date of origin for many of the higher-level butterfly taxa than is often conceded. (+info)
Ancient genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/41)Amber is a plant resin mainly produced by coniferous trees that, after entrapping a variety of living beings, was subjected to a process of fossilization until it turned into yellowish, translucent stones. It is also one of the best sources of ancient DNA on which to perform studies on evolution. Here a method for the sterilization of amber that allows reliable ancient DNA extraction with no actual DNA contamination is described. Working with insects taken from amber, it was possible to amplify the ATP9, PGU1 and rRNA18S ancient genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae corresponding to samples from the Miocene and Oligocene. After comparison of the current genes with their ancient (up to 35-40 million years) counterparts it was concluded that essential genes such as rRNA18S are highly conserved and that even normal 'house-keeping' genes, such as PGU1, are strikingly conserved along the millions of years that S. cerevisiae has evolved. (+info)
Cellular fine structures and histochemical reactions in the tissue of a cypress twig preserved in Baltic amber. (5/41)A twig of a cypress plant preserved for ca. 45 Myr in Baltic amber was analysed by light and electron microscopy. Cross-sections of the whole plant showed an almost intact tissue of the entire stem and leaves, revealing, to our knowledge, the oldest and most highly preserved tissue from an amber inclusion reported so far. The preparations are based on a new technique of internal imbedding, whereby the hollow spaces within the inclusion are filled with synthetic resin which stabilizes the cellular structures during the sectioning procedure. Cytological stains applied to the sections reacted with cell walls and nuclei. A strong green auto-fluorescence of the cuticle and the resin canals in the leaves was observed. Transmission electron micrographs revealed highly preserved fine structures of cell walls, membranes and organelles. The results were compared with taxonomically related recent Glyptostrobus and Juniperus plants. (+info)
First identifiable Mesozoic harvestman (Opiliones: Dyspnoi) from Cretaceous Burmese amber. (6/41)Two inclusions in a piece of Upper Cretaceous (Albian) Burmese amber from Myanmar are described as a harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones), Halitherses grimaldii new genus and species. The first Mesozoic harvestman to be named can be referred to the suborder Dyspnoi for the following reasons: prosoma divided into two regions, the posterior formed by the fusion of the meso- and metapeltidium; palp lacking a terminal claw, with clavate setae, and tarsus considerably shorter than the tibia. The bilobed, anteriorly projecting ocular tubercle is reminiscent of that of ortholasmatine nemastomatids. The status of other Mesozoic fossils referred to Opiliones is briefly reviewed. (+info)
Early Cretaceous spider web with its prey. (7/41)The orb web is a spectacular evolutionary innovation that enables spiders to catch flying prey. This elegant, geometric structure is woven with silk fibers that are renowned for their superior mechanical properties. We used silk gland expression libraries to address a long-standing controversy concerning the evolution of the orb-web architecture. Contrary to the view that the orb-web design evolved multiple times, we found that the distribution and phylogeny of silk proteins support a single, ancient origin of the orb web at least 136 million years ago. Furthermore, we substantially expanded the repository of silk sequences that can be used for the synthesis of high-performance biomaterials. (+info)
Amber from western Amazonia reveals Neotropical diversity during the middle Miocene. (8/41)Tertiary insects and arachnids have been virtually unknown from the vast western Amazonian basin. We report here the discovery of amber from this region containing a diverse fossil arthropod fauna (13 hexapod families and 3 arachnid species) and abundant microfossil inclusions (pollen, spores, algae, and cyanophyceae). This unique fossil assemblage, recovered from middle Miocene deposits of northeastern Peru, greatly increases the known diversity of Cenozoic tropical-equatorial arthropods and microorganisms and provides insights into the biogeography and evolutionary history of modern Neotropical biota. It also strengthens evidence for the presence of more modern, high-diversity tropical rainforest ecosystems during the middle Miocene in western Amazonia. (+info)
RNA, Transfer, Tyr refers to a specific type of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that carries the amino acid tyrosine (Tyr) during protein synthesis. Transfer RNAs are small RNA molecules that play a crucial role in the process of translation, which is the process by which the genetic information encoded in messenger RNA (mRNA) is used to synthesize proteins. Each tRNA molecule has a specific sequence of nucleotides that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific codon on the mRNA molecule. The codon is a sequence of three nucleotides that corresponds to a specific amino acid. In the case of RNA, Transfer, Tyr, it binds to the codon UAC, which codes for the amino acid tyrosine. During translation, the tRNA molecule carrying the tyrosine amino acid binds to the mRNA molecule at the corresponding codon, and the ribosome then catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond between the tyrosine and the growing polypeptide chain. This process continues until the ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mRNA molecule, at which point the newly synthesized protein is released. Overall, RNA, Transfer, Tyr is an essential component of the process of protein synthesis, and its proper functioning is critical for the production of functional proteins in cells.
In the medical field, a "Codon, Terminator" refers to a specific type of codon that signals the end of protein synthesis during translation. This codon is also known as a "stop codon" or "nonsense codon." There are three stop codons in the genetic code: UAA, UAG, and UGA. When a ribosome encounters a stop codon during translation, it releases the newly synthesized protein from the ribosome and halts protein synthesis. This is an important mechanism for regulating gene expression and preventing the production of abnormal or truncated proteins.
RNA, Transfer (tRNA) is a type of ribonucleic acid (RNA) that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. It acts as an adapter molecule that carries specific amino acids to the ribosome, where they are assembled into proteins. Each tRNA molecule has a specific sequence of nucleotides that corresponds to a particular amino acid. The sequence of nucleotides is called the anticodon, and it is complementary to the codon on the messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule that specifies the amino acid. During protein synthesis, the ribosome reads the codons on the mRNA molecule and matches them with the appropriate tRNA molecules carrying the corresponding amino acids. The tRNA molecules then transfer the amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain, which is assembled into a protein. In summary, tRNA is a critical component of the protein synthesis machinery and plays a vital role in translating the genetic information stored in DNA into functional proteins.
In the medical field, "amber" is not a commonly used term. However, there are a few possible meanings of "amber" in medical contexts: 1. Amber teething necklaces: These are necklaces made of Baltic amber that are believed to help relieve teething pain in babies. However, there is no scientific evidence to support this claim, and the American Academy of Pediatrics advises against using them. 2. Amber alert: An amber alert is a system used in the United States to quickly disseminate information about a child who has been abducted. The system is named after the amber-colored stickers that are placed on the child's car seat or on the dashboard of the vehicle. 3. Amber glass: Amber glass is a type of glass that is colored a warm, yellowish-brown color. It is often used in medical devices and equipment, as well as in laboratory equipment, because it blocks out harmful ultraviolet (UV) light. Overall, "amber" is not a commonly used term in the medical field, but it can have a few specific meanings in certain contexts.
In the medical field, a codon is a sequence of three nucleotides (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, or uracil) that codes for a specific amino acid in a protein. There are 64 possible codons, and each one corresponds to one of the 20 amino acids used to build proteins. The sequence of codons in a gene determines the sequence of amino acids in the resulting protein, which ultimately determines the protein's structure and function. Mutations in a gene can change the codon sequence, which can lead to changes in the amino acid sequence and potentially affect the function of the protein.
RNA, Transfer, Gln refers to a specific type of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that carries the amino acid glutamine (Gln) to the ribosome during protein synthesis. Transfer RNAs are small RNA molecules that recognize specific codons on messenger RNA (mRNA) and bring the corresponding amino acid to the ribosome for assembly into a protein. The Gln tRNA molecule has an anticodon that is complementary to the codon for glutamine on the mRNA, allowing it to recognize and bind to the correct codon. RNA, Transfer, Gln plays a critical role in the process of protein synthesis, ensuring that the correct amino acids are incorporated into the growing protein chain.
In the medical field, an anticodon is a three-nucleotide sequence of RNA that is complementary to a specific codon on a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule. The codon is a sequence of three nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid during protein synthesis. During translation, the ribosome reads the mRNA sequence and matches it to the corresponding tRNA molecule, which carries the appropriate amino acid. The tRNA molecule has an anticodon that is complementary to the codon on the mRNA. When the ribosome encounters a codon on the mRNA, it binds to the tRNA molecule with the complementary anticodon, bringing the appropriate amino acid to the ribosome for incorporation into the growing polypeptide chain. Anticodons play a crucial role in protein synthesis and are essential for the accurate translation of genetic information from DNA to protein. Mutations in the anticodon sequence can lead to errors in protein synthesis and may contribute to the development of genetic disorders.
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are enzymes that play a crucial role in protein synthesis. They are responsible for attaching the correct amino acid to its corresponding transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule, which is then used to synthesize proteins. There are 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each of the 20 different amino acids used in protein synthesis. Each enzyme is specific to a particular amino acid and recognizes its corresponding tRNA molecule through complementary base pairing. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are essential for the proper functioning of cells and are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including growth, development, and repair. Mutations in these enzymes can lead to genetic disorders and diseases, such as certain forms of muscular dystrophy and neurodegenerative disorders.
RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl refers to a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. It is also known as tRNA (transfer RNA) or aminoacyl-tRNA. tRNA molecules are responsible for bringing the correct amino acid to the ribosome during protein synthesis. Each tRNA molecule has a specific sequence of nucleotides that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific amino acid. The amino acid is then attached to the tRNA molecule through a process called aminoacylation, which involves the transfer of an amino acid from an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme to the tRNA molecule. During protein synthesis, the ribosome reads the sequence of codons on the messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matches each codon with the corresponding tRNA molecule carrying the correct amino acid. The ribosome then links the amino acids together to form a polypeptide chain, which eventually folds into a functional protein. In summary, RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl refers to the tRNA molecules that play a critical role in protein synthesis by bringing the correct amino acids to the ribosome.
RNA, Transfer, Amino Acid-Specific (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. It is responsible for bringing the correct amino acid to the ribosome during the process of translation, where the genetic information in messenger RNA (mRNA) is used to synthesize proteins. Each tRNA molecule has a specific sequence of nucleotides that corresponds to a particular amino acid. The amino acid is attached to the tRNA molecule through a process called aminoacylation, which involves the transfer of the amino acid from an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme to the tRNA molecule. During translation, the ribosome reads the sequence of codons on the mRNA molecule and matches each codon with the corresponding tRNA molecule carrying the correct amino acid. The tRNA molecule then transfers the amino acid to the growing polypeptide chain, which is synthesized on the ribosome. In summary, tRNA molecules are essential for the accurate synthesis of proteins, as they ensure that the correct amino acids are added to the growing polypeptide chain.
RNA, Transfer, Ser (also known as tRNA Ser) is a type of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. It is responsible for bringing the amino acid serine to the ribosome during the process of translation, where the genetic information in messenger RNA (mRNA) is used to synthesize proteins. tRNA Ser molecules are composed of a small RNA chain that folds into a specific three-dimensional structure, which allows it to recognize and bind to the corresponding codon on the mRNA molecule. The amino acid serine is then attached to the tRNA Ser molecule, and the complex moves to the ribosome, where the amino acid is added to the growing protein chain. In summary, RNA, Transfer, Ser is a type of tRNA molecule that plays a critical role in protein synthesis by bringing the amino acid serine to the ribosome during translation.
RNA, Transfer, Glu refers to a specific type of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that carries the amino acid glutamic acid (Glu) during protein synthesis in cells. Transfer RNAs are small RNA molecules that recognize specific sequences of messenger RNA (mRNA) and bring the corresponding amino acid to the ribosome, where it is incorporated into a growing polypeptide chain. RNA, Transfer, Glu is one of the 20 different types of tRNA molecules that are involved in protein synthesis in cells. Each tRNA molecule is specific to a particular amino acid and has a unique sequence of nucleotides that allows it to recognize and bind to the corresponding sequence of mRNA. The process of protein synthesis involves the coordinated action of many different types of RNA molecules, including mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), as well as various enzymes and other proteins.
RNA, Transfer, Trp (also known as tRNA-Trp) is a type of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that is responsible for carrying the amino acid tryptophan (Trp) to the ribosome during protein synthesis. In the process of translation, the ribosome reads the genetic code from messenger RNA (mRNA) and uses it to assemble a chain of amino acids to form a protein. Each amino acid is brought to the ribosome by a specific tRNA molecule, which recognizes the codon (a sequence of three nucleotides) on the mRNA that corresponds to that amino acid. tRNA-Trp is one of the 20 different types of tRNA molecules found in cells, and it plays a crucial role in ensuring that the correct amino acid is added to the growing protein chain. The tRNA-Trp molecule has an anticodon sequence that is complementary to the codon for Trp on the mRNA, allowing it to recognize and bind to that specific codon. Once bound, the tRNA-Trp molecule releases the Trp amino acid, which is then added to the growing protein chain by the ribosome.
Bromouracil is a medication that is used to treat certain types of cancer, including leukemia and lymphoma. It works by interfering with the production of DNA and RNA, which are essential for the growth and reproduction of cancer cells. Bromouracil is usually given as a pill or a liquid, and it is usually taken in combination with other medications. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and a decrease in the number of white blood cells.
In the medical field, "DNA, Viral" refers to the genetic material of viruses, which is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Viruses are infectious agents that can only replicate inside living cells of organisms, including humans. The genetic material of viruses is different from that of cells, as viruses do not have a cellular structure and cannot carry out metabolic processes on their own. Instead, they rely on the host cell's machinery to replicate and produce new viral particles. Understanding the genetic material of viruses is important for developing treatments and vaccines against viral infections. By studying the DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid) of viruses, researchers can identify potential targets for antiviral drugs and design vaccines that stimulate the immune system to recognize and fight off viral infections.
In the medical field, a "nonsense codon" is a specific type of genetic code that signals the termination of protein synthesis. Nonsense codons are also known as "stop codons" because they indicate the end of the reading frame for a particular gene. During protein synthesis, the ribosome reads the genetic code in the form of messenger RNA (mRNA) and uses it to build a chain of amino acids that will eventually form a protein. Each three-letter sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA corresponds to a specific amino acid, and the ribosome reads these codons in order to build the protein. However, if a nonsense codon is encountered, the ribosome stops the process of protein synthesis and releases the partially completed protein. This can occur for a variety of reasons, including genetic mutations that change the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA, or errors during transcription or translation. Nonsense codons can have a significant impact on the function of a protein, as they can lead to the production of truncated or non-functional proteins. In some cases, the presence of nonsense codons can also trigger a cellular response that leads to the degradation of the affected mRNA or the activation of other genes that help to compensate for the loss of function.
Nitrosoguanidines are a class of chemotherapy drugs that are used to treat various types of cancer. They work by interfering with the process of cell division, which is necessary for the growth and spread of cancer cells. Nitrosoguanidines are often used to treat leukemia, a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. They are usually given by injection into a vein or muscle. Nitrosoguanidines can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection.
Viral proteins are proteins that are synthesized by viruses during their replication cycle within a host cell. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including attachment to host cells, entry into the cell, replication of the viral genome, assembly of new viral particles, and release of the virus from the host cell. Viral proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, non-structural proteins, and regulatory proteins. Structural proteins are the building blocks of the viral particle, such as capsid proteins that form the viral coat. Non-structural proteins are proteins that are not part of the viral particle but are essential for viral replication, such as proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual proteins. Regulatory proteins are proteins that control the expression of viral genes or the activity of viral enzymes. Viral proteins are important targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines, as they are essential for viral replication and survival. Understanding the structure and function of viral proteins is crucial for the development of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines.
Tyrosine-tRNA ligase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. It is responsible for attaching the amino acid tyrosine to its corresponding transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule, which is then used as a building block to synthesize proteins. In the medical field, tyrosine-tRNA ligase is important because it is involved in the production of many proteins that are essential for normal cellular function. Mutations in the gene that encodes this enzyme can lead to genetic disorders such as tyrosinemia type 1, a rare inherited metabolic disorder that can cause liver damage and other serious health problems. In addition, tyrosine-tRNA ligase is also a target for certain types of cancer therapy. Some drugs work by inhibiting the activity of this enzyme, which can disrupt the production of proteins that are important for cancer cell growth and survival.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
Monoiodotyrosine (MIT) is a thyroid hormone intermediate that is produced when the thyroid gland converts the amino acid tyrosine into thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). MIT is a precursor to T3 and is formed when one iodine atom is added to the tyrosine molecule. MIT is also used as a diagnostic tool in the medical field to measure the activity of the thyroid gland. A high level of MIT in the blood can indicate an overactive thyroid gland, while a low level can indicate an underactive thyroid gland. Additionally, MIT is used as a treatment for certain thyroid disorders, such as hyperthyroidism, by blocking the production of thyroid hormones in the gland.
Viral tail proteins are a type of protein found on the surface of certain viruses. These proteins are involved in the attachment and entry of the virus into host cells. They are often referred to as "tail fibers" because of their shape and function. Viral tail proteins are typically long, thin structures that extend from the viral envelope or capsid. They are composed of a protein core and a carbohydrate coat, which allows them to recognize and bind to specific receptors on the surface of host cells. Once bound, the viral tail proteins help to facilitate the fusion of the viral envelope or capsid with the host cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter the cell. Viral tail proteins are important for the pathogenesis of many viruses, including HIV, hepatitis B virus, and herpes simplex virus. They are also the target of many antiviral drugs and vaccines.
In the medical field, "Resins, Plant" typically refers to a group of natural substances that are extracted from plants and have a variety of medicinal properties. These resins are often used in traditional medicine to treat a range of conditions, including pain, inflammation, and infection. Some examples of plant resins that are commonly used in medicine include: 1. Frankincense: A resin that is extracted from the Boswellia tree and has been used for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, digestive issues, and respiratory problems. 2. Myrrh: A resin that is extracted from the Commiphora tree and has been used for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, including gum disease, digestive issues, and respiratory problems. 3. Copaiba: A resin that is extracted from the Copaifera tree and has been used for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, including pain, inflammation, and infection. 4. Pistacia: A resin that is extracted from the Pistacia tree and has been used for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, including respiratory problems, digestive issues, and skin conditions. Plant resins are often used in combination with other herbs and natural substances to create traditional remedies and herbal supplements. However, it is important to note that the use of plant resins in medicine should always be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.
Dimethylamines are a class of organic compounds that contain two methyl groups attached to a nitrogen atom. They are commonly used in the medical field as medications and as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. Some examples of dimethylamines that are used in medicine include trimethylamine, which is used to treat high blood pressure, and dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which is used as a psychedelic drug. Dimethylamines can also be found naturally in the human body and in various plants and animals. They are known to have a number of pharmacological effects, including vasodilation, bronchodilation, and central nervous system stimulation.
Amino acids are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. They are composed of an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), and a side chain (R group) that varies in size and structure. There are 20 different amino acids that are commonly found in proteins, each with a unique side chain that gives it distinct chemical and physical properties. In the medical field, amino acids are important for a variety of functions, including the synthesis of proteins, enzymes, and hormones. They are also involved in energy metabolism and the maintenance of healthy tissues. Deficiencies in certain amino acids can lead to a range of health problems, including muscle wasting, anemia, and neurological disorders. In some cases, amino acids may be prescribed as supplements to help treat these conditions or to support overall health and wellness.
DNA restriction enzymes are a class of enzymes that are naturally produced by bacteria and archaea to protect their DNA from foreign invaders. These enzymes recognize specific sequences of DNA and cut the strands at specific points, creating a double-stranded break. This allows the bacteria or archaea to destroy the foreign DNA and prevent it from replicating within their cells. In the medical field, DNA restriction enzymes are commonly used in molecular biology techniques such as DNA cloning, genetic engineering, and DNA fingerprinting. They are also used in the diagnosis and treatment of genetic diseases, as well as in the study of viral infections and cancer. By cutting DNA at specific sites, researchers can manipulate and analyze the genetic material to gain insights into the function and regulation of genes, and to develop new therapies for genetic diseases.
RNA, Transfer, Asp refers to a specific type of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that carries the amino acid aspartic acid (Asp) during protein synthesis in cells. Transfer RNAs are small RNA molecules that recognize specific codons on messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules and bring the corresponding amino acids to the ribosome for assembly into proteins. The tRNA molecule for Asp contains a specific sequence of nucleotides that allows it to recognize and bind to the codon for Asp on the mRNA molecule. This process is essential for the proper translation of genetic information from mRNA into functional proteins.
RNA, Transfer, Leu (also known as tRNA-Leu) is a type of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis in cells. tRNA molecules are responsible for bringing amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis. Each tRNA molecule has a specific sequence of nucleotides that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific amino acid. RNA, Transfer, Leu specifically carries the amino acid leucine (Leu) to the ribosome during protein synthesis. The sequence of nucleotides in the tRNA molecule that allows it to recognize and bind to leucine is called the anticodon. In the medical field, mutations or abnormalities in the RNA, Transfer, Leu molecule can lead to genetic disorders such as thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA), which is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT). This enzyme is necessary for the metabolism of certain medications, including thiopurine drugs used to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases. A deficiency in TPMT can lead to toxic levels of these medications in the body, causing symptoms such as anemia, liver damage, and bone marrow suppression.
Streptomycin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to produce proteins, which are essential for their survival. Streptomycin is typically administered intramuscularly or intravenously, and it is usually given in combination with other antibiotics to increase its effectiveness and reduce the risk of resistance. It is important to note that streptomycin can cause side effects, including hearing loss, kidney damage, and allergic reactions, and it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
RNA, Viral refers to the genetic material of viruses that are composed of RNA instead of DNA. Viral RNA is typically single-stranded and can be either positive-sense or negative-sense. Positive-sense RNA viruses can be directly translated into proteins by the host cell's ribosomes, while negative-sense RNA viruses require a complementary positive-sense RNA intermediate before protein synthesis can occur. Viral RNA is often encapsidated within a viral capsid and can be further protected by an envelope made of lipids and proteins derived from the host cell. RNA viruses include a wide range of pathogens that can cause diseases in humans and other organisms, such as influenza, hepatitis C, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for COVID-19).
Glutamine is an amino acid that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes in the body. It is one of the most abundant amino acids in the human body and is involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Energy production: Glutamine is a major source of fuel for cells in the body, particularly in the muscles and immune system. 2. Protein synthesis: Glutamine is a key building block for proteins and is essential for the growth and repair of tissues. 3. Immune function: Glutamine plays a critical role in the function of the immune system, particularly in the production of white blood cells. 4. Gut health: Glutamine is important for maintaining the health of the gut lining and preventing damage to the gut. In the medical field, glutamine is often used as a supplement to support various health conditions, including: 1. Wound healing: Glutamine has been shown to promote wound healing and reduce the risk of infection. 2. Cancer treatment: Glutamine supplementation may help to reduce the side effects of cancer treatment, such as fatigue and muscle wasting. 3. Immune system support: Glutamine supplementation may help to boost the immune system and reduce the risk of infections. 4. Digestive disorders: Glutamine may be helpful in treating digestive disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Overall, glutamine is an important nutrient that plays a crucial role in many physiological processes in the body and may be beneficial in supporting various health conditions.
Cytochromes c1 are a group of electron transport chain proteins that are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane. They are involved in the transfer of electrons from complex III to complex IV in the electron transport chain, which is a series of protein complexes that are responsible for generating ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from the energy produced by cellular respiration. In the medical field, cytochromes c1 are of interest because they play a critical role in the production of energy within cells, and disruptions in their function can lead to a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.
DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.
RNA, Transfer, Met is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in the process of protein synthesis in cells. It is also known as tRNA (transfer RNA) or Met-tRNA (methionine-tRNA). tRNA molecules are responsible for bringing amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis. Each tRNA molecule has a specific sequence of nucleotides that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific amino acid. The sequence of nucleotides on the tRNA molecule that binds to a specific amino acid is called the anticodon. Met-tRNA is a specific type of tRNA that carries the amino acid methionine. Methionine is the first amino acid used to start the synthesis of a protein, and it is therefore essential for the proper functioning of cells. In the medical field, the study of RNA, Transfer, Met is important for understanding the process of protein synthesis and how it can go awry in diseases such as cancer. Additionally, tRNA molecules have been targeted for the development of new drugs and therapies for various diseases.
RNA, Bacterial refers to the ribonucleic acid molecules that are produced by bacteria. These molecules play a crucial role in the functioning of bacterial cells, including the synthesis of proteins, the regulation of gene expression, and the metabolism of nutrients. Bacterial RNA can be classified into several types, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which all have specific functions within the bacterial cell. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is important for the development of new antibiotics and other treatments for bacterial infections.
2-Aminopurine is a nucleobase that is structurally similar to adenine, but with an amino group (-NH2) replacing the hydrogen atom at the 2-position of the pyrimidine ring. It is not a naturally occurring nucleobase in DNA or RNA, but it can be incorporated into nucleic acids by chemical modification or enzymatic incorporation. In the medical field, 2-aminopurine has been used as a fluorescent probe for studying DNA and RNA structure and dynamics. It can also be used as a substitute for adenine in DNA synthesis, which can be useful for studying the effects of different nucleobases on DNA replication and repair. Additionally, 2-aminopurine has been used as a mutagen in genetic studies, as it can cause mutations when incorporated into DNA during replication.
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with the atomic number 3 and the symbol T. It is a beta emitter with a half-life of approximately 12.3 years. In the medical field, tritium is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Medical imaging: Tritium is used in nuclear medicine to label molecules and track their movement within the body. For example, tritium can be used to label antibodies, which can then be injected into the body to track the movement of specific cells or tissues. 2. Radiation therapy: Tritium is used in radiation therapy to treat certain types of cancer. It is typically combined with other isotopes, such as carbon-14 or phosphorus-32, to create a radioactive tracer that can be injected into the body and targeted to specific areas of cancerous tissue. 3. Research: Tritium is also used in research to study the behavior of molecules and cells. For example, tritium can be used to label DNA, which can then be used to study the process of DNA replication and repair. It is important to note that tritium is a highly radioactive isotope and requires careful handling to minimize the risk of exposure to radiation.
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, typhoid fever, and urinary tract infections. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria in the body. Chloramphenicol is available in both oral and injectable forms and is typically prescribed by a healthcare provider. It is important to note that chloramphenicol may not be effective against all types of bacteria and can cause serious side effects, including bone marrow suppression and allergic reactions. Therefore, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider.
In the medical field, carbon isotopes are atoms of carbon that have a different number of neutrons than the most common isotope, carbon-12. There are two stable isotopes of carbon, carbon-12 and carbon-13, and several unstable isotopes that are used in medical applications. Carbon-13, in particular, is used in medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and positron emission tomography (PET). In MRS, carbon-13 is used to study the metabolism of certain compounds in the body, such as glucose and amino acids. In PET, carbon-13 is used to create images of the body's metabolism by tracing the movement of a radioactive tracer through the body. Carbon-11, another unstable isotope of carbon, is used in PET imaging to study various diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and heart disease. Carbon-11 is produced in a cyclotron and then attached to a molecule that is specific to a particular target in the body. The tracer is then injected into the patient and imaged using a PET scanner to detect the location and extent of the disease. Overall, carbon isotopes play an important role in medical imaging and research, allowing doctors and researchers to better understand the functioning of the body and diagnose and treat various diseases.
Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid that is required for the production of proteins in the body. It is one of the building blocks of the protein called tyrosine, which is important for the production of hormones, neurotransmitters, and other important molecules in the body. Phenylalanine is also used in the production of certain neurotransmitters, including dopamine and norepinephrine, which play important roles in regulating mood, motivation, and other aspects of brain function. In the medical field, phenylalanine is often used as a dietary supplement to help individuals with certain medical conditions, such as phenylketonuria (PKU), which is a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of phenylalanine. In PKU, the body is unable to properly break down phenylalanine, which can lead to a buildup of the amino acid in the blood and brain, causing damage to the brain and other organs. Phenylalanine is also used in some medications, such as certain antidepressants, to help regulate the production of neurotransmitters in the brain. However, it is important to note that phenylalanine can interact with other medications and may not be safe for everyone to take, so it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements or medications containing phenylalanine.
Methyltransferases are a group of enzymes that transfer a methyl group (a carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms) from one molecule to another. In the medical field, methyltransferases play important roles in various biological processes, including DNA methylation, RNA methylation, and protein methylation. DNA methylation is a process in which a methyl group is added to the cytosine base of DNA, which can affect gene expression. Methyltransferases that are involved in DNA methylation are called DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Abnormalities in DNA methylation have been linked to various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and developmental disorders. RNA methylation is a process in which a methyl group is added to the ribose sugar or the nitrogenous base of RNA. Methyltransferases that are involved in RNA methylation are called RNA methyltransferases (RNMTs). RNA methylation can affect the stability, localization, and translation of RNA molecules. Protein methylation is a process in which a methyl group is added to the amino acid residues of proteins. Methyltransferases that are involved in protein methylation are called protein methyltransferases (PMTs). Protein methylation can affect protein-protein interactions, protein stability, and protein function. Overall, methyltransferases play important roles in regulating gene expression, RNA stability, and protein function, and their dysfunction can contribute to the development of various diseases.
Lysine is an essential amino acid that is required for the growth and maintenance of tissues in the human body. It is one of the nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. Lysine plays a crucial role in the production of proteins, including enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. It is also involved in the absorption of calcium and the production of niacin, a B vitamin that is important for energy metabolism and the prevention of pellagra. In the medical field, lysine is used to treat and prevent various conditions, including: 1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): Lysine supplements have been shown to reduce the frequency and severity of outbreaks of HSV-1 and HSV-2, which cause cold sores and genital herpes, respectively. 2. Cold sores: Lysine supplements can help reduce the frequency and severity of cold sore outbreaks by inhibiting the replication of the herpes simplex virus. 3. Depression: Lysine has been shown to increase levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, in the brain. 4. Hair loss: Lysine is important for the production of hair, and deficiency in lysine has been linked to hair loss. 5. Wound healing: Lysine is involved in the production of collagen, a protein that is important for wound healing. Overall, lysine is an important nutrient that plays a crucial role in many aspects of human health and is used in the treatment and prevention of various medical conditions.
Archaeal proteins are proteins that are encoded by the genes of archaea, a group of single-celled microorganisms that are distinct from bacteria and eukaryotes. Archaeal proteins are characterized by their unique amino acid sequences and structures, which have been the subject of extensive research in the field of biochemistry and molecular biology. In the medical field, archaeal proteins have been studied for their potential applications in various areas, including drug discovery, biotechnology, and medical diagnostics. For example, archaeal enzymes have been used as biocatalysts in the production of biofuels and other valuable chemicals, and archaeal proteins have been explored as potential targets for the development of new antibiotics and other therapeutic agents. In addition, archaeal proteins have been used as diagnostic markers for various diseases, including cancer and infectious diseases. For example, certain archaeal proteins have been found to be overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and they have been proposed as potential biomarkers for the early detection and diagnosis of these diseases. Overall, archaeal proteins represent a rich source of novel biological molecules with potential applications in a wide range of fields, including medicine.
Thymine is a nitrogenous base that is one of the four nucleobases found in DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine base, meaning it has a six-membered ring structure with two nitrogen atoms and four carbon atoms. Thymine is essential for the proper functioning of DNA and RNA, as it is involved in the storage and transmission of genetic information. In the medical field, thymine is often studied in the context of DNA replication and repair, as well as in the development of antiviral and anticancer drugs.
In the medical field, "DNA, Recombinant" refers to a type of DNA that has been artificially synthesized or modified to contain specific genes or genetic sequences. This is achieved through a process called genetic engineering, which involves inserting foreign DNA into a host organism's genome. Recombinant DNA technology has revolutionized the field of medicine, allowing scientists to create new drugs, vaccines, and other therapeutic agents. For example, recombinant DNA technology has been used to create insulin for the treatment of diabetes, human growth hormone for the treatment of growth disorders, and vaccines for a variety of infectious diseases. Recombinant DNA technology also has important applications in basic research, allowing scientists to study the function of specific genes and genetic sequences, and to investigate the mechanisms of diseases.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a type of bacteria that is commonly found in the human gut. E. coli proteins are proteins that are produced by E. coli bacteria. These proteins can have a variety of functions, including helping the bacteria to survive and thrive in the gut, as well as potentially causing illness in humans. In the medical field, E. coli proteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new treatments for bacterial infections. For example, some E. coli proteins are involved in the bacteria's ability to produce toxins that can cause illness in humans, and researchers are working to develop drugs that can block the activity of these proteins in order to prevent or treat E. coli infections. E. coli proteins are also used in research to study the biology of the bacteria and to understand how it interacts with the human body. For example, researchers may use E. coli proteins as markers to track the growth and spread of the bacteria in the gut, or they may use them to study the mechanisms by which the bacteria causes illness. Overall, E. coli proteins are an important area of study in the medical field, as they can provide valuable insights into the biology of this important bacterium and may have potential applications in the treatment of bacterial infections.
DNA-directed RNA polymerases are a group of enzymes that synthesize RNA molecules from a DNA template. These enzymes are responsible for the transcription process, which is the first step in gene expression. During transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence, which can then be translated into a protein. There are several different types of DNA-directed RNA polymerases, each with its own specific function and characteristics. For example, RNA polymerase I is primarily responsible for synthesizing ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which is a key component of ribosomes. RNA polymerase II is responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA (mRNA), which carries the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes for protein synthesis. RNA polymerase III is responsible for synthesizing small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and small Cajal body RNA (scaRNA), which play important roles in gene regulation and splicing. DNA-directed RNA polymerases are essential for the proper functioning of cells and are involved in many different biological processes, including growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli. Mutations in the genes that encode these enzymes can lead to a variety of genetic disorders and diseases.
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
Transferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a functional group from one molecule to another. In the medical field, transferases are often used to study liver function and to diagnose liver diseases. There are several types of transferases, including: 1. Alanine transaminase (ALT): This enzyme is found primarily in liver cells and is released into the bloodstream when liver cells are damaged or destroyed. High levels of ALT in the blood can indicate liver damage or disease. 2. Aspartate transaminase (AST): This enzyme is also found in liver cells, but it is also present in other tissues such as the heart, muscles, and kidneys. High levels of AST in the blood can indicate liver or heart damage. 3. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH): This enzyme is found in the liver, kidneys, and other tissues. High levels of GDH in the blood can indicate liver or kidney damage. 4. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): This enzyme is found in the liver, bones, and other tissues. High levels of ALP in the blood can indicate liver or bone disease. Overall, transferases are important markers of liver function and can be used to diagnose and monitor liver diseases.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.
Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.
Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted infections. It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by blocking the synthesis of proteins that are essential for bacterial growth and reproduction. Tetracycline is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It is usually taken orally, although it can also be given intravenously in severe cases. Tetracycline is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach pain. It can also cause tooth discoloration and interfere with the development of bones in children. Tetracycline is not recommended for use in pregnant women or children under the age of eight, as it can cause permanent discoloration of the teeth and interfere with bone development. It is also not recommended for use in people with certain medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, or in those who are allergic to tetracycline or other antibiotics.
Beta-galactosidase is an enzyme that is involved in the breakdown of lactose, a disaccharide sugar found in milk and other dairy products. It is produced by the lactase enzyme in the small intestine of most mammals, including humans, to help digest lactose. In the medical field, beta-galactosidase is used as a diagnostic tool to detect lactose intolerance, a condition in which the body is unable to produce enough lactase to digest lactose properly. A lactose tolerance test involves consuming a lactose solution and then measuring the amount of beta-galactosidase activity in the blood or breath. If the activity is low, it may indicate lactose intolerance. Beta-galactosidase is also used in research and biotechnology applications, such as in the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and in the development of new drugs and therapies.
In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.
Phosphorus isotopes are different forms of the element phosphorus that have different atomic weights due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. In the medical field, phosphorus isotopes are used in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications, including: 1. Bone scans: Phosphorus-32 is used in bone scans to detect bone abnormalities, such as fractures, infections, and tumors. 2. Cancer treatment: Phosphorus-32 is also used in cancer treatment as a form of targeted radiation therapy. It is administered to cancer cells, where it emits radiation that damages the DNA of the cancer cells, leading to their death. 3. Imaging: Phosphorus-31 is used in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to image the metabolism of tissues in the body, including the brain, heart, and liver. 4. Research: Phosphorus isotopes are also used in research to study the metabolism and function of the phosphorus-containing molecules in the body, such as DNA, RNA, and ATP. Overall, phosphorus isotopes play an important role in the medical field, providing valuable diagnostic and therapeutic tools for the detection and treatment of various diseases and conditions.
Galactosidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the disaccharide galactose, which is a component of many complex carbohydrates found in plants and animals. There are several different types of galactosidases, including alpha-galactosidase, beta-galactosidase, and gamma-galactosidase, which have different specificities and functions. In the medical field, galactosidases are often used as diagnostic tools to identify specific genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of galactose. For example, alpha-galactosidase deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of galactose in the body, leading to a buildup of galactose-1-phosphate, which can cause damage to the nervous system and other organs. Treatment for alpha-galactosidase deficiency typically involves a low-galactose diet and enzyme replacement therapy with alpha-galactosidase. Galactosidases are also used in various industrial applications, such as in the production of dairy products, the purification of enzymes, and the synthesis of pharmaceuticals.
Tyrosine is an amino acid that is essential for the production of certain hormones, neurotransmitters, and other important molecules in the body. It is a non-essential amino acid, which means that it can be synthesized by the body from other amino acids or from dietary sources. In the medical field, tyrosine is often used as a dietary supplement to support the production of certain hormones and neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine and norepinephrine. These hormones play important roles in regulating mood, motivation, and other aspects of brain function. Tyrosine is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as phenylketonuria (PKU), a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of phenylalanine, another amino acid. In PKU, tyrosine supplementation can help to prevent the buildup of toxic levels of phenylalanine in the body. In addition, tyrosine has been studied for its potential benefits in the treatment of other conditions, such as depression, anxiety, and fatigue. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to determine the optimal dosage and duration of tyrosine supplementation.
Deoxyribonucleases (DNases) are enzymes that break down DNA molecules into smaller fragments. In the medical field, DNases are used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Pulmonary fibrosis: DNases are used to break down excess DNA in the lungs, which can accumulate in people with pulmonary fibrosis and contribute to the scarring of lung tissue. 2. Cystic fibrosis: DNases are used to break down excess DNA in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis, which can help to reduce the buildup of mucus and improve lung function. 3. Inflammatory bowel disease: DNases are used to break down DNA in the gut, which can help to reduce inflammation and improve symptoms in people with inflammatory bowel disease. 4. Cancer: DNases are being studied as a potential treatment for cancer, as they may be able to help to break down DNA in cancer cells and kill them. DNases are typically administered as a medication, either by inhalation or injection. They are generally considered safe and well-tolerated, although they can cause side effects such as fever, chills, and nausea.
Methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG) is a chemical compound that is classified as a mutagen and carcinogen. It is a nitrosamine that is commonly used in scientific research to study the effects of mutagens on DNA and to induce mutations in cells. In the medical field, MNNG is not used as a therapeutic agent, but it has been used in some experimental cancer treatments. However, due to its carcinogenic properties, the use of MNNG in cancer treatment is generally not recommended.
Leucine is an essential amino acid that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is one of the nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. In the medical field, leucine is often used as a dietary supplement to promote muscle growth and recovery, particularly in athletes and bodybuilders. It is also used to treat certain medical conditions, such as phenylketonuria (PKU), a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of amino acids. Leucine has been shown to have various physiological effects, including increasing protein synthesis, stimulating muscle growth, and improving insulin sensitivity. It is also involved in the regulation of gene expression and the production of neurotransmitters. However, excessive consumption of leucine can have negative effects on health, such as liver damage and increased risk of certain cancers. Therefore, it is important to consume leucine in moderation and as part of a balanced diet.
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that is required for the production of proteins in the body. It is also a precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep. In the medical field, tryptophan is often used to treat conditions such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. It is also used to help manage symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and to improve athletic performance. Tryptophan supplements are available over-the-counter, but it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking them, as they can interact with certain medications and may have side effects.
Muramidase is an enzyme that is involved in the degradation of peptidoglycan, a major component of bacterial cell walls. It is also known as lysozyme or muramidase lysozyme. The enzyme cleaves the bond between the N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid residues in the peptidoglycan chain, leading to the breakdown of the cell wall and ultimately the death of the bacterium. Muramidase is found in various organisms, including humans, and is used as an antimicrobial agent in some medications. It is also used in laboratory research to study bacterial cell wall structure and function.
Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) are short chains of DNA or RNA that are synthesized in the laboratory. They are typically used as tools in molecular biology research, as well as in therapeutic applications such as gene therapy. ODNs can be designed to bind to specific DNA or RNA sequences, and can be used to modulate gene expression or to introduce genetic changes into cells. They can also be used as primers in PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to amplify specific DNA sequences. In the medical field, ODNs are being studied for their potential use in treating a variety of diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders. For example, ODNs can be used to silence specific genes that are involved in disease progression, or to stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells.
DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons, are segments of DNA that can move or transpose from one location in the genome to another. They are found in the genomes of many organisms, including plants, animals, and bacteria. In the medical field, DNA transposable elements are of interest because they can play a role in the evolution of genomes and the development of diseases. For example, some transposable elements can cause mutations in genes, which can lead to genetic disorders or cancer. Additionally, transposable elements can contribute to the evolution of new genes and the adaptation of organisms to changing environments. Transposable elements can also be used as tools in genetic research and biotechnology. For example, scientists can use transposable elements to insert genes into cells or organisms, allowing them to study the function of those genes or to create genetically modified organisms for various purposes.
Thymidine is a nucleoside that is a building block of DNA and RNA. It is composed of a deoxyribose sugar molecule and a thymine base. Thymidine is an essential component of DNA and is involved in the replication and transcription of genetic material. It is also a precursor to the synthesis of thymine triphosphate (dTTP), which is a nucleotide used in DNA and RNA synthesis. In the medical field, thymidine is used as a diagnostic tool to detect and measure the activity of certain enzymes involved in DNA synthesis, and it is also used as a component of certain antiviral drugs.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of purines, which are nitrogen-containing compounds found in DNA, RNA, and ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the energy currency of cells. In the medical field, ADA deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system and causes a type of combined immunodeficiency disease. People with ADA deficiency have a reduced ability to produce ADA, which leads to an accumulation of toxic levels of adenosine and its metabolites in their cells and tissues. This can cause damage to various organs, including the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, and can lead to recurrent infections, autoimmune disorders, and other complications. ADA deficiency is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of ADA activity in the blood and the presence of adenosine and its metabolites in the urine. Treatment for ADA deficiency typically involves enzyme replacement therapy, which involves regular infusions of ADA to replace the missing enzyme and reduce the accumulation of toxic substances in the body.
Endonucleases are a class of enzymes that cleave DNA or RNA at specific sites within the molecule. They are important in various biological processes, including DNA replication, repair, and gene expression. In the medical field, endonucleases are used in a variety of applications, such as gene therapy, where they are used to target and modify specific genes, and in the treatment of genetic disorders, where they are used to correct mutations in DNA. They are also used in molecular biology research to manipulate and analyze DNA and RNA molecules.
DNA Polymerase I is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in DNA replication in cells. It is responsible for adding nucleotides to the growing DNA strand, using the original DNA strand as a template. During DNA replication, the double-stranded DNA molecule is unwound and separated into two single strands. Each strand then serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. DNA Polymerase I is responsible for adding the correct nucleotides to the growing strand, using the template strand as a guide. DNA Polymerase I is also involved in DNA repair processes, such as the removal of damaged or incorrect nucleotides from the DNA strand. It can recognize and remove uracil residues from the DNA strand, which can occur as a result of DNA damage or errors during replication. In the medical field, DNA Polymerase I is often studied as a target for the development of new drugs and therapies for diseases such as cancer, where DNA replication and repair processes are often disrupted. Additionally, DNA Polymerase I is used as a tool in molecular biology research, such as in the construction of recombinant DNA molecules and the analysis of DNA sequences.
Histidine is an amino acid that is naturally occurring in the human body. It is a building block of proteins and is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. In the medical field, histidine is often used as a diagnostic tool to help diagnose certain medical conditions. For example, high levels of histidine in the blood can be a sign of a genetic disorder called histidinemia, which can cause a range of symptoms including intellectual disability, seizures, and liver problems. Histidine is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as acidosis, which is a condition in which the body's pH balance is disrupted.
Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase (COT) is an enzyme that is responsible for the metabolism of the antibiotic chloramphenicol. It is found in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In the medical field, COT is often studied as a potential target for the development of new antibiotics, as it plays a key role in the resistance of certain bacteria to chloramphenicol. Additionally, COT has been shown to have a number of other functions, including the detoxification of harmful compounds and the regulation of gene expression.
Ribosomal proteins are a group of proteins that are essential components of ribosomes, which are the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis. Ribosomes are composed of both ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and ribosomal proteins, and together they form the machinery that translates messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. There are over 80 different types of ribosomal proteins, each with a specific function within the ribosome. Some ribosomal proteins are located in the ribosome's core, where they help to stabilize the structure of the ribosome and facilitate the binding of mRNA and transfer RNA (tRNA). Other ribosomal proteins are located on the surface of the ribosome, where they play a role in the catalytic activity of the ribosome during protein synthesis. In the medical field, ribosomal proteins are of interest because they are involved in a number of important biological processes, including cell growth, division, and differentiation. Abnormalities in the expression or function of ribosomal proteins have been linked to a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. As such, ribosomal proteins are the subject of ongoing research in the fields of molecular biology, genetics, and medicine.
RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a type of nucleic acid that is involved in the process of protein synthesis in cells. It is composed of a chain of nucleotides, which are made up of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are three types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In the medical field, RNA is often studied as a potential target for the development of new drugs and therapies. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to silence specific genes and treat diseases such as cancer and viral infections. Additionally, RNA is being studied as a potential biomarker for various diseases, as changes in the levels or structure of certain RNA molecules can indicate the presence of a particular condition.
DNA-directed DNA polymerase, also known as DNA polymerase, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in DNA replication. It is responsible for synthesizing new DNA strands by adding nucleotides to the growing chain, using the original DNA strand as a template. In the medical field, DNA-directed DNA polymerase is often studied in the context of genetic diseases and cancer. Mutations in the genes encoding DNA polymerases can lead to errors in DNA replication, which can result in genetic disorders such as xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. Additionally, DNA polymerase is a target for some anti-cancer drugs, which work by inhibiting its activity and preventing the replication of cancer cells. Overall, DNA-directed DNA polymerase is a critical enzyme in the process of DNA replication and plays a significant role in both normal cellular function and disease.
In the medical field, the term "Cytochrome c Group" refers to a family of heme-containing proteins that are involved in electron transfer reactions in the mitochondria of cells. These proteins play a crucial role in the electron transport chain, which is responsible for generating ATP, the energy currency of the cell. Cytochrome c is a small, water-soluble protein that is released from the mitochondria during apoptosis, a programmed cell death process. The release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria is a key event in the initiation of apoptosis, and it has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Other members of the cytochrome c group include cytochrome b, cytochrome c1, and cytochrome oxidase. These proteins work together to transfer electrons from one molecule to another, ultimately leading to the reduction of oxygen to water. Any disruption in the function of these proteins can lead to a buildup of reactive oxygen species, which can damage cellular components and contribute to disease.
Recombinant fusion proteins are proteins that are produced by combining two or more genes in a single molecule. These proteins are typically created using genetic engineering techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, to insert one or more genes into a host organism, such as bacteria or yeast, which then produces the fusion protein. Fusion proteins are often used in medical research and drug development because they can have unique properties that are not present in the individual proteins that make up the fusion. For example, a fusion protein might be designed to have increased stability, improved solubility, or enhanced targeting to specific cells or tissues. Recombinant fusion proteins have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as therapeutic agents, diagnostic tools, and research reagents. Some examples of recombinant fusion proteins used in medicine include antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines.
Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.
Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.
Amber Alert Kidnap Suspect Arrested | Fox News
After Us by Amber Hart, Paperback | Barnes & Noble®
Dr Amber Jacobs - Birkbeck, University of London
Encyclopedia Articles by Amber Wolfe
Amber Alerts - Louisiana State Police
amber Archives ⋆ Ruffled
Queue for Johnny Depp and Amber Heard trial goes viral
Amber Tree is fundraising for KSAR - Kent Search and Rescue
Amber Rose Talks 'Heartache' After Wiz Khalifa Split
PriceGrabber - Perfume & Cologne, Amber, Fresh, Aftershave Perfume & Cologne
Class of 2020: Amber Scott | University of Essex
Amber L Morrighan - EMDR International Association
Amber Waves Misheard Lyrics
FIOLAX® amber | SCHOTT Tubing
Mummified, 99-Million-Year-Old Wings Caught in Amber | Live Science
Amber Lotus Publishing : Bucket three : Booksamillion.com
Amber Brown Is Not A Crayon | Bookshare
Terry Crews and Amber Tamblyn | Maximum Fun
Amber Kramer Licensed Marriage Family Therapist in
Juror Whose Wife Called Amber Heard 'Psychotic' to Serve on Depp Trial
Counseling / Amber Olson
Amber Bennett | Cognitive and Learning Sciences | Michigan Tech
Madison teen located, Amber Alert canceled
Author Talk: Designing Motherhood by Michelle Millar Fisher and Amber Winick - MIT Press
Amber Alert Suspect Faces Kidnapping Charges - NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth
Amber Heard Shows Jury Photos Of Bruises & Johnny Depp Passed Out
150,000 funding awarded to AMBER researcher - News & Events | Trinity College Dublin
Comedian Amber Ruffin answers all your questions about Juneteenth | The Week
Amber Tamblyn Joins 'Two and a Half Men' Full-Time - TheWrap
- A queue of people trying to get into the Johnny Depp and Amber Heard trial has gone viral on social media. (nme.com)
- A juror who has been selected for the Johnny Depp and Amber Heard defamation trial had a text from his wife calling the actress "psychotic. (newsweek.com)
- US actor Johnny Depp filed a defamation lawsuit against his former wife, US actress Amber Heard, after she wrote an op-ed in The Washington Post in 2018 that, without naming Depp, accused him of domestic abuse. (newsweek.com)
- Amber Heard is trying to prove that her ex Johnny Depp was abusive towards her in their relationship. (okmagazine.com)
- Launched by the design house of liz claiborne in 1996, curve is classified as a refreshing, spicy, lavender, amber fragrance. (pricegrabber.com)
- Plus poet, actor and director Amber Tamblyn tells us about her directorial debut Paint It Black. (maximumfun.org)
- Depp's multimillion-dollar defamation lawsuit against Amber Heard is getting underway today as the actor is suing his ex-wife for $50 million, alleging that she defamed him in an opinion piece that was published in the Washington Post in December 2018. (newsweek.com)
- This idea later developed into the AMBER Alert plan. (lsp.org)
- Some states have statewide plans, while other states may have AMBER Alert plans on a regional or metropolitan level, and each plan operates independently of one another. (lsp.org)
- The Louisiana AMBER Alert plan is a statewide plan which can act in conjunction with other plans if so requested. (lsp.org)
- The Louisiana AMBER Alert plan became operational in October 2002. (lsp.org)
- Various groups and organizations, both non-profit and for-profit, may claim to be soliciting funds for Louisiana AMBER Alert. (lsp.org)
- As of December 31, 2020, 1029 children were successfully located in the United States because of the AMBER Alert system. (lsp.org)
- Since the inception of the Louisiana AMBER Alert plan through June 30, 2021, there have been 19 activations for Louisiana children and six out-of-state activation requests. (lsp.org)
- If the investigating officers have reasonable grounds and evidence to believe the child was abducted, they can contact Louisiana State Police Fusion Center to request an AMBER Alert activation. (lsp.org)
- Louisiana's AMBER Alert Plan will only be activated upon authorization by the Louisiana State Police AMBER Alert Coordinator, or their designee, and only if the situation meets the criteria. (lsp.org)
- Everyone involved in the Louisiana AMBER Alert Plan is extremely serious about each and every AMBER Alert request that is submitted. (lsp.org)
- Louisiana AMBER Alert Reporting Form submittals will be accepted from a law enforcement agency only. (lsp.org)
- The AMBER Alert was canceled around 10 p.m. Friday after the 5-year-old girl was found safe in Illinois. (nbc15.com)
- WMTV) - An Amber Alert has been canceled for a Madison teen after she was located Thursday afternoon, an updated alert indicates. (nbc15.com)
- The Amber Alert was initially sent out just before noon on Thursday for a missing 17-year-old girl, who had been reported missing by her mother. (nbc15.com)
- An Amber Alert was issued for Hanna after Davis picked the child up from school and then refused to return her to her mother, police said. (nbcdfw.com)
- US actress Amber Heard leaves the Fairfax County Circuit Court in Fairfax, Virginia, on April 11, 2022. (newsweek.com)
- Jacobs, Amber (2009) The life of Metis: cunning maternal interventions . (bbk.ac.uk)
- About 99 million years ago, a hummingbird-size bird likely fought for its life after getting stuck in a glob of tree resin, but it couldn't tear itself away and eventually died, leaving its feathers to mummify in what became a lump of amber, a new study finds. (livescience.com)
- Amber Brown and Justin Daniels are best friends. (bookshare.org)
- Justin never says things like, "Amber Brown is not a crayon. (bookshare.org)
- Chlordane is a white powder or a colorless to amber/brown viscous liquid. (cdc.gov)
- Depending on the composition, the mixture may be an amber-to-brown, viscous liquid or a white powder. (cdc.gov)
- Shopping for the best deal on Perfume & Cologne, Amber, Fresh, Aftershave Perfume & Cologne - Select a product below or see other matches to read product reviews, compare prices and store ratings. (pricegrabber.com)
- Under questioning from lawyers, he read out his wife's response which was: "Amber is psychotic. (newsweek.com)
- Ultraviolet (UV) light also helped them see flow lines within the amber, indicating how the tree resin moved before it solidified, and figure out how the wings had become trapped, he said. (livescience.com)
- Aspiring diplomat Amber Scott knows the job market in the wake of coronavirus will be tougher than ever but is confident the skills she's picked up on the applied quantitative methods pathway and through her extra-curricular activities will help her get a step ahead. (essex.ac.uk)
- Lida Xing, the study's other co-leader and a lecturer at the China University of Geosciences in Beijing, discovered the specimens at an amber market in Kachin State, Myanmar, in 2015. (livescience.com)
- Amber, who is graduating with a BA International Relations with Applied Quantitative Methods , came to Essex through clearing, after turning down an offer from her reserve choice university. (essex.ac.uk)
- Like Amber Waves in his movie show. (amiright.com)
- This is the first time that feathers have been found alongside skeletal material in Mesozoic [dinosaur-age] amber," McKellar said. (livescience.com)
- This page contains all the misheard lyrics for Amber Waves that have been submitted to this site and the old collection from inthe80s started in 1996. (amiright.com)
- The researchers used ultraviolet (UV) light to map the flow lines within the amber on the Angel Wing specimen. (livescience.com)
- In January 1996, nine-year-old Amber Hagerman was abducted from her Dallas, Texas area neighborhood while she was riding her bicycle. (lsp.org)
- Another preserved wing found in the clump of amber "appears to be a severed limb that may have been torn off by a predator, or may have floated free from the rest of the corpse due to resin flows," McKellar told Live Science in an email. (livescience.com)
- Amber, who made some of her closest friends through the Essex cheerleading squad, also credits Essex's extra-curricular opportunities with helping graduates to succeed: "The wide range of activities on offer will help alumni to stand out," she said. (essex.ac.uk)
Johnny Depp and Amber Heard3
- A queue of people trying to get into the Johnny Depp and Amber Heard trial has gone viral on social media. (nme.com)
- After tying the knot in February 2015, Johnny Depp and Amber Heard have officially ended their marriage. (usmagazine.com)
- Johnny Depp and Amber Heard arrive at C restaurant for dinner after the Lone Ranger Premiere London in 2013. (usmagazine.com)
- The 12 chunks of amber, originally collected in Myanmar, contain parts of lizards that got trapped in tree resin during the Cretaceous period. (sciencenews.org)
- Amber McCarthy is a board member of Families Fighting Flu external icon (FFF) and is also an RRT-registered respiratory therapist with a health coach certification and a master's degree in health policy and management. (cdc.gov)
- Amber earned her undergraduate degree at Our Lady of the Lake University the BA in Philosophy and English and Master of Science in Public Administration at Trinity University. (nih.gov)
- However, certain social networks (Facebook and Twitter) and internet companies (Google Public Alerts, Yahoo Alerts, and Amber Alert apps) support Amber Alerts by making them available through their services, if you sign up for Amber Alerts within these services. (nih.gov)
- Prior to joining NIH Amber was a grant manager at CRDF Global who managed NIH RePORT and Fogarty Grants and World Health Organization Grants. (nih.gov)
- Sign up now for Amber Ren alerts, including news and special offers. (harpercollins.com)
- AMBER alerts enable law enforcement to act swiftly to help recover each child using guidelines provided by the Department of Justice and various state law enforcement agencies. (nih.gov)
- As of January 1, 2013, AMBER Alerts™ will now be automatically sent through the Wireless Emergency Alerts(WEA) program to millions of cell phone users. (nih.gov)
- If you have a WEA-enabled phone, you are automatically enrolled for the three alerts: President, Imminent Threat and AMBER Alerts. (nih.gov)
- The addition of AMBER Alerts to this notification system is a result of a partnership between CTIA and the wireless industry, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). (nih.gov)
- Made in collaboration with local residents and institutions, Amber City reflects on the "in-betweeness" of places whose historical and geographical location renders their reality strangely invisible. (vdb.org)
- On Monday (22 July), Athlone Institute of Technology (Athlone IT) announced that it was the first institute of technology in the country to partner with the Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) AMBER research centre. (siliconrepublic.com)
- The AMBER centre, which stands for advanced materials and bioengineering research, is headquartered in Trinity College Dublin (TCD). (siliconrepublic.com)
- In a statement, Athlone IT said: "This new partnership will foster research and education initiatives between the institute and existing AMBER members … promoting academic exchange and the development of research and innovation, particularly in the field of biomaterials for health and the circular economy - an economic system aimed at minimising waste. (siliconrepublic.com)
- The institute's work with AMBER will now facilitate research in critical and emerging sectors of the economy related to polymers for applications in the life sciences, sustainable materials and industrial manufacturing. (siliconrepublic.com)
- Dr Declan Devine, director of the Materials Research Institute at Athlone IT, added: "Partnering with the AMBER SFI research centre will further enable us to grow research in our areas of expertise … and our development of materials for biomedical applications, such as bone regeneration and biodegradable polymer stents, and structural thermoplastic composites. (siliconrepublic.com)
- Teen Mom star Amber Portwood is often at the center of controversy and this weekend it revolved around jealousy of her baby daddy's new girlfriend. (radaronline.com)
- The hand lotion boasts spicy notes of Moroccan Amber, sweet Patchouli and Bergamot, which are cooled with a refreshing dose of Eucalyptus. (dermstore.com)
- ENSHRINED Lizard remains preserved in 99-million-year-old amber provide new insight into reptilian history. (sciencenews.org)
- His date thought it was inappropriate the things Amber was saying so she called her and told her to quit trying to get him to hang out with her because he's moved on. (radaronline.com)
- Ornate gold and amber jewelry are among treasures found in an Iron Age noblewoman's grave, which was recently excavated whole. (nationalgeographic.com)
- You can find her online at www.amber-ren.com. (harpercollins.com)
- Amber was jealous to find out that Gary's been with other girls since the two of them broke up," the source said. (radaronline.com)
- The whole thing was really weird because then all of a sudden Amber flipped the switch and started trying to befriend Gary's new girl, saying they should hang out and go find guys together. (radaronline.com)
- Gary and his new girl were hanging out on Friday night and Amber was late night texting him like she always does," a source close to the situation told RadarOnline.com. (radaronline.com)
- Leah has since been returned to Amber, 20, but remains under the supervision of DCS. (radaronline.com)
- The existing members of AMBER are TCD, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, University College Cork (UCC), Dublin City University, National University of Ireland Galway, University of Limerick and Tyndall Institute. (siliconrepublic.com)
- Dr. Amber McCartney is the NINDS Alzheimer's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease Related Dementias (AD/ADRD) Project Manager. (nih.gov)
- As an Associate Scientist II, Amber C. Grant, MPH, serves as a project manager for the physical activity behavioral intervention program called Health and Energy through Active Living Every Day (HEALED). (cancer.org)
- It added that AMBER currently partners with 40 companies across the fields of ICT, medical technologies and devices, as well as sustainability and manufacturing, and will continue to "significantly scale its industry investment" during the centre's second phase. (siliconrepublic.com)
- Amber, her husband Jim, and their two children, Irelynd and Easton, are active in their Iowa community fighting flu by volunteering at Ayzlee's Family Flu Clinics, established in honor of their lost family member. (cdc.gov)