An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.

Studies on the mechanism of action of amantadine. (1/382)

1 The effect of amantadine hydrochloride on various aspects of catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain has been investigated. 2 Amantadine failed to have any significant effect on brain concentrations of dopamine or noradrenaline even when administered daily for 9 days. 3 Amantadine had no effect on the rate of decline of noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations after alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. 4 In vitro amantadine inhibited dopamine uptake into synaptosomes only at high concentrations, and caused little release of dopamine from synaptosomes. 5 There is no evidence from these results to suggest that the anti-Parkinsonian effect of amantadine is related to an action on dopaminergic mechanisms.  (+info)

An Advisory Committee Statement (ACS). National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI). Statement on influenza vaccination for the 1998-1999 season. (2/382)

The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) provides Health Canada with ongoing and timely medical, scientific, and public-health advice relating to immunization. Health Canada acknowledges that the advice and recommendations set out in this statement are based upon the best current available scientific knowledge, and is disseminating this document for information purposes. Persons administering or using the vaccine should also be aware of the contents of the relevant product monograph(s). Recommendations for use and other information set out herein may differ from that set out in the monograph(s) of the Canadian licensed manufacturer(s) of the vaccine(s). Manufacturer(s) have only sought approval of the vaccine(s) and provided evidence as to its safety and efficacy when used in accordance with the product monographs.  (+info)

Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (3/382)

This report updates 1998 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral agents (MMWR 1998;47[No. RR-6]:1-26). The principal changes include a) information on the influenza virus strains included in the 1999-2000 trivalent vaccine; b) discussion of the potential expanded use of influenza vaccine; c) new background information on live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs), neuraminidase-inhibitor drugs, and rapid diagnostic tests; d) new information on the epidemiology of influenza among travelers; and e) the addition of referenced citations. This report and other information on influenza can be accessed at the website for the Influenza Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC at .  (+info)

Tetraethylammonium and amantadine identify distinct organic cation transporters in rat renal cortical proximal and distal tubules. (4/382)

Tetraethylammonium (TEA) and amantadine are two organic cations that are secreted by the kidney. It appears that each cation may characterize distinct renal tubule organic cation transport pathways. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the renal proximal and distal tubule energy-dependent transport properties of TEA and amantadine. Isolated tubules were incubated at 25 degrees C in bicarbonate buffer (Krebs-Henseleit solution) and nonbicarbonate buffer (Cross-Taggart) with varying concentrations of [14C]TEA or [3H]amantadine to determine initial rates of energy-dependent uptake of TEA and amantadine, respectively. The uptake of TEA could best be described by two transport sites, a high-affinity site and a lower affinity site. TEA uptake was not influenced by the presence of bicarbonate. Consistent with our previously reported data, amantadine uptake could also be described by two transport sites, a high-affinity-capacity site that is bicarbonate-dependent and a lower-affinity-capacity transport site that is bicarbonate-independent. The renal tubule uptake of amantadine into proximal and distal tubules, in Krebs-Henseleit solution or Cross-Taggart buffers, was not inhibited by 10 to 1000 microM of TEA. However, tubule accumulation of TEA could be inhibited (>90%) by amantadine in proximal and distal tubules in Krebs-Henseleit solution and Cross-Taggart buffers. In proximal tubules, N1-methylnicotinamide was not able to inhibit amantadine uptake but it reduced TEA uptake by 60 to 70% at similar concentrations. These data support the existence of multiple renal tubule organic cation transporters that have different substrate affinity and controlling mechanisms. It is also apparent that amantadine characterizes organic cation transporters that are distinct from those characterized by TEA.  (+info)

In vivo analysis of amantadine renal clearance in the uninephrectomized rat: functional significance of in vitro bicarbonate-dependent amantadine renal tubule transport. (5/382)

Amantadine transport into renal proximal and distal tubules is bicarbonate dependent. In the present study, we addressed the effects of bicarbonate on renal clearance and urinary excretion of amantadine. Renal clearance of kynurenic acid was also studied to determine whether bicarbonate effects are specific for organic base transport by the kidney. After a moderate diuresis was established, animals received i.v. [(3)H]amantadine or [(3)H]kynurenic acid followed by an acute dose of sodium bicarbonate or physiological saline. Urine and blood samples were analyzed for [(3)H]amantadine or [(3)H]kynurenic acid, blood gases, and pH. Amantadine and kynurenic acid were excreted by the kidneys, and both compounds underwent renal tubular secretion. Amantadine metabolism occurred, and one metabolite was detected in the urine. In the bicarbonate-treated rats, the total amount of amantadine excreted in the urine was decreased, whereas the amount of metabolite recovered was similar in both groups. Bicarbonate treatment caused a sustained increase in blood bicarbonate levels, a mild increase in blood pH, and a decrease in amantadine renal clearance and in the amantadine/creatinine clearance ratio. Only a transient decrease in the renal clearance of kynurenic acid and the kynurenic acid/creatinine clearance ratio was observed. This study demonstrates that short-term changes in bicarbonate concentration may have significant effects on renal organic cation elimination. Coupled with our previous in vitro demonstration of bicarbonate-dependent organic cation transport, the present study suggests that bicarbonate inhibition of renal tubule organic cation secretion may explain the previous observation that bicarbonate dosing decreases amantadine excretion by the kidney.  (+info)

New experimental and clinical data on leukaemia immunotherapy. (6/382)

The present results of our treatment of acute lymphoid leukaemia patients are summarized: 7 out of 20 randomized patients given active immunotherapy after chemoradiotherapy are still in complete remission after periods varying from seven to ten years (compared to none in the control group). The actuarial results on 100 patients show remission and survival curves presenting a plateau between three and five years for a certain percentage, suggesting a possible cure. Several parameters studied in 200 patients indicate that the factors affecting this percentage are age, cytological type, volume of the tumour, and the localization of leukaemic cells in certain areas. Experiments with L1210 leukaemia show that immunotherapy enhances the effect of chemotherapy when administered after chemotherapy but decreases it when administered before, which is in favour of the use of the sequence chemotherapy-immunotherapy clinically.  (+info)

Amantadine and rimantadine have no direct inhibitory effects against hepatitis C viral protease, helicase, ATPase, polymerase, and internal ribosomal entry site-mediated translation. (7/382)

Amantadine, a drug known to inhibit influenza A viral matrix (M2) protein function, was reported to be an effective treatment in some patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Sequence comparison shows no homology between M2 and any of the HCV proteins. The effects of amantadine and a related analogue, rimantadine, on viral protease, helicase, ATPase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and HCV internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) translation were tested by established in vitro biochemical assays. No inhibition (>15%) of HCV protease, helicase, ATPase, and polymerase was observed with concentrations up to 400 microgram/mL. IRES-specific inhibition was not observed at clinically relevant concentrations, but both cap and IRES reporter genes were suppressed at higher levels, suggesting nonspecific translation inhibition. In conclusion, amantadine and rimantadine have no direct and specific inhibitory effects against HCV protease, helicase, ATPase, polymerase, and IRES in vitro.  (+info)

Laboratory characteristics of an attenuated influenza type A (H3N2) virus ('Alice' strain). (8/382)

The Alice strain of live attenuated influenza virus was obtained by selection of a gamma inhibitor-resistant strain from a virus recombinant between A/PR/8/34 (HON1) and A/England/42/72 (H3N2). Its behaviour in vitro and in vivo was studied. Three marker systems were investigated: resistance to serum inhibitors, growth capacity at high temperature and low sensitivity to amantadine hydrochloride. In ferrets the strain was found to be attenuated and immunogenic. Passages in man, animals and eggs have not affected its resistance to gamma inhibitors.  (+info)

Amantadine is an antiviral medication that is primarily used to prevent and treat certain types of influenza (flu). It works by stopping the virus from multiplying in your body. In addition to its antiviral properties, amantadine also has central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and dopaminergic effects, which make it useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and various movement disorders.

The medical definition of Amantadine is:

A synthetic symmetrical tricyclic amine used as an antiviral agent to treat and prevent influenza A infection and as an anti-parkinsonian drug to control extrapyramidal symptoms caused by neuroleptic agents. The antiviral effect may be due to interference with viral uncoating or replication. The anti-parkinsonian effect may be due to a combination of dopamine agonist and NMDA receptor antagonist properties. (Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 28th edition)

Please note that the use of Amantadine for various medical conditions should always be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as they will consider potential benefits and risks and provide appropriate guidance.

Rimantadine is an antiviral medication that belongs to the class of adamantanes. It is primarily used for preventing and treating influenza A virus infections. Rimantadine works by blocking the viral neuraminidase enzyme, which prevents the virus from spreading within the body.

The medical definition of Rimantadine is:

Rimantadine hydrochloride is a synthetic antiviral agent, chemically designated as 1-[(1R,2S)-2-ethyl-3-adamantanemethyl]-1H-imidazole monohydrochloride. It is a white crystalline powder, freely soluble in water, and soluble in alcohol and chloroform.

Rimantadine is available as an oral medication and is typically prescribed to be taken twice daily. It is most effective when started within 48 hours of the onset of flu symptoms. Common side effects of Rimantadine include gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, dizziness, and skin rashes.

It's important to note that Rimantadine is not effective against influenza B virus infections, and its use may be limited due to the emergence of resistant strains of the influenza A virus. Additionally, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as with any medication.

Adamantane is a chemical compound with the formula C10H16. It is a hydrocarbon that consists of a cage-like structure of carbon atoms, making it one of the simplest diamondoid compounds. The term "adamantane" is also used more broadly to refer to any compound that contains this characteristic carbon cage structure.

In the context of medicine, adamantane derivatives are a class of antiviral drugs that have been used to treat and prevent influenza A infections. These drugs work by binding to the M2 protein of the influenza virus, which is essential for viral replication. By blocking the function of this protein, adamantane derivatives can prevent the virus from multiplying within host cells.

Examples of adamantane derivatives used in medicine include amantadine and rimantadine. These drugs are typically administered orally and have been shown to be effective at reducing the severity and duration of influenza A symptoms, particularly when used early in the course of infection. However, resistance to these drugs has become increasingly common among circulating strains of influenza A virus, which has limited their usefulness in recent years.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Dyskinesias are a type of movement disorder characterized by involuntary, erratic, and often repetitive muscle movements. These movements can affect any part of the body and can include twisting, writhing, or jerking motions, as well as slow, writhing contortions. Dyskinesias can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications (such as those used to treat Parkinson's disease), brain injury, stroke, infection, or exposure to toxins. They can also be a side effect of some medical treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Dyskinesias can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, making it difficult for them to perform routine tasks and affecting their overall quality of life. Treatment for dyskinesias depends on the underlying cause and may include medication adjustments, surgery, or physical therapy. In some cases, dyskinesias may be managed with the use of assistive devices or by modifying the person's environment to make it easier for them to move around.

Antiparkinson agents are a class of medications used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. These agents work by increasing the levels or activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is responsible for regulating movement and coordination.

There are several types of antiparkinson agents, including:

1. Levodopa: This is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease. It is converted to dopamine in the brain and helps to replace the missing dopamine in people with Parkinson's.
2. Dopamine agonists: These medications mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain and can be used alone or in combination with levodopa. Examples include pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine.
3. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors: These medications block the breakdown of dopamine in the brain and can help to increase its levels. Examples include selegiline and rasagiline.
4. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors: These medications block the breakdown of levodopa in the body, allowing it to reach the brain in higher concentrations. Examples include entacapone and tolcapone.
5. Anticholinergic agents: These medications block the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter that can contribute to tremors and muscle stiffness in Parkinson's disease. Examples include trihexyphenidyl and benztropine.

It is important to note that antiparkinson agents can have side effects, and their use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare professional. The choice of medication will depend on the individual patient's symptoms, age, overall health, and other factors.

Influenza A virus is defined as a negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA virus belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae. It is responsible for causing epidemic and pandemic influenza in humans and is also known to infect various animal species, such as birds, pigs, horses, and seals. The viral surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), are the primary targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines. There are 18 different HA subtypes and 11 known NA subtypes, which contribute to the diversity and antigenic drift of Influenza A viruses. The zoonotic nature of this virus allows for genetic reassortment between human and animal strains, leading to the emergence of novel variants with pandemic potential.

Viral matrix proteins are structural proteins that play a crucial role in the morphogenesis and life cycle of many viruses. They are often located between the viral envelope and the viral genome, serving as a scaffold for virus assembly and budding. These proteins also interact with other viral components, such as the viral genome, capsid proteins, and envelope proteins, to form an infectious virion. Additionally, matrix proteins can have regulatory functions, influencing viral transcription, replication, and host cell responses. The specific functions of viral matrix proteins vary among different virus families.

Dopamine agents are medications that act on dopamine receptors in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and other areas of the body. It plays important roles in many functions, including movement, motivation, emotion, and cognition.

Dopamine agents can be classified into several categories based on their mechanism of action:

1. Dopamine agonists: These medications bind to dopamine receptors and mimic the effects of dopamine. They are used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease, restless legs syndrome, and certain types of dopamine-responsive dystonia. Examples include pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine.
2. Dopamine precursors: These medications provide the building blocks for the body to produce dopamine. Levodopa is a commonly used dopamine precursor that is converted to dopamine in the brain. It is often used in combination with carbidopa, which helps to prevent levodopa from being broken down before it reaches the brain.
3. Dopamine antagonists: These medications block the action of dopamine at its receptors. They are used to treat conditions such as schizophrenia and certain types of nausea and vomiting. Examples include haloperidol, risperidone, and metoclopramide.
4. Dopamine reuptake inhibitors: These medications increase the amount of dopamine available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) by preventing its reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. They are used to treat conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Examples include bupropion and nomifensine.
5. Dopamine release inhibitors: These medications prevent the release of dopamine from presynaptic neurons. They are used to treat conditions such as Tourette's syndrome and certain types of chronic pain. Examples include tetrabenazine and deutetrabenazine.

It is important to note that dopamine agents can have significant side effects, including addiction, movement disorders, and psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, they should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Oseltamivir is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and B infections. It works by inhibiting the neuraminidase enzyme, which plays a crucial role in the replication of the influenza virus. By blocking this enzyme, oseltamivir prevents the virus from spreading within the body, thereby reducing the severity and duration of flu symptoms.

Oseltamivir is available as a phosphate salt, known as oseltamivir phosphate, which is converted into its active form, oseltamivir carboxylate, after oral administration. It is typically administered orally in the form of capsules or a powder for suspension.

It's important to note that oseltamivir is most effective when started within 48 hours of symptom onset. While it can reduce the duration of flu symptoms by about one to two days, it does not cure the infection and may not prevent serious complications in high-risk individuals, such as those with underlying medical conditions or weakened immune systems.

Common side effects of oseltamivir include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache. Serious side effects are rare but can include allergic reactions, skin rashes, and neuropsychiatric events like confusion, hallucinations, and abnormal behavior. Consult a healthcare professional for more detailed information about oseltamivir and its potential uses, benefits, and risks.

A post-head injury coma is a state of deep unconsciousness that occurs following a traumatic brain injury to the head. This condition is characterized by a complete loss of awareness and inability to respond to external stimuli or communicate. The individual is unable to move or speak, and there is no sleep-wake cycle.

The duration of a post-head injury coma can vary widely, from a few days to several weeks or even months, depending on the severity of the brain injury. Factors that influence the prognosis include the cause and location of the injury, the patient's age and overall health status, and the promptness and effectiveness of medical treatment.

Post-head injury coma is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate evaluation and management by a team of healthcare professionals, including neurosurgeons, neurologists, critical care specialists, and rehabilitation therapists. The goal of treatment is to minimize secondary brain damage, prevent complications, and promote recovery.

Influenza, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral infection that attacks the respiratory system of humans. It is caused by influenza viruses A, B, or C and is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, cough, runny nose, and fatigue. Influenza can lead to complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections, and can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can also survive on surfaces for a period of time. Influenza viruses are constantly changing, which makes it necessary to get vaccinated annually to protect against the most recent and prevalent strains.

Zanamivir is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and B infections. It works by blocking the action of influenza viral neuraminidase, which helps the virus to spread and infect other cells. By inhibiting this enzyme, zanamivir prevents the virus from replicating and thus reduces the severity and duration of flu symptoms.

Zanamivir is available as an inhalation powder and is usually administered using a device called a diskhaler. It is important to note that zanamivir is not effective against other viral or bacterial infections, and it should be used as soon as possible after the onset of flu symptoms for the best results.

As with any medication, zanamivir can have side effects, including respiratory problems such as bronchospasm, cough, and shortness of breath. It may also cause nausea, vomiting, and headaches. People with a history of respiratory disorders, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), should use zanamivir with caution, as it may exacerbate these conditions.

Zanamivir is not recommended for people with severe allergies to any ingredient in the medication, and it should be used with caution in pregnant or breastfeeding women, children under seven years of age, and people with kidney or liver disease. It is important to consult a healthcare provider before taking zanamivir or any other medication.

... is not recommended for treatment or prophylaxis of influenza A in the United States. Amantadine has no effect ... Amantadine is only minimally removed by hemodialysis. Amantadine is metabolized to a small extent (5-15%) by acetylation. It is ... In this amantadine trial study volunteer college students were exposed to a viral challenge. The group that received amantadine ... Amantadine is used to treat Parkinson's disease-related dyskinesia and drug-induced parkinsonism syndromes. Amantadine may be ...
Amantadine. US National Library of Medicine (Medline) (2003-04-01). Retrieved on 2007-10-07. Weinshenker BG, Penman M, Bass B, ... Pucci E, Branãs P, D'Amico R, Giuliani G, Solari A, Taus C (2007). Pucci E (ed.). "Amantadine for fatigue in multiple sclerosis ... There are also different medications used to treat fatigue; such as amantadine, or pemoline; as well as psychological ...
"Amantadine". MedlinePlus. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020. Weinshenker BG, Penman M, Bass B, et al. (August 1992). "A ... A few medications have been studied to treat MS-related fatigue, such as amantadine pemoline (which is a psychostimulant also ... January 2007). Pucci E (ed.). "Amantadine for fatigue in multiple sclerosis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007 ...
Adamantanes: Amantadine • Memantine • Rimantadine Aminotetralins: 7-OH-DPAT • 8-OH-PBZI • Rotigotine • UH-232 Benzazepines: 6- ...
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Amantadine is also sometimes helpful. After a few years the Parkinsonian variant tends to take on Richardson features. Other ... Medications such as levodopa and amantadine may be useful in some cases. PSP affects about six people per 100,000. The first ...
Amantadine is sometimes used as well. It is rare for dopamine agonists to be used for antipsychotic-induced EPS, as they may ...
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Influenza A may be treated with rimantadine or amantadine, while influenza A or B may be treated with oseltamivir, zanamivir or ... Jefferson T, Demicheli V, Di Pietrantonj C, Rivetti D (April 2006). "Amantadine and rimantadine for influenza A in adults". The ... When influenza outbreaks occur, medications such as amantadine or rimantadine may help prevent the condition, but they are ... have shown resistance to rimantadine and amantadine. The use of antibiotics in viral pneumonia is recommended by some experts, ...
Amantadine and rimantadine have been introduced to combat influenza. These agents act on penetration and uncoating. Pleconaril ...
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A nitrogen-substituted drug amantadine can be prepared by reacting adamantane with bromine or nitric acid to give the bromide ... The first adamantane derivative used as a drug was amantadine - first (1967) as an antiviral drug against various strains of ... Moiseev, I. K.; Doroshenko, R. I.; Ivanova, V. I. (1976). "Synthesis of amantadine via the nitrate of 1-adamantanol". ... Adapalene Adapromine Amantadine Bromantane Memantine Rimantadine Saxagliptin Tromantadine Vildagliptin Adamantane was recently ...
Her thesis on 1 -aminoadamantane (also named amantadine) can be downloaded by using a link associated to the thesis' title in ... "Specific structural alteration of the influenza haemagglutinin by amantadine". The EMBO journal. Retrieved 14 June 2021. " ... "the mechanism of action of amantadine ... led directly to the identification of a novel class of viral proteins, viral ion ...
Amantadine was shown to induce similar improvements in children treated with methylphenidate, with less frequent side effects. ... Morrow K, Choi S, Young K, Haidar M, Boduch C, Bourgeois JA (September 2021). "Amantadine for the treatment of childhood and ... A 2021 retrospective study showed showed that amantadine may serve as an effective adjunct to stimulants for ADHD-related ... Mohammadi MR, Kazemi MR, Zia E, Rezazadeh SA, Tabrizi M, Akhondzadeh S (November 2010). "Amantadine versus methylphenidate in ...
Amantadine: used for treating Parkinson's disease, influenza, and Alzheimer's disease. Atomoxetine: a norepinephrine reuptake ... Amantadine." MedlinePlus website Accessed 29 May 2007 Ludolph AG, Udvardi PT, Schaz U, Henes C, Adolph O, Weigt HU, Fegert JM, ...
Amantadine, which was discovered in the 1960s and has been in clinical use against influenza A for some time, is an example of ... Alves Galvão MG, Rocha Crispino Santos MA, Alves da Cunha AJ (November 2014). "Amantadine and rimantadine for influenza A in ... Oxford JS, Galbraith A (1980). "Antiviral activity of amantadine: a review of laboratory and clinical data". Pharmacology & ...
Cady SD, Schmidt-Rohr K, Wang J, Soto CS, Degrado WF, Hong M (February 2010). "Structure of the amantadine binding site of ... According to the low pH crystal structure a single molecule of amantadine binds in the middle of the pore, surrounded by ... However, the BM2 channel activity is higher than that of AM2, and the BM2 activity is completely insensitive to amantadine and ... However, a recent solid state NMR spectroscopy structure shows that the M2 channel has two binding sites for amantadine, one ...
Amantadine has also reported to be fairly effective, while memantine, an analog of amantadine with a more targeted ... Kashihara, Kenichi; Imamura, Takaki (1 January 2008). "Amantadine may reverse punding in Parkinson's disease-Observation in a ... pharmacological profile has not been evaluated but would presumably have similar efficacy to amantadine. Selective serotonin ...
Like rimantadine, amantadine, and adapromine, tromantadine is a derivative of adamantane. Tromantadine inhibits the early and ...
Amantadine is not recommended for treatment or prophylaxis of influenza A in the United States. Amantadine has no effect ... Amantadine is only minimally removed by hemodialysis. Amantadine is metabolized to a small extent (5-15%) by acetylation. It is ... In this amantadine trial study volunteer college students were exposed to a viral challenge. The group that received amantadine ... Amantadine is used to treat Parkinsons disease-related dyskinesia and drug-induced parkinsonism syndromes. Amantadine may be ...
Amantadine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Amantadine may cause harm to the fetus.. *you should know that amantadine may make you drowsy or cause blurred vision. Do not ... Before taking amantadine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to amantadine, any other medications, or any of ... If you are taking amantadine for Parkinsons disease, your doctor may start you on a low dose of amantadine and gradually ...
Amantadine has an onset of action usually within 48 hours.. The initial dose of amantadine hydrochloride capsules is 100 mg ... Amantadine hydrochloride capsules should be continued daily for at least 10 days following a known exposure. If amantadine is ... The pH of the urine has been reported to influence the excretion rate of amantadine. Since the excretion rate of amantadine ... The pH of the urine has been reported to influence the excretion rate of amantadine. Since the excretion rate of amantadine ...
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The medication is a long-acting formulation of amantadine, a drug that has been available for many years. Gocovri is a capsule ...
Amantadine accelerated the pace of functional recovery during active treatment in patients with post-traumatic disorders of ... Placebo-controlled trial of amantadine for severe traumatic brain injury N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar 1;366(9):819-26. doi: 10.1056/ ... Background: Amantadine hydrochloride is one of the most commonly prescribed medications for patients with prolonged disorders ... Conclusions: Amantadine accelerated the pace of functional recovery during active treatment in patients with post-traumatic ...
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This case highlights the use of amantadine in benzodiazepine-resistant catatonia associated with COVID-19 infection. ... Amantadine inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Viruses. 2021;13(4):539. PubMed CrossRef Show Abstract ... Amantadine can be used as monotherapy or in combination with benzodiazepines.10 It is generally well tolerated, as seen in our ... COVID-19-Associated Benzodiazepine-Resistant Catatonia Responds to Amantadine. Joan Oh, BAa; Katrina Amber-Monta, MDb; Syed ...
Information and advice from Davies Veterinary Specialists Therapy and Fitness Centres Pain Clinic on the use of Amantadine for ... Which patients should receive Amantadine?. Amantadine should be considered as part of the initial multimodal therapy for any ... What is the dosage for Amantadine?. Because of its mechanism of action, amantadine should be used as part of a multimodal ... What are the adverse effects of Amantadine?. Adverse effects or drug interactions in dogs or cats receiving amantadine are ...
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  • Amantadine (brand names Gocovri, Symadine, and Symmetrel) is the organic compound 1-adamantylamine or 1-aminoadamantane, which consists of an adamantane backbone with an amino group substituted at one of the four tertiary carbons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amantadine is sold under the brand names Gocovri, Osmolex ER, Symadine and Symmetrel. (mentalhealth.com)
  • It has also demonstrated effectiveness in relieving fatigue in people who have all types of multiple sclerosis (MS). Symmetrel is also known by its drug name amantadine. (mymsteam.com)
  • Amantadine Compounded Transdermal Gel (Common brand names Symmetrel, Amantadine) is an ExpressVet exclusive used to treat chronic pain in small animals like cats. (expressvet.pharmacy)
  • Tried or prescribed Amantadine (Symmetrel) and Rimantadine (Flumadine)? (foundhealth.com)
  • In 1973, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved amantadine for use in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amantadine is used to treat Parkinson's disease-related dyskinesia and drug-induced parkinsonism syndromes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amantadine may be used alone or in combination with another anti-Parkinson's or anticholinergic drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extended release amantadine formulation is commonly used to treat dyskinesias in people receiving levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amantadine extended-release capsules (Gocovri) are used along with the combination of levodopa and carbidopa (Rytary, Sinemet) to treat ''off'' episodes (times of difficulty moving, walking, and speaking that may happen when other medications wear off) in people with Parkinson's disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are taking amantadine for Parkinson's disease, your doctor may start you on a low dose of amantadine and gradually increase your dose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amantadine has been used since the 1980s to address parkinsonian symptoms in patients with brain injury, a natural follow-on to its use in Parkinson's disease, Dr. Giacino said. (medscape.com)
  • Immediate-release amantadine has historically been used in Parkinson's disease (PD) to help tremor. (parkinson.org)
  • In 2017, an extended-release form of amantadine (Gocovri) was the first drug approved by the FDA specifically to treat dyskinesia in Parkinson's. (parkinson.org)
  • Immediate-release amantadine can be used alone for Parkinson's motor symptoms or as combination therapy with levodopa for levodopa-induced dyskinesia. (parkinson.org)
  • The mechanism of action of amantadine hydrochloride in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions is not known. (nih.gov)
  • Amantadine is used to treat Parkinson's disease , as well as side effects caused by drugs (such as drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms), chemicals, and other medical conditions. (webmd.com)
  • Amantadine is a medication that was originally developed as an influenza drug and is now primarily used to counteract the side effects of medication for Parkinson's disease. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Combined LEV/amantadine therapy might be useful as an adjunct to l -DOPA to treat dyskinetic side effects and to expand the population of Parkinson's disease patients who benefit from treatment with amantadine alone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Parkinson's disease : Amantadine Hydrochloride has been shown to be a low affinity antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. (sgpharma.com)
  • AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS are indicated in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Paralysis Agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, and symptomatic parkinsonism which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication. (sgpharma.com)
  • Amantadine, sold under the brand name Gocovri among others, is a medication used to treat dyskinesia associated with parkinsonism and influenza caused by type A influenzavirus, though its use for the latter is no longer recommended due to widespread drug resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amantadine comes as a capsule, extended-release capsule (Gocovri), tablet, extended-release tablet (Osmolex), and liquid to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People who are doing well on multiple doses per day of generic amantadine may not benefit from switching to one-a-day Gocovri or Osmolex ER, but people who experience side effects from amantadine now have another option. (parkinson.org)
  • In 2004, it was discovered that amantadine and memantine bind to and act as agonists of the σ1 receptor (Ki = 7.44 μM and 2.60 μM, respectively), and that activation of the σ1 receptor is involved in the dopaminergic effects of amantadine at therapeutically relevant concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other anticholinergic drugs, such as antihistamines, may enhance the anticholinergic effects of amantadine. (vin.com)
  • The specific symptoms targeted by amantadine therapy are dyskinesia and rigidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2003 Cochrane review had concluded there was insufficient evidence to prove the safety or efficacy of amantadine to treat dyskinesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extended-release amantadine is used as combination therapy with levodopa for levodopa-induced dyskinesia and "off" episodes , (changes in the ability to move as a levodopa dose wanes). (parkinson.org)
  • No trial has been done comparing immediate- and extended-release amantadine, but many trials show that amantadine in any formulation can be effective at suppressing dyskinesia. (parkinson.org)
  • Amantadine is frequently used as adjunctive therapy for l -DOPA-induced dyskinesia, but adverse effects limit its clinical utility. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The antiparkinsonian and antidyskinetic effects of LEV (13 and 60 mg/kg) and amantadine (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg), administered alone and in combination, were assessed in the MPTP-lesioned marmoset model of l -DOPA-induced dyskinesia ( n = 12). (aspetjournals.org)
  • LEV (60 mg/kg) and amantadine (0.3 mg/kg) administered alone significantly reduced l -DOPA-induced dyskinesia without compromising the antiparkinsonian action of l -DOPA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The combination of LEV (60 mg/kg) and amantadine (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg) significantly decreased dyskinesia severity, without compromising the antiparkinsonian action of l -DOPA, more efficaciously than LEV or amantadine monotherapy. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cholestatic syndrome rarely occurs with the hypokinetic variant of dyskinesia, when bile that continues to buy amantadine online normally does not enter the intestine in the proper volume, but accumulates in the gallbladder, leading to the appearance of yellowness of the skin and sclera, skin itching, dark urine and light feces, liver enlargement. (metometrel.shop)
  • Amantadine inhibits the replication of influenza A virus isolates from each of the subtypes, i.e. (nih.gov)
  • A quantitative relationship between the in vitro susceptibility of influenza A virus to amantadine and the clinical response to therapy has not been established in man. (nih.gov)
  • Sensitivity test results, expressed as the concentration of amantadine required to inhibit by 50% the growth of virus (ED 50 ) in tissue culture vary greatly (from 0.1 mcg/mL to 25 mcg/mL) depending upon the assay protocol used, size of virus inoculum, isolates of influenza A virus strains tested, and the cell type used. (nih.gov)
  • AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS are indicated for the prophylaxis and treatment of signs and symptoms of infection caused by various strains of influenza A virus. (sgpharma.com)
  • AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS are indicated for chemoprophylaxis against signs and symptoms of influenza A virus infection. (sgpharma.com)
  • AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS are also indicated in the treatment of uncomplicated respiratory tract illness caused by influenza A virus strains especially when administered early in the course of illness. (sgpharma.com)
  • There are no well-controlled clinical studies demonstrating that treatment with AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS will avoid the development of influenza A virus pneumonitis or other complications in high risk patients. (sgpharma.com)
  • There is no clinical evidence indicating that AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS are effective in the prophylaxis or treatment of viral respiratory tract illnesses other than those caused by influenza A virus strains. (sgpharma.com)
  • The Matrix 2 (M2) inhibitors ( amantadine and rimantadine ) have been used for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza A virus infections , however, resistance to these drugs has been widely reported. (bvsalud.org)
  • Amantadine and rimantadine function in a mechanistically identical fashion, entering the barrel of the tetrameric M2 channel and blocking pore function-i.e., proton translocation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance to the drug class is a consequence of mutations to the pore-lining amino acid residues of the channel, preventing both amantadine and rimantadine from binding and inhibiting the channel in their usual way. (wikipedia.org)
  • avian flu is resistant to the antiviral medicines, amantadine and rimantadine. (nih.gov)
  • In recent years, amantadine has also been found to be useful for some in reducing dyskinesias (involuntary movements) that occur with dopamine medication. (parkinson.org)
  • For the treatment of these conditions, amantadine is believed to work by restoring the balance of natural chemicals (neurotransmitters) in the brain .Amantadine is used to prevent or treat a certain type of flu ( influenza A). If you have been infected with the flu, this medication may help make your symptoms less severe and shorten the time it will take you to get better. (webmd.com)
  • This sleep effect may occur anytime during treatment with amantadine even if you have used this medication for a long time. (webmd.com)
  • Do not use this medication if you are allergic to amantadine or any ingredients of the medication. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Amantadine was first used as an antiviral medication against influenza, but it is mainly used now for its ability to inhibit something called an "NMDA receptor. (vin.com)
  • When the NMDA receptor is antagonized or blocked by a medication, such as amantadine, chronic pain may be alleviated. (vin.com)
  • Trimethoprim-sulfa (an antibiotic), quinidine (a heart medication), and thiazide diuretics may decrease the excretion of amantadine, yielding higher blood levels and making amantadine stronger. (vin.com)
  • Amantadine is a medication used to increase dopamine release and decreases dopamine reuptake. (psychdb.com)
  • Amantadine is an antiviral medication used for pain relief in dogs and cats. (hardypaw.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to amantadine, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in amantadine capsules, extended-release capsules, tablets, extended-release tablets, or liquid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Immediate-release amantadine is most commonly available in 100 mg capsules, although liquid and tablet forms can also be obtained. (parkinson.org)
  • Amantadine comes in different forms, including capsules and tablets, slow-release capsules and tablets, and an oral liquid. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Amantadine hydrochloride capsules should be held constant at 100 mg daily or twice daily while the daily dose of levodopa is gradually increased to optimal benefit. (babas.se)
  • Amantadine hydrochloride is available as 100 mg capsules for oral administration. (nih.gov)
  • Amantadine is available in both capsules and tablets. (hardypaw.com)
  • Amantadine has been tested for MS-related fatigue treatment but efficacy and safety remain unclear. (nih.gov)
  • The clinical efficacy of amantadine is thought to be mediated through its antagonism at the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors. (sgpharma.com)
  • We aimed to test the efficacy of amantadine in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients infected with genotype Ib. (bezmialem.edu.tr)
  • 2023. https://www.drugguide.com/ddo/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51035/6/amantadine. (drugguide.com)
  • Do not stop taking amantadine without talking to your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you suddenly stop taking amantadine, you may experience fever, confusion, changes in mental state, or severe muscle stiffness. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should not stop taking amantadine suddenly, as this can cause serious adverse effects, including psychosis, muscle problems, slurred speech, and fever. (mentalhealth.com)
  • AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS (Amantadine Hydrochloride) is a weak dopamine agonist with modest antiparkinsonian effects. (sgpharma.com)
  • AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS are orange coloured, circular biconvex uncoated tablets with breakline on one side. (sgpharma.com)
  • AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS are also indicated in the treatment of parkinsonism and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions. (sgpharma.com)
  • Because AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS do not completely prevent the host immune response to influenza A infection, individuals who take this drug may still develop immune responses to natural disease or vaccination and may be protected when later exposed to antigenically related viruses. (sgpharma.com)
  • AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS are not a substitute for early vaccination on an annual basis as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. (sgpharma.com)
  • Prescribers should consider available information on influenza drug susceptibility patterns and treatment effects when deciding whether to use AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS. (sgpharma.com)
  • To treat influenza A infections, amantadine should be taken within 24 to 48 hours of the start of flu symptoms, and continued for 24 to 48 hours after the symptoms disappear. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Residents were monitored three times each day for signs and symptoms of amantadine toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Amantadine pharmacokinetics were determined in 24 normal adult male volunteers after the oral administration of a single amantadine hydrochloride 100 mg soft gel capsule. (nih.gov)
  • Amantadine was first used for the treatment of influenza A. After antiviral properties were initially reported in 1963, amantadine received approval for prophylaxis against the influenza virus A in 1976. (wikipedia.org)
  • This statement discusses the presently available medical-control measures, immunoprophylaxis with vaccines, and prophylaxis or therapy with the antiviral drug, amantadine. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasma acetylamantadine accounted for up to 80% of the concurrent amantadine plasma concentration in 5 of 12 healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a 200 mg dose of amantadine. (nih.gov)
  • Amantadine has a half-life of around 15 hours, on average, which is the time it takes for the body to break down and eliminate half of the dose. (mentalhealth.com)
  • The recommended adult dose of amantadine varies according to the condition being treated. (medbroadcast.com)
  • On January 12, the Washington State Department of Health was notified of the outbreak and recommended that all residents receive amantadine, 100 mg orally in a single dose each day for 10 days. (cdc.gov)
  • If you miss a dose of Amantadine, take it as soon as possible. (2su.su)
  • Where to Buy Amantadine in Vancouver in 2022? (supyogatraveler.com)
  • La información en esta página debería ser considerada como ejemplos de información de antecedentes para la temporada de influenza 2021-2022 para la práctica médica respecto del uso de medicamentos antivirales contra la influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • As with many drugs, the exact mechanism of action by which amantadine works is not fully understood. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Amantadine can interact with other medications, drugs and alcohol. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Taking amantadine with antipsychotic drugs can increase the risk of psychosis. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Avian flu (H5N1) strains in China and southeast Asia are resistant to amantadine, so treatment for a human outbreak in these areas will require the use of different and more expensive anti-flu drugs. (3dchem.com)
  • Amantadine hydrochloride, USP is designated generically as amantadine hydrochloride, USP and chemically as 1-adamantanamine hydrochloride. (nih.gov)
  • Chemically, Amantadine Hydrochloride is Tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7] decan-1amine hydrochloride. (sgpharma.com)
  • Chickens in China have received an estimated 2.6 billion doses of amantadine. (3dchem.com)
  • Amantadine hydrochloride 4-8 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses. (ptmasterguide.com)
  • Compared with placebo, amantadine effectively accelerated the pace of recovery of cognitively mediated behaviors, such as recognition of objects or verbalization, activities that form the foundation for functional independence, the researchers report. (medscape.com)
  • To prevent influenza A infections, amantadine should be taken before or after contact with a person infected with influenza A, and continued for at least 10 days after contact with the virus. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Amantadine is an antiparasitic drug used to treat some parasitic infections. (veterinarymedicinedrugs.com)
  • Amantadine oral liquid is often used to treat Intestinal parasite infection infections, such as roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, etc. (veterinarymedicinedrugs.com)
  • Nick's post on Amantadine resistance in swine flu was so interesting, I had to look at the protein structures myself. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Surveillance of amantadine and oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses was begun in Hong Kong in 2006. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2008, while both A/Brisbane/59/2007-like and A/Hong Kong/2652/2006-like viruses (H1N1) were cocirculating, we detected amantadine and oseltamivir resistance among A/Hong Kong/2652/2006-like viruses (H1N1), caused by genetic reassortment or spontaneous mutation. (cdc.gov)
  • Surveillance of amantadine and oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses was begun in 2006 after a high rate of amantadine resistance was reported among subtype H3N2 viruses ( 2 ) and a stockpile of oseltamivir was purchased for pandemic preparedness. (cdc.gov)
  • The isolates were also tested for resistance to amantadine by an in-house-designed PCR (protocol available on request) and nucleotide sequencing of the matrix (M2) gene segment. (cdc.gov)
  • They all carried the H274Y mutation in the NA gene and showed an ≈1,000-fold reduction in susceptibility to oseltamivir (50% inhibitory concentration values increased from 0.5 nmol/L to 500 nmol/L). Analysis of the M2 genes showed that 3 (3.4%) of 87 oseltamivir-resistant isolates also carried the S31N mutation associated with amantadine resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • Amantadine resistance markers among low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 viruses isolated from poultry in India, during 2009-2017. (bvsalud.org)
  • Matrix genes of 48H9N2 viruses isolated from India during 2009-2017 were sequenced and M2 trans- membrane region sequences were screened for mutations which are known to confer resistance to amantadine namely, L26F, V27A, A30 T/V, S31N and G34E. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, resistance started to appear since the year 2010 and all the viruses isolated from the year 2015 onwards showed presence of molecular markers conferring resistance to amantadine . (bvsalud.org)
  • Comparison of the M2 sequences from other Asian countries showed different patterns of amantadine resistance wherein phylogenetic analysis of the M genes of the strains from Pakistan formed a separate cluster. (bvsalud.org)
  • In conclusion, the present study reports prevalence and gradual increase of amantadine resistance among AI H9N2 viruses in India , emphasizing the importance of the antiviral surveillance . (bvsalud.org)
  • In Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China, amantadine and oseltamivir are not commonly used to treat patients with influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • A subtype H1N1 virus resistant to oseltamivir, but sensitive to amantadine, was first detected in Hong Kong in January 2008, which coincided with the emergence of clade 2B A/Brisbane/59/2007-like viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Amantadine monotherapy of chronic hepati. (bezmialem.edu.tr)
  • Non-sustained biochemical improvement was observed without loss of HCV-RNA, We conclude that amantadine monotherapy is not effective in CHC. (bezmialem.edu.tr)
  • Amantadine is a weak antagonist of the NMDA-type glutamate receptor, increases dopamine release, and blocks dopamine reuptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some medicines may interact with Amantadine. (2su.su)
  • Ask your health care provider if Amantadine may interact with other medicines that you take. (2su.su)
  • Previously, all of the M2 sequences at GenBank from Vietnam or Thailand contained two Amantadine resistant polymorphisms, L26I and S31N. (recombinomics.com)
  • The sequences from Qinghai Lake are available and they do not have the Amantadine resistant markers. (recombinomics.com)
  • An M2-V27A channel blocker demonstrates potent in vitro and in vivo antiviral activities against amantadine-sensitive and -resistant influenza A viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Emergence of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses: epidemiological study. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic analysis showed that all oseltamivir-resistant strains of subtype H1N1 virus remained susceptible to amantadine. (cdc.gov)
  • We report detection of subtype H1N1 virus isolates that became resistant to amantadine and oseltamivir because of genetic reassortment and spontaneous mutation. (cdc.gov)
  • I couldn't find any structures with the S31N mutation that Nick discussed, but I did find some structures with the M2 protein and Amantadine. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Amantadine is in a class of medications called adamantanes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many other medications may also interact with amantadine, so be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications you are taking, even those that do not appear on this list. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Before prescribing amantadine, your doctor should discuss your medical history, any health problems you have, medications you are taking and any allergies. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Some diuretic medications can affect the rate at which amantadine is removed from the body, which can cause adverse reactions. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Amantadine belongs to the family of medications called antivirals . (medbroadcast.com)
  • Amantadine was originally developed as an antiviral drug to treat the flu. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Recently, amantadine is reported to have been used in China poultry farming in an effort to protect the birds against avian flu. (3dchem.com)
  • As plasma concentrations of amantadine increase, there is a greater risk for toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • There appears to be a relationship between plasma amantadine concentrations and toxicity. (nih.gov)
  • As concentration increases, toxicity seems to be more prevalent, however, absolute values of amantadine concentrations associated with adverse effects have not been fully defined. (nih.gov)
  • Amantadine can seriously interact with the dementia drug memantine, increasing the risk of central nervous system toxicity. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Evidence-based recommendations on amantadine (Lysovir), oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) for treating influenza in children and adults. (nice.org.uk)
  • Amantadine probably does not inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although amantadine has not been shown to possess direct anticholinergic activity in animal studies, clinically, it exhibits anticholinergic-like side effects such as dry mouth, urinary retention, and constipation. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, amantadine may also exert some anticholinergic activity. (sgpharma.com)
  • This guidance replaces NICE technology appraisal guidance on flu treatment - zanamivir, amantadine and oseltamivir (TA58). (nice.org.uk)
  • Eight metabolites of amantadine have been identified in human urine. (nih.gov)
  • Amantadine also has what are called anticholinergic effects, which include dry mouth (which is seen as increased thirst), retaining urine, and an increased heart rate. (vin.com)
  • Your veterinarian may prescribe Amantadine for the treatment of chronic pain, neurologic pain, and pain associated with osteosarcoma. (hardypaw.com)