Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Amacrine Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Eye ProteinsCone Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Retinal Bipolar Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.Bass: Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Light Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.Darkness: The absence of light.Cetomacrogol: Non-ionic surfactant of the polyethylene glycol family. It is used as a solubilizer and emulsifying agent in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, often as an ointment base, and also as a research tool.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Arrestin: A 48-Kd protein of the outer segment of the retinal rods and a component of the phototransduction cascade. Arrestin quenches G-protein activation by binding to phosphorylated photolyzed rhodopsin. Arrestin causes experimental autoimmune uveitis when injected into laboratory animals.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Outer Segment: The light sensitive outer portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. The outer segment contains a stack of disk membranes laden with photoreceptive pigments (RETINAL PIGMENTS). The outer segment is connected to the inner segment by a PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Retinal Horizontal Cells: NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.Recoverin: A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that is found in ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and CONE PHOTORECEPTORS. It interacts with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 in a Ca2+ dependent manner and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).Animals, LaboratoryAnimal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Binomial Distribution: The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.

*Electroretinography

... including the photoreceptors (rods and cones), inner retinal cells (bipolar and amacrine cells), and the ganglion cells. ... while the remainder of the wave is produced by a mixture of cells including photoreceptors, bipolar, amacrine, and Muller cells ... The pattern ERG (PERG), evoked by an alternating checkerboard stimulus, primarily reflects activity of retinal ganglion cells. ... may be useful in assessing retinal ganglion cell function in diseases like glaucoma. The multifocal ERG is used to record ...

*Retina horizontal cell

Retinal neurons include photoreceptor cells, horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells. Depending on ... the center-surround antagonism of cones is thought to be more reliably present in cone terminals. Photoreceptor cells Bipolar ... Horizontal cells span across photoreceptors and summate inputs before synapsing onto photoreceptor cells. Horizontal cells may ... Horizontal cells and other retinal interneuron cells are less likely to be near neighbours of the same subtype than would occur ...

*Retinal ganglion cell

... retina amacrine cells, and rod and cone photoreceptors. There are about 0.7 to 1.5 million retinal ganglion cells in the human ... With about 4.6 million cone cells and 92 million rod cells, or 96.6 million photoreceptors per retina, on average each retinal ... bipolar cells and retina amacrine cells. Retina amacrine cells, particularly narrow field cells, are important for creating ... there are at least five main classes of retinal ganglion cells: Midget cell (Parvocellular, or P pathway; P cells) Parasol cell ...

*Retinal precursor cells

... including retinal ganglion cells, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, horizontal cells, rod photoreceptors, cone photoreceptors, and ... Ath5 expression in retinal progenitor cells biases their differentiation into a retinal ganglion cell fate. An example of an ... Retinal precursor cells are biological cells that differentiate into the various cell types of the retina during development. ... retinal cells originate from the anterior portion of the neural plate termed the eye field. Eye field cells with a retinal fate ...

*Sensory neuron

... either a rod or cone), bipolar cell, and the ganglion cell. The first action potential occurs in the retinal ganglion cell. ... and amacrine cells. The basic circuitry of the retina incorporates a three-neuron chain consisting of the photoreceptor ( ... The five basic classes of neurons within the retina are photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, ... There are three primary types of photoreceptors: Cones are photoreceptors that respond significantly to color. In humans the ...

*Retina horizontal cell

Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... Retinal neurons include photoreceptor cells, horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells. ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... Horizontal cells span across photoreceptors and summate inputs before synapsing onto photoreceptor cells.[1][2] Horizontal ...

*Outer plexiform layer

... where amacrine cells synapse with retinal ganglion cells. The synapses in the outer plexiform layer are between the rod cell ... endings or cone cell branched foot plates and horizontal cells. Unlike in most systems, rod and cone cells release ... and photoreceptor cell inner segments from the outer nuclear layer. It is much thinner than the inner plexiform layer, ... It consists of a dense network of synapses between dendrites of horizontal cells from the inner nuclear layer, ...

*Retina bipolar cell

Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... As a part of the retina, bipolar cells exist between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells. They act, ... Instead, rod bipolar cells synapse on to a Retina amacrine cell, which in turn excite cone ON bipolar cells (via gap junctions ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ...

*Retina bipolar cell

As a part of the retina, bipolar cells exist between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells. They act, ... Amacrine cell Retinal ganglion cell Kevin S. LaBar; Purves, Dale; Elizabeth M. Brannon; Cabeza, Roberto; Huettel, Scott A. ( ... Instead, rod bipolar cells synapse on to a Retina amacrine cell, which in turn excite cone ON bipolar cells (via gap junctions ... Bipolar cells effectively transfer information from rods and cones to ganglion cells. The horizontal cells and the amacrine ...

*Amacrine cell

Bipolar cell of the retina Horizontal cell Photoreceptor cell Retinal ganglion cell Kolb, H; Kolb, H; Fernandez, E; Nelson, R ( ... amacrine cells work laterally, but whereas horizontal cells are connected to the output of rod and cone cells, amacrine cells ... The AII amacrine cell is a mediator of signals from rod cells under scotopic conditions. Amacrine cells and other retinal ... Glycinergic amacrine cells aren't as extensively characterized as GABAergic amacrine cells. All glycinergic amacrine cells ...

*Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

... like the photoreceptor cones which rely on müller cells and retinal pigment epithelium cells for this conversion, melanopsin is ... In parallel with the DA amacrine cell inhibition, somatostatin-releasing amacrine cells, themselves inhibited by DA amacrine ... Therefore they constitute a third class of photoreceptors, in addition to rod and cone cells. Compared to the rods and cones, ... Bistratified cell Melanopsin Midget cell Parasol cell Photoreceptor DO, MICHAEL TRI HOANG; YAU, KING-WAI (2017-04-03). " ...

*Receptive field

In retinal ganglion cells (see below), this area of the retina would encompass all the photoreceptors, all the rods and cones ... from one eye that are connected to this particular ganglion cell via bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells. In ... to retinal ganglion cells, to lateral geniculate nucleus cells, to visual cortex cells, to extrastriate cortical cells. Studies ... classified receptive fields of cells in the visual cortex into simple cells, complex cells, and hypercomplex cells. Simple cell ...

*Photoreceptor cell

... cones, and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The two classic photoreceptor cells are rods and cones, each contributing ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... In rod cells, these together are called rhodopsin. In cone cells, there are different types of opsins that combine with retinal ... The retina has many layers of various cell types. The best-known photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) form the outermost layer ...

*Retinal regeneration

The signal goes first to the bipolar and horizontal cells (yellow layer), then to the amacrine cells and ganglion cells (purple ... The mice had suffered from a complete lack of photoreceptor cells in their retinas, and had been unable to tell light from dark ... First, the signals start as raw outputs of points in the rod and cone cells. Then the nerve layers identify simple shapes, such ... regulates differentiation and cell fate determination maintains Muller glial quiescence N-cadherin mediates cell-cell ...

*List of MeSH codes (A09)

... cones MeSH A09.371.729.727.670.650.650 --- rod outer segments MeSH A09.371.729.760 --- retinal bipolar cells MeSH A09.371. ... amacrine cells MeSH A09.371.729.055 --- blood-retinal barrier MeSH A09.371.729.313 --- fundus oculi MeSH A09.371.729.522 --- ... photoreceptors MeSH A09.371.729.727.660 --- photoreceptors, invertebrate MeSH A09.371.729.727.670 --- photoreceptors, ... retinal ganglion cells MeSH A09.371.729.775 --- retinal horizontal cells MeSH A09.371.894.030 --- blood-aqueous barrier MeSH ...

*Retina

Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... Of the retina's nerve cells, only the retinal ganglion cells and few amacrine cells create action potentials. ... of the amacrine cells, bipolar cells, and horizontal cells.[2]. *Outer plexiform layer - projections of rods and cones ending ...

*List of MeSH codes (A11)

... growth cones MeSH A11.671.358.050 - amacrine cells MeSH A11.671.358.700 - retinal bipolar cells MeSH A11.671.514.553 - myelin ... photoreceptors, vertebrate MeSH A11.671.650.650.670.100 - cones MeSH A11.671.650.650.670.625 - retinal ganglion cells MeSH ... cho cells MeSH A11.251.210.505 - l cells (cell line) MeSH A11.251.210.520 - llc-pk1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700 - 3t3 cells MeSH ... retinal ganglion cells MeSH A11.671.650.720 - retinal horizontal cells MeSH A11.671.655.500 - motor neurons MeSH A11.671. ...

*Photoreceptor cell

... cones, and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The two classic photoreceptor cells are rods and cones, each contributing ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... Ganglion cell (non-rod non-cone) photoreceptorsEdit. A non-rod non-cone photoreceptor in the eyes of mice, which was shown to ... Photoreceptor cell. Functional parts of the rods and cones, which are two of the three types of photosensitive cells in the ...

*Schlemm's canal

Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... mechanism involving the transdifferentiation of venous endothelial cells in the eye into lymphatic-like endothelial cells.[2][3 ... cell) → Retina ganglion cell (Midget cell, ...

*Sensory nervous system

Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... Photoreceptors[edit]. Main article: Photoreceptor cell. Photoreceptors are capable of phototransduction, a process which ... The three primary types of photoreceptors are: Cones are photoreceptors which respond significantly to color. In humans the ...

*Stroma of cornea

Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... "Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 20 (1, pp. 9-137): 95-137. doi:10.1016/S1350-9462(00)00016-1.. ... "Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 49: 1-16. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2015.07.001.. ...

*Optic disc

Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... The optic disc represents the beginning of the optic nerve and is the point where the axons of retinal ganglion cells come ... The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. Because there are no rods or ...

*Macula of retina

Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... The retina contains two types of photosensitive cells, the rod cells and the cone cells. ... Within the macula are the fovea and foveola that both contain a high density of cones, which are nerve cells that are ...

*Ciliary processes

Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... cell) → Retina ganglion cell (Midget cell, ...
Automated measurements of human cone photoreceptor density in healthy and degenerative retina by region-based segmentation Suguru Miyagawa,1,2 Hisashi Fukuyama,3 Masakazu Hirota,1 Tatsuo Yamaguchi,4 Kazuo Kitamura,4 Takao Endo,3 Hiroyuki Kanda,1 Takeshi Morimoto,1 Takashi Fujikado1 1Department of Applied Visual Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, 2Technology Development Department Research and Development Section, Topcon Corporation, Itabashi, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, 4Eye Care Technology Development Department, Product Technology Section, Topcon Corporation, Itabashi, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm based on region-based segmentation for automated calculations of human cone photoreceptor density of en face images obtained by an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). Subjects ...
purpose. Intrauterine infection has been linked to preterm delivery and neurologic injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fetal inflammation induced by exposure to endotoxin on the structure and neurochemistry of the retina and optic nerve.. methods. The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was administered to fetal sheep at ∼0.65 of the ∼147-day gestation period via repeated bolus doses (1 μg/kg per day) over 5 days, with fetal retinas and optic nerves assessed 10 days after the first LPS exposure.. results. In the retina, the total number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR), dopaminergic amacrine cells was reduced (P , 0.05) in LPS-exposed compared with control fetuses. There was no difference in the number of ChAT-, substance P-, or NADPH-d-positive amacrine cells. The total number of myelinated axons in the optic nerve was not different (P , 0.05) between ...
The intricate circuitry formed by amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina suggests that these interneurons play a major role in shaping the visual message. The majority of amacrine cells in the vertebrate retina are GABAergic. Thus, elucidating how GABAergic signaling is modulated in the IPL is critical in order to understand how the visual message is processed in the retina. The results presented here suggest that GABAergic signaling between amacrine cells can be modulated by the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) or by the production of the second messenger, nitric oxide (NO). A novel mGluR5 splice variant was isolated from the chicken retina with a truncated carboxy-terminal tail. Whole cell electrophysiological experiments indicated that activation of mGluR5 enhances GABA-gated currents recorded from cultured ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The spatial patterning of mouse cone opsin expression is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein signaling through downstream effector COUP-TF nuclear receptors. AU - Satoh, Shinya. AU - Tang, Ke. AU - Iida, Atsumi. AU - Inoue, Mariko. AU - Kodama, Tatsuhiko. AU - Tsai, Sophia Y.. AU - Tsai, Ming Jer. AU - Furuta, Yasuhide. AU - Watanabe, Sumiko. PY - 2009/10/7. Y1 - 2009/10/7. N2 - Cone photopigments, known as opsins, are pivotal elements and the first detection module used in color vision. In mice, cone photoreceptors are distributed throughout the retina, and short-wavelength (S) and medium-wavelength (M) opsins have unique expression patterns in the retina with a gradient along the dorsoventral axis; however, the mechanisms regulating the spatial patterning of cone opsin expression have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to define the mechanisms regulating the spatial patterning of ...
Purpose: Determine the relationship between the photoreceptor mosaic and visual acuity (VA) in normal observers and blue cone monochromat (BCM) carriers.. Methods: The adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) was used to project an AO-corrected stimulus onto the retina of 9 observers (6 normal; 3 BCM carriers). High contrast photopic letter acuity was measured using a 4AFC tumbling E test at the preferred retinal locus (PRL) and temporal parafovea. Stimuli were presented at 840 or 658 nm with simultaneous photoreceptor imaging at 840 nm.. Results: Cones were well resolved at the PRL for all BCM carriers and two normal observers. BCM carriers had lower cone density and greater cone spacing than normal observers. Voronoi analysis revealed irregular cone packing and cone loss in BCM carriers. Power spectra of mosaic images confirmed irregular ...
Color vision is mediated by cone photoreceptors. In rodents, cone photoreceptors express two types of cone pigments: short (S)- and medium (M)-wavelength cone opsins. Recent studies have disclosed that at least two factors are involved in the development of cone photoreceptors. One is a specific subtype of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) β2, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily acting as a ligand-inducible transcriptional factor. Experiments in vitro have demonstrated that thyroid hormone promotes the differentiation of cone photoreceptors of rat, human, and chick retinal progenitor cells. 1 Recent study in vivo has demonstrated that TRβ2-deficient mice manifest a selective loss of M-cone opsin and concomitant increase in photoreceptors expressing ...
Purpose.: To develop a robust ex vivo model for evaluating cone survival in end-stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and apply this to quantify the effects of putative neuroprotective compounds. Methods.: Rhodopsin knockout mice were crossed with OPN1-GFP reporter mice so that GFP-positive cones could be identified against the background of a rod-specific degeneration. Retinal explants were harvested from 10-week-old mice and maintained in organotypic culture. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), or vascular endothelial growth factor 165b (VEGF165b) was administered daily to treatment groups at three doses (200 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, or 50 ng/mL; n = 5 explants per group). Fluorescence microscopy was performed on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12 to document the number of GFP-expressing cones. Results.: Cone survival could be assessed reliably and reproducibly in this model, and ...
It has been shown that after a visible stimulus, optical oscillations of nearly all cone photoreceptors can be observed using long coherence length light and in a few cones using short coherence length light. Here, we show that after exposure to a visible stimulus, a short coherence length imaging source reveals light-evoked oscillation signals in a large number of cones. More than 80% of cones in a given retinal area are activated (modulation in the reflectance signal) after stimulation, and the pattern of their activation can be subjectively classified into one of four categories. The application of light-evoked signal detection techniques for in vivo retinal imaging may prove useful for assessing the functional status of cones in normal and diseased retinae.. © 2009 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Quantifying the number of neurites per cell and the average segment length roughly grouped the amacrine cells into clusters (Figs. 3D, 3E) suggesting the existence of more than one cell subpopulation in our cultures. To address this observation, and ask whether in vitro amacrine cells retain morphologic diversity analogous to that exhibited in vivo, we performed a principal component analysis. This is a multivariate analysis method that reduces our original seven variables into fewer components when (and if) these variables are highly correlated. We found that three components were able to explain 90% to 99% of the variance in the samples analyzed (Table 2). Component 1, which accounted for approximately 53% of the variability in amacrine cell neurite growth, described a variable largely based on total neurite growth capacity, with a spectrum running from short, simple ...
Small bistratified cells (SBCs) in the primate retina carry a major blue-yellow opponent signal to the brain. We found that SBCs also carry signals from rod photoreceptors, with the same sign as S cone input. SBCs exhibited robust responses under low scotopic conditions. Physiological and anatomical experiments indicated that this rod input arose from the AII amacrine cell-mediated rod pathway. Rod and cone signals were both present in SBCs at mesopic light levels. These findings have three implications. First, more retinal circuits may multiplex rod and cone signals than were previously thought to, efficiently exploiting the limited number of optic nerve fibers. Second, signals from AII amacrine cells may diverge to most or all of the approximately 20 retinal ganglion cell types in the peripheral primate ...
The relative numbers of L- and M-cones in the inner fovea have been estimated by various psychophysical means (see Psychophysical estimates of the relative numbers of L- and M-cones). Taken together, the mean ratios yielded by these methods (with the exception of spectral acuity) tend to suggest that there are twice as many L- as M-cones. However, it should be pointed out that each method has serious problems of interpretation and each ultimately depends on the reliability of cone isolation procedures. Moreover, although the mean estimates of L- to M-cone ratios suggest that there are twice as many L- as M- cones in the central fovea, the individual ratios are highly variable between observers, ranging from 0.33:1 to 10:1. The largest variations occur in individual photometric functions and in individual red-green flicker ratios -- which are the ratio of flicker sensitivity for red and green lights. The ...
Glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the retina. Approximately half of the amacrine cells release glycine at their synapses with bipolar, other amacrine, and ganglion cells. Glycinergic amacrine cells are small-field amacrine cells with vertically oriented dendrites and comprise more than 10 different morphological types. The retinal distributions of glycine receptor (GlyR) α1, α2, α3 and α4 subtypes have been mapped with subunit-specific antibodies. GlyRs were clustered at postsynaptic hot spots which showed selective distributions for the different subunits. As a rule, only one α subunit was expressed at a given postsynaptic site. The kinetic properties of GlyRs were measured by recording spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) ...
Male and female adult mice (2 to 4 months old) were used for the present study. The mice were housed in the Oakland University animal facility on a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. All procedures conformed to National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines for laboratory animals and were performed in conformity with the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Oakland University. The four mouse lines described below were used for the present study. All of the lines were bred on a mixed C57BL/129 background. The first mouse line was the wild-type mice used for the immunohistochemistry study. The second mouse line was wild-type mice in which DACs are genetically labeled by the rate-limiting enzyme catecholamine biosynthesis tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-driven red fluorescent protein (RFP) used to visualize DACs for the mEPSC recordings (referred to as ...
Principal Investigator:KANEKO Akimichi, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:神経・脳内生理学
Similar experiments were performed with cDNA derived from poly(A)+ RNA of bovine pineal tissue. Two overlapping fragments, harboring either the 5′ or 3′ part of the coding region for rod and cone CNG channels were amplified by two sets of primers similar to those used for amplification of fragments from chick cDNA.. Analysis of genomic structure of chick cone CNG channel. A chick genomic library in λFIXII-vector (Stratagene, La Jolla, Ca) was screened with two cDNA probes (F5′, nucleotides −39 to 926, and F3′, nucleotides 882 to 2391 of pCCG8B; Bönigk et al., 1993). Probe F5′ and F3′ yielded 12 and 7 positive signals, respectively. Two overlapping clones were chosen for further analysis. Clones were digested with SacI, XbaI, EcoRI,BamHI, SalI, and each possible combination of two endonucleases. Fragments were separated by agarose electrophoresis and those containing exon sequences were identified by Southern blotting using probes F5′ and F3′. These fragments were isolated ...
AIM: To assess foveal cone photoreceptor function in patients with unexplained loss of central visual acuity. METHODS: Testing of foveal cone photoreceptor function was performed using scanning laser densitometry, colour matching (Rayleigh equation), and pattern electroretinography (ERG). Standard tests included full field ERG, electrooculography, visual evoked potentials, static perimetry, and fluorescein angiography. RESULTS: Decreased foveal cone photopigment density and abnormal pattern ERG were found in three patients. Results of colour matching were not unequivocal. CONCLUSION: Testing of foveal cone photoreceptor function using scanning laser densitometry may determine the location of pathological changes in certain patients with unexplained visual loss. ...
We describe a near-IR scanning laser ophthalmoscope that allows the retinal cone mosaic to be imaged in the human eye in vivo without the use of wave-front correction techniques. The method takes advantage of the highly directional quality of cone photoreceptors that permits efficient coupling of light to individual cones and subsequent detection of most directional components of the backscattered light produced by the light-guiding effect of the cones. We discuss details of the system and describe cone-mosaic images obtained under different conditions.. © 2004 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
The relative abundance and topographical distribution of retinal cone photoreceptors was measured in 19 bird species to identify possible correlations between photoreceptor complement and visual ecolo
Phosphorylation of rhodopsin by rhodopsin kinase GRK1 is an important desensitization mechanism in scotopic vision. For cone vision GRK1 is not essential. However, cone opsin is phosphorylated following light stimulation. In cone-dominant animals as well as in humans, but not in rodents, GRK7, a cone-specific homolog of GRK1, has been identified in cone outer segments. To investigate the function of GRK7 in vivo, we cloned two orthologs of grk7 in zebrafish and knocked down gene expression of grk7a in zebrafish larvae by morpholino antisense nucleotides. Photoresponse recovery in Grk7a-deficient larvae was delayed in electroretinographic measurements, and temporal contrast sensitivity was reduced, particularly under bright-light conditions. These results show that function of a cone-specific kinase is essential for cone vision in the zebrafish retina and argue that pigment bleaching and ...
PURPOSE: We performed a comprehensive in vivo assessment of retinal morphology and function in cpfl1 (cone photoreceptor function loss 1) mice to better define the disease process in this model of cone dystrophies. METHODS: Mice were examined using electroretinography (ERG), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Cross-breeding cpfl1 mutants with mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of red-green cone opsin promoter allowed for an in vivo timeline analysis of number and distribution of cone photoreceptors using the autofluorescence (AF) mode of the cSLO. RESULTS: Light-evoked responses of cone origin were practically absent in cpfl1 mice, whereas rod system function appeared normal. In vivo imaging revealed a progressive loss of cone photoreceptors ...
Recent studies suggest cone degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) may result from intracellular energy depletion. We tested the hypothesis that cones die when depleted of energy by examining the effect of two bioenergetic, nutraceutical agents on cone survival. The study had three specific aims: firstly, we, studied the neuroprotective efficacies of glucose and creatine in an in vitro model of RP. Next, we utilized a well-characterized mouse model of RP to examine whether surviving cones, devoid of their inner segments, continue to express genes vital for glucose, and creatine utilization. Finally, we analyzed the neuroprotective properties of glucose and creatine on cone photoreceptors in a mouse model of RP. Two different bioenergy-based therapies were tested in rd1 mice: repeated local delivery of glucose and systemic creatine. Optomotor responses were tested and cone density was ...
Mammalian retinae express histamine receptors. In the macaque retinal bipolar cell, histamine has been reported to enhance the potassium current via histamine receptors. Recent immunohistochemical studies showed that histamine H1 receptor (HR1) was expressed in the mammalian amacrine cells. Here we investigated the effect of histamine on mouse amacrine cells, using the whole-cell version of the patch-clamp technique. Mouse retinae were sliced at 200 µm in thickness. The slice patch-clamp recording was performed at the inner nuclear layer of the retina. The amacrine cells were identified by the locations of the soma in the retinal layer and by the shapes of the fluorescence with injected Lucifer yellow. First, we confirmed the effect of histamine in the amacrine cells (n = ...
Inhibitory interneurons represent a diverse population of cell types in the central nervous system, whose general role is to suppress activity of target neurons. The timing of spikes in principal neurons has millisecond precision, and I asked what are the roles of inhibition in shaping the temporal codes that emerge from different parallel local neural circuits. First I investigated the local circuitry of melanopsin-containing ganglion cells in the mouse retina, which are intrinsically photosensitive and responsible for circadian photoentrainment. Using transsynaptic viral tracing, I identified three types of melanopsin-containing ganglion cell, and found that inhibitory (GABAergic) dopaminergic amacrine cells are presynaptic to one of these types. These results provided a direct circuitry link between the medium time scale process of light-dark adaptation, which involves dopamine, and the longer time scale of the circadian ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catecholaminergic horizontal and amacrine cells in the ferret retina. AU - Keyser, K. T.. AU - Karten, H. J.. AU - Katz, Barrett. AU - Bohn, M. C.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Enzymes involved in the synthesis of catecholamines were detected in amacrine and what appeared to be a specific class of horizontal cells in the ferret retina. Antisera directed against the enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which converts tyrosine to DOPA, and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which converts norepinephrine to epinephrine, were used with conventional immunohistochemical techniques. A population of perikarya located at the outer margin of the inner nuclear layer (INL) exhibited TH-like immunoreactivity. The cell bodies were 9-12 μm in diameter and gave rise to stout dendrites that tapered rapidly after emergence from the somata. The processes formed a planar array in the inner half of the ...
This image of ganglion cells, Müller cells and starburst amacrine cells in the human retina is from a patient suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP). This disease this patient suffered from slowly causes people affected with this disease to go blind and is a constant reminder to me of why we engage in our research. For some, this is a pretty, […]. ...
The retina is a sensory tissue that collects light and color information of objects and converts into electrical signals, which are then sent to the brain. After light detection by the photoreceptors in the retina, the first step in visual processing occurs in retinal interneurons that are either stimulated or inhibited by photoreceptors during the transmission of the light information to retinal ganglion cells wired to the brain. Changes in the composition and connectivity of these retinal interneurons, therefore, alter the output of the retina, modifying the visual information sent to the brain.. Neurons comprising the retina are produced before animals open their eyes for the first time. This process is regulated by various transcription factors, which bind specific DNA sequences and induce the expression of target genes that define the features of each cell type. Paired-homeobox 6 (PAX6) ...
Xi-Qin Deng, Associate Professor of Cell Biology, and the Joanne I Moore Professor of Pharmacology at University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center will be delivering a seminar on "cGMP/PKG signaling regulation of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in CNG channel deficiency" on Wednesday, January 24th at 12:00 Noon in the Moran Eye Center auditorium.. Abstract: Mutations in the CNGA3 and CNGB3 genes that encode the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel subunits account for about 80% of all cases of achromatopsia and are associated with progressive cone dystrophies. Cone photoreceptors degenerate over time in patients and in mouse models of CNG channel deficiency. Over the last several years, my laboratory has been investigating the cellular mechanisms of cone degeneration using mouse models with CNG channel deficiency. Upon binding of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) under dark conditions, CNG channels open and ...
Visiting Research Scientist, Brien Holden Vision Institute. A network meta-analysis on myopia control found that use of atropine at different concentrations was significantly superior to other interventions (for example, progressive addition spectacle lenses, multifocal soft contact lenses, orthokeratology, more outdoor activities, etc.)1 Other reviews and meta-analysis similarly concluded that there was less myopic progression with atropine and that both the efficacy and adverse effects were dose-dependent.2, 3. Atropine is a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (mAchR), and the underlying mechanisms by which it controls myopia progression remain unclear. Initially, it was thought that the drug acted via accommodative mechanisms. Later evidence suggested that the mechanism was via non-accommodative pathways,4 with some reports suggesting that atropine exerted its action via retinal amacrine cells and dopamine; when ...
Purpose: To evaluate different methods of studying cone photoreceptor structure in wild-type (WT) and transgenic pigs carrying the human rhodopsin P23H mutant gene (TgP23H). Methods: For in vivo imaging, pigs were anesthetized with tiletamine-zolazepam and isoflurane and given lidocaine-bupivacaine retrobulbar injections. Stay sutures and a custom head mount were used to hold and steer the head for adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). Six WT and TgP23H littermates were imaged at postnatal day 30 (P30), P90, and P180 with AOSLO and optical coherence tomography (OCT), and two additional sets of littermates were imaged at P3 and P15 with OCT only. AOSLO imaging and correlative differential interference contrast microscopy were performed on a P240 WT pig and on WT and TgP23H littermates at P30 and P180. Results: AOSLO cone density generally underestimates histology density (mean difference ± SD = 24.8% ± 21.4%). The intensity of the outer ...
We determined the structures of long (L)-wavelength-sensitive and middle (M)-wavelength-sensitive opsin gene array of 58 male chimpanzees and we vestigated relative sensitivity to red and green lights by electroretinogram flicker photometry. One subject had protanomalous color vision, while others had normal color vision. Unlike in humans, a polymorphic difference in the copy number of the genes and a polymorphic base substitution at amino acid position 180 were not frequently observed in chimpanzees. ...
We have demonstrated the function of EML1 and its participation in the recovery of sensitivity under continuous illumination in UV- and blue-sensitive zebrafish cones. Sensitivity recovery in the first tens of seconds after the onset of adapting light was first reported in ERG studies of the flicker response of several mammalian and nonmammalian species (Muller-Limmroth and Andree, 1953). Studies of flicker ERG in frog suggested that the sensitivity recovery originates in cones (Owen and Sillman, 1973; Haynes and Sillman, 1986), which was directly demonstrated in single cell studies of turtle cones under continuous illumination (Normann and Perlman, 1979; Burkhardt, 1994). In humans, the cone-driven "b" wave in the ERG (Gouras and MacKay, 1989) and cone-driven psychophysical perception (Stockman et al., 2006, 2007) also exhibit slow sensitivity recovery under continuous illumination. However, the rate of this sensitivity ...
Based on clinical appearance, color blindness may be described as total or partial. Total color blindness is much less common than partial color blindness.[34] There are two major types of color blindness: difficulty distinguishing between red and green, and difficulty distinguishing between blue and yellow.[35][36] Immunofluorescent imaging is a way to determine red-green color coding. Conventional color coding is difficult for individuals with red-green color blindness (protanopia or deuteranopia) to discriminate. Replacing red with magenta or green with turquoise improves visibility for such individuals.[37] The different kinds of inherited color blindness result from partial or complete loss of function of one or more of the three different cone systems. When one cone system is compromised, dichromacy results. The most frequent forms of human color blindness result from problems with either the middle (green) or long (red) wavelength sensitive cone ...
In this research project, there are four main parts. Scientists have for long tried to understand the fate of cones in RP retinas in determination to rescue them from degeneration at later stages of the disease following rod degeneration. However, no past studies have examined cone mosaic in depth in the whole mount of RP retinas. In the first part, the extensive remodeling of cone mosaic in the S334ter-line-3 rat retinas was examined in depth. We have found that cones in these RP retinas rearranged themselves in a regular array of rings and survived for a long time after rod deaths. The rings continued to remodel through later stage of life as their mean size and quantity increased with the progression of disease before the eventual cone deaths. Similar photoreceptor distribution pattern of rings are also observed in human patients with some eye diseases, and this makes the current study even more ...
In this research project, there are four main parts. Scientists have for long tried to understand the fate of cones in RP retinas in determination to rescue them from degeneration at later stages of the disease following rod degeneration. However, no past studies have examined cone mosaic in depth in the whole mount of RP retinas. In the first part, the extensive remodeling of cone mosaic in the S334ter-line-3 rat retinas was examined in depth. We have found that cones in these RP retinas rearranged themselves in a regular array of rings and survived for a long time after rod deaths. The rings continued to remodel through later stage of life as their mean size and quantity increased with the progression of disease before the eventual cone deaths. Similar photoreceptor distribution pattern of rings are also observed in human patients with some eye diseases, and this makes the current study even more ...
Figure 6. Immunostaining of cone transducin. Immunostaining of cone transducin a-subunit (GNAT2) was done to identify cone photoreceptor cells in the central (Cr) and peripheral (Pr) retinas of a transgenic line 98 (Tg98) mouse and a wild-type littermate (WT) at the age of one month. The positive immunoreactive signals were stained brown. OS, outer segment; ONL, outer nuclear layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; G, ganglion cell layer. The bar at the lower right indicates 50 mm.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ret 1, a cis-acting element of the rat opsin promoter, can direct gene expression in rod photoreceptors. AU - Yu, Xiu. AU - Leconte, Laurence. AU - Martinez, Julian A.. AU - Barnstable, Colin. PY - 1996/12. Y1 - 1996/12. N2 - The Ret 1 element, located at -136 to -110 in the rat opsin promoter, binds developmentally regulated retinal nuclear proteins. A similar sequence is found upstream of opsin genes, from humans to Drosophila, as well as many other photoreceptor-specific genes. The function of the Ret 1 element was tested both in vitro and in two sets of transgenic mice. A mutated Ret 1 element did not bind retinal nuclear proteins in vitro. The same mutations in an otherwise normal 1.9-kb rat opsin promoter tailed to drive expression of a lacZ reporter gene in nine of 12 lines. In the three other lines, expression in photoreceptors was very faint. Four tandem copies of the Ret 1 element maintained the Ret ...
Background Cichlid fishes have radiated into hundreds of species in the Great Lakes of Africa. Brightly colored males display on leks and vie to be chosen by females as mates. Strong discrimination by females causes differential male mating success, rapid evolution of male color patterns and, possibly, speciation. In addition to differences in color pattern, Lake Malawi cichlids also show some of the largest known shifts in visual sensitivity among closely related species. These shifts result from modulated expression of seven cone opsin genes. However, the mechanisms for this modulated expression are unknown. Results In this work, we ask whether these differences might result from changes in developmental patterning of cone opsin genes. To test this, we compared the developmental pattern of cone opsin gene expression of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, with that of several cichlid species from Lake Malawi. In tilapia, quantitative polymerase chain ...
UCSB researchers demonstrate that cholinergic amacrine cells create a "personal space" in much the same way that people distance themselves from one another in an elevator. ...
Table 3 Kinetic and Sensitivity Parameters of mouse rods and cones1. 18. Concluding remarks. In the past decade, great progress has been made in using mouse models to elucidate the mechanisms of activation and termination of the rod phototransduction pathway. Although there are still questions to be answered about the rod pathway such as the reproducibility of the single-photon response, the current frontier of phototransduction research lies in cones, which, for human vision, are far more important than rods. The recent success in recording from single mouse cones ushers in a new era in research on vertebrate cone phototransduction. Many long standing questions, e.g., the mechanisms for the enormous ability of cones to adapt to light, and the differences between rods and cones in sensitivity and kinetics, can now be addressed with a combination of mouse genetics and electrophysiology.. 19. References. Aho ...
Already John Dalton wrote about his color vision deficiency. Red, orange, yellow, and green all appeared to be the same color to him. The rest of the color spectrum seemed to be blue, gradually changing to purple. Dalton concluded already in the year 1798, that he can not see long wavelength red light-known as protanopia today.. Some recent genetic analysis of Daltons preserved eyes showed, that he was suffering from deuteranopia-another form of red-green color blindness. But anyway this is the first description of the red-green color vision deficiency.. In 1837 August Seebeck carried out some systematic color vision tests and found two different classes of red-green color blindness with differences in severity from weak to strong in both classes.. After that investigations started to gather more details and scientists learned a lot more about our color vision: The genetic source of color vision, its deficiencies and the precise knowledge about the mechanism of color vision in our eyes.. ...
Below the photoreceptor level of the retina, there is an intermediate layer containing three types of cells: bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and horizontal cells. Ganglionic cells are located under the intermediate layer. Their axons form the optic nerve.  I: outer nuclear layer  II: outer plexiform layer  III: inner nuclear layer  IV: inner plexiform layer  V: ganglion cell layer Optic nerve Ganglion cell Amacrine cell Bipolar cells Horizontal cell ConeRod I II III IV V Light Info Neurons of the Retina
Degeneration of retinal photoreceptor cells can arise from environmental and/or genetic causes. Since photoreceptor cells, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), neurons and glial cells of the retina are intimately associated; all cell types eventually are affected by retinal degenerative diseases. Such diseases often originate either in rod and/or cone photoreceptor cells or the RPE. Of these, cone cells located in the central retina are especially important for daily human activity. Here we describe the protection of cone cells by a combination therapy consisting of the G protein-coupled receptor modulators metoprolol, tamsulosin, and bromocriptine. These ...
Retinitis pigmentosa, in which patients usually lose night vision in teenage years, side vision in middle age, and central vision in later life because of steady loss of cone photoreceptor cells and rod. Measures of retinal function, such as the electroretinogram, indicate that photoreceptor function is reduced usually several years before visual-field scotomas, symptomic night blindness, or reduced visual acuity arise. As of now, there are no specific treatments available for retinitis pigmentosa. Efficient treatments for retinitis pigmentosa are much awaited, particularly for genetically defined subsets of patients. Various studies suggest that this disease affects about 1 in 4,000 individuals worldwide. Without treatment, patients permanently lose central vision by the age of 60. For past many years, there have been several treatments reported, which did not completely cure the disease but were beneficial ...
Normal cones and pigment sensitivity enable an individual to distinguish all the different colors as well as subtle mixtures of hues. This type of normal color vision is known as trichromacy and relies upon the mutual interaction from the overlapping sensitivity ranges of all three types of photoreceptor cone. A mild color vision deficiency occurs when the pigment in one of the three cone types has a defect, and its peak sensitivity is shifted to another wavelength, producing a visual deficiency termed anomalous trichromacy, one of three broad categories of color vision defect. Dichromacy, a more severe form of color blindness, or color deficiency, occurs when one of the pigments is seriously deviant in its absorption characteristics, or the particular pigment has not been produced at all. The complete absence of color sensation, or monochromacy, is extremely rare, but individuals with total color blindness (rod monochromats) see only ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones. AU - Thoreson, Wallace B. AU - Bryson, Eric J.. PY - 2004/12/5. Y1 - 2004/12/5. N2 - Background: GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl) was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results: Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca)) and then ...
Orphan nuclear receptor of retinal photoreceptor cells. Transcriptional factor that is an activator of rod development and repressor of cone development. Binds the promoter region of a number of rod- and cone-specific genes, including rhodopsin, M- and S-opsin and rod-specific phosphodiesterase beta subunit. Enhances rhodopsin expression. Represses M- and S-cone opsin expression.
Primate color vision is based on two to three cone types in the retina, each expressing a different class of visual pigment, making them the only mammals that possess trichromacy. These pigment classes are the short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1) pigment and the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) pigment, orthologues of the same pigments found in many other vertebrates, as well as the middle wavelength-sensitive (MWS) pigment, a paralogue to the LWS pigment. Trichromacy was achieved differently in Old World and New World primates. In Old World primates, a duplication of the LWS opsin gene occurred giving rise to a
Incubation of cat retinas with 3H-glycine in vitro, followed by horizontal sectioning and autoradiography, showed labeling of 10-12% of bipolar cells and 45% of amacrine cells. To ascertain the effects of glycine-accumulating bipolar and amacrine cells on the response properties of retinal ganglion cells, in vivo iontophoretic studies were performed in the cat eye. Glycine inhibited all ganglion cells, and this action was blocked by strychnine. Aminophosphonobutyric acid (APB) suppressed ON-ganglion cells, but activated OFF-ganglion cells. The influence of APB upon OFF-ganglion cells could be completely blocked by strychnine. In the mudpuppy, APB suppressed ON-bipolar ...
Kim JW, Yang HJ, Oel AP, Brooks MJ, Jia L, Plachetzki DC, Li W, Allison WT, Swaroop A. Recruitment of Rod Photoreceptors from Short-Wavelength-Sensitive Cones during the Evolution of Nocturnal Vision in Mammals. Dev Cell. 2016 Jun 20;37(6):520-32. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2016.05.023. PubMed PMID: 27326930; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4918105 ...
Cell adhesion molecule that plays a role in neuronal self-avoidance. Promotes repulsion between specific neuronal processes of either the same cell or the same subtype of cells. Mediates within retinal amacrine and ganglion cell subtypes both isoneuronal self-avoidance for creating an orderly dendritic arborization and heteroneuronal self-avoidance to maintain the mosaic spacing between amacrine and ganglion cell bodies (PubMed:10925149). Receptor for netrin required for axon guidance independently of and in collaboration with the receptor DCC. In spinal chord development plays a role in guiding commissural axons projection and pathfinding across the ventral midline to reach the floor plate upon ligand binding (PubMed:18585357, PubMed:19196994). Enhances netrin-induced phosphorylation of PAK1 and FYN (PubMed:15169762). Mediates intracellular signaling by stimulating the activation of MAPK8 and MAP kinase p38 ...
The Gnat1−/− mouse provides a unique opportunity to determine what happens to cone signals in the retina in the absence of rod phototransduction. It employs a genetic manipulation whose primary effect on rod phototransduction [21] is well understood, highly specific, and should be consistent between individuals and stable across time. Furthermore, while Gnat1−/− mice suffer slight retinal degeneration [21], its magnitude is much less than in other models of inherited rod dysfunction [24-26]. Under all conditions, the Gnat1−/− cone ERG b-wave had consistently enhanced amplitude and reduced implicit time compared to wild-type controls. It is possible that unexpected secondary effects of Gnat1-loss on retinal wiring (e.g., modest rod photoreceptor loss could reduce the leak of cone signals into neighboring rods through gap junctions) could contribute to these effects. Strain differences could also be a ...
Visually guided behavior can depend critically on detecting the direction of object movement. This computation is first performed in the retina where direction is encoded by direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) that respond strongly to an object moving in the preferred direction and weakly to an object moving in the opposite, or null, direction (reviewed in [1]). DSGCs come in multiple types that are classified based on their morphologies, response properties, and targets in the brain. This study focuses on two types-ON and ON-OFF DSGCs. Though animals can sense motion in all directions, the preferred directions of DSGCs in adult retina cluster along distinct directions that we refer to as the cardinal axes. ON DSGCs have three cardinal axes-temporal, ventral, and dorsonasal-while ON-OFF DSGCs have four-nasal, temporal, dorsal, and ventral. How these preferred directions emerge during development is still not understood. Several studies have demonstrated that ON [2] ...
The joint study between researchers at The University of Western Australia and The University of Queensland looked at the potential for colour vision in a number of Australian shark species.. Associate Professor Nathan Hart and his team measured the light-sensitive cells in the sharks eyes using a specialised instrument called a microspectrophotometer and concluded that they have only one type of cone photoreceptor in the retina.. "Humans have three cone types that are sensitive to blue, green and red light, respectively, and by comparing signals from the different cone types we get the sensation of colour vision," Professor Hart said.. "However, we found that sharks have only a single cone type and by conventional reckoning this means that they dont have colour vision.". "It has long been assumed that sharks have some sort of colour vision and indeed have a preference for certain colours. ...
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J:151918 Jiang H, Xiang M, Subtype specification of GABAergic amacrine cells by the orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a2/Nurr1. J Neurosci. 2009 Aug 19;29(33):10449-59 ...
Epiretinal membrane (ERM) may cause decreased central vision or metamorphopsia. Pars plana vitrectomy with membrane peeling has become the standard treatment for epiretinal membrane. However, visual recovery or symptomatic relief is not always satisfactory in all eyes despite successful membrane removal. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a non-invasive imaging device for various vitreoretinal diseases. Cone outer segment tips (COST) line is a line observed between IS/OS line and RPE in SD-OCT. The investigators examined the correlation of visual acuity and the recovery of photoreceptor layer after ERM surgery, taking COST line into account as a new ...
Whats it like to be color blind? Contrary to what the name implies, color blindness usually does not actually mean that you dont see any color, but rather that you have difficulty perceiving or distinguishing between certain colors. This is why many prefer the term color vision deficiency or CVD to describe the condition. CVD affects men more than women, appearing in approximately 8% of men (1 in 12) and .5% of women (1 in 200) worldwide. Having color vision deficiency means that you perceive color in a more limited way than those with normal color vision. This ranges from mild, in which you may not even be aware that you are experiencing color differently, to severe, which is perhaps the more appropriate from to be called "color blind" and involves the inability to see certain colors. CVD can be inherited; it is caused by abnormalities in the genes that produce photopigments located in the cone cells in your eyes. The eyes contain different ...
Fig. 50. The physiological responses of melanopsin ganglion cells to light. The response on the left shows the melanopsin cells slow onset steady state depolarizing spiking that occurs to a light flash as compared the slow but faster onset hyperpolarization of the green cones in the mouse retina. The action spectra to the right show the melanopsin ganglion cell to have a peak sensitivity to light of 484 nm compared with the rods and other cone types in the mouse. After Berson, 2003. Ralph Nelson. Last Updated: April 10, 2007.. References:. Ammermuller J, Muller J, Kolb H. The organization of the turtle inner retina. II. Analysis of color-coded and directionally selective cells. J Comp Neurol.1995;358:35-62. [PubMed]. Amthor FR, Oyster CW, Takahashi ES. Morphology of ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells in the rabbit retina. Brain Res. 1984;298:187-190. [PubMed]. Amthor ...
Progressive Retinal Atrophy, Progressive Rod-Cone Degeneration (PRA-prcd) is inherited as an autosomal recessive disease. Degeneration of both rod and cone photoreceptor cells of the retina of PRA-prcd affected dogs usually occurs 3 to 5 years of age or later. Affected dogs initially experience night blindness and loss of peripheral vision. As the disease progresses, complete blindness will occur in time. Different breeds and individual dogs may experience variation in the age and rate of the disease progression.. DDC Veterinary is offering DNA Testing for PRA-prcd (PRCD c.5G,A). Breeders have an accurate, convenient, and affordable tool to help them avoid producing PRA-prcd affected offspring and significantly reduce the gene frequency in future generations.. This mutation affects several breeds like the Chesapeake Bay Retriever, Chihuahua, Cocker Spaniel, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Poodle and ...
Quantum catches of cones and the Euclidean distance between loci within color space were calculated as described elsewhere (Balkenius & Kelber, 2004). Contrasts in individual receptor types were calculated as Michelson contrast based upon quantum catches (Srinivasan & Lehrer, 1988). Our criteria for isoluminance are (i) that the contrast for double cones is below the minimum contrast threshold of the achromatic contrast sensitivity test (0.098 at 1.42 cycles/degree; Figure 2) and (ii) that this is true even if the absorbance spectrum of the double cones is shifted 10 nm toward shorter or longer wavelengths. The second criterion is important since the principal member of double cones contains a pigmented oil droplet while the accessory member lacks an oil droplet but contains a low concentration of carotenoids in the position where the oil droplet is found in the principal member (Bowmaker et al., 1997). This causes a slight difference in ...
Using the gene-editing tool CRISPR/Cas9, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Shiley Eye Institute at UC San Diego Health, with colleagues in China, have reprogrammed mutated rod photoreceptors to become functioning cone photoreceptors, reversing cellular degeneration and restoring visual function in two mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa.. The findings are published in the April 21 advance online issue of Cell Research.. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited vision disorders caused by numerous mutations in more than 60 genes. The mutations affect the eyes photoreceptors, specialized cells in the retina that sense and convert light images into electrical signals sent to the brain. There are two types: rod cells that function for night vision and peripheral vision, and cone ...
To encode light-dependent changes in membrane potential, rod and cone photoreceptors utilize synaptic ribbons to sustain continuous exocytosis while making rapid, fine adjustments to release rate. Release kinetics are shaped by vesicle delivery down ribbons and by properties of exocytotic Ca2+ sensors. We tested the role for synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) in photoreceptor exocytosis by using novel mouse lines in which Syt1 was conditionally removed from rods or cones. Photoreceptors lacking Syt1 exhibited marked reductions in exocytosis as measured by electroretinography and single-cell recordings. Syt1 mediated all evoked release in cones, whereas rods appeared capable of some slow Syt1-independent release. Spontaneous release frequency was unchanged in cones but increased in rods lacking Syt1. Loss of Syt1 did not alter synaptic anatomy or reduce Ca2+ currents. These results suggest that Syt1 ...
Background: Eyes in bilaterian metazoans have been described as being composed of either ciliary or rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Phylogenetic distribution, as well as distinct morphologies and characteristic deployment of different photopigments (ciliary vs. rhabdomeric opsins) and transduction pathways argue for the co-existence of both of these two photoreceptor types in the last common bilaterian ancestor. Both receptor types exist throughout the Bilateria, but only vertebrates are thought to use ciliary photoreceptors for directional light detection in cerebral eyes, while all other invertebrate bilaterians studied utilize rhabdomeric photoreceptors for this purpose. In protostomes, ciliary photoreceptors that express c-opsin have been described only from a nonvisual deep-brain photoreceptor. Their homology with vertebrate rods and cones of the human eye has been hypothesized to represent ...
In addition to rod and cone photoreceptors, the retina contains a subset of retinal ganglion cells that are rendered intrinsically photosensitive due to the expression of the photopigment melanopsin. These melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells innervate several central targets, notably those associated with non-image forming light responses. One area is the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), a relay-station for the pupillary light reflex. We aimed to characterise the contribution of melanopsin and cone photoreceptors to light-evoked activity within the OPN in vivo. Neuronal activity was assessed via multi-electrode recordings in the pretectum of mice anaesthetised with urethane (1.5g/kg). 460nm and 655nm stimuli were delivered via an LED light source to the contralateral eye, and light-dependent changes in spike-firing rate were ...
Photopic vision is mediated by cone cells, which express a protein, calleda color or cone opsin, that determines its spectral sensitivity and response characteristics. The molecular mechanisms that produce the unique properties of cone pigments are not understood. The overall goal of this project is to understand the molecular mechanisms of 11-cis-retinal/short wavelength opsin interactions that bring about their unique absorbance properties and photobleaching/ regeneration behavior; in particular, to determine how specific amino acid residues contribute to spectral tuning and phototransduction. We are biochemically characterizing the bleaching /regeneration pathway and studying the physiologically active conformation of short wavelength cone opsins using low temperature and time-resolved (>10 ns) UV-visible spectroscopy. We are investigating the role specific amino acids in violet ...
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Photoreceptors called cones allow us to appreciate color. These are concentrated in the very center of the retina and contain three photosensitive pigments: red, green and blue. Those with defective color vision have a deficiency or absence in one or more of these pigments. Those with normal color vision are referred to as trichromats. People with a deficiency in one of the pigments are called anomalous trichromats (the most common type of color vision problem.) A dichromat has a complete absence in one cone pigment ...
Color blindness, or color vision deficiency, is the inability to distinguish some specific colors. Red-green color blindness is very common. There are certain genes that are responsible for the red-green color blindness. What happens to these genes and how they are inherited?
The gap-junction-forming protein connexin36 (Cx36) represents the anatomical substrate of photoreceptor electrical coupling in mammals. The strength of coupling is directly correlated to the phosphorylation of Cx36 at two regulatory sites: Ser110 and Ser293. Our previous work demonstrated that the extent of biotinylated tracer coupling between photoreceptor cells, which provides an index of the extent of electrical coupling, depends on the mouse strain. In the C57Bl/6J strain, light or dopamine reduces tracer coupling and Cx36 phosphorylation in photoreceptors. Conversely, darkness or a dopaminergic antagonist increases tracer coupling and Cx36 phosphorylation, regardless of the daytime. In the CBA/CaJ strain, photoreceptor tracer coupling is not only regulated by light and dopamine, but also by a circadian clock, a type of oscillator with a period close to 24 h and intrinsic to the retina, so that under ...
Anableps anableps remarkable eyes simultaneously sample photons from terrestrial and aquatic habitats. In situ hybridization with six riboprobes demonstrated that A. anableps and the closely related J. onca express at least five cone opsins (sws1, sws2b, rh2-1, rh2-2 and lws), possibly more given the redundancy of our lws probe.. The wavelength of maximal sensitivity for a visual pigment (and consequently the photoreceptor expressing it) can be determined by microspectrophotometry (MSP) or in vitro protein reconstitution [13,14]. By comparing maximal sensitivity data from A. anableps and its relatives obtained using these techniques, we have endeavoured to assign specific opsin genes to cone cell spectral sensitivities: sws1 (356-365 nm, UV), sws2b (405-425 nm, violet), rh2-2 (452-472 nm, blue), rh2-1 (492-539 nm, green) and lws (543-576 nm, yellow) (figure 2a and discussed in supplementary materials). While these represent the value for individual opsin ...
I used to love them, but its over now: diverging red-green color scales. red green scale I bet the reason for the popularity of red-green color scales is that they are so easy to interpret (at least
Our results demonstrate that the neurotransmitter glutamate induces an alkalinization of the solution directly adjacent to the plasma membrane of both cone and rod horizontal cells of the catfish. This glutamate-induced decrease in proton concentration is precisely opposite to the prediction made by the H+ hypothesis of lateral inhibition; according to this hypothesis, addition of glutamate should result in an increase in the level of H+ around the cell membrane. The observation that glutamate produces an alkalinization of the extracellular face in both cone and rod horizontal cells of the catfish, as well as the rod-driven horizontal cells of the skate (Molina et al., 2004), suggests that it is not the type of horizontal cell that is important in determining the nature of the response. Rather, this phenomenon is likely to be a general property of horizontal ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
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Visual pigments are photopigments in the retinal photoreceptors that absorb light and mediate vision. The absorbance spectra of visual pigments that fish has are closely re-lated to the environmental light in its natural habitats. In order to understand the visual spectral sensitivity of juvenile sutchi catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), the ab-sorbance spectra of visual pigments were measured in this study. Sutchi catfish juve-niles were dark-adapted overnight and then anaesthetized. In the dark room, both eyes of the juveniles were enucleated and retinae were isolated under a dissecting micro-scope with the aid of a night vision goggles. The retinae were cut into small pieces (~ 9 mm2) in a petri dish filled with buffered saline. Each retina sample was placed on a co-verslip with a drop of saline. Second smaller coverslip was then placed on the sample and sealed with Vaseline to prevent dryness. Absorbance measurement was conducted by means of spectrophotometrically ...
Nocturnal geckos are among the very few living creatures able to see colors at night, and scientists discovery of series of distinct concentric zones may lead to insight into better cameras and contact lenses.. The key to the exceptional night vision of the nocturnal helmet gecko is a series of distinct concentric zones of different refractive powers, according to a study published in the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmologys peer-reviewed, online Journal of Vision.. This multifocal optical system is comprised of large cones, which the researchers calculated to be more than 350 times more sensitive than human cone vision at the human color vision threshold.. "We were interested in the geckos because they "" and other lizards "" differ from most other vertebrates in having only cones in their retina," said project leader Lina Roth, PhD, from the Department of Cell and Organism Biology at Lund University in Sweden. "With the knowledge from the ...
AFAIK, only one photoreceptor gene is on the X chromosome, and thats the one that causes red-green colour-blindness.. The fact that this is much more common in men does strongly suggest that the retinal photoreceptor cells in females have a mixture of the 2 Xs activated.. There is a, I think, controversial, claim that some women are tetrachromats. They have a mutant version of the red-green photoreceptor on one of their Xs that is active but with a shifted spectrum of sensitivity, giving them 4 total. Not that different from how some of the New World monkeys manage trichromatic colour vision (which only the females have).. But assuming there is no mutant alleles, there is no genetic reason for women to have better color vision than men (who are not red-green color blind). IF such a difference actually exists, then the cause has to be environmental. If girls are taught from a young age that distinguishing ...
DeParis, S W; Caprara, C; Grimm, C (2012). Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells are resistant to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid excitotoxicity. Molecular Vision, 18:2814-2827. ...
Lampreys are extant survivors of the agnathan (jawless) stage in vertebrate evolution and they, or their close relatives, appeared at least 540MYA. In contrast to northern hemisphere species, the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis possesses three morphologically and physiologically distinct types of photoreceptors i.e. two cones and one rod with wavelengths of maximal absorbance (downstream/upstream) at 610/616nm, 515/515nm and 506/500nm, respectively. To investigate the molecular basis of these multiple photoreceptor types, and the molecular evolution of the vertebrate opsin genes, we cloned full length cDNAs of five opsin genes (LWS, SWS1, SWS2, Rha & Rhb) using reverse transcription PCR from retinal RNA. We confirmed, from genomic DNA, that these five genes are all the retinal opsin genes present in the Geotria australis genome. The phylogeny of the vertebrate opsin gene family was inferred based on a ...
The turtle retina has been used extensively as a model for the study of the neural mechanisms of chromatic processing. Turtle photoreceptor pigments were among the first to be described by microspectrophotometry (Liebman, 1972; Liebman and Granda, 1971; Lipetz and MacNichol, 1982; Lipetz and MacNichol, 1983; Lipetz, 1985; Lipetz and MacNichol, 1990) as were their associated oil droplets (Liebman, 1972; Liebman and Granda, 1971; Fujimoto et al., 1957; Ohtsuka, 1984). Later, intracellular recordings of single cones were performed, and their dynamic properties have also been studied electrophysiologically (Baylor and Fuortes, 1970; Baylor et al., 1971; Fuortes et al., 1973; Granda and Dvorak, 1977; Ohtsuka, 1985a; Ohtsuka, 1985b).. Explorations of the outer retina have revealed four types of horizontal cells according to their response to different wavelengths: a monophasic type with hyperpolarizing responses to all wavelengths (Fuortes and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A non-canonical photopigment, melanopsin, is expressed in the differentiating ganglion, horizontal, and bipolar cells of the chicken retina. AU - Tomonari, Sayuri. AU - Takagi, Akira. AU - Akamatsu, Shino. AU - Noji, Sumihare. AU - Ohuchi, Hideyo. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - Vertebrate melanopsin is a photopigment in the eye, required for photoentrainment. Melanopsin is more closely related to opsin proteins found in invertebrates, than to the other photo-pigments. Although the invertebrate melanopsin-like protein is localized in rhabdomeric photoreceptors in the invertebrate eye, it has been shown to be expressed in a subset of retinal ganglion cells in the mouse and in horizontal cells in the frog, indicating its diversified expression pattern in vertebrates. Here we show that two types of melanopsin transcripts are expressed in the developing chicken ...
Synonyms for short-wave diathermy in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for short-wave diathermy. 1 word related to diathermy: modality. What are synonyms for short-wave diathermy?
Wikipedia gives this succinct explanation, the nub of which is in the highlighted sentence: "Humans normally have three kinds of cones. The first responds the most to light of long wavelengths, peaking at a reddish colour; this type is sometimes designated L for long. The second type responds the most to light of medium-wavelength, peaking at a green colour, and is abbreviated M for medium. The third type responds the most to short-wavelength light, of a bluish colour, and is designated S for short. The three types have peak wavelengths near 564-580 nm, 534-545 nm, and 420-440 nm, respectively, depending on the individual. The difference in the signals received from the three cone types allows the brain to perceive a continuous range of colours, through the opponent process of colour vision. (Rod cells have a peak sensitivity at 498 nm, roughly halfway between the peak sensitivities of the S and M cones.) ...
The main finding is that trichromacy confers an advantage when selecting ripe fruits from those at various stages of maturity; both as a simple task and also when presented as a more naturalistic complex task against a background of distracting leaves. This is the first time that such an advantage has been demonstrated for primates using naturalistic stimuli. In addition, the patchy illumination falling on the fruit and leaves in our experiments resembles that of a natural forest canopy with areas of shadow and sun. These are conditions that might favour colour vision. Despite the benefits of trichromacy in the efficient detection and selection of ripe fruit, the selection of heterozygous trichromats will maintain both trichromacy and dichromacy within the population since, within the X-linked single-locus model, males are always dichromats irrespective of their mothers visual status ( Mollon et al., 1984).. The three alleles of the single-locus model give three trichromat phenotypes and three ...
The findings are published in the April 21 advance online issue of Cell Research.. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited vision disorders caused by numerous mutations in more than 60 genes. The mutations affect the eyes photoreceptors, specialized cells in the retina that sense and convert light images into electrical signals sent to the brain. There are two types: rod cells that function for night vision and peripheral vision, and cone cells that provide central vision (visual acuity) and discern color. The human retina typically contains 120 million rod cells and 6 million cone cells.. In RP, which affects approximately 100,000 Americans and 1 in 4,000 persons worldwide, rod-specific genetic mutations cause rod photoreceptor ...
Normal brain function depends on the development of appropriate patterns of neural connections. A critical role in guiding axons to their targets during neural development is played by neuronal growth cones. These have a complex and rapidly changing morphology; however, a quantitative understanding of this morphology, its dynamics and how these are related to growth cone movement, is lacking. Here we use eigenshape analysis (principal components analysis in shape space) to uncover the set of five to six basic shape modes that capture the most variance in growth cone form. By analysing how the projections of growth cones onto these principal modes evolve in time, we found that growth cone shape oscillates with a mean period of 30 min. The variability of oscillation periods and strengths between different growth cones was correlated with their forward movement, such that growth cones with ...
Color blindness (color vision deficiency, or CVD) affects approximately 1 in 12 men (8%) and 1 in 200 women in the world. It is usually genetic, but it can be acquired later in life. Change in color vision can signify a more serious condition. Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist.. In the retina (the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye), there are two types of cells that detect light: rods and cones. Rods detect only light and dark and are very sensitive to low light levels. Cone cells detect color and are concentrated near the center of your vision. There are three types of cones that see color: red, green and blue. The brain uses input from these three color cone cells to determine our color perception.. Color blindness can occur when one or more of the color ...
Alpern, M. & Pugh, E.N. (1974). The density and photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in the living retina. Journal of Physiology, London, 237, 341-370.. Alpern, M. (1967). Lack of uniformity in colour matching. Journal of Physiology, London, 288, 85-105.. Bowmaker, J.K. & Dartnall, H.J.A. (1980). Visual pigments of rods and cones in a human retina. Journal of Physiology, London, 298, 501-511.. Brindley, G.S. (1953). The effects on colour vision of adaptation to very bright lights. Journal of Physiology, London, 122, 332-350.. Brindley, G.S. (1955). A photochemical reaction in the human retina. Proceedings of the physical Society 68B, 862-870. Burns, S.A. & Elsner, A.E. (1993). Color matching at high luminances: photopigment optical density and pupil entry. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 10, 221-230.. Dobelle, W.H., Marks, W.B. & MacNichol, E.F. (1969). Visual pigment densities in single primate foveal cones. Science 166, 1508-1510.. Elsner, A. E., Burns, S.A. & ...
Neuron. 2001 Nov 8;32(3):451-61. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.
color vision - 28 images - ishihara color vision test plates used for color blindness, color vision photopic vision, colors and color vision on, 1 in 12 and 1 in 200 can t see color could you, accounting for color blindness in site design blogging
Motion sensing in vision allows for an organism to detect motion across its visual field. This is crucial for detecting a potential mate, prey, or predator, and thus it is found both in vertebrates and invertebrates vision throughout a wide variety of species although it is not universally found in all species. In vertebrates, the process takes place in retina and more specifically in retinal ganglion cells, which are neurons that receive input from bipolar cells and amacrine cells on visual information and process output to higher regions of the brain including, thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon. The study of directionally selective units began with a discovery of such cells in the cerebral cortex of cats by David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel in 1959. Following the initial report, an attempt to understand the mechanism of directionally ...
We found that the cone opsins of guppies are highly polymorphic, both within and between populations, resulting in at least two different green-sensitive opsins and two highly differentiated LWS opsin isoforms. While RH1, RH2-1 and SWS1 appear to be single copy genes, LWS is found in at least two copies per individual. The 15 different LWS opsin haplotypes identified from nine strains can encode seven different proteins, which can clearly be grouped into three distinct forms. Only variant 1 was found in populations from both Trinidad and Venezuela, while variants 2 and 3 were restricted to Trinidad and Venezuela, respectively (figures 3 and 4). The prevalence of non-synonymous substitutions known to change maximum absorbance of visual pigments, along with the high ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, suggests strong diversifying selection of these proteins, especially in the functionally important TM domain 4 (figure 5).. Our finding of five different cone ...
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a major cause of blindness that affects 1.5 million people worldwide. Mutations in cyclic nucleotide-gated channel β 1 (CNGB1) cause approximately 4% of autosomal recessive RP. Gene augmentation therapy shows promise for treating inherited retinal degenerations; however, relevant animal models and biomarkers of progression in patients with RP are needed to assess therapeutic outcomes. Here, we evaluated RP patients with CNGB1 mutations for potential biomarkers of progression and compared human phenotypes with those of mouse and dog models of the disease. Additionally, we used gene augmentation therapy in a CNGβ1-deficient dog model to evaluate potential translation to patients. CNGB1-deficient RP patients and mouse and dog models had a similar phenotype characterized by early loss of rod function and slow rod photoreceptor loss with a secondary decline in cone function. Advanced imaging showed promise for evaluating RP ...
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a major cause of blindness that affects 1.5 million people worldwide. Mutations in cyclic nucleotide-gated channel β 1 (CNGB1) cause approximately 4% of autosomal recessive RP. Gene augmentation therapy shows promise for treating inherited retinal degenerations; however, relevant animal models and biomarkers of progression in patients with RP are needed to assess therapeutic outcomes. Here, we evaluated RP patients with CNGB1 mutations for potential biomarkers of progression and compared human phenotypes with those of mouse and dog models of the disease. Additionally, we used gene augmentation therapy in a CNGβ1-deficient dog model to evaluate potential translation to patients. CNGB1-deficient RP patients and mouse and dog models had a similar phenotype characterized by early loss of rod function and slow rod photoreceptor loss with a secondary decline in cone function. Advanced imaging showed promise for evaluating RP ...
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a major cause of blindness that affects 1.5 million people worldwide. Mutations in cyclic nucleotide-gated channel β 1 (CNGB1) cause approximately 4% of autosomal recessive RP. Gene augmentation therapy shows promise for treating inherited retinal degenerations; however, relevant animal models and biomarkers of progression in patients with RP are needed to assess therapeutic outcomes. Here, we evaluated RP patients with CNGB1 mutations for potential biomarkers of progression and compared human phenotypes with those of mouse and dog models of the disease. Additionally, we used gene augmentation therapy in a CNGβ1-deficient dog model to evaluate potential translation to patients. CNGB1-deficient RP patients and mouse and dog models had a similar phenotype characterized by early loss of rod function and slow rod photoreceptor loss with a secondary decline in cone function. Advanced imaging showed promise for evaluating RP ...
Our central finding is that multi-neuron firing patterns in parasol RGCs of primate retina can be explained accurately by purely pairwise interactions restricted to adjacent cells in the mosaic. This is consistent with the simplest possible model in Figure 1 and provides a parsimonious functional description of retinal network activity. A major practical implication for future work is that large-scale visual signals conveyed from the primate retina to brain can be understood on the basis of measurements from individual cells and pairs of adjacent cells. However, the limits of this interpretation, and the implications for retinal circuitry, must be approached with caution. Below, we first discuss several implications and then return to consider the caveats.. First, the existence of multi-neuron synchrony in large collections of RGCs does not imply complex circuitry. Previous ...
Lateral inhibition looks promising I must say. It resembles a self organising map in , neural networks and seems to be very useful! , Im presuming that the horizontal and amacrine cells exhibit lateral inhibition, so , theres no getting away from it! It may be worthwhile to start with Hartlines work on limulus and advance into the many subsequent modelling (etc) papers. Passaglia and Barlow 98 is an interesting one. Relevance to mammalian retina? Sure, why not ...
It starts off like this...I got a minute to talk with Jeff and his lovely wife before his set...some other fans came up and Jeff being the consumate professional asked my indulgence to speak with them. So I continued chatting with his wife. Rebecca (hope I spelled that right, if not someone let me know and I will edit it) reached into her purse and pulled out a pack of Starburst candy and offered me one. I gladly accepted as I was a bit parched from the festivities from the night before and little spit generation seemed to be a good thing ...
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Regulation of Brn3b by DLX1 and DLX2 is required for retinal ganglion cell differentiation in the vertebrate retina |...Regulation of Brn3b by DLX1 and DLX2 is required for retinal ganglion cell differentiation in the vertebrate retina |...

... cone and amacrine cells. Development of rod photoreceptors, bipolar cells and Müller glia extends into the second postnatal ... Increased amacrine cells in the Dlx1/Dlx2/Brn3b-null ganglion cell layer. Amacrine, horizontal and cone cells all have ... Only PAX6+ cells in the inner NBL were counted as amacrine cells; Syntaxin+/DAPI+ cells in the GCL were counted as dislocated ... 2D), supporting the observation of more displaced amacrine cells in the TKO GCL. Syntaxin is present in all amacrine cells but ...
more infohttps://dev.biologists.org/content/144/9/1698?ijkey=2b023f8bc47481318627592e42057f4dbb715090&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

G9a and ZNF644 Physically Associate to Suppress Progenitor Gene Expression during Neurogenesis.  - PubMed - NCBIG9a and ZNF644 Physically Associate to Suppress Progenitor Gene Expression during Neurogenesis. - PubMed - NCBI

Stem Cell Reports. 2016 Sep 13;7(3):454-470. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2016.06.012. Epub 2016 Aug 18. Research Support, Non-U.S. ... At 72 hpf, amacrine cells express GABA, bipolar neurons express PKC, and cone photoreceptors express Zpr1.. White arrows ... Pax6 expression marks amacrine cells and a subset of RGCs, and Isl2b expression marks a subset of RGCs. Differentiated retinal ... A) Immunostaining of retinal cross-sections monitoring BrdU incorporation and PCNA+ cells at 48 hpf in WT, znf644a, and znf644b ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27546533

Molecular Vision: Expression of GluA2-containing calcium-impermeable AMPA receptors on dopaminergic amacrine cells in the mouse...Molecular Vision: Expression of GluA2-containing calcium-impermeable AMPA receptors on dopaminergic amacrine cells in the mouse...

... retina and acts on numerous levels of retinal circuitry and all major classes of retinal neurons (rod and cone photoreceptors, ... rod bipolar cell → AII amacrine cellcone bipolar cell) and then enter the DACs. In this rod pathway, AII amacrine cells ... such as horizontal cells, bipolar cells, AII, and A17 amacrine cells, as well as retinal ganglion cells [25-33]. In particular ... release from dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs) by activating three classes of photosensitive retinal cells: rods, cones, and ...
more infohttp://www.molvis.org/molvis/v25/780/

Ascl1 expression defines a subpopulation of lineage-restricted progenitors in the mammalian retina | DevelopmentAscl1 expression defines a subpopulation of lineage-restricted progenitors in the mammalian retina | Development

... rod and cone photoreceptors, amacrine, bipolar and horizontal interneurons, Müller glia and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). ... amacrines (A), rods (R) and horizontal cells (H) are seen. (K-P) Examples of cones (C), rods, bipolar cells (B), amacrine cells ... Ascl1+ progenitors (green) undergo fewer cell divisions (,16 cells) and generate all cell fates except retinal ganglion cells ( ... Nearly all GCL cells are label-negative displaced amacrine cells. (H-J) Horizontal and amacrine cells are co-labeled with ...
more infohttp://dev.biologists.org/content/138/16/3519

In Vitro Generation of Early-Born Neurons from Late Retinal Progenitors | Journal of NeuroscienceIn Vitro Generation of Early-Born Neurons from Late Retinal Progenitors | Journal of Neuroscience

... cone photoreceptors, horizontal cells, and the majority of amacrine cells are born during early histogenesis, whereas bipolar ... retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), horizontal cells, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, and Müller glia. Thymidine birth-dating studies ... E18 retinal progenitors normally generate rod photoreceptors, bipolar cells, Müller glia, and a subset of amacrine cells. It ... BrdU-tagged late retinal progenitors were cultured in the presence of 1% FBS, E3 chick retinal cells, and PN1 rat retinal cells ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/23/23/8193.long

Frontiers | Visual and Ocular Manifestations of Alzheimers Disease and Their Use as Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Progression |...Frontiers | Visual and Ocular Manifestations of Alzheimer's Disease and Their Use as Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Progression |...

The use of non-invasive screening such as retinal imaging and visual testing may enable earlier diagnosis in the clinical ... The use of non-invasive screening such as retinal imaging and visual testing may enable earlier diagnosis in the clinical ... Bipolar cells transmit this information to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Horizontal cells are also connected to photoreceptors ... Photoreceptors represent one of the five main types of cells, the others being horizontal, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cell ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2016.00055/full

Preparation of Mouse Retinal Cryo-sections for Immunohistochemistry | ProtocolPreparation of Mouse Retinal Cryo-sections for Immunohistochemistry | Protocol

... a photoreceptor marker)8, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (Gad65, an amacrine cell marker)9, glutamine synthetase (GS, a Müller ... Applebury, M. L., et al. The murine cone photoreceptor: a single cone type expresses both S and M opsins with retinal spatial ... these data demonstrate that our method preserves retinal cell and tissue integrity, from photoreceptors to ganglion cells ... Nakhai, H., et al. Ptf1a is essential for the differentiation of GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells and horizontal cells ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/59683/preparation-of-mouse-retinal-cryo-sections-for-immunohistochemistry

Visually-Driven Ocular Growth in Mice Requires Functional Rod Photoreceptors | IOVS | ARVO JournalsVisually-Driven Ocular Growth in Mice Requires Functional Rod Photoreceptors | IOVS | ARVO Journals

... horizontal cells, and amacrine cells, and AII amacrine and cone bipolar cells. 72 This could have the effect of decreasing the ... Ectopic retinal ON bipolar cell synapses in the OFF inner plexiform layer: contacts with dopaminergic amacrine cells and ... Intraretinal signaling by ganglion cell photoreceptors to dopaminergic amacrine neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 2008; 105: ... Reduced retinal dopamine levels may increase gap junction conductance between rod and cone photoreceptors, ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2166394

Electroretinography - WikipediaElectroretinography - Wikipedia

... including the photoreceptors (rods and cones), inner retinal cells (bipolar and amacrine cells), and the ganglion cells. ... while the remainder of the wave is produced by a mixture of cells including photoreceptors, bipolar, amacrine, and Muller cells ... The pattern ERG (PERG), evoked by an alternating checkerboard stimulus, primarily reflects activity of retinal ganglion cells. ... may be useful in assessing retinal ganglion cell function in diseases like glaucoma. The multifocal ERG is used to record ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroretinography

Voltage-Gated Na Channels in AII Amacrine Cells Accelerate Scotopic Light Responses Mediated by the Rod Bipolar Cell Pathway |...Voltage-Gated Na Channels in AII Amacrine Cells Accelerate Scotopic Light Responses Mediated by the Rod Bipolar Cell Pathway |...

ON cone bipolar cells (CBs) that provide excitatory input to retinal ganglion cells (GCs) (McGuire et al., 1984; Freed and ... rod photoreceptors. Similarly, individual AII amacrine cells receive input from many (∼20) RBs. AII amacrines are coupled ... 2005) Simultaneous contribution of two rod pathways to AII amacrine and cone bipolar cell light responses. J Neurophysiol 93: ... 2007) Expression of Nav1.1 in rat retinal AII amacrine cells. Neurosci Lett 424:83-88. ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/30/13/4650

Myriad Roles for Gap Junctions in Retinal Circuits - WebvisionMyriad Roles for Gap Junctions in Retinal Circuits - Webvision

... between AII amacrine cells and ON cone bipolar cells - plays a role in allowing a specific retinal ganglion cell to ... Bipolar cells. Bipolar cells, of which there are at least 10 types (63), pass photoreceptor signals onto amacrine and ganglion ... rods and cones), horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells and ganglion cells. For each class of neuron, we describe ... to bipolar cells, other amacrine cells and ganglion cells. Some amacrine cells can also co-release acetylcholine (86-88), ...
more infohttps://webvision.med.utah.edu/book/part-iii-retinal-circuits/myriad-roles-for-gap-junctions-in-retinal-circuits/

Highly Parallel Genome-wide Expression Profiling of Individual Cells Using Nanoliter Droplets.  - PubMed - NCBIHighly Parallel Genome-wide Expression Profiling of Individual Cells Using Nanoliter Droplets. - PubMed - NCBI

doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.05.002. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S ... Photoreceptors (rods or cones) detect light and pass information to bipolar cells, which in turn contact retinal ganglion cells ... Finer-scale expression distinctions among amacrine cells, cones and retinal ganglion cells ... A) Cell-cycle state of 589 HEK cells (left) and 412 3T3 cells (right) measured by Drop-Seq. Cells were assessed for their ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26000488?dopt=Abstract

Retina horizontal cell - WikipediaRetina horizontal cell - Wikipedia

Retinal neurons include photoreceptor cells, horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells. Depending on ... the center-surround antagonism of cones is thought to be more reliably present in cone terminals. Photoreceptor cells Bipolar ... Horizontal cells span across photoreceptors and summate inputs before synapsing onto photoreceptor cells. Horizontal cells may ... Horizontal cells and other retinal interneuron cells are less likely to be near neighbours of the same subtype than would occur ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retina_horizontal_cell

Transplanted hESC-Derived Retina Organoid Sheets Differentiate, Integrate, and Improve Visual Function in Retinal Degenerate...Transplanted hESC-Derived Retina Organoid Sheets Differentiate, Integrate, and Improve Visual Function in Retinal Degenerate...

... and developed several mature retinal cell types, including rods/cones and bipolar, Müller, horizontal, and amacrine cells, ... Efficient stage-specific differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells toward retinal photoreceptor cells. Stem Cells. 2012; ... Calretinin+ cells in transplant resemble inner retinal (amacrine) cells in morphology. Single channels are shown in (a2). ... Calretinin+ cells in transplant resemble inner retinal (amacrine) cells in morphology. Single channels are shown in (a2). ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2682581

Molecular Vision: Gene expression and differentiation
characteristics in mice E13.5 and E17.5 neural retinal progenitorsMolecular Vision: Gene expression and differentiation characteristics in mice E13.5 and E17.5 neural retinal progenitors

RPCs mainly give birth to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), cone photoreceptors, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells, while in ... The degeneration and loss of neural retinal cells, especially retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and photoreceptor cells, is a ... Cell Stem Cell. 2009; 4:73-9. [PMID: 19128794] * Zaghloul NA, Yan B, Moody SA. Step-wise specification of retinal stem cells ... E13.5 and E17.5 retinal progenitor cells play different roles in retinal replacement therapy. Many reports have held cell ...
more infohttp://www.molvis.org/molvis/v15/a268/

Transcription factor Ptf1a in development, diseases and reprogramming | SpringerLinkTranscription factor Ptf1a in development, diseases and reprogramming | SpringerLink

Riesenberg AN et al (2009) Rbpj cell autonomous regulation of retinal ganglion cell and cone photoreceptor fates in the mouse ... Li S et al (2004) Foxn4 controls the genesis of amacrine and horizontal cells by retinal progenitors. Neuron 43(6):795-807 ... Luo H et al (2012) Forkhead box N4 (Foxn4) activates Dll4-Notch signaling to suppress photoreceptor cell fates of early retinal ... Fujitani Y et al (2006) Ptf1a determines horizontal and amacrine cell fates during mouse retinal development. Development 133( ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00018-018-2972-z

RORB - Nuclear receptor ROR-beta - Homo sapiens (Human) - RORB gene & proteinRORB - Nuclear receptor ROR-beta - Homo sapiens (Human) - RORB gene & protein

In cone photoreceptor cells, regulates transcription of OPN1SW. Involved in the regulation of the period length and stability ... Modulates rod photoreceptors differentiation at least by inducing the transcription factor NRL-mediated pathway. ... Required for normal postnatal development of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. ... Isoform 1 is critical for hindlimb motor control and for the differentiation of amacrine and horizontal cells in the retina. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q92753

Imaging Technologies | Ohio State Ophthalmology DepartmentImaging Technologies | Ohio State Ophthalmology Department

A well-equipped cell culture laboratory was established in the new medical research facility and operates with the continuing ... including the photoreceptors (rods and cones), inner retinal cells (bipolar and amacrine cells) and the ganglion cells.. * Full ... Electroretinography measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, ...
more infohttps://wexnermedical.osu.edu/departments/ophthalmology/imaging-technologies

Section for Translational Research on Retinal and Macular Degeneration | National Eye InstituteSection for Translational Research on Retinal and Macular Degeneration | National Eye Institute

Photopic ERG negative response from amacrine cell signaling in RCS rat retinal degeneration. IOVS 49(1):442-52. (2008) ... Photoreceptor protection by adeno-associated virus-mediated LEDGF expression in the RCS rat model of retinal degeneration: ... CNGB3 achromatopsia with progressive loss of residual cone function and impaired rod-mediated function. IOVS 48(8):3864-71. ( ... administered in vivo binds to specific inner retinal cells in the same location as when the antibody is applied to retinal ...
more infohttps://www.nei.nih.gov/intramural/retinalandmaculardegeneration

Different Activity Patterns in Retinal Ganglion Cells of TRPM1 and mGluR6 Knockout MiceDifferent Activity Patterns in Retinal Ganglion Cells of TRPM1 and mGluR6 Knockout Mice

We speculate that impaired signaling between rod BCs and AII amacrine cells (ACs) leads to spontaneous oscillations. TRPM1 and ... mGluR6 are both essential components in the signaling pathway from photoreceptors to ON BC dendrites, yet they differ in their ... We used a multielectrode array (MEA) to record spiking in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We found spontaneous oscillations in ... on retinal ON bipolar cells (BCs). Human TRPM1 mutations are associated with congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). In ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2018/2963232/

Expression profiling of cell-intrinsic regulators in the process of differentiation of human iPSCs into retinal lineages | Stem...Expression profiling of cell-intrinsic regulators in the process of differentiation of human iPSCs into retinal lineages | Stem...

... and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lineages, as well as intermediate retinal progenitor cells of optic vesicles (OVs) derived ... We identified intrinsic regulator biomarker signatures of these two retinal cell types that can be applied with high confidence ... In this study, we used microarrays to analyze transcriptomes of terminally differentiated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) ... Along with MITF, the two paralogs, BHLHE41 and BHLHE40, were the most robust TF markers of RPE cells. The markedly contrasted ...
more infohttps://stemcellres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13287-018-0848-7

Frontiers | Non-image Forming Light Detection by Melanopsin, Rhodopsin, and Long-Middlewave (L/W) Cone Opsin in the...Frontiers | Non-image Forming Light Detection by Melanopsin, Rhodopsin, and Long-Middlewave (L/W) Cone Opsin in the...

A subset of cone bipolar cells and all photoreceptor cells contain recoverin while a subset of bipolar and amacrine cells ... and non-melanopsin bearing retinal ganglion cells was analyzed in detail. Using the ganglion cell marker RNA-binding protein ... A subset of cone bipolar cells and all photoreceptor cells contain recoverin while a subset of bipo... ... The calretinin expressing amacrine cells seemed to form synaptic contacts with rhodopsin containing photoreceptor cells in the ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnana.2016.00061/full

Radial and tangential dispersion patterns in the mouse retina are cell-class specific. | PNASRadial and tangential dispersion patterns in the mouse retina are cell-class specific. | PNAS

... and bipolar cells are aligned in the radial axis, whereas the cone photoreceptor, horizontal, amacrine, and ganglion cells are ... amacrine, and ganglion cells establish nonrandom matrices in their cellular distributions within the respective retinal layers ... These results indicate that the dispersion of cell classes across the retinal surface is differentially constrained. Some ... Radial and tangential dispersion patterns in the mouse retina are cell-class specific.. B E Reese, A R Harvey, and S S Tan ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/92/7/2494?ijkey=f2ccd7639583e9829d4bff60dda53800b190811f&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Retinal Degeneration, Remodeling and Plasticity by Bryan William Jones,  Robert E. Marc and Rebecca L. Pfeiffer - WebvisionRetinal Degeneration, Remodeling and Plasticity by Bryan William Jones, Robert E. Marc and Rebecca L. Pfeiffer - Webvision

3 photoreceptor cell classes composed of 2 cone photoreceptor classes and 1 rod photoreceptor class, 2 glial cell classes: ... 2 vascular cell classes, 35 amacrine or association cell classes, 10 bipolar cell classes, 1 immune cell class and 18-20 ... Müller cells also begin to hypertrophy and grow up between photoreceptor cells to initiate the Müller cell seal. Cell death in ... and glycine amacrine cells and ganglion cell superclasses. Sprouting of both GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cell processes ...
more infohttps://webvision.med.utah.edu/book/part-xii-cell-biology-of-retinal-degenerations/retinal-degeneration-remodeling-and-plasticity/

Genetic architecture of retinal and macular degenerative diseases: the promise and challenges of next-generation sequencing |...Genetic architecture of retinal and macular degenerative diseases: the promise and challenges of next-generation sequencing |...

In this review, we focus on the genetic characterization of retinal and macular degeneration using NGS technology and discuss ... Molecular mechanisms have not been delineated for many retinal diseases, and treatment options are limited. In most instances, ... ChIP-Seq analyses are expected to uncover novel aspects of gene regulation and biological networks that are involved in retinal ... Inherited retinal degenerative diseases (RDDs) display wide variation in their mode of inheritance, underlying genetic defects ...
more infohttps://genomemedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gm488
  • Several characteristics of these L-AP4-resistant light responses suggested that they were driven by melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), including long latencies, marked poststimulus persistence, and a peak spectral sensitivity of 478 nm. (nih.gov)
  • Since the description of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) there has been an increased interest and broader application of pupillography in ophthalmology as well as other fields including psychology and chronobiology. (frontiersin.org)
  • The results indicated that GluA2-containing Ca 2+ -impermeable AMPA receptors contribute to signal transmission from photosensitive retinal cells to DACs. (molvis.org)
  • Some classes of retinal neuroblast exhibit a significant tangential, as well as radial, component in their dispersion from the germinal zone, whereas others disperse only in the radial dimension. (pnas.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that, besides diffusible factors, cell-cell interactions mediated by membrane-bound receptors and ligand interactions, exemplified by Notch signaling, may play a critical role in retinal neurogenesis (Dorsky et al. (jneurosci.org)
  • Additionally, the early retinal remodeling is often clinically occult and occurs prior to any notable clinical fundoscopic imaging. (utah.edu)
  • These progenitors give rise to multiple cell types concurrently, suggesting that progenitors are a heterogeneous population. (biologists.org)
  • To elucidate further the mechanisms of fate diversification, we assayed the expression of three transcription factors made by retinal progenitors: Ascl1 (Mash1), Ngn2 (Neurog2) and Olig2. (biologists.org)
  • suggest that the retinal progenitors are multipotential, and that the decision taken by a progenitor to differentiate along a particular path depends on local cell-cell interactions. (jneurosci.org)
  • A more severe retinal phenotype was found in the Dlx1 / Dlx2 / Brn3b -null retinas than was predicted by combining features of the Brn3b single- and Dlx1 / Dlx2 double-knockout retinas, including near total RGC loss with a marked increase in amacrine cells in the ganglion cell layer. (biologists.org)
  • Color pupillography plays an important role not only in research but also in clinical observational and therapy studies like gene therapy of hereditary retinal degenerations and psychopathology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Clinically used mainly by ophthalmologists and optometrists, the electroretinogram (ERG) is used for the diagnosis of various retinal diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) are the most valuable seed cells in replacement therapy for neural retinal diseases. (molvis.org)
  • The laboratory (STRRMD) is structured to include a broad range of expertise: retinal electrophysiology, genetic models of human blinding diseases, retinal cell biology and biochemistry, molecular biology, and gene therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular mechanisms have not been delineated for many retinal diseases, and treatment options are limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, sustained DA neuron light responses, but not transient DA neuron responses, persisted in rod/cone degenerate retinas, in which ipRGCs account for virtually all remaining retinal phototransduction. (nih.gov)
  • These cell-fate transitions typically involve dynamic regulation of gene expression by histone methyltransferase (HMT) complexes. (nih.gov)
  • TRPM1 and mGluR6 are both critical for initiating ON response in retinal BCs, and absence of either gene abolishes light responses in retinal ON BCs [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 3) AII amacrines are coupled by gap junctions to some types of ON CBs and to other AII amacrines. (jneurosci.org)
  • Gap junctions are recognized in the electron microscope as dense starchy areas of opposed membrane between two cells. (utah.edu)
  • Moreover, as the strength of gap junctions can be modified over a variety of timescales, they can reconfigure retinal microcircuits on both a millisecond time-scale as well as over the course of the day/night cycle. (utah.edu)
  • Changes to coupling strength could also modify other roles for gap junctions in retinal circuits. (utah.edu)
  • The rod bipolar (RB) cell pathway ( Fig. 1 ) is well suited to transmit signals arising at visual threshold during rod-mediated scotopic vision in mammals ( Bloomfield and Dacheux, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • We show that a voltage-gated Na conductance accelerates the time course of signals measured in and downstream of AII amacrines. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ganglion cell axons project towards the optic nerve head and carry signals to the brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, prosthetic devices to replace retinal function, which are now being tested in humans, will eventually need to reproduce the normal regularity and coordination between cell types in order to provide natural visual signals to the brain. (grantome.com)
  • In neural tissues, Ptf1a is transiently expressed in the post-mitotic cells and specifies the inhibitory neuronal cell fates, mostly mediated by downstream genes such as Tfap2a/b and Prdm13. (springer.com)
  • This makes them an excellent tool for producing relevant cell lineages for tissue repair by transplantation, as well as for in vitro disease modeling and drug testing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • About 3 mm medial to the fovea is the optic disc, where axons of the ganglionic cells converge to form the optic nerve. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recently developed cell therapies are promising treatments for RD. Fetal retinal sheets transplanted into RD rodent models 2 - 6 and human RD patients 7 improved vision. (arvojournals.org)
  • X-linked juvenile retinoschisis Achromatopsia Cone dystrophy Disorders mimicking retinitis pigmentosa Usher Syndrome Other ocular disorders in which the standard ERG provides useful information include: Diabetic retinopathy Other ischemic retinopathies including central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), branch vein occlusion (BVO), and sickle cell retinopathy Toxic retinopathies, including those caused by Plaquenil and Vigabatrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most of the discussion in this chapter will focus on Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), it should be noted that the terminal phases of retinal remodeling discussed above and the plasticity and remodeling that will be elaborated on below also occur in AMD, particularly dry forms of AMD (30). (utah.edu)
  • The second postulated mechanism is relatively slow with a time constant of about 200 ms and depends on ATP release via Pannexin 1 channels located on horizontal cell dendrites invaginating the cone synaptic terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surprisingly, Ptf1a alone is sufficient to reprogram mouse or human fibroblasts into tripotential neural stem cells. (springer.com)
  • The pluripotent stem cells, such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), offer a great potential for application in medicine as they can be directed to differentiate into virtually any cell type of an organism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent years, several sources of stem cells have been under investigation as a replacement for damaged photoreceptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent laboratory research, replacement therapy of lost retinal cells by stem cell transplantation has proven to be promising. (molvis.org)
  • These results indicate that the dispersion of cell classes across the retinal surface is differentially constrained. (pnas.org)
  • Homeodomain (HD) and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TFs initiate retinal development and maintain RPC ( Ohsawa and Kageyama, 2008 ). (biologists.org)
  • One family of transcription factors that has been shown to be important in the regulation of cell fate is the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family. (biologists.org)