Amaranth Dye: A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Zingiberales: This plant order includes 8 families, 66 genera, and about 1,800 species. These herbaceous perennials are mainly found in the wet tropics. Members include the banana family (MUSACEAE) and GINGER family (ZINGIBERACEAE).Azo CompoundsAmaranthus: A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Congo Red: An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Tartrazine: An anionic, hydrophilic azo dye with an orange-yellow color used in fabrics, foods and cosmetics, and as a biological stain.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.IndiaCondiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Povidone-Iodine: An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Animals, LaboratoryAnimal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).Erythrosine: A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.

DNA damage induced by red food dyes orally administered to pregnant and male mice. (1/16)

We determined the genotoxicity of synthetic red tar dyes currently used as food color additives in many countries, including JAPAN: For the preliminary assessment, we treated groups of 4 pregnant mice (gestational day 11) once orally at the limit dose (2000 mg/kg) of amaranth (food red No. 2), allura red (food red No. 40), or acid red (food red No. 106), and we sampled brain, lung, liver, kidney, glandular stomach, colon, urinary bladder, and embryo 3, 6, and 24 h after treatment. We used the comet (alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis) assay to measure DNA damage. The assay was positive in the colon 3 h after the administration of amaranth and allura red and weakly positive in the lung 6 h after the administration of amaranth. Acid red did not induce DNA damage in any sample at any sampling time. None of the dyes damaged DNA in other organs or the embryo. We then tested male mice with amaranth, allura red, and a related color additive, new coccine (food red No. 18). The 3 dyes induced DNA damage in the colon starting at 10 mg/kg. Twenty ml/kg of soaking liquid from commercial red ginger pickles, which contained 6.5 mg/10 ml of new coccine, induced DNA damage in colon, glandular stomach, and bladder. The potencies were compared to those of other rodent carcinogens. The rodent hepatocarcinogen p-dimethylaminoazobenzene induced colon DNA damage at 1 mg/kg, whereas it damaged liver DNA only at 500 mg/kg. Although 1 mg/kg of N-nitrosodimethylamine induced DNA damage in liver and bladder, it did not induce colon DNA damage. N-nitrosodiethylamine at 14 mg/kg did not induce DNA damage in any organs examined. Because the 3 azo additives we examined induced colon DNA damage at a very low dose, more extensive assessment of azo additives is warranted.  (+info)

Solution structure of the main alpha-amylase inhibitor from amaranth seeds. (2/16)

The most abundant alpha-amylase inhibitor (AAI) present in the seeds of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a variety of the Mexican crop plant amaranth, is the smallest polypeptide (32 residues) known to inhibit alpha-amylase activity of insect larvae while leaving that of mammals unaffected. In solution, 1H NMR reveals that AAI isolated from amaranth seeds adopts a major trans (70%) and minor cis (30%) conformation, resulting from slow cis-trans isomerization of the Val15-Pro16 peptide bond. Both solution structures have been determined using 2D 1H-NMR spectroscopy and XPLOR followed by restrained energy refinement in the consistent-valence force field. For the major isomer, a total of 563 distance restraints, including 55 medium-range and 173 long-range ones, were available from the NOESY spectra. This rather large number of constraints from a protein of such a small size results from a compact fold, imposed through three disulfide bridges arranged in a cysteine-knot motif. The structure of the minor cis isomer has also been determined using a smaller constraint set. It reveals a different backbone conformation in the Pro10-Pro20 segment, while preserving the overall global fold. The energy-refined ensemble of the major isomer, consisting of 20 low-energy conformers with an average backbone rmsd of 0.29 +/- 0.19 A and no violations larger than 0.4 A, represents a considerable improvement in precision over a previously reported and independently performed calculation on AAI obtained through solid-phase synthesis, which was determined with only half the number of medium-range and long-range restraints reported here, and featured the trans isomer only. The resulting differences in ensemble precision have been quantified locally and globally, indicating that, for regions of the backbone and a good fraction of the side chains, the conformation is better defined in the new solution structure. Structural comparison of the solution structure with the X-ray structure of the inhibitor when bound to its alpha-amylase target in Tenebrio molitor shows that the backbone conformation is only slightly adjusted on complexation, while that of the side chains involved in protein-protein contacts is similar to those present in solution. Therefore, the overall conformation of AAI appears to be predisposed to binding to its target alpha-amylase, confirming the view that it acts as a lid on top of the alpha-amylase active site.  (+info)

Excretory role of the midgut in larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.). (3/16)

Caterpillars of Manduca sexta use two distinct transport mechanisms for the excretion of dyes. One pump (Type A) has a high affinity for acid (anionic) dyes and occurs in the midgut and medial Malpighian tubules. Acid dyes accumulate rapidly in the lumen of the midgut while the Malpighian tubules appear to play only a minor role in the excretion of these dyes. The other pump (Type B) excretes basic (cationic) dyes and is located primarily in the proximal Malpighian tubules. Evidence is presented that hippuric acid competes with acid dyes for excretion by both midgut and Malpighian tubules. After the final-instar larva purges its gut the ability of the midgut and Malpighian tubules to excrete dyes gradually decreases. Sixty hours after the purge only the Malpighian tubules retain some dye excreting activity.  (+info)

The action of the excretory apparatus of Calliphora vomitoria in handling injected sugar solution. (4/16)

Recent evidence suggests that the isolated Malpighian tubules of Calliphora possess mechanisms which restrict the loss of glucose and trehalose from the insect. This report establishes that the intact, diuresing fly does not excrete glucose or trehalose when solutions of these sugars are injected. When solutions of non-metabolized sugars such as sorbose and xylose are injected into the fly, these sugars are rapidly excreted. High concentrations of sorbose and xylose are found in the urine, suggesting that rapid reabsorption of fluid occurs in the excretory apparatus even during the diuresis which the injections provoke. However, injected sucrose is apparently not excreted in large amounts and it is possible that the Malpighian tubules when functioning in vivo are impermeable to disaccharides.  (+info)

Respiration and growth of Shewanella decolorationis S12 with an Azo compound as the sole electron acceptor. (5/16)

The ability of Shewanella decolorationis S12 to obtain energy for growth by coupling the oxidation of various electron donors to dissimilatory azoreduction was investigated. This microorganism can reduce a variety of azo dyes by use of formate, lactate, pyruvate, or H(2) as the electron donor. Furthermore, strain S12 grew to a maximal density of 3.0 x 10(7) cells per ml after compete reduction of 2.0 mM amaranth in a defined medium. This was accompanied by a stoichiometric consumption of 4.0 mM formate over time when amaranth and formate were supplied as the sole electron acceptor and donor, respectively, suggesting that microbial azoreduction is an electron transport process and that this electron transport can yield energy to support growth. Purified membranous, periplasmic, and cytoplasmic fractions from S12 were analyzed, but only the membranous fraction was capable of reducing azo dyes with formate, lactate, pyruvate, or H(2) as the electron donor. The presence of 5 microM Cu(2+) ions, 200 microM dicumarol, 100 microM stigmatellin, and 100 microM metyrapone inhibited anaerobic azoreduction activity by both whole cells and the purified membrane fraction, showing that dehydrogenases, cytochromes, and menaquinone are essential electron transfer components for azoreduction. These results provide evidence that the microbial anaerobic azoreduction is linked to the electron transport chain and suggest that the dissimilatory azoreduction is a form of microbial anaerobic respiration. These findings not only expand the number of potential electron acceptors known for microbial energy conservation but also elucidate the mechanisms of microbial anaerobic azoreduction.  (+info)

Energy generation coupled to azoreduction by membranous vesicles from Shewanella decolorationis S12. (6/16)

Previous studies have demonstrated that Shewanella decolorationis S12 can grow on the azo compound amaranth as the sole electron acceptor. Thus, to explore the mechanism of energy generation in this metabolism, membranous vesicles (MVs) were prepared and the mechanism of energy generation investigated. The membrane, which was fragmentized during preparation, automatically formed vesicles ranging from 37.5-112.5 nm in diameter under electron micrograph observation. Energy was conserved when coupling the azoreduction by the MVs of an azo compound or Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor with H2, formate, or lactate as the electron donor. The amaranth reduction by the vesicles was found to be inhibited by specific respiratory inhibitors, including Cu(2+) ions, dicumarol, stigmatellin, and metyrapone, indicating that the azoreduction was indeed a respiration reaction. This finding was further confirmed by the fact that the ATP synthesis was repressed by the ATPase inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). Therefore, this study offers solid evidence of a mechanism of microbial dissimilatory azoreduction on a subcell level.  (+info)

Toxicity of xanthene food dyes by inhibition of human drug-metabolizing enzymes in a noncompetitive manner. (7/16)


Development of a membrane-less dynamic field gradient focusing device for the separation of low-molecular-weight molecules. (8/16)


  • What's interesting is that in the Amaranthaceae-which includes beets, swiss chard, quinoa and amaranth but also ornamentals like Celosia -the familiar colorway of violet and yellow is not due to flavonoids at all, but to a completely unique class of pigments called betalains ( beta as in beet)-one type causing reddish to violet, a second appearing yellow to orange. (
  • Solubility###Soluble in water, glycerol, glycol, Other methods to remove dyes like: coagulation, photo-catalytic or biological degradation, ozonation, membrane separation, electrolysis or adsorption on activated charcoal were expensive, difficult to apply, sludge disposal problem and fuel plus electricity consumption make them unattractive for researchers to adopt them in future. (
  • Photo-catalytic degradation of toxic dye amaranth on TiO(2)/UV in aqueous suspensions. (
  • The photo-catalytic degradation of an azo dye - Amaranth (AM) - has been investigated in TiO(2)/UV aqueous suspensions. (
  • V. Sarria, M. Deront, P. Péringer, C. Pulgarin, Degradation of a bio recalcitrant dye precursor present in industrial wastewaters by a new integrated iron(III) photo assisted-biological treatment. (
  • G. Sudarjanto, B. Keller-Lehmann, J. Keller, Optimization of integrated chemical-biological degradation of a reactive azo dye using response surface methodology. (
  • Combes RD, Haveland-Smith RB (1982) A review of the genotoxicity of food, drug and cosmetic colours and other azo, triphenylmethane and xanthene dyes. (
  • The data is categorized under India Premium Database's Foreign Trade - Table IN.JBI001: Foreign Trade: Harmonized System 8 Digits: By Commodity: HS32: Dyeing Extracts, Dyes, Pigments, Paints etc: Exports: INR. (
  • Reactive dyes form strong covalent bonds with fibre. (
  • People exposed to reactive dyes may suffer with asthma, rhinitis, contact dermatitis and utricaria. (
  • The first examples of reactive dyes utilized monoazo systems for bright yellow and red shades. (
  • C.I. Reactive Red 1) with a noncoloured group results in dye series (Procion H and Procion P) that can be applied at 80 °C (176 °F). These are analogous to the direct dyes Ciba produced in the 1920s and reintroduced in the late 1950s as Cibacron reactive dyes. (
  • With the introduction of reactive dyes, cotton could finally be dyed in bright shades with monoazo dyes for yellows to reds, anthraquinones for blues, and copper phthalocyanines for bright turquoise colours. (
  • Solubilized phthalocyanine reactive dyes are used for bright turquoise shades that cannot be obtained with either azo or anthraquinone chromogens. (
  • In particular, the European Commission asked EFSA to prioritise the assessment of azo dyes colours following publication of a study (McCann et al in 2007 ), suggesting a possible link between certain mixtures of colours(including five azo dyes) and the preservative sodium benzoate and hyperactivity in children. (
  • The weedy amaranths that grow on the farm have lanky, prickly seedheads and slender, pink-tinted roots that have the familiar earthy smell of beets. (
  • The batch adsorption experiments were optimized using various parameters such as pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, kinetic and isotherm studies. (
  • Akbar, Adsorption Parameters Optimization for Removal of Alizarin Red-S and Brilliant Blue FCF dyes from Water using Abelmoschus esculentus Stem Powder, J. (
  • Coupling aniline to H-acid gave the azo dye used in the first Procion Red (C.I. Reactive Red 1), and anthraquinone dyes were used to obtain bright blue shades. (
  • Thel coating of shellacNZ slowly d isintegrates in the course of a few`days,rallowing the water to reach the core l and to suddenly liberate the intensely red amaranth dye which will impart its color to the solution, thus indicating that a change or replacement of the latter is necessary. (
  • 2001). Azo dyes are organic compounds containing an azo group (-N=N-), but some dyes have two (diazo), three (triazo) or more (Benkhaya et al. (
  • Condensation of some of the chlorosulfonyl groups with ammonia before hydrolysis yields dyes with brighter hues (e.g. (
  • Most amaranth growers reported 1986 harvested yields in the range of 300 to 1100 pounds per acre. (
  • verification needed] Testing by the FDA found a statistically significant increase in the incidence of malignant tumors in female rats given a high dosage of the dye, and concluded that since there could also no longer be a presumption of safety, that use of the dye should be discontinued. (
  • The obtained data reveal a marked decrease in the percentage of body weight gain, red blood cells (R.B.Cs) counts, Hemoglobin (Hb) content, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum total lipids and serum total cholesterol of rats treated with the high dose of amaranth. (
  • On the other hand, a noticeable increase in hematocrit (Hct) value, Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), activities of Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) , alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glucose level, serum total protein and globulin were found in rats treated with the high dose of amaranth. (