A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.
Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
Elimination of toxic or biologically active substances from body fluids by interaction with a sorbent medium. The types of media include absorbents, adsorbents, ion-exchange materials, and complexing agents. Detoxification can be extracorporeal (hemodialysis, hemofiltration, hemoperfusion, plasmapheresis), or occur inside the body (enterosorption, peritoneal dialysis).

Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene. (1/46)

The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.  (+info)

Amanita virosa induced toxic hepatitis: report of three cases. (2/46)

We report here three cases of Amanita virosa induced toxic hepatitis. Two of the three cases recovered but the other died 10 days after mushroom ingestion. Since the mortality of Amanita mushroom induced toxic hepatitis is very high, prompt diagnosis and aggressive therapeutic measures should be initiated as soon as possible. Our cases showed that the initial serum aminotransferase levels might not predict the clinical outcome of the patient, but that the prothrombin time (PT) seemed to be a more useful prognostic marker. Close monitoring of aminotransferase levels and PT as well as appropriate therapy are recommended. All three cases showed signs of proteinuria and we were able to characterize mixed tubular and glomerular type proteinuria at 3 or 4 days after ingestion in two cases. Among the previously reported Korean cases of suspected Amanita induced toxic hepatitis, most species could not be identified except for four cases of Amanita virosa. No cases of Amanita phalloides induced toxic hepatitis have been identified in Korea so far.  (+info)

5-Year analysis of mushroom exposures in California. (3/46)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes following toxic mushroom ingestions. DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis. METHODS: We analyzed American Association of Poison Control Center data for California from 1993 through 1997. RESULTS: A total of 6,317 exposures occurred during the study period. Most (n = 6,229 [99.7%]) were acute exposures, and the rest (0.3%) were chronic; 87.6% (n = 5,536) were unintentional. Most (n = 4,235 [67.0%]) were in children younger than 6 years, and of these, only 6.0% experienced any clinical effects. The most common symptoms in patients aged 6 years and older were vomiting in 588 patients (28.2%), nausea in 307 patients (14.7%), diarrhea in 263 patients (12.6%), and abdominal pain in 221 patients (10.6%). No effects were seen in 3,131 (49.6% of all patients). Major effects were seen in only 17 patients (0.3%). Only 61 patients (1.0%) were admitted to a critical care unit. Death occurred in a 32-year-old adult who ate foraged mushrooms. Of all patients, 1,375 (21.8%) received no therapy or were observed only. CONCLUSIONS: Most mushroom exposures were acute and unintentional and occurred in children younger than 6 years. Major toxic reactions or death was uncommon.  (+info)

Management of maternal Amanita phalloides poisoning during the first trimester of pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature. (4/46)

BACKGROUND: Amanita phalloides poisoning produces acute liver failure and often death. Maternal poisonings are rare, and medical decisions of abortion or liver transplantation in this critical situation frequently are based on laboratory data. We report here the case of a 22-year-old-woman in the 11th week of pregnancy, who ingested mushrooms. CASE REPORT: The patient's clinical symptoms (e.g., vomiting and diarrhea) and blood chemistry data (persistent increases of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and severe decreases in prothrombin, factor V, factor II, factor VII, and factor X) indicated poisoning of medium severity. The management consisted of intravenous hydration, and administration of silymarine and N-acetylcysteine. No fetal damage was observed, and birth and development of the infant (now 2 years of age) proceeded without incident. CONCLUSION: Abortion is not necessarily indicated in maternal poisoning by A. phalloides, even in the first trimester of pregnancy.  (+info)

Lethal ingestion of stored Amanita phalloides mushrooms. (5/46)

We report the first case of a lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. After picking the mushrooms were kept in a freezer for 7-8 months. This case is in accordance with the well-known stability of the amatoxins and demonstrates the possibility of A. phalloides poisoning at any time of year.  (+info)

Delayed onset acute renal failure associated with Amanita pseudoporphyria Hongo ingestion. (6/46)

A 66-year-old man with diabetes developed acute renal failure after ingestion of Amanita pseudoporphyria Hongo. Laboratory data showed acute nonoliguric renal failure. A renal biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis with glomerular minor abnormalities. He received hemodialysis treatment for 3 weeks and his renal function normalized 2 months after admission. We discuss the differences in acute renal failure caused by possible toxins of Amanita pseudoporphyria Hongo from that caused by other poisonous mushrooms.  (+info)

Effects of picroliv, the active principle of Picrorhiza kurroa, on biochemical changes in rat liver poisoned by Amanita phalloides. (7/46)

The efficacy of Picroliv, a standardized iridoid glycoside fraction of Picrorhiza kurroa, was studied against the Amanita phalloides-induced biochemical changes in rat liver. A phalloides (50 mg.kg-1) caused significant increases in the activities of hepatic 5'-nucleotidase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, acid ribonuclease, and succinate dehydrogenase, but a decrease in glucose-6-phosphatase. The level of cytochrome P-450 in microsomal fraction and content of glycogen in liver showed significant depletions. Picroliv (25 mg.kg-1.d-1 x 10 d) provided significant restorations of all the biochemical changes poisoned by A phalloides except cytochrome P-450 and glycogen. These results demonstrated the protective effect of Picroliv against A phalloides-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  (+info)

Molecular adsorbent recirculating system in dealing with maternal Amanita poisoning during the second pregnancy trimester: a case report. (8/46)

BACKGROUND: A 27-year-old woman in her 20th week of pregnancy was hospitalized because of food poisoning caused by Amanita phalloides. METHODS: Previously extracorporeal purification treatments with 2 times of hemodialysis plus hemoperfusion and a high volume therapeutic plasma exchange (PE) in addition to intensive medication during the first 8 days failed to improve hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and liver function but developed deep coma with severe blood chemistry and signs of threatened abortion. RESULTS: Treatments with intermittent molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) for 3 times resulted in an immediate improvement of liver function and clinical symptoms including HE and threatened abortion until her fully recovery. When the life-threatening maternal illness was cured gestation went on until premature birth at the 36th week of pregnancy, and the infant underwent an undisturbed development. CONCLUSION: MARS method appears to be an optimal therapy for patients with acute liver failure secondary to cytoxic mushroom poisoning during pregnancy.  (+info)

"Amanita" is a genus of fungi that includes several species commonly known as mushrooms. Some of these species are edible and considered delicacies, while others are highly toxic and can cause serious illness or death if ingested. The most famous toxic species is Amanita phalloides, also known as the "death cap" mushroom.

Here is a medical definition of "Amanita":

"A genus of fungi in the family Amanitaceae, characterized by the production of large fruiting bodies with a universal veil that often leaves a skirt-like ring on the stipe and a volva at the base. Some species are edible and highly prized, while others are poisonous and can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms, liver damage, or even death. Examples of toxic Amanita species include A. phalloides (the 'death cap'), A. virosa (the 'destroying angel'), and A. muscaria (the 'fly agaric')."

(Source: Medscape Medical Dictionary)

Mushroom poisoning refers to the adverse health effects that occur after ingesting toxic mushrooms. These effects can range from mild gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, to severe neurological and systemic reactions, including hallucinations, organ failure, and even death in serious cases. The severity of the poisoning depends on several factors, including the type and amount of toxic mushroom consumed, the age and health status of the individual, and the time elapsed between ingestion and medical treatment. It is crucial to seek immediate medical attention if mushroom poisoning is suspected, as some symptoms may not appear until several hours or days after consumption, and delays in treatment can lead to more severe outcomes.

Amanitins are a type of bicyclic octapeptide toxin found in several species of mushrooms belonging to the Amanita genus, including the death cap (Amanita phalloides) and the destroying angel (Amanita virosa). These toxins are part of the group of compounds known as amatoxins.

Amanitins are highly toxic to humans and other animals, affecting the liver and kidneys in particular. They work by inhibiting RNA polymerase II, an enzyme that plays a crucial role in gene expression by transcribing DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). This interference with protein synthesis can lead to severe damage to cells and tissues, potentially resulting in organ failure and death if left untreated.

Symptoms of amanitin poisoning typically appear in two phases. The first phase, which occurs within 6-24 hours after ingestion, includes gastrointestinal distress such as vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. This initial phase may subside for a short period, giving a false sense of recovery. However, the second phase, which can occur 3-7 days later, is characterized by liver and kidney damage, with symptoms such as jaundice, disorientation, seizures, coma, and ultimately, multiple organ failure if not treated promptly and effectively.

Treatment for amanitin poisoning usually involves supportive care, such as fluid replacement and addressing any complications that arise. In some cases, medications like silibinin (from milk thistle) or activated charcoal may be used to help reduce the absorption and toxicity of the amanitins. Additionally, liver transplantation might be considered in severe cases where organ failure is imminent. Prevention is key when it comes to amanitin poisoning, as there is no antidote available. Being able to identify and avoid potentially deadly mushrooms is essential for foragers and those who enjoy gathering wild fungi.

A fruiting body, in the context of mycology (the study of fungi), refers to the part of a fungus that produces spores for sexual or asexual reproduction. These structures are often what we typically think of as mushrooms or toadstools, although not all fungal fruiting bodies resemble these familiar forms.

Fungal fruiting bodies can vary greatly in size, shape, and color, depending on the species of fungus. They may be aboveground, like the caps and stalks of mushrooms, or underground, like the tiny, thread-like structures known as "corals" in some species.

The primary function of a fruiting body is to produce and disperse spores, which can give rise to new individuals when they germinate under favorable conditions. The development of a fruiting body is often triggered by environmental factors such as moisture, temperature, and nutrient availability.

"Sorption detoxification" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, the word "sorption" refers to various processes that result in the accumulation of a substance at an interface between two phases, such as absorption (taking up a substance into a liquid or solid), adsorption (accumulation of molecules on the surface of a material), and ion exchange.

In some alternative medicine or detoxification contexts, "sorption detoxification" might refer to the use of substances that can bind to or absorb toxins in the body, facilitating their removal through excretion. However, there is limited scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of such approaches, and they are not considered mainstream medical treatments for drug addiction, poisoning, or other medical conditions.

Therefore, it's essential to consult with a licensed healthcare professional before pursuing any detoxification or treatment regimen that involves "sorption detoxification" or similar unconventional methods.

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