DibenzothiepinsAlpha-Amanitin: A cyclic octapeptide with a thioether bridge between the cystine and tryptophan. It inhibits RNA POLYMERASE II. Poisoning may require LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Amanitins: Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.Maytansine: An ansa macrolide isolated from the MAYTENUS genus of East African shrubs.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.TriazolesDatabases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Fonofos: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.Amanita: A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Ruthenium: A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.

Onset of nucleolar and extranucleolar transcription and expression of fibrillarin in macaque embryos developing in vitro. (1/436)

Specific aims were to characterize the onset of nucleolar and extranucleolar transcription and expression of the nucleolar protein fibrillarin during preimplantation development in vitro in macaque embryos using autoradiographic and immunocytochemical techniques. Autoradiography was performed on whole embryos cultured with [3H]uridine for assessment of nucleolar (rRNA) and extranucleolar (mRNA) transcription. Expression of fibrillarin was immunocytochemically assessed in whole embryos using a primary antibody against fibrillarin and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated secondary antibody. Extranucleolar incorporation of [3H]uridine was first detected in 2-cell embryos cultured 6-10 h with [3H]uridine. Culture with alpha-amanitin prevented incorporation of label in 2-cell embryos, and treatment with ribonuclease reduced the signal to background levels, indicating that [3H]uridine was incorporated into mRNA and not rRNA or DNA. Nucleolar incorporation of [3H]uridine was not evident in pronucleate-stage or 2- to 5-cell embryos, but it was detected in one 6-cell embryo and in all 8-cell to blastocyst-stage embryos. Fibrillarin was first expressed in some 6- to 7-cell embryos, but it was consistently expressed in all 8-cell embryos. Fibrillarin was localized to the perimeter of the nucleolar precursor bodies, forming a ring that completely encapsulated these structures. Fibrillarin was not expressed in 8- to 16-cell embryos cultured with alpha-amanitin, indicating that it is transcribed, rather than recruited, at the 8-cell stage. In conclusion, in in vitro-fertilized macaque embryos developing in vitro, extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA is initiated at the 2-cell stage while the onset of nucleolar transcription occurs at the 6- to 8-cell stage, coincident with expression of fibrillarin.  (+info)

Bone marrow ribonucleic acid polymerase. Effect of testosterone on nucleotide incorporation into nuclear RNA. (2/436)

The incorporation of 3H-UTP into RNA by isolated rat bone marrow nuclei is stimulated by testosterone. This effect is hormone and tissue specific. Using alpha-amanitine and different ionic strength conditions it was found that testosterone enhances preferentially RNA polymerase I activity. The sedimentation pattern of RNA isolated from bone marrow nuclei shows that the synthesis of RNA species within the 14-30 S range is mainly stimulated by the hormone.  (+info)

Stochastic and nonstochastic post-transcriptional silencing of chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase genes involves increased RNA turnover-possible role for ribosome-independent RNA degradation. (3/436)

Stochastic and nonstochastic post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in Nicotiana sylvestris plants carrying tobacco class I chitinase (CHN) and beta-1,3-glucanase transgenes differs in incidence, stability, and pattern of expression. Measurements with inhibitors of RNA synthesis (cordycepin, actinomycin D, and alpha-amanitin) showed that both forms of PTGS are associated with increased sequence-specific degradation of transcripts, suggesting that increased RNA turnover may be a general feature of PTGS. The protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and verrucarin A did not inhibit degradation of CHN RNA targeted for PTGS, confirming that PTGS-related RNA degradation does not depend on ongoing protein synthesis. Because verrucarin A, unlike cycloheximide, dissociates mRNA from ribosomes, our results also suggest that ribosome-associated RNA degradation pathways may not be involved in CHN PTGS.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of RNA polymerase B from the larval fat body of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. (4/436)

DNA-dependent RNA polymerase B has been extensively purified from the larval fat body of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) by employing chromatography on ion-exchange columns of DEAE-Sephadex, DEAE-cellulose and phosphocellulose and centrifugation on glycerol gradients. The isolated enzyme after electrophoresis on acrylamide gels shows one main band and one minor band, both having enzyme activity sensitive to alpha-amanitin. The catalytic and physicochemical properties of the enzyme are similar to those of other eucaryotic B-type RNA polymerases. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 530000, is inhibited 50% by alpha-amanitin at 0.04 microgram/ml and shows maximum activity on denatured DNA at 5 mM Mn2+ and 100 mM ammonium sulfate. An antibody was obtained that cross-reacts with the pure enzyme and forms a precipitin line. This antibody does not cross react with either Escherichia coli RNA polymerase or with wheat germ RNA polymerase but does react with one of the B polymerases isolated from wing tissue of the silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi.  (+info)

Inefficient processing impairs release of RNA from the site of transcription. (5/436)

We describe here for the first time the site of retention within the nucleus of pre-mRNA processing mutants unable to be exported to the cytoplasm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to detect transcripts from human beta-globin genes that are either normal or defective in splicing or 3' end formation. Nuclear transcripts of both wild-type and mutant RNAs are detected only as intranuclear foci that colocalize with the template gene locus. The kinetics of transcript release from the site of transcription was assessed by treatment of cells with the transcriptional inhibitors actinomycin D, alpha-amanitin and DRB. These drugs induce the rapid disappearance of nuclear foci corresponding to wild-type human beta-globin RNA. In contrast, pre-mRNA mutants defective in either splicing or 3' end formation and which fail to be transported to the cytoplasm, are retained at the site of transcription. Therefore, 3' end processing and splicing appear to be rate limiting for release of mRNA from the site of transcription.  (+info)

Ubiquitination of RNA polymerase II large subunit signaled by phosphorylation of carboxyl-terminal domain. (6/436)

A sensitive assay using biotinylated ubiquitin revealed extensive ubiquitination of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II during incubations of transcription reactions in vitro. Phosphorylation of the repetitive carboxyl-terminal domain of the large subunit was a signal for ubiquitination. Specific inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-type kinases suppress the ubiquitination reaction. These kinases are components of transcription factors and have been shown to phosphorylate the carboxyl-terminal domain. In both regulation of transcription and DNA repair, phosphorylation of the repetitive carboxyl-terminal domain by kinases might signal degradation of the polymerase.  (+info)

The transcriptional inhibitors, actinomycin D and alpha-amanitin, activate the HIV-1 promoter and favor phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain. (7/436)

Actinomycin D and alpha-amanitin are commonly used to inhibit transcription. Unexpectedly, however, the transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) long terminal repeats (LTR) is shown to be activated at the level of elongation, in human and murine cells exposed to these drugs, whereas the Rous sarcoma virus LTR, the human cytomegalovirus immediate early gene (CMV), and the HSP70 promoters are repressed. Activation of the HIV LTR is independent of the NFkappaB and TAR sequences and coincides with an enhanced average phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) from the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Both the HIV-1 LTR activation and the bulk CTD phosphorylation enhancement are prevented by several CTD kinase inhibitors, including 5, 6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole. The efficacies of the various compounds to block CTD phosphorylation and transcription in vivo correlate with their capacities to inhibit the CDK9/PITALRE kinase in vitro. Hence, the positive transcription elongation factor, P-TEFb, is likely to contribute to the average CTD phosphorylation in vivo and to the activation of the HIV-1 LTR induced by actinomycin D.  (+info)

RNA polymerase II targets pre-mRNA splicing factors to transcription sites in vivo. (8/436)

Biochemical evidence indicates that pre-mRNA splicing factors physically interact with the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. We have investigated the in vivo function of this interaction. In mammalian cells, truncation of the CTD of RNA pol II LS prevents the targeting of the splicing machinery to a transcription site. In the absence of the CTD, pre-mRNA splicing is severely reduced. The presence of unspliced RNA alone is not sufficient for the accumulation of splicing factors at the transcription site, nor for its efficient splicing. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the CTD of RNA pol II LS in the intranuclear targeting of splicing factors to transcription sites in vivo.  (+info)

*Epsilon-Amanitin

... or ε-amanitin is a Cyclic peptide. It is an amatoxin, all of which are found in several members of the Amanita ... The oral LD50 of ε-amanitin is approximately 0.1 mg/kg. Like other amatoxins, ε-amanitin is an inhibitor of RNA polymerase II. ...

*Alpha-Amanitin

... or α-amanitin is a cyclic peptide of eight amino acids. It is possibly the most deadly of all the amatoxins, ... The unique mode of action or MOA of α-amanitin seems to make the amanitin-based antibody-drug conjugates a suitable toxic ... α-Amanitin is a selective inhibitor of RNA polymerase II and III. This mechanism makes it a deadly toxin. α-Amanitin can also ... has developed a new antibody-drug conjugate or ADC technology based on α-amanitin. Amanitin-based ADCs have shown outstanding ...

*Gamma-Amanitin

... or γ-amanitin is a Cyclic peptide of eight amino acids. It is an amatoxin, a group of toxins isolated from and ...

*Beta-Amanitin

Due to the presence of α-amanitin, β-amanitin, γ-amanitin and ε-amanitin these mushrooms are highly lethal to human beings. The ... beta-Amanitin or β-amanitin is a cyclic peptide comprising eight amino acids. It is part of a group of toxins called amatoxins ... "β-amanitin", Retrieved on 12 March 2013. "Material Safety Data Sheet for beta Amanitin"[permanent dead link], Retrieved on 12 ... The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permists exposure of β-amanitin up to 5 mg/m3 β-amanitin may ...

*Galerina marginata

... was shown in various studies to contain the amatoxins α-amanitin and γ-amanitin, first as G. venenata, then ... Later experiments confirmed the occurrence of γ-amanitin and β-amanitin in German specimens of G. autumnalis and G. marginata ... Both amanitins were quantified in G. autumnalis (1.5 mg/g dry weight) and G. marginata (1.1 mg/g dry weight). ... Based on this value, the ingestion of 10 G. marginata fruit bodies containing about 250 µg of amanitins per gram of fresh ...

*RNA polymerase II

... is inhibited by α-Amanitin and other amatoxins. Alpha-Amanitin is a highly poisonous substance found in many ... Alpha-Amanitin inhibits RNAP II by strong interactions in the enzyme's "funnel", "cleft", and the key "bridge α-helix" regions ... Gong, Xue Q.; Nedialkov, Yuri A.; Burton, Zachary F. (2004-06-25). "α-Amanitin Blocks Translocation by Human RNA Polymerase II ... "The RNA polymerase II trigger loop functions in substrate selection and is directly targeted by alpha-amanitin". Molecular Cell ...

*Amatoxin

Alpha-amanitin binds to the bridge helix of the RNA Pol II complex and it also binds to part of the complex that is adjacent to ... beta-Amanitin is also an inhibitor of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II and RNA polymerase III, and as a result, mammalian protein ... One study done on mice shows that alpha-Amanitin is not absorbed through skin and therefore can not have any toxic effects. ... Because it inactivates the RNA polymerases, the liver is unable to repair the damage that beta-amanitin causes and the cells of ...

*Lepiota brunneoincarnata

It is known to contain deadly amounts of alpha-amanitin and was responsible for a fatal poisoning in Spain in 2002, and for the ... A family in Salon-de-Provence in France was poisoned after mistaking them for the grey knight (Tricholoma terreum). Amanitin ... Intravenous silibinin has a role in reducing amanitin uptake. Other specific measures include penicillin G and n-acetylcysteine ...

*Amanita phalloides

Of the amatoxins, α-amanitin is the chief component and along with β-amanitin is likely responsible for the toxic effects. ... The principal toxic constituent is α-amanitin, which damages the liver and kidneys, causing hepatic and renal failure that can ... Jahn, W. (1980). "Pharmacokinetics of {3H}-methyl-dehydroxymethyl-amanitin in the isolated perfused rat liver, and the ... "Molecular characterization and inhibition of amanitin uptake into human hepatocytes". Toxicol. Sci. 91 (1): 140-49. doi:10.1093 ...

*Mushroom poisoning

Alpha-amanitin: For 6-12 hours, there are no symptoms. This is followed by a period of gastrointestinal upset (vomiting and ... Patients hospitalized and given aggressive support therapy almost immediately after ingestion of amanitin-containing mushrooms ... α-amanitin, the poison produced by the death cap (Amanita phalloides) and others of the genus, is not denatured by heat. " ...

*Galerina sulciceps

Although these clinical symptoms are inconsistent with those of amatoxin poisoning, the presence of α-, β- and γ- amanitins in ... amanitins; a series of poisonings in Indonesia in the 1930s resulted in 14 deaths from the consumption of this species. It has ... The survey of fungi containing amanitins and phalloidins]. Časopis Lékařů Českých (in Czech). 132: 449-51. Besl H. (1981). " ... while later studies of toxin concentrations in amanitin-containing mushrooms corroborate this view. The symptoms of poisoning ...

*Galerina

Many (though not all) Galerina contain alpha-amanitin and other amatoxins. Galerina steglichii is very rare, bruises blue and ... Klán J. (1993). "Prehled hub obsahujících amanitiny a faloidiny [A review of mushrooms containing amanitins and phalloidines ...

*Amanita

The most potent toxin present in these mushrooms is α-amanitin. The genus also contains many edible mushrooms, but mycologists ...

*Oligopeptide

Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanita phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals. Antipain - An ... Examples of oligopeptides include: Amanitins - Cyclic peptides taken from carpophores of several different mushroom species. ...

*Cyclic peptide

Examples include: Amanitins Bacitracin Colistin Ciclosporin Dactinomycin Daptomycin Gramicidin S Hymenistatin Microcystins ... for example in amanitin. Many cyclic peptides have been discovered in nature and many others have been synthesized in the ... Bicyclic peptides such as the amatoxin amanitin and the phallotoxin phalloidin contain a bridging group, generally between two ...

*Amanita bisporigera

One mature fruit body can contain 10-12 mg of α-amanitin, enough for a lethal dose. The α-amanitin concentration in the spores ... Three subtypes of amatoxin have been described: α-, β, and γ-amanitin. The principal amatoxin, α-amanitin, is readily absorbed ... Roughly 0.2 to 0.4 milligrams of α-amanitin is present in 1 gram of A. bisporigera; the lethal dose in humans is less than 0.1 ... Zhang P, Chen Z, Hu J, Wei B, Zhang Z, Hu W (2005). "Production and characterization of Amanitin toxins from a pure culture of ...

*Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides

α-Amanitin, an amatoxin, has a number of posttranslational modifications in addition to macrocyclization and formation of the ... As an amatoxin, α-amanitin is an inhibitor of RNA polymerase II. Bottromycins contain a C-terminal decarboxylated thiazole in ...

*Amaninamide

It differs from alpha-amanitin in lacking the hydroxyl group on tryptophan. This alters its UV absorption spectrum but not its ...

*Amanita exitialis

Amatoxins content (alpha-amanitin and beta-amanitins especially alpha-amanitin) in the cap, stem or volva of A. exitialis was ... The content and distribution of the main amatoxins (alpha-amanitin, beta-amanitin) and phallotoxins (phallacidin, phallisin, ... Zhang P, Chen Z, Hu J, Wei B, Zhang Z, Hu W (2005). "Production and characterization of Amanitin toxins from a pure culture of ...

*Amanita virosa

Of the amatoxins, α-amanitin is the chief component and along with β-amanitin is likely responsible for the toxic effects. ... Jahn, W. (1980). "Pharmacokinetics of {3H}-methyl-dehydroxymethyl-amanitin in the isolated perfused rat liver, and the ... its principal toxic constituent α-amanitin damages the liver and kidneys, usually fatally. The common name of destroying angel ...

*List of poisonous fungus species

Johnson, Billy C; Preston, James F (1980-03-28). "α-Amanitin-resistant RNA polymerase II from carpophores of Amanita species ...

*Patrick Cramer

Bushnell DA, Cramer P, Kornberg RD: Structural basis of transcription: alpha-amanitin-RNA polymerase II cocrystal at 2.8 A ... Bushnell, David A.; Cramer, Patrick; Kornberg, Roger D. (2002-02-05). "Structural basis of transcription: α-Amanitin-RNA ...

*Armillaria

Galerina have a dark brown spore print and are deadly poisonous (alpha-amanitin) - see: mushroom poisoning. Honey fungus is a " ...

*Lepiota brunneolilacea

It is known to contain deadly amounts of alpha-Amanitin, and was responsible for a fatal poisoning. Fungi portal List of deadly ...

*Synthetic lethality

POLR2A encodes the catalytic subunit of RNA POLII complex and is susceptible to inhibition by alpha-Amanitin. In colorectal ...
The WW domain is a protein module found in a wide range of signaling proteins. It is one of the smallest protein modules that folds as a monomer without disulfide bridges or cofactors. WW domains bind proteins containing short linear peptide motifs that are proline-rich or contain at least one proline. Although the WW domain was initially considered a cytoplasmic module, the proteins containing WW domains have also been localized in the cell nucleus. Moreover, these proteins have been documented to participate in co-activation of transcription and modulation of RNA polymerase II activity. The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II acts as an assembly platform for distinct WW domain-containing proteins that affect the function of the RNA polymerase II. The formation of complexes between CTD and WW domain-containing proteins is regulated by phosphorylation of the CTD. Since the CTD sequence is highly repetitive and a target of several post-translational modifications and ...
The overall objective of the proposed project is to harness a newly discovered, active transendothelial transport pathway, the caveolae pumping system, to provi...
Giardia lamblia is an early branching eukaryote, and although distinctly eukaryotic in its cell and molecular biology, transcription and translation in G. lamblia demonstrate important differences from these processes in higher eukaryotes. The cyclic octapeptide amanitin is a relatively selective inhibitor of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and is commonly used to study RNAP II transcription. Therefore, we measured the sensitivity of G. lamblia RNAP II transcription to alpha-amanitin and found that unlike most other eukaryotes, RNAP II transcription in Giardia is resistant to 1 mg/ml amanitin. In contrast, 50 microg/ml amanitin inhibits 85% of RNAP III transcription activity using leucyl-tRNA as a template. To better understand transcription in G. lamblia, we identified 10 of the 12 known eukaryotic rpb subunits, including all 10 subunits that are required for viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The amanitin motif (amanitin binding site) of Rpb1 from G. lamblia has amino acid ...
El género Amanita contiene más de 500 especies y variedades. La siguiente lista, que no es exhaustiva, sigue la clasificación de subgéneros y secciones de Amanita establecido por Corner y Bas (1962) y Bas (1969),[1]​[2]​ y utilizada por Tulloss (2007).[3]​ Los asteriscos (*) indican que se trata de la especie tipo de esa sección mientras que los dobles asteriscos (**) indican que es la especie tipo de todo el género.[4]​[5]​[6]​[7]​ Amanita albocreata - (Norteamérica) Amanita altipes (sudoeste de China) Amanita aprica - (Norteamérica) Amanita armeniaca - (Australia) Amanita augusta - USA Amanita breckonii - oeste de USA Amanita eliae - (Europa) Amanita farinosa - (este de Norteamérica hasta América Central) Amanita frostiana - (este de Norteamérica) Amanita gemmata - (Europa) Amanita ibotengutake - (Japón) Amanita muscaria ** - matamoscas (de distribución mundial) Amanita nehuta - (Nueva Zelanda) Amanita parcivolvata - USA Amanita petalinivolva - (Brasil) Amanita ...
Accepted name: DNA-directed RNA polymerase. Reaction: nucleoside triphosphate + RNAn = diphosphate + RNAn+1. Other name(s): RNA polymerase; RNA nucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed); RNA polymerase I; RNA polymerase II; RNA polymerase III; RNA nucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed); C RNA formation factors; deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid polymerase; DNA-dependent ribonucleate nucleotidyltransferase; DNA-dependent RNA nucleotidyltransferase; DNA-dependent RNA polymerase; ribonucleate nucleotidyltransferase; ribonucleate polymerase; C ribonucleic acid formation factors;ribonucleic acid nucleotidyltransferase; ribonucleic acid polymerase; ribonucleic acid transcriptase; ribonucleic polymerase; ribonucleic transcriptase; C RNA formation factors; RNA nucleotidyltransferase; RNA transcriptase; transcriptase; RNA nucleotidyltransferase I. Systematic name: nucleoside-triphosphate:RNA nucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed). Comments: Catalyses DNA-template-directed extension of the 3- ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. amanitin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
55325-99-0 - GBHLBBPUSBXKSA-AGOVMNPFSA-N - alpha-Amanitin, 4-(2-mercapto-6-methoxy-L-tryptophan)-, S-oxide - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Although not really micro, thought some people here might appreciate this large amanita I found while looking for a good fishing spot today ...
Actually, you will likely need one lot additionally than that many. Understructure bugs are already known to finally hide by using every small-scale space your family home. If ever sold you come to feel that achieving a Learning to make bed bug removal is without a doubt a good sized hassle, in which you will certainly opt on behalf of contractors on the inside your location. Call a special exterminator to finally come information about to an home in order to see you are possible pests. Sprays adore Aerosol insecticides can in reality be detrimental.. In terms of the vacationers health, current exploration indicates a these bugs do no more appear to successfully spread deseases even actually they can possibly harbor adequately over twenty-five different pathogens. Sometimes, maintain it developed in your ultimate mind any there have always been stages in just pest affect that are often so development already, simply not true amount to "doing-it-yourself" ought to stop the. Thats is in fact what ...
Amanita phalloides is an extremely poisonous mushroom. The upper surface of the cap is grayish, brownish, or greenish. The mushroom grows six inches tall.. ...
GO Terms Descrition:, RNA polymerase II activity, DNA binding, DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity, protein binding, nucleus, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II, core complex, transcription, DNA-templated, gastrulation, embryo development ending in birth or egg hatching, transferase activity, nucleotidyltransferase activity, mRNA transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, metal ion binding, reproduction, mitotic spindle organization, exit from mitosis, asymmetric cell division, developmental process, protein methylation, hatching, nematode larval development, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter ...
Buenos noches, Do you know anything about the poisonous Amanitas in Europe? Exactly, how do they poison the liver? And are the early effects of vomiting and diarrhea due to the amatoxins or other more conventional poisons? How, exactly, is the RNA polymerase system affected by the amatoxins? What are your thoughts? BBathm3939 at AOL ...
CHEMICAL ASPECTS: The chemical properties listed below have been detected and/or isolated from the following species: Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Amanita regalis, Amanita corthurnata, Amanita
Garcia J, Costa VM, Carvalho A, Baptista P, de Pinho PG, de Lourdes Bastos M, et al. Amanita phalloides poisoning: Mechanisms of toxicity and treatment. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Sep 12. 86:41-55. ...
... : identification pictures (images), habitat, edible or poisonous; taxonomy, etymology, synonyms, similar species
Get tickets to see Amanitas Banda live. Explore the 2017 tour dates schedule for Amanitas Banda. Download the Bandsintown app to never miss a show.
This poison-cup may be taken as the cautionary symbol of the genus Amanita, common to all the species. Any mushroom or toadstool, therefore, whose stem is thus set in a socket, or which has any sugg...
I just consumed 5 grams of Amanita Muscarias. If I want to go farther I will eat more later. Wish me luck. Trip report will follow.
In article ,4fdffa$b9p at onramp.arc.nasa.gov,, watson at pioneer.arc.nasa.gov says... , , ,Recently there has been another rash of mushroom ,poisonings in our area due to Amanita phalloides. ,From what I read in the newspaper, the victims were ,immigrants from Asia, and mistook Amanita phalloides ,for an edible Asian variety. What the paper didnt ,mention was exactly what was that muchroom, only that ,it was straw mushroom and that it had the same growth patterns ,as Amanita phalloides (they didnt explain what they meant by that). Hi ! Probably some Volvariella species ? Usually cultured in Asia. Differences are the absence of a ring and the pink spores (when mature!) Sincerely regis ...
1. The two subunits α and β of Halobacterium cutirubrum DNA-dependent RNA polymerase are required in equimolar amounts for RNA synthesis to occur in vitro at the maximum rate. 2. In the absence of bivalent cations no interaction occurs between α and β subunits or between the subunits and DNA. 3. Mn2+ causes the subunits to form a 1:1 complex that still does not bind to the template. 4. Mg2+ permits binding of the Mn2+-mediated complex to DNA. 5. The complete enzyme, αβ, is inhibited by rifampicin and only the β subunit relieves the inhibition when added in excess. 6. Rifampicin-insensitive, template-dependent RNA synthesis occurs in the presence of protein α alone provided an oligonucleotide with a 5′-purine terminus is supplied as primer. 7. In the primed reaction with the α protein and an oligonucleotide, the template specificity is independent of the ionic strength, in contrast with the marked effect of salt concentration on the template specificity of the complete enzyme. 8. It is ...
The death cap grows either singly or in groups, and typically occurs between July and October in Europe and North America, and from March to July in South Africa (4) . This deadly species contains two types of toxins. The effects of consuming even
Seven cases of amatoxin poisoning reported in this case series confirms the existence of deadly amatoxin-containing mushroom in our locality. Poisonous Amanita species have long been found in Hong Kong. Although local cases of amatoxin poisoning have not been reported in Hong Kong before 2013, it has been well-reported in mainland China.7 8 9 According to a report published by Guangzhou Municipal Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, there were 92 cases of mushroom poisoning with 13 deaths in the years 2002 to 2005.9 The reported species of mushroom involved in 70% of cases were the amatoxin-containing mushroom Amanita exitialis and the gastroenteritic mushroom Chlorophyllum molybdites.9 For amatoxin poisoning, the latency between ingestion and onset of symptoms was typically 6 to 24 hours.3 For our seven cases of amatoxin poisoning, this latency ranged from 8 to 12 (median, 11) hours. There were four male and three female patients, with a median age of 44 (range, 29-74) years. All cases ...
Legalon® SIL will be administered to patients with amatoxin poisoning diagnosed by history, gastrointestinal symptoms, elevated liver enzymes, and/or diagnostic assay (should one become available). Patients may or may not also demonstrate abnormalities in bilirubin and/or creatinine. Treatment consists of a 5 mg/kg loading dose followed by 20 mg/kg/day via continuous infusion. The treating physician is expected to administer supportive therapy of his/her choosing but consistent with best practices. Legalon® SIL will be stopped when coagulopathy is no longer present, and when liver function tests have returned significantly towards the normal range. Patients will be followed 7-14 days after the end of Legalon® SIL therapy with follow up lab studies ...
Legalon® SIL will be administered to patients with amatoxin poisoning diagnosed by history, gastrointestinal symptoms, elevated liver enzymes, and/or diagnostic assay (should one become available). Patients may or may not also demonstrate abnormalities in bilirubin and/or creatinine. Treatment consists of a 5 mg/kg loading dose followed by 20 mg/kg/day via continuous infusion. The treating physician is expected to administer supportive therapy of his/her choosing but consistent with best practices. Legalon® SIL will be stopped when coagulopathy is no longer present, and when liver function tests have returned significantly towards the normal range. Patients will be followed 7-14 days after the end of Legalon® SIL therapy with follow up lab studies ...
Time- and dose-dependence of the formation of the different cytoplasmic hormone-protein complexes were studied in the rat liver after administration in vivo of [3H]cortisol or [3H]dexamethasone and compared with the stimulation of RNA polymerase B and induction of tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan oxygenase. No correlation could be found between formation in vivo of any of the five cytoplasmic hormone-protein complexes found and stimulation of RNA polymerase B activity or enzyme induction. After administration of [3H]cortisol, different metabolites of cortisol could be demonstrated in the isolated hormone-protein complexes. No time- or dose-dependence of the metabolite patterns could be observed after application of hormone doses that were in the range of the biologically active doses. After administration of [3H]dexamethasone, the same hormone-protein complexes were observed, which contained, however, the injected steroid instead of metabolites. These results seem to indicate that the ...
Looking for Amanita? Find out information about Amanita. : see mushroom mushroom, type of basidium fungus characterized by spore-bearing gills on the underside of the umbrella- or cone-shaped cap. The name... Explanation of Amanita
What have we done we have to go so far away just to hear it to forget what we are in the forest itll be different this time when we come back it will Amanita light it up at last or whats left of it Im not…
The genus Lepiota lacks a volva, but the veil is present forming a ring on the stem. The genus is closely related to Amanita, from which it differs in the absence of the volva, or perhaps more properl...
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Common component of RNA polymerases I, II and III which synthesize ribosomal RNA precursors, mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs, and small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs, respectively. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Pols are composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. In Pol II, POLR2E/RPB5 is part of the lower jaw surrounding the central large cleft and thought to grab the incoming DNA template. Seems to be the major component in this process (By similarity).
Amanita augusta. [ Basidiomycetes > Agaricales > Amanitaceae > Amanita . . . ]. by Michael Kuo. Amanita augusta is a recently named West-Coast species with a gorgeous brown cap that features yellow warts. The base of the stem features flaky yellow patches of universal veil material, and the upper stem displays a pale yellow ring. The species is fond of conifers, although it is sometimes reported under live oaks.. Amanita augusta was previously misidentified as the European species Amanita franchetii. For a somewhat similar species in eastern North America, see Amanita species 06.. Description:. Ecology: Mycorrhizal with conifers (especially Bishop pine and Douglas-fir), and sometimes reported under coast live oak; usually growing alone or scattered; fall and winter; northern California to Alaska.. Cap: 4-15 cm; convex, becoming broadly convex or flat; dry; brown to yellow-brown, often with a paler marginal area (in wet conditions sometimes becoming yellow overall); adorned with yellow to ...
Notice to our users== Please help us to improve this small molecules wiki and our other wikis by registering for a wiki account through our normal feedback email. ==Important small molecule references== *[http://www.xenbase.org/literature/article.do?method=display&articleId=35021 Database of Small Molecules by Feldman and Hogue 2006] at [https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ PubChem] *[http://www.xenbase.org/literature/article.do?method=display&articleId=47903 Wnt/Notch by Myers and Krieg 2014] *[http://www.xenbase.org/literature/article.do?method=display&articleId=970 Ubiquitin-proteasome by Salic and King 2005] ==Alphabetical List of Small Molecules With Literature References== *[[1,3-Dicyclohexylurea]] *[[11-cis retinal]] *[[18alpha-glycyrretinic acid]] *[[2-deoxyadenosine]] *[[2-APB]] *[[2-Deoxyglucose]] *[[3,3,5-triiodothyronine (T3)]] *[[5HT (seratonin)]] *[[8-Pcpt-2-O-Me-cAMP-AM]] *[[activin]] *[[Adenosine, periodate oxidized]] *[[AG1296]] *[[AG1879]] *[[AGN193109]] *[[alpha-amanitin]] ...
Amanita submembranacea mushroom: identification pictures (images), habitat, edible or poisonous; taxonomy, etymology, synonyms, similar species
On the techtab, here:. http://www.amanitaceae.org?Amanita%20penetratrix. in the "material examined" data field.. Yes, this collection was dried in part.. The NEMF2015 foray produced many, many collections of solitary specimens of this species. The longest stipe measured was 220 mm, with over 130 mm underground.. A full range of cap colors were on view from white to pale tan to medium brown. If there are more than one species present in the mix, maybe we now have the material to figure that out.. My luck with collections of this species did a big turn around in New London. Many collectors produced good collections. My dryer didnnt fail. One or two collectors even got down to the absolute bottom of the stem and retrieved the saccate volva. Thanks to all of you.. Very best,. Rod ...
The nonprotein amino acids 2-amino-3-cyclopropylbutanoic acid and 2-amino-5-chloro-4-pentenoic acid were isolated from the mushroom Amanita cokeri. The cyclopropyl amino acid is toxic to the fungus Ce
Une base de donn es mycologique interactive avec fiches descriptives et photos de champignons, cartographie des r coltes, classification du r gne fongique, cl de d termination macroscopique des familles et cl s de d termination informatique pour chaque famille
Une base de donn es mycologique interactive avec fiches descriptives et photos de champignons, cartographie des r coltes, classification du r gne fongique, cl de d termination macroscopique des familles et cl s de d termination informatique pour chaque famille
Klobouk je sv tle ed a tmavo ed . V ml d zvoncovit , pozd ji ploch . Na okraji je velice n padn r hov n . Lupeny jsou hust a b l . T e je 12 cm dlouh a sm rem nahoru se zu uje. Barvu m b lou a sv tle edou. Du ina je b l a velmi jemnou chu . V trusov prach je b l ...
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Common component of RNA polymerases I, II and III which synthesize ribosomal RNA precursors, mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs, and small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs, respectively.
Professor Joubert teaches how to extend a healthy cancer-free Lifespan to 122 years thanks to safe, efficient and cost friendly breakthrough protocols. Working on a documentary and book that redefines Medicine in light of new discoveries, ancient wisdoms, innovative research and holistic science, he can be nonetheless available to coach patients back to homeostasis, wellbeing & Joie de Vivre. On occasion, Pr. Joubert can also coach health professionals to better protect their holistic practice when they must deviate from outdated and-or irrational mainstream "standards of care" in order to genuinely serve their patients, evidence-strong Science and internationally recognized human rights. For details, see the links called "Contact" and "Mission" (under the "About" link).. ...
The point is not to use things like paper and wood which will darken due to the presence of starches or starch-containing compounds and fool you into thinking that the spores in the spore print are turning dark.. If you put iodine on a potatoe in the 7th grade (or thereabouts) you have seen the amyloid reaction. The amyloid reaction divides the genus Amanita just about in half (with very few known exceptional cases). An amanita is in one of these sections (Amanita, Caesareae, and Vaginatae) if the spores dont darken with iodine (are inamyloid). Otherwise, the spores become blue-black (I cant see the blue myself) and the section is either Amidella, Phalloideae, Lepidella, or Validae. The spores are said to be "amyloid" if they turn dark in iodine. The known possible exceptions to the alignment of iodine reaction with subgenus are in the Old World tropics and number less than half-a-dozen to date…out of about 770 probable amanita taxa that are listed on www.amanitaceae.org (WAO).. Very ...
Amanita pachycolea. [ Basidiomycetes > Agaricales > Amanitaceae > Amanita . . . ]. by Michael Kuo. This West-coast species is King among the North American members of the Amanita vaginata species group. Like the others it lacks a ring, and features a sacklike volva and a strongly lined cap--but it stands up to 25 cm high and sports a cap that can get as wide as 15 cm or more. Take a look at the "buttons" in the photos to the right, which seem boring enough--until you get your mind around the comparative size of the pennies!. Other distinctive features of Amanita pachycolea include its dark brown cap, which usually fades at the margin and often appears to have gradually darkening zones of color towards the center; the brownish stem; the gill edges, which have brownish edges at maturity; and microscopic features. It is found primarily in northern California, but is also documented from the Pacific coasts of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia.. Description:. Ecology: Mycorrhizal with ...
Martín, María P. & Hanna Johannesson. Battarea phalloides and B. stevenii, insight into a long-standing taxonomic puzzle. Mycotaxon 76: 67-75. 2000.. ABSTRACT: Two species of Battarrea Pers., B. phalloides and B. stevenii, have been cited in Europe. According to some authors, B. phalloides has a gelatinous volva and smaller basidiomata than B. stevenii. However, other authors consider that these characters are not enough to separate the taxa at the species level, and consider B. stevenii a synonym of B. phalloides. The main purpose of this work was to try to resolve the boundaries between the two taxa, not only based on macroscopic and microscopic characters, but also through molecular techniques. Thirty-five basidiomata from different geographical areas (Austria, Burundi, France, Hungary, Italy, Mexico, Spain) were examined to define the macroscopic and microscopic characters. The collections were investigated with regard to basidioma size, presence or absence of gelatinous hyphae in the ...
Galerinas grow primarily in spruce and pine forests. They grow on rotting logs and stumps, but also in places where wood has been worked. This small mushroom causes very serious poisonings. It ranks among the deadly poisonous, even though its size and appearance do not make it especially attractive to collectors. The toxins it contains are not broken down by heat, and remain poisonous even after being thoroughly cooked. Galerinas are almost as dangerous as the much better-known death cap (Amanita phalloides) and even contains similar toxins. A fatal dose for an adult is around 10-15 mushrooms - considering how small and thin it is, that is not very much material. Poisonings also have a similar Phalloidin effect - damage to liver and kidneys. The smaller number of poisonings, compared to the death cap, is somewhat due to its relative scarcity, but mostly because most pickers regard all small mushrooms growing from stumps as inedible toadstools.. ...
This page has the full text of an article which first appeared in the Santa Cruz Sentinal on the heroic efforts of Dr. Todd Mitchell, Santa Cruz Dominican Hospital, to save the lives of a family of six who had eaten the death cap mushroom, Amanita phalloides.
Bas (1969): AUSTRIA: Ca. Vienna, s.d. Hagenbrünn s.n. (PR). CROATIA: Dalmatian Islands, Isl. Ugljan, 25.xi.1964 M. Tortič s.n. (fragments in L). CZECH REPUBLIC: CENTRAL BOHEMIAN REGION-Karlštejn, 5.ix.1952 S. Indelka s.n. (PR). ÚSTÍ NAD LABEM REGION-Libochovice nad Ohři, 19.ix.1961 Z. Neubauer s.n. (PR). FRANCE: OISE-Orry-la-Ville, viii.1949 H. Romagnesi s.n. (S). PYRÉNÉES ORIENTALES-ca. Perpignan, 11.xi.1966 A. Marchand s.n. (L). ITALY: TRENTO-Vela, NW of Trento, vi.1901 G. Bresadola s.n. (S). TUSCANY-Isl. Elba - Porteferraio, x.1913 Gabari s.n. (S). NETHERLANDS: UTRECHT-Utrecht, 31.viii.1953 C. Bas 150 (L), 18.ix.1953 C. Bas 206 (L); Zeist, 17.ix.1953 O. F. Uffelie et al. (in herb. Uffelie). SLOVAKIA: Saudorf ca. Bratislava, 12.ix.1948 F. Drascla s.n. (PR). U.K.: ENGLAND-Surrey - Horseley, 6.ix.1953 R. W. G. Dennis s.n. (L ...
kingdom: Fungi division: Basidiomycota class: Homobasidiomycetes order: Agaricales family: Amanitaceae genus: Amanita species: phalloides Horror of hor...
The mere thought of an identification error sends a chill down the spine of any mushroom lover: The death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides), which resembles the common white button mushroom, contains one of the most deadly poisons found in nature, α-amanitin. This substance kills any cell without exception, whether it be healthy or cancerous. At the German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) and the National Center for Tumor Diseases Heidelberg, immunologist Dr. Gerhard Moldenhauer, jointly with biochemist Professor Dr. Heinz Faulstich, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, has now developed a method for destroying cancer cells using the dreaded fungal toxin without harming the body. The trick to accomplish this is to deliver the poison directly to the right address in the body using something that virtually serves as a cab. In this case, the cab is an antibody whose highly specific arms attach to a cancer-typical cellular surface protein called EpCAM. The ...
Candidatus Bartonella melophagi was isolated by blood culture from 2 women, 1 of whom was co-infected with B. henselae. Partial 16S rRNA, RNA polymerase B, and citrate synthase genes and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer sequences indicated that human isolates were similar to Candidatus B. melophagi ...
Looking for Hallucinogenic effect? Find out information about Hallucinogenic effect. fungal poisoning caused by ingestion of certain mushrooms , most commonly Amanita phalloides and Amanita muscaria and related species. Symptoms, caused by... Explanation of Hallucinogenic effect
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Bleomycin, a potent antitumor agent against human squamous cell carcinoma, was examined in vitro to determine whether its action is increased under synergistic conditions with a polyene antibiotic, pentamycin. The inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis by bleomycin was greatly enhanced by combination with pentamycin in tissue culture. However, in comparison with bleomycin or α-amanitin, there was less enhancement of action of both 5-fluorouracil and fusidic acid by pentamycin.. ...
Mushroom Observer, Inc., has been recognized as a section 501(c)(3) public charity serving educational purposes. Your donations will help us maintain free online access to all the mycological observations already recorded, and to continue to improve the platform to make the collected information even more useful ...
80% off a Hand Made Oil Painting Reproduction of Amanita, one of the most famous paintings by Ivan Shishkin. Free certificate of authenticity free shipping.
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Ophthalmologists perform work familiar to some military personnel. Jobs in this career are similar to the following job classifications in the Air Force (AFSC). Army (MOS). Navy (Ratings). ...
Identification and characterization of Mediator-containing RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. As an undergraduate student with Henry Pitot at the University of Wisconsin, I helped characterize the gene encoding the barbiturate-induced aldehyde dehydrogenase from rat liver. This project exposed me to the compelling idea that an environmental cue, in this case phenobarbital, can dramatically change the gene-expression profile of the hepatocyte. My Ph.D. thesis research with Rick Young at the Whitehead Institute/MIT pursued my growing fascination with the complicated process of how genes get turned on. I identified an "initiation factor" required for RNA polymerase II to begin transcription of protein-coding genes in yeast. I demonstrated that this factor was part of a large complex, which we called the SRB complex (for suppressor of RNA polymerase B/II), contemporaneously discovered and named Mediator by Roger Kornbergs lab. I went on to purify RNA polymerase II in complex with SRB complex/Mediator ...
The actin genes of Trypanosoma brucei are transcribed constitutively during the parasite life-cycle, by a polymerase sensitive to alpha-amanitin (1). The start region of the actin gene transcription unit was mapped by virtue of the accumulation of promoter-proximal transcripts which occurs following moderate UV irradiation (2 - 6). This region, located about 4 kilobases upstream from the genes, was able to direct transient expression of the bacterial Chloramphenicol Acetyl Transferase (CAT) gene in both bloodstream and procyclic forms of the parasite. The essential region of the promoter was defined by deletion, and appeared to be within 600 bp upstream from the putative transcription start site. It does not share significant homology with the other trypanosome promoters described so far (VSG, procyclin, rDNA), which all direct alpha-amanitin resistant transcription. ...
Actinomycin G (ActD), a good known transcription inhibitors, offers been widely reported to induce cell apoptosis in several types of growth cells by inhibiting the anti-apoptotic gene transcriptions. cell routine police arrest and apoptosis consequently. The present research possess exposed a book system by which ActD prevents osteosarcoma cell proliferations and induce apoptosis, and will offer an useful idea to chemotherapy in long term treatment of osteosarcoma. s using ANOVA testing for evaluations. The worth 0.05 (*), 0.01 (**) and 0.001 (***) was assumed as the level of significance for the figure testing carried out. Outcomes Actinomycin G prevents expansion of MG63 human being osteosarcoma cells Actinomycin G (ActD) can be reported to create anti-cancer activity by joining to guanine residues and suppressing DNA-dependent RNA polymerase [23]. Nevertheless, the toxic effects of ActD on osteosarcoma cells are not elucidated fully. To define the anti-cancer activity of ActD on osteosarcoma ...
Upregulation of the Phthiocerol Dimycocerosate Biosynthetic Pathway by Rifampin-Resistant, rpoB Mutant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Greg Bisson, Carolina Mehaffy, Corey Broeckling, Jessica Prenni, Dalin Rifat, Desomnd Lun, Marcos Burgos, Drew Weissman, Petros Karakousis and Karen Dobos. J. Bacteriology 194: 6441-6452 (December 2012). About 2 million people will die from tuberculosis (TB) this year. Thats about the same number of people who watched the Rockies play this year. Coincidence? Maybe not - after all both fields have someone named Belisle out there trying to keep things from getting out of hand. While figuring out how to make the Rockies successful is above our pay grade, one key reason that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is such a problem is drug resistance. M. tb. becomes resistant to the drug rifampin, a first line antibiotic, by mutating a region around the channel used by nucleic acids in the bacterial RNA Polymerase B subunit. If you think about it though, how can bacteria ...
However, According to Dr. John Rippon, a world expert on fungal diseases, "squirrels have an interesting adaptation that allows them to eat mushrooms containing deadly amanita-toxins without being affected There are three important chemicals in the amanitas. Two will knock you right off, but are destroyed in cooking. The third one is the interesting one: it consists of the second amanitin, bound tightly to a glycoprotein molecule. When we digest the mushroom, the enzymes in our gut break the bond between the toxin and the glycoprotein, leaving the toxin free to enter our bloodstream, while the glycoprotein is excreted (a glycoprotein is a mucus molecule, in case you dont know). What the squirrels have done is line their gut with a toxin-compatible glycoprotein, so that as soon as it gets split from its original glycoprotein molecule, it gets rebound to the squirrel glycoprotein, and excreted along with it. Obviously, the squirrels dont cook their food to destroy the first two molecules, but ...
Liu, X.; Farnung, L.; Wigge, C.; Cramer, P.: Cryo-EM structure of a mammalian RNA polymerase II elongation complex inhibited by α-amanitin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 293 (19), pp. 7189 - 7194 (2018 ...
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HOLY SHIT! Cant belive that this is a one-man.project. This masterpiece includes so many different styles and has infinite different faces. Imagine The Ocean, Isis, Giant Squid, Neurosis and Cult Of Luna with some Hardcore, Djent, Death Metal and Post Rock parts. Im so fucking impressed by this record. Deep as fuck ...
So, the cute little ones are formed in an ice tray (found at Harps grocery for $1!) with an organic oils melt & pour soap, found @ The Chemistry Store. M&P soaps are so fun and easy! Just like the name, you simply melt and pour. As for the larger gem molds, you have 2 options: 1. Make your own from appropriately sized gems and silicone molds, found here @ Make Your Own Molds. 2. You can purchase them premade from Renascent College or Flexible Molds. Im sure there are a few others out there with premade gemstone molds. I searched for quartz point soap molds or gemstone soap molds ...
The destroying angel mushroomEverybody has heard of angels. Good angels and bad angels. Not everyone has heard of the destroying angel. The destroying angel mushroom is beautifully white, with long slender stalks and elegant caps. The deadly Amanitas o...
The purpose of this study was to determine (a) whether the hepatocarcinogenesis in rats fed 3′-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3′-Me-DAB) could be inhibited by the simultaneous and followed feeding of two nitrofurans; (b) whether 3′-Me-DAB feeding inhibited DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of liver nuclei; and (c) whether the nitrofurans ameliorated 3′-Me-DAB-induced changes in RNA polymerase activity. The nitrofurans were 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide and 2-amino-5-[2-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1-(2-furyl)vinyl-1-]-1,3,4-oxadiazole. Male Donryu rats were fed 1 or 0.5 g of 3′-Me-DAB by being maintained on a diet containing 0.06% 3′-Me-DAB or 3′-Me-DAB plus 0.2% of a nitrofuran, and then they were maintained on basal diet for 60 or 300 days, respectively. The incidence of hepatomas induced by 3′-Me-DAB was reduced to about one-fifth by the simultaneous feeding of a nitrofuran. Feeding of 3′-Me-DAB brought gradual reductions of RNA polymerase activities of liver nuclei; ...
Amanita ceciliae is characterized by bearing a large fruit body with a brown cap 5-12 cm (2.0-4.7 in) across. The cap has charcoal-grey patches, which are easily removable. The stipe is 7-18 cm (2.8-7.1 in) long, white in colour, and there is no ring on it. It is slightly tapered to the top, and has irregular cottony bands girdling the base.. The universal veil is grey. Spores are white, spherical in shape, non-amyloid, and measure 10.2-11.7 micrometres.. The cap is 5-12 cm (2.0-4.7 in) across, shape ranging from convex to flat. It is upturned, and has a deep-coloured margin. There is a low umbo. It is grey to a brownish black in colour, darkest in the center and paler towards the margin. Generally smooth, the cap surface is slightly sticky when moist. The cap surface is characterized by having loose, fleecy, charcoal-grey patches of volval remnants scattered across it. The patches are easily removed. The margin is strongly striated. The cap colour may vary, and pale forms are known to exist, ...

Amanita rubescens - definition of Amanita rubescens by The Free DictionaryAmanita rubescens - definition of Amanita rubescens by The Free Dictionary

Define Amanita rubescens. Amanita rubescens synonyms, Amanita rubescens pronunciation, Amanita rubescens translation, English dictionary definition of Amanita rubescens. Noun 1. Amanita rubescens - yellowish edible agaric that usually turns red when touched blusher, blushing mushroom agaric - a saprophytic fungus of the...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/Amanita+rubescens

Beta-Amanitin - Википедија, слободна енциклопедијаBeta-Amanitin - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

Beta-Amanitin je organsko jedinjenje, koje sadrži 39 atoma ugljenika i ima molekulsku masu od 919,954 Da. ... Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Beta-Amanitin&oldid=8892657" ...
more infohttps://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-Amanitin

α-Amanitin - Substance Information - ECHAα-Amanitin - Substance Information - ECHA

Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance, instead of having the information ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.041.287

Epsilon-Amanitin - WikipediaEpsilon-Amanitin - Wikipedia

epsilon-Amanitin or ε-amanitin is a Cyclic peptide. It is an amatoxin, all of which are found in several members of the Amanita ... The oral LD50 of ε-amanitin is approximately 0.1 mg/kg. Like other amatoxins, ε-amanitin is an inhibitor of RNA polymerase II. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epsilon-Amanitin

Alpha-Amanitin - WikipediaAlpha-Amanitin - Wikipedia

alpha-Amanitin or α-amanitin is a cyclic peptide of eight amino acids. It is possibly the most deadly of all the amatoxins, ... The unique mode of action or MOA of α-amanitin seems to make the amanitin-based antibody-drug conjugates a suitable toxic ... α-Amanitin is a selective inhibitor of RNA polymerase II and III. This mechanism makes it a deadly toxin. α-Amanitin can also ... has developed a new antibody-drug conjugate or ADC technology based on α-amanitin. Amanitin-based ADCs have shown outstanding ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-Amanitin

Amanitin - BÜHLMANNAmanitin - BÜHLMANN

The Amanitin ELISA test is an additional diagnostic tool in the clinical management of mushroom poisoning - BÜHLMANN ... The detection of alpha-Amanitin (100 %) and gamma-Amanitin (90 %) in urine using the BÜHLMANN Amanitin ELISA confirms Amanita ... AMANITIN. Intoxication with Amanitin has been reported to be lethal in up to 25% of all cases and the mortality rate in ... AMANITIN. Intoxication with Amanitin has been reported to be lethal in up to 25% of all cases and the mortality rate in ...
more infohttps://www.buhlmannlabs.ch/products-solutions/special-products/amanitin/

α-Amanitin from Amanita phalloides, ≥90% (HPLC), powder | Sigma-Aldrichα-Amanitin from Amanita phalloides, ≥90% (HPLC), powder | Sigma-Aldrich

... α-Amanitin for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references. ...
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α-Amanitin ≥90% | VWRα-Amanitin ≥90% | VWR

α-Amanitin. , α-Amanitin ≥90%. α-Amanitin ≥90%. Supplier: Enzo Life Sciences ...
more infohttps://us.vwr.com/store/product/10916757/amanitin-enzo-life-sciences

Alpha-amanitin | definition of alpha-amanitin by Medical dictionaryAlpha-amanitin | definition of alpha-amanitin by Medical dictionary

... alpha-amanitin explanation free. What is alpha-amanitin? Meaning of alpha-amanitin medical term. What does alpha-amanitin mean? ... Looking for online definition of alpha-amanitin in the Medical Dictionary? ... alpha-amanitin. Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia. α-am·a·ni·tin. (am-ă-nītin), A highly toxic, heat-stable bicyclic ... Determination of alpha-amanitin in serum and liver by multistage linear ion trap mass spectrometry.. Recollections: Lily ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/alpha-amanitin

The RNA polymerase II trigger loop functions in substrate selection and is directly targeted by alpha-amanitin.  - PubMed - NCBIThe RNA polymerase II trigger loop functions in substrate selection and is directly targeted by alpha-amanitin. - PubMed - NCBI

B. α-amanitin inhibition of 2-dATP usage by wild type Pol II is different than inhibition of NTP usage, while α-amanitin has ... α-amanitin inhibition of WT Pol II is substrate selective, while H1085Y Pol II is mostly resistant to α-amanitin ... Assay performed and rates determined exactly as in with α-amanitin treatment as in , except α-amanitin was at 10 µg/mL. For 2- ... Direct Interaction Between Rpb1 His1085 and α-amanitin and TL Capture May Underlie α-amanitin Inhibition of Transcription ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18538653?dopt=Abstract

A-amanitin | definition of a-amanitin by Medical dictionaryA-amanitin | definition of a-amanitin by Medical dictionary

... a-amanitin explanation free. What is a-amanitin? Meaning of a-amanitin medical term. What does a-amanitin mean? ... Looking for online definition of a-amanitin in the Medical Dictionary? ... alpha-amanitin. (redirected from a-amanitin) α-am·a·ni·tin. (am-ă-nītin), A highly toxic, heat-stable bicyclic oligopeptide in ... A-amanitin , definition of a-amanitin by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/a-amanitin ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/a-amanitin

amanitin | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGYamanitin | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

amanitin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ...
more infohttps://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/LigandDisplayForward?ligandId=4632

Amanitin - BUHLMANNAmanitin - BUHLMANN

The Amanitin ELISA test is an additional diagnostic tool in the clinical management of mushroom poisoning - BUHLMANN ... The BÜHLMANN Amanitin ELISA detects alpha-Amanitin (100 %) and gamma-Amanitin (90 %) in urine. ... The main toxic actions are caused by Amanitins, which are bicyclic octapeptides. Amanitins occur in the extremely poisonous ... The Amanitin phalloides syndrome is estimated to be responsible for 95% of fatal cases of mushroom poisonings throughout the ...
more infohttps://buhlmannlabs.com/products-solutions/special-products/amanitin/

T3DB: epsilon-AmanitinT3DB: epsilon-Amanitin

epsilon-amanitin. SMILES. [H][[email protected]@](C)(O)[[email protected]]([H])(C)[[email protected]]1([H])N=C(O)[[email protected]]2([H])C[[email protected]@]([H])(O)CN2C(=O)[[email protected]]([H])(CC(O)=O)N=C(O)[C ... epsilon-Amanitin is one of a group of at least eight Amatoxins found in several genera of poisonous mushrooms, most notably ... epsilon-Amanitin (T3D3587). IdentificationTaxonomyBiological PropertiesPhysical PropertiesToxicity ProfileSpectraConcentrations ...
more infohttp://www.t3db.ca/toxins/T3D3587

alpha-Amanitin induced apoptosis in primary cultured dog hepatocytes. | Magdalan | Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologicaalpha-Amanitin induced apoptosis in primary cultured dog hepatocytes. | Magdalan | Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica

Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica (FHC) is an international,English-language journal devoted to the developing fields of histochemistry,cytochemistry,cell biology,cell and tissue biology.It is source of the recent research in fields of and cell biology
more infohttps://journals.viamedica.pl/folia_histochemica_cytobiologica/article/view/4264/3519

Giardia lamblia RNA polymerase II: amanitin-resistant transcription.Giardia lamblia RNA polymerase II: amanitin-resistant transcription.

The amanitin motif (amanitin binding site) of Rpb1 from G. lamblia has amino acid substitutions at six highly conserved sites ... These observations of amanitin resistance of Giardia RNA polymerase II support previous proposals of the mechanism of amanitin ... RNAP II transcription in Giardia is resistant to 1 mg/ml amanitin. In contrast, 50 microg/ml amanitin inhibits 85% of RNAP III ... The cyclic octapeptide amanitin is a relatively selective inhibitor of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and is commonly ...
more infohttp://vivo.mblwhoilibrary.org/display/publication22422

Therapeutic Potential of Amanitin-Conjugated Anti-Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule Monoclonal Antibody Against Pancreatic...Therapeutic Potential of Amanitin-Conjugated Anti-Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule Monoclonal Antibody Against Pancreatic...

Therapeutic Potential of Amanitin-Conjugated Anti-Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule Monoclonal Antibody Against Pancreatic ... Therapeutic Potential of Amanitin-Conjugated Anti-Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule Monoclonal Antibody Against Pancreatic ... Conclusion This preclinical study suggests that anti-EpCAM antibody conjugates with ?-amanitin have the potential to be highly ... Methods Chemical cross-linking was conducted to covalently conjugate ?-amanitin, a toxin known to inhibit DNA transcription, ...
more infohttp://medicdebate.s702.sureserver.com/node/879

ChemIDplus - 55325-99-0 - GBHLBBPUSBXKSA-AGOVMNPFSA-N - alpha-Amanitin, 4-(2-mercapto-6-methoxy-L-tryptophan)-, S-oxide -...ChemIDplus - 55325-99-0 - GBHLBBPUSBXKSA-AGOVMNPFSA-N - alpha-Amanitin, 4-(2-mercapto-6-methoxy-L-tryptophan)-, S-oxide -...

... alpha-Amanitin, 4-(2-mercapto-6-methoxy-L-tryptophan)-, S-oxide - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links ... Substance Name: alpha-Amanitin, 4-(2-mercapto-6-methoxy-L-tryptophan)-, S-oxide. RN: 55325-99-0. InChIKey: GBHLBBPUSBXKSA- ...
more infohttps://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/55325-99-0

Improved high-performance liquid chromatographic determination with amperometric detection of alpha-amanitin in human plasma...Improved high-performance liquid chromatographic determination with amperometric detection of alpha-amanitin in human plasma...

The linear range for alpha-amanitin was 3-200 ng/ml, and the relative limit of detection in plasma was 2 ng/ml at a signal-to- ... The linear range for alpha-amanitin was 3-200 ng/ml, and the relative limit of detection in plasma was 2 ng/ml at a signal-to- ... All three amanitins are oxidized at the same potential values, and adsorption onto the electrode surface of both reactant and ... All three amanitins are oxidized at the same potential values, and adsorption onto the electrode surface of both reactant and ...
more infohttps://iris.univr.it/handle/11562/741

Mushroom Toxicity in CatsMushroom Toxicity in Cats

Other mushrooms containing Amanitins belong to the Galerina and Lepiota families.. Cats that eat mushrooms containing Amanitin ... Mushrooms containing Amanitin toxins:. The most common mushrooms to cause death in humans and pets contain Amanitin toxins. ...
more infohttps://www.cathealth.com/cat-care/toxic-items/2208-mushroom-toxicity-in-cats

Zeitschrift für Naturforschung CZeitschrift für Naturforschung C

Amanitin Content and Toxicity of Amanita verna Bull. Seeger, Ruth / Stijve, Tjakko ...
more infohttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/znc.1979.34.issue-5-6/issue-files/znc.1979.34.issue-5-6.xml

Live-cell analysis of endogenous GFP-RPB1 uncovers rapid turnover of initiating and promoter-paused RNA Polymerase II | PNASLive-cell analysis of endogenous GFP-RPB1 uncovers rapid turnover of initiating and promoter-paused RNA Polymerase II | PNAS

S5E), illustrating the reduced productive elongation rate after α-Amanitin (46). In addition, α-Amanitin led to degradation of ... Another widely used transcription inhibitor is α-Amanitin. α-Amanitin traps Pol II in a conformation that prevents ... FRAP of GFP-RPB1 in NT cells and cells treated with 0.5 µM Triptolide for 1 h (A) or 100 µg/mL α-Amanitin for 2 h (C). Mg132, ... Modeled, FI-corrected Pol II fraction sizes in NT KI cells or after treatment with Triptolide (B) or α-Amanitin (D). Mean ± SD ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/115/19/E4368

Biochem Flashcards by Mike Mah | BrainscapeBiochem Flashcards by Mike Mah | Brainscape

α-amanitin -found in death cap mushroom.. -inhibits RNA pol 2 (makes mRNA).. -hepatotoxic. ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/biochem-3383260/packs/5282494

Emergency Response Branch Laboratory Capacity | CDCEmergency Response Branch Laboratory Capacity | CDC

Amanitin. CAS No. 23109-05-9 Urine. *Abbott, N.L.; et al. Toxicon, 2018, 152: 71-77. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.07.025External ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/nceh/dls/erb_capacity.html
  • epsilon-Amanitin or ε-amanitin is a Cyclic peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • These analytical conditions have been chosen on the basis of a preliminary in batch cyclic voltammetric investigation of alpha-, beta- and gamma-amanitins, which has allowed their oxidation process to be clarified and the pH dependence of their oxidation potentials to be determined. (univr.it)
  • Beta-Amanitin je organsko jedinjenje , koje sadrži 39 atoma ugljenika i ima molekulsku masu od 919,954 Da . (wikipedia.org)
  • This adsorption did not affect the signal recorded for alpha- and gamma-amanitins at the amperometric detector, and for beta-amanitin a stronger adsorption for the anodic product was found, which leads to a marked positive shift of the potential required for the oxidation of this isomer in the amperometric detector cell. (univr.it)
  • Heidelberg Pharma, GmbH, based in Ladenburg, Germany, a pharmaceutical company providing pre-clinical drug discovery and development services, has developed a new antibody-drug conjugate or ADC technology based on α-amanitin. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is not unusual for significant effects to take as long as 24 hours after ingestion to appear, with this delay in symptoms making α-amanitin poisoning even more difficult to diagnose and all the more dangerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principal toxic constituent is α-amanitin , which damages the liver and kidneys , causing hepatic and renal failure that can be fatal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes encoding the proprotein for α-amanitin belongs to the same family as those that encode for phallacidin (a phallotoxin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Amanitin-based ADCs have shown outstanding activity in therapy-resistant tumor cells, e.g. cells expressing multi-drug resistant transporters, tumor-initiating cells and non-dividing cells at picomolar concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • All three amanitins are oxidized at the same potential values, and adsorption onto the electrode surface of both reactant and products was found in all cases. (univr.it)
  • Over expression of transcripts by IVM oocytes is particularly interesting, therefore, a variety of approaches were employed to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM were real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis, including the analysis of transcript abundance in oocytes in vitro matured in the presence of α-amanitin. (springer.com)
  • amanitin have the potential to be highly effective therapeutic agents for pancreatic carcinomas and various EpCAM-expressing malignancies. (sureserver.com)
  • amanitin, mean relative increase in tumor volume on day 16 = 884% vs ?79%, difference = 963%, 95% CI = 582% to 1344%, P = .019). (sureserver.com)