Amanita: A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.Mushroom Poisoning: Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.Amanitins: Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Sorption Detoxification: Elimination of toxic or biologically active substances from body fluids by interaction with a sorbent medium. The types of media include absorbents, adsorbents, ion-exchange materials, and complexing agents. Detoxification can be extracorporeal (hemodialysis, hemofiltration, hemoperfusion, plasmapheresis), or occur inside the body (enterosorption, peritoneal dialysis).Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Gastric Lavage: Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Frozen FoodsCharcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Isodon: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE used in TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.Diterpenes, Kaurane: A group of DITERPENES cyclized into four rings.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Literature, ModernMedicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.PaintingsReproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate: The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.CyclopropanesPorifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Medicago: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).Web Browser: Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.Cynodon: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is considered a lawn grass by some and a weed by others. It contains allergen Cyn d 7.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.Iris Plant: A plant genus of the family IRIDACEAE that contains IRIP, a type-1 ribosome-inactivating protein, and iridals (TRITERPENES).Melastomataceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Extracorporeal Circulation: Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.Agaricus: A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Chorea: Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Milk Thistle: The plant Silybum marianum in the family ASTERACEAE containing the bioflavonoid complex SILYMARIN. For centuries this has been used traditionally to treat liver disease. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. = Carduus marianus L.HELLP Syndrome: A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.West VirginiaVirginiaHawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.GreenlandFactor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.Galanthus: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes classified as Amaryllidaceae). Galanthus nivalis L. is the source of GALANTHAMINE.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.

Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene. (1/46)

The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.  (+info)

Amanita virosa induced toxic hepatitis: report of three cases. (2/46)

We report here three cases of Amanita virosa induced toxic hepatitis. Two of the three cases recovered but the other died 10 days after mushroom ingestion. Since the mortality of Amanita mushroom induced toxic hepatitis is very high, prompt diagnosis and aggressive therapeutic measures should be initiated as soon as possible. Our cases showed that the initial serum aminotransferase levels might not predict the clinical outcome of the patient, but that the prothrombin time (PT) seemed to be a more useful prognostic marker. Close monitoring of aminotransferase levels and PT as well as appropriate therapy are recommended. All three cases showed signs of proteinuria and we were able to characterize mixed tubular and glomerular type proteinuria at 3 or 4 days after ingestion in two cases. Among the previously reported Korean cases of suspected Amanita induced toxic hepatitis, most species could not be identified except for four cases of Amanita virosa. No cases of Amanita phalloides induced toxic hepatitis have been identified in Korea so far.  (+info)

5-Year analysis of mushroom exposures in California. (3/46)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes following toxic mushroom ingestions. DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis. METHODS: We analyzed American Association of Poison Control Center data for California from 1993 through 1997. RESULTS: A total of 6,317 exposures occurred during the study period. Most (n = 6,229 [99.7%]) were acute exposures, and the rest (0.3%) were chronic; 87.6% (n = 5,536) were unintentional. Most (n = 4,235 [67.0%]) were in children younger than 6 years, and of these, only 6.0% experienced any clinical effects. The most common symptoms in patients aged 6 years and older were vomiting in 588 patients (28.2%), nausea in 307 patients (14.7%), diarrhea in 263 patients (12.6%), and abdominal pain in 221 patients (10.6%). No effects were seen in 3,131 (49.6% of all patients). Major effects were seen in only 17 patients (0.3%). Only 61 patients (1.0%) were admitted to a critical care unit. Death occurred in a 32-year-old adult who ate foraged mushrooms. Of all patients, 1,375 (21.8%) received no therapy or were observed only. CONCLUSIONS: Most mushroom exposures were acute and unintentional and occurred in children younger than 6 years. Major toxic reactions or death was uncommon.  (+info)

Management of maternal Amanita phalloides poisoning during the first trimester of pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature. (4/46)

BACKGROUND: Amanita phalloides poisoning produces acute liver failure and often death. Maternal poisonings are rare, and medical decisions of abortion or liver transplantation in this critical situation frequently are based on laboratory data. We report here the case of a 22-year-old-woman in the 11th week of pregnancy, who ingested mushrooms. CASE REPORT: The patient's clinical symptoms (e.g., vomiting and diarrhea) and blood chemistry data (persistent increases of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and severe decreases in prothrombin, factor V, factor II, factor VII, and factor X) indicated poisoning of medium severity. The management consisted of intravenous hydration, and administration of silymarine and N-acetylcysteine. No fetal damage was observed, and birth and development of the infant (now 2 years of age) proceeded without incident. CONCLUSION: Abortion is not necessarily indicated in maternal poisoning by A. phalloides, even in the first trimester of pregnancy.  (+info)

Lethal ingestion of stored Amanita phalloides mushrooms. (5/46)

We report the first case of a lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. After picking the mushrooms were kept in a freezer for 7-8 months. This case is in accordance with the well-known stability of the amatoxins and demonstrates the possibility of A. phalloides poisoning at any time of year.  (+info)

Delayed onset acute renal failure associated with Amanita pseudoporphyria Hongo ingestion. (6/46)

A 66-year-old man with diabetes developed acute renal failure after ingestion of Amanita pseudoporphyria Hongo. Laboratory data showed acute nonoliguric renal failure. A renal biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis with glomerular minor abnormalities. He received hemodialysis treatment for 3 weeks and his renal function normalized 2 months after admission. We discuss the differences in acute renal failure caused by possible toxins of Amanita pseudoporphyria Hongo from that caused by other poisonous mushrooms.  (+info)

Effects of picroliv, the active principle of Picrorhiza kurroa, on biochemical changes in rat liver poisoned by Amanita phalloides. (7/46)

The efficacy of Picroliv, a standardized iridoid glycoside fraction of Picrorhiza kurroa, was studied against the Amanita phalloides-induced biochemical changes in rat liver. A phalloides (50 mg.kg-1) caused significant increases in the activities of hepatic 5'-nucleotidase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, acid ribonuclease, and succinate dehydrogenase, but a decrease in glucose-6-phosphatase. The level of cytochrome P-450 in microsomal fraction and content of glycogen in liver showed significant depletions. Picroliv (25 mg.kg-1.d-1 x 10 d) provided significant restorations of all the biochemical changes poisoned by A phalloides except cytochrome P-450 and glycogen. These results demonstrated the protective effect of Picroliv against A phalloides-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  (+info)

Molecular adsorbent recirculating system in dealing with maternal Amanita poisoning during the second pregnancy trimester: a case report. (8/46)

BACKGROUND: A 27-year-old woman in her 20th week of pregnancy was hospitalized because of food poisoning caused by Amanita phalloides. METHODS: Previously extracorporeal purification treatments with 2 times of hemodialysis plus hemoperfusion and a high volume therapeutic plasma exchange (PE) in addition to intensive medication during the first 8 days failed to improve hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and liver function but developed deep coma with severe blood chemistry and signs of threatened abortion. RESULTS: Treatments with intermittent molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) for 3 times resulted in an immediate improvement of liver function and clinical symptoms including HE and threatened abortion until her fully recovery. When the life-threatening maternal illness was cured gestation went on until premature birth at the 36th week of pregnancy, and the infant underwent an undisturbed development. CONCLUSION: MARS method appears to be an optimal therapy for patients with acute liver failure secondary to cytoxic mushroom poisoning during pregnancy.  (+info)

  • My colleague Greg Marley, whose excellent book Chanterelle Dreams, Amanita Nightmares: The Love, Lore, and Mystique of Mushrooms goes into this at length, says that fly agaric has been a symbol of yuletide happiness in Central Europe, Russia and Scandinavia for centuries, calling it "a red light shining bright in the winter darkness. (honest-food.net)
  • Amanita ochroterrea (Gentilli) Bas and A. brunneiphylla O.K.Miller are robust, macroscopically similar mushrooms described from the southwest of Western Australia. (edu.au)
  • While it is certainly true that only A. bisporigera differs from this is having only two basidiospores, Amanita expert Rod Tulloss has evinced that there is a noted tendency for two-spored basidia to become four-spored over the course of a single growing season. (hikersnotebook.blog)
  • Unlike the amatoxins in the deadly amanitas - the death cap and the destroying angel - ibotenic acid and muscimol are water soluble. (honest-food.net)
  • S )- cis -2-Amino-5-chloro-4-pentenoic acid from the fungus Amanita virgineoides . (springer.com)
  • Why sequence cellulose degrading fungus Amanita thiersii? (doe.gov)
  • In honor of this month's 2007 Orson K. Miller, Jr. NAMA foray in Pipestem, West Virginia, I am delighted to have this month's fungus be Amanita marmorata subspecies myrtacearum , a mushroom Orson described from Hawaii with Don Hemmes and George Wong. (wisc.edu)
  • The top photo of this page was taken at the MSA foray in Hawaii, when someone found this fungus Amanita marmorata subspecies myrtacearum . (wisc.edu)
  • This is what I assume to be an Amanita or a similar fungus. (fungi.org.uk)
  • Amanita xanthocephala (pronunciation: Aman-ee-ta zan-though-seff-allah) is a pretty forest fungus with orange cap and contrasting white gills. (blogspot.com)
  • Amanita xanthocephala is a native fungus found singly or in scattered groups on the ground amongst leaf litter in native forests. (blogspot.com)
  • The biochemical analyses indicated a single origin of cyclic peptide toxins (amatoxins and phalloidin) within Amanita and suggested that this kind of toxins seemed to be a synapomorphy of lethal amanitas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eight peptide toxins were isolated and purified from basidiocarps of Amanita exitialis with high performance liquid chromatography and were subjected to ultraviolet, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. (zenodo.org)
  • The molecular weight (729.5 Da) of the eighth compound did not match that of any reported Amanita toxins and, although the UV absorption spectrum indicated it to be a phallotoxin, further studies are required to identify this component. (zenodo.org)
  • paper, they hypothesized that, like other members of the Phalloideae , Amanita marmorata would be expected to contain α-amanitin. (wisc.edu)
  • While American Caesar, or Caesar's Amanita, has a somewhat shiny reddish cap, yellowish gills and a saclike cup at the base of the stalk. (nps.gov)
  • Molecular phylogeny of Amanita based on large-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences: Implications for taxonomy and character evolution. (springer.com)
  • Morphology and subdivision of Amanita and a monograph of its section Lepidella . (springer.com)
  • In the traditional classifications based on morphological and anatomical characters, Amanita was often split into two subgenera, Amanita and Lepidella (J.-E. Gilbert) Veselý [ 9 , 10 ], comprising seven sections Amanita , Caesareae Singer, Vaginatae (Fr. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thats said you should be able to get pleanty high on the psychoactive amanitas with otu having to drink your pee. (drugs-forum.com)
  • For some time, muscarine was believed to be the psychoactive alkaloid of the Amanita, but in 1964 independent researchers in Japan, England, and Switzerland isolated ibotenic acid and muscimol, and discovered their psychoactive properties. (psycheplants.org)
  • Similar to Amanita ceciliae but usually retaining a volva, this smallish and generally fairly dark grisette occurs in association with fir, birch, larch and spruce. (first-nature.com)
  • The most obvious distinguishing feature of Amanita submembranacea is its thin, leathery (submembranous) white bag-like volva that greys and hardens, its surface looking like flakes of dull grey paint on a canvas background. (first-nature.com)
  • La más pequeña de las Amanitas chilenas, inconfundible por el color anaranjado del píleo y del margen de la volva, siempre bajo Nothofagus. (coursehero.com)
  • The first thing to check for with an Amanita is the presence of a volva or bulbous base. (fungi.org.uk)
  • Although there is no ring on the stem of this Amanita , orange remnants of the volva can be present. (blogspot.com)
  • Although Amanita xanthocephala does not have a stem ring, orange volva remnants can be left on the stem. (blogspot.com)
  • They boil the Amanita granules with fresh mountain snapweed ( Impatiens noli-tangere subsp. (erowid.org)
  • Amanita marmorata subsp myrtacearum is, as the name would suggest, a subspecies of Amanita marmorata , which is found in Australia. (wisc.edu)
  • Microscopic characters are sometimes required for success in amanita identification, but the necessary microscope work is often centered around simple analysis of spores, rather than more erudite microfeatures that require substantial microscope experience. (mushroomexpert.com)
  • However, at section-level, we suggest that subgenus Amanita should be divided into three sections ( Amanita, Vaginatae , and Caesareae ). (springer.com)
  • The fruiting body in young Amanita is enclosed in the universal veil, which ruptures and remains in the form of a membrane or scales at the base of the stipe or in the form of white flakes on the surface of the cap. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The editors of this site owe a great debt to Dr. Cornelis Bas whose famous cigar box files of Amanita nomenclatural information gathered over three or more decades were made available to RET for computerization and make up the lion's share of the nomenclatural information presented on this site. (amanitaceae.org)
  • Amanita ocreata was first described by American mycologist Charles Horton Peck in 1909 from material collected by a C. F. Baker in Claremont, California. (bionity.com)