Amaranthus: A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.Betaine-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betain aldehyde to BETAINE.Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase: An enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide. It catalyzes irreversibly the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide. This fixation of carbon dioxide in several bacteria and some plants is the first step in the biosynthesis of glucose. EC Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins: N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Pacific States: The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Amaranth Dye: A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Heterophyidae: A family of intestinal flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. Some of the genera are Heterophyes, Metagonimus, Cryptocotyle, Stellantchasmus, and Euryhelmis.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Anoplura: An order of insects comprising the sucking lice, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites of mammals. Recognized families include: Echinphthiriidae, Haematopinidae, and Pediculidae. The latter contains the medically important genera affecting humans: PEDICULUS and PHTHIRUS.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)PakistanFlowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Myoepithelioma: A usually benign tumor made up predominantly of myoepithelial cells.Ovule: The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.Oleaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. The leaves are usually opposite and the flowers usually have four sepals, four petals, two stamens, and two fused carpels that form a single superior ovary.North AmericaPlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Amaranthaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.Chronobiology Phenomena: Biological systems as affected by time. Aging, biological rhythms, and cyclic phenomena are included. Statistical, computer-aided mathematical procedures are used to describe, in mathematical terminology, various biological functions over time.Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Chenopodiaceae: The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Acetolactate Synthase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.MississippiDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Annona: A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain acetogenins and benzoquinazoline and other alkaloids.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Mucilage: A type of viscous polysaccharide that is secreted from PLANTS. It has natural properties that are useful in the formulation of ADHESIVES.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

Isolation of a choline monooxygenase cDNA clone from Amaranthus tricolor and its expressions under stress conditions. (1/66)

Plants synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) via choline-->betaine aldehyde-->glycine betaine[1]. Two enzymes are involved in the pathway, choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). A full length CMO cDNA (1,643bp) was cloned from Amaranthus tricolor. The open reading frame encoded a 442-amino acid polypeptide, which showed 69% identity with CMOs in Spinacia oleracea L. and Beta vulgaris L. DNA gel blot analysis indicated the presence of one copy of CMO gene in the A. tricolor genome. The expressions of CMO and BADH proteins in A.tricolor leaves significantly increased under salinization, drought and heat stress (42 degrees C), as determined by immunoblot analysis, but did not respond to cold stress (4 degrees C), or exogenous ABA application. The increase of GB content in leaves was parallel to CMO and BADH contents.  (+info)

Structural analysis of free and enzyme-bound amaranth alpha-amylase inhibitor: classification within the knottin fold superfamily and analysis of its functional flexibility. (2/66)

The three-dimensional structure of the amaranth alpha-amylase inhibitor (AAI) adopts a knottin fold of abcabc topology. Upon binding to alpha-amylase, it adopts a more compact conformation characterized by an increased number of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, a decreased volume and in addition a trans to cis isomerization of Pro20. A systematic analysis of the 3-D structural databanks revealed that similar proteins and domains share with AAI the characteristic presence of proline residues, many of which are in a cis backbone conformation. As these proteins fulfil a variety of functional roles and are expressed in very different organisms, we conclude that the structure of the knottin fold, including the propensity of the cis bond, are the result of convergent evolution.  (+info)

Variation in the k(cat) of Rubisco in C(3) and C(4) plants and some implications for photosynthetic performance at high and low temperature. (3/66)

The capacity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) to consume RuBP is a major limitation on the rate of net CO(2) assimilation (A) in C(3) and C(4) plants. The pattern of Rubisco limitation differs between the two photosynthetic types, as shown by comparisons of temperature and CO(2) responses of A and Rubisco activity from C(3) and C(4) species. In C(3) species, Rubisco capacity is the primary limitation on A at light saturation and CO(2) concentrations below the current atmospheric value of 37 Pa, particularly near the temperature optimum. Below 20 degrees C, C(3) photosynthesis at 37 and 68 Pa is often limited by the capacity to regenerate phosphate for photophosphorylation. In C(4) plants, the Rubisco capacity is equivalent to A below 18 degrees C, but exceeds the photosynthetic capacity above 25 degrees C, indicating that Rubisco is an important limitation at cool but not warm temperatures. A comparison of the catalytic efficiency of Rubisco (k(cat) in mol CO(2) mol(-1) Rubisco active sites s(-1)) from 17 C(3) and C(4) plants showed that Rubisco from C(4) species, and C(3) species originating in cool environments, had higher k(cat) than Rubisco from C(3) species originating in warm environments. This indicates that Rubisco evolved to improve performance in the environment that plants normally experience. In C(4) plants, and C(3) species from cool environments, Rubisco often operates near CO(2) saturation, so that increases in k(cat) would enhance A. In warm-habitat C(4) species, Rubisco often operates at CO(2) concentrations below the K(m) for CO(2). Because k(cat) and K(m) vary proportionally, the low k(cat) indicates that Rubisco has been modified in a manner that reduces K(m) and thus increases the affinity for CO(2) in C(3) species from warm climates.  (+info)

Premature termination of RNA polymerase II mediated transcription of a seed protein gene in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (4/66)

The poly(A) signal and downstream elements with transcriptional pausing activity play an important role in termination of RNA polymerase II transcription. We show that an intronic sequence derived from the plant seed protein gene (AmA1) specifically acts as a transcriptional terminator in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The 3'-end points of mRNA encoded by the AmA1 gene were mapped at different positions in S.pombe and in native cells of Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Deletion analyses of the AmA1 intronic sequence revealed that multiple elements essential for proper transcriptional termination in S.pombe include two site-determining elements (SDEs) and three downstream sequence elements. RT-PCR analyses detected transcripts up to the second SDE. This is the first report showing that the highly conserved mammalian poly(A) signal, AAUAAA, is also functional in S.pombe. The poly(A) site was determined as Y(A) both in native and heterologous systems but at different positions. Deletion of these cis-elements abolished 3'-end processing in S.pombe and a single point mutation in this motif reduced the activity by 70% while enhancing activity at downstream SDE. These results indicate that the bipartite sequence elements as signals for 3'-end processing in fission yeast act in tandem with other cis-acting elements. A comparison of these elements in the AmA1 intron that function as a transcriptional terminator in fission yeast with that of its native genes showed that both require an AT-rich distal and proximal upstream element. However, these sequences are not identical. Transcription run-on analysis indicates that elongating RNA polymerase II molecules accumulate over these pause signals, maximal at 611-949 nt. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the AmA1 intronic terminator sequence acts in a position-independent manner when placed within another gene.  (+info)

Decoupling of light intensity effects on the growth and development of C3 and C4 weed species through sucrose supplementation. (5/66)

Light availability has a profound effect on plant growth and development. One of the ways to study the effects of light intensity on plant growth and development without the confounding problem of photosynthate availability is sucrose injection/supplementation. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of light levels (0% and 75% shade) and sucrose injection (distilled water or 150 g sucrose l(-1)) on three weed species: redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., C4), lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., C3) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic., C3). The average total sucrose uptake was 7.6 and 5.9 g per plant for 0% and 75% shading, respectively, representing 47% of the average total weed dry weight. Plants injected with sucrose had greater dry weights and shoot-to-root ratios under both light levels. In spite of sucrose supplementation the reduction in dry matter due to shading was greater for roots and reproductive structures than vegetative shoot tissues, indicating light level regulation of morphological changes resulting in changed C allocation that are independent of photosynthate availability. Dry weights of plants injected with sucrose under 75% shading were not different from distilled water-injected unshaded plants. However, both sucrose-injected and control plants, regardless of their photosynthetic pathways, underwent similar changes in allocation of dry matter and morphology due to shading, suggesting that these effects are strictly due to light intensity and not related to photosynthate availability.  (+info)

Bundle sheath diffusive resistance to CO(2) and effectiveness of C(4) photosynthesis and refixation of photorespired CO(2) in a C(4) cycle mutant and wild-type Amaranthus edulis. (6/66)

A mutant of the NAD-malic enzyme-type C(4) plant, Amaranthus edulis, which lacks phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in the mesophyll cells was studied. Analysis of CO(2) response curves of photosynthesis of the mutant, which has normal Kranz anatomy but lacks a functional C(4) cycle, provided a direct means of determining the liquid phase-diffusive resistance of atmospheric CO(2) to sites of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation inside bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts (r(bs)) within intact plants. Comparisons were made with excised shoots of wild-type plants fed 3,3-dichloro-2-(dihydroxyphosphinoyl-methyl)-propenoate, an inhibitor of PEPC. Values of r(bs) in A. edulis were 70 to 180 m(2) s(-1) mol(-1), increasing as the leaf matured. This is about 70-fold higher than the liquid phase resistance for diffusion of CO(2) to Rubisco in mesophyll cells of C(3) plants. The values of r(bs) in A. edulis are sufficient for C(4) photosynthesis to elevate CO(2) in BS cells and to minimize photorespiration. The calculated CO(2) concentration in BS cells, which is dependent on input of r(bs), was about 2,000 microbar under maximum rates of CO(2) fixation, which is about six times the ambient level of CO(2). High re-assimilation of photorespired CO(2) was demonstrated in both mutant and wild-type plants at limiting CO(2) concentrations, which can be explained by high r(bs). Increasing O(2) from near zero up to ambient levels under low CO(2), resulted in an increase in the gross rate of O(2) evolution measured by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in the PEPC mutant; this increase was simulated from a Rubisco kinetic model, which indicates effective refixation of photorespired CO(2) in BS cells.  (+info)

Antigenic and allergenic properties of Amaranthus Spinosus pollen--a commonly growing weed in India. (7/66)

Amaranthus spinosus (Fam. Amaranthaceae) is an important aeroallergen in India and grows commonly in different parts of the country. In spite of its clinical significance in Type I hypersensitivity disorders, the antigenic and the allergenic properties of the pollen have not been systematically resolved. We investigated antigenic and allergenic properties of 5 pollen samples of Amaranthus spinosus collected from the Delhi area at fortnightly intervals. The protein content did not exhibit statistically significant variability. However, samples collected during the peak flowering season showed higher protein content. Biochemical characterization of samples showed multiple protein fractions by IEF and SDS-PAGE analysis. Samples collected during peak season showed a slightly higher number of bands (22) in the mw range of 14-70 kD. Seven protein fractions of 70, 66, 60, 50, 40, 30 and 14 kD were observed to have IgE binding capabilities and 9 were treated as allergenic. The observations will be helpful in standardizing pollen antigens for diagnosis and immunotherapy in India.  (+info)

Dramatic difference in the responses of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase to temperature in leaves of C3 and C4 plants. (8/66)

Temperature caused phenomenal modulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC in leaf discs of Amaranthus hypochondriacus (NAD-ME type C(4) species), compared to the pattern in Pisum sativum (a C(3) plant). The optimal incubation temperature for PEPC in A. hypochondriacus (C(4)) was 45 degrees C compared to 30 degrees C in P. sativum (C(3)). A. hypochondriacus (C(4)) lost nearly 70% of PEPC activity on exposure to a low temperature of 15 degrees C, compared to only about a 35% loss in the case of P. sativum (C(3)). Thus, the C(4) enzyme was less sensitive to supra-optimal temperature and more sensitive to sub-optimal temperature than that of the C(3) species. As the temperature was raised from 15 degrees C to 50 degrees C, there was a sharp decrease in malate sensitivity of PEPC. The extent of such a decrease in C(4) plants (45%) was more than that in C(3) species (30%). The maintenance of high enzyme activity at warm temperatures, together with a sharp decrease in the malate sensitivity of PEPC was also noticed in other C(4) plants. The temperature-induced changes in PEPC of both A. hypochondriacus (C(4)) and P. sativum (C(3)) were reversible to a large extent. There was no difference in the extent of phosphorylation of PEPC in leaves of A. hypochondriacus on exposure to varying temperatures, unlike the marked increase in the phosphorylation of enzyme on illumination of the leaves. These results demonstrate that (i) there are marked differences in the temperature sensitivity of PEPC in C(3) and C(4) plants, (ii) the temperature induced changes are reversible, and (iii) these changes are not related to the phosphorylation state of the enzyme. The inclusion of PEG-6000, during the assay, dampened the modulation by temperature of malate sensitivity of PEPC in A. hypochondriacus. It is suggested that the variation in temperature may cause significant conformational changes in C(4)-PEPC.  (+info)

  • The green variety is practically indistinguishable from Amaranthus viridis . (
  • Amaranthus viridis) A popular green vegetable in many countries, including many islands of the Caribbean where this plant is famous for Calaloo Seafood Soup. (
  • Methanol extracts of the dried leaves and seeds of Amaranthus viridis were collected and used for phytochemicals and antibacterial analysis. (
  • S. Ahmed, S. Hanif and T. Iftkhar, "Phytochemical Profiling with Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Screening of Amaranthus viridis L. Leaf and Seed Extracts," Open Journal of Medical Microbiology , Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 164-171. (
  • This study is designed to investigate the phytochemical components, hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of Amaranthus viridis ( A. viridis ) using hypercholesterolemic rabbits. (
  • The presence of spines differentiate it from kolitis (Amaranthus viridis). (
  • Polyphenols were extracted from the leaves of three Nigerian vegetables, Amaranthus viridis (AV), Solanum macrocarpon (SM) and Telfairia occidentalis (TO) using 1:20 ground leaf powder to water ratio at 60°C . The vegetables were cultivated using different doses (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha -1 ) of urea fertilizer applied either at the time of planting or two weeks after planting. (
  • 7.] Colla E, Sobral PJA, Menegalli FC (2006) Amaranthus cruentus flour edible films: influence of stearic acid addition, plasticizer concentration, and emulsion stirring speed on water vapor permeability and mechanical properties. (
  • A composite coating from Amaranthus cruentus flour and stearic acid (10 g stearic acid/100 g flour, 26 g glycerol/100 g flour and stirring speed at 12000 rpm) was applied on fresh strawberries in order to verify the effect on its quality. (
  • Resistance to glyphosate has evolved and is quickly spreading in Amaranthus quitensis due to excessive use of the EPSPS-inhibiting herbicide in Argentinian soybean production systems. (
  • Previous reports indicate that Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin (ALL) , specific for glycans containing galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine, recognizes human naïve CD27 + CD25 + CD4 + T cells. (
  • Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin ( ALL ) is a nonmitogenic lectin with specificity for galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal β 1,3 GalNAc α 1,O-Ser/Thr) or N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc α 1,O-Ser/Thr) [ 6 ]. (
  • It does not have specificity for blood groups but does have a higher affinity for type O erythrocytes over B and A. Amaranthus caudatus Lectin (ACL/ACA) is labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and has an appropriate number of fluorochromes bound to provide the optimum staining characteristics for this lectin. (
  • We present a cost-effective approach to dispose of amaranthus waste (the discarded leaves and stalks of amaranthus and the extract remains of natural amaranthus red) to yield nitrogen-doped carbon. (
  • In this study, we determined the abundance of secondary metabolites present in leaves of five varieties of Amaranthus, described the community of chewing insects observed in the foliage and also quantified damage by folivore insects in the field. (