Amacrine Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Retinal Bipolar Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Glycine Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Calbindin 2: A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Retinal Horizontal Cells: NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Retinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Eye ProteinsVisual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Electrical Synapses: Specialized junctions between NEURONS which connect the cytoplasm of one neuron to another allowing direct passage of an ion current.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Night Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in dim illumination (scotopic intensities) or at nighttime. Scotopic vision is performed by RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS with high sensitivity to light and peak absorption wavelength at 507 nm near the blue end of the spectrum.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Recoverin: A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that is found in ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and CONE PHOTORECEPTORS. It interacts with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 in a Ca2+ dependent manner and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Picrotoxin: A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Phosphinic Acids: Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.Cyprinidae: A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cadmium Chloride: A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Hippocalcin: A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that was initially found in the NEURONS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. It interacts with NEURONAL APOPTOSIS-INHIBITORY PROTEIN.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Glycine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMice, Inbred C57BLLight Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Transcription Factor Brn-3A: A POU domain factor that activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS; alpha internexin; SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25; and BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Diurnal and circadian variation of protein kinase C immunoreactivity in the rat retina. (1/364)

We studied the dependence of the expression of protein kinase C immunoreactivity (PKC-IR) in the rat retina on the light:dark (LD) cycle and on circadian rhythmicity in complete darkness (DD). Two anti-PKC alpha antibodies were employed: One, which we call PKCalphabeta recognized the hinge region; the other, here termed PKCalpha, recognized the regulatory region of the molecule. Western blots showed that both anti-PKC antibodies stained an identical single band at approximately 80 kD. The retinal neurons showing PKC-IR were rod bipolar cells and a variety of amacrine neurons. After 3 weeks on an LD cycle, PKCalphabeta-IR in both rod bipolar and certain amacrine cells manifested a clear rhythm with a peak at zeitgeber time (ZT) of 06-10 hours and a minimum at ZT 18. No rhythm in total PKC-IR was observed when using the PKCalpha antibody, but, at ZT 06-10 hours, rod bipolar axon terminals showed increased immunostaining. After 48 hours in DD, with either antibody, rod bipolar cells showed increased PKC-IR. The PKCalpha antibody alone revealed that, after 48 hours, AII amacrine neurons, which lacked PKC-IR in an LD cycle, manifested marked PKC-IR, which became stronger after 72 hours. Light administered early in the dark period greatly increased PKCalphabeta-IR in rod bipolar and some amacrine neurons. Our data indicate that light and darkness exert a strong regulatory influence on PKC synthesis, activation, and transport in retinal neurons.  (+info)

Characterization of the spontaneous synaptic activity of amacrine cells in the mouse retina. (2/364)

Amacrine cells are a heterogeneous class of interneurons that modulate the transfer of the light signals through the retina. In addition to ionotropic glutamate receptors, amacrine cells express two types of inhibitory receptors, GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) and glycine receptors (GlyRs). To characterize the functional contribution of these different receptors, spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) were recorded with the whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique in acutely isolated slices of the adult mouse retina. All amacrine cells investigated (n = 47) showed spontaneous synaptic activity. In six amacrine cells, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents could be identified by their sensitivity to kynurenic acid. They were characterized by small amplitudes [mean: -13.7 +/- 1.5 (SE) pA] and rapid decay kinetics (mean tau: 1.35 +/- 0.16 ms). In contrast, the reversal potential of sPSCs characterized by slow decay kinetics (amplitude-weighted time constant, tau(w), >4 ms) was dependent on the intracellular Cl(-) concentration (n = 7), indicating that they were spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs). In 14 of 34 amacrine cells sIPSCs were blocked by bicuculline (10 microM), indicating that they were mediated by GABA(A)Rs. Only four amacrine cells showed glycinergic sIPSCs that were inhibited by strychnine (1 microM). In one amacrine cell, sIPSCs mediated by GABA(A)Rs and GlyRs were found simultaneously. GABAergic sIPSCs could be subdivided into one group best fit by a monoexponential decay function and another biexponentially decaying group. The mean amplitude of GABAergic sIPSCs (-42.1 +/- 5.8 pA) was not significantly different from that of glycinergic sIPSCs (-28.0 +/- 8.5 pA). However, GlyRs (mean T10/90: 2.4 +/- 0.08 ms) activated significantly slower than GABA(A)Rs (mean T10/90: 1.2 +/- 0.03 ms). In addition, the decay kinetics of monoexponentially decaying GABA(A)Rs (mean tau(w): 20.3 +/- 0.50), biexponentially decaying GABA(A)Rs (mean tau(w): 30.7 +/- 0.95), and GlyRs (mean tau(w) = 25.3 +/- 1.94) were significantly different. These differences in the activation and decay kinetics of sIPSCs indicate that amacrine cells of the mouse retina express at least three types of functionally different inhibitory receptors: GlyRs and possibly two subtypes of GABA(A)Rs.  (+info)

Modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission by GABA(C) receptor-mediated feedback in the mouse inner retina. (3/364)

In many vertebrate CNS synapses, the neurotransmitter glutamate activates postsynaptic non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and NMDA receptors. Since their biophysical properties are quite different, the time course of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) depends largely on the relative contribution of their activation. To investigate whether the activation of the two receptor subtypes is affected by the synaptic interaction in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the mouse retina, we analyzed the properties of the light-evoked responses of ON-cone bipolar cells and ON-transient amacrine cells in a retinal slice preparation. ON-transient amacrine cells were whole cell voltage-clamped, and the glutamatergic synaptic input from bipolar cells was isolated by a cocktail of pharmacological agents (bicuculline, strychnine, curare, and atropine). Direct puff application of NMDA revealed the presence of functional NMDA receptors. However, the light-evoked EPSC was not significantly affected by D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), but suppressed by 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX) or 1-(4-aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine hydrochloride (GYKI 52466). These results indicate that the light-evoked EPSC is mediated mainly by AMPA receptors under this condition. Since bipolar cells have GABA(C) receptors at their terminals, it has been suggested that bipolar cells receive feedback inhibition from amacrine cells. Application of (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA), a specific blocker of GABA(C) receptors, suppressed both the GABA-induced current and the light-evoked feedback inhibition observed in ON-cone bipolar cells and enhanced the light-evoked EPSC of ON-transient amacrine cells. In the presence of TPMPA, the light-evoked EPSC of amacrine cells was composed of AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated components. Our results suggest that photoresponses of ON-transient amacrine cells in the mouse retina are modified by the activation of presynaptic GABA(C) receptors, which may control the extent of glutamate spillover.  (+info)

Temporal contrast adaptation in salamander bipolar cells. (4/364)

This work investigates how the light responses of salamander bipolar cells adapt to changes in temporal contrast: changes in the depth of the temporal fluctuations in light intensity about the mean. Contrast affected the sensitivity of bipolar cells but not of photoreceptors or horizontal cells, suggesting that adaptation occurred in signal transfer from photoreceptors to bipolars. This suggestion was confirmed by recording from photoreceptor-bipolar pairs and observing a direct dependence of the gain of signal transfer on the contrast of the light input. After an increase in contrast, the onset of adaptation in the bipolar cell had a time constant of 1-2 sec, similar to a fast component of contrast adaptation in the light responses of retinal ganglion cells (Kim and Rieke, 2001). Contrast adaptation was mediated by processes in the dendrites of both on and off bipolars. The functional properties of adaptation differed for the two bipolar types, however, with contrast having a much more pronounced effect on the kinetics of the responses of off cells than on cells.  (+info)

Defocus-induced changes in ZENK expression in the chicken retina. (5/364)

PURPOSE: To characterize the visual stimuli that control the expression of the transcription factor ZENK in glucagon-immunoreactive amacrine cells of the chicken retina. ZENK was previously found to change in correlation with the sign (+ or -) of imposed defocus, making it a potential candidate for regulation of the synthesis of growth factors involved in emmetropization. METHODS: Chicks were unilaterally treated with positive or negative lenses from 40 minutes to 2 hours. They were either kept in their cage environment (1000 lux) or in a large hemispheric dome under more homogeneous illumination (300 lux) in white or quasimonochromatic light (555 nm). In another experiment they were permitted only one viewing distance. ZENK expression was quantified in glucagon amacrine cells after the different treatments by means of double staining and cell counting. RESULTS: In all conditions tested, the number of ZENK-expressing cells was increased with positive lenses and reduced with negative lenses after only 40 minutes of exposure. If only one viewing distance was possible, the level of ZENK still responded to the sign of imposed defocus, although it required 80 minutes of treatment. In this experiment, the interocular difference was largely produced by changes in the contralateral control eyes rather than the lens-treated eyes. Finally, changes in ZENK expression appeared to be related to lens powers with a sigmoidal function, with saturation at approximately +7 D and -7 D of defocus, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm that changes in ZENK expression are selective for the sign of imposed defocus. They may be independent of illuminance and do not require chromatic cues or variable viewing distances. The pathways for the substantial interactions between both eyes are not clear at present.  (+info)

Morphological and electrophysiological evidence for an ionotropic GABA receptor of novel pharmacology. (6/364)

Evidence from toxicological studies suggested that an ionotropic GABA receptor of novel pharmacology (picrotoxin-insensitive, bicuculline-sensitive) exists in the chick embryo retina. In this report, we provide direct morphological and electrophysiological evidence for the existence of such an iGABA receptor. Chick embryo retinas (14-16 days old) incubated in the presence of kainic acid showed pronounced histopathology in all retinal layers. Maximal protection from this toxicity required a combination of bicuculline and picrotoxin. Individual application of the antagonists indicated that a picrotoxin-insensitive, bicuculline-sensitive GABA receptor is likely to be present on ganglion and amacrine, but not bipolar, cells. GABA currents in embryonic and mature chicken retinal neurons were measured by whole cell patch clamp. GABA was puffed at the dendritic processes in the IPL. Picrotoxin (500 microM, in the bath) eliminated all (>95%) the GABA current in the majority of ganglion and amacrine cells tested, but many cells possessed a substantial picrotoxin-insensitive component. This current was eliminated by bicuculline (200 microM). This current was not a transporter-associated current, since it was not altered by GABA transport blockers or sodium removal. The current-voltage relation was linear and reversed near E(Cl), as expected for a ligand-gated chloride current. Both pentobarbital and lorazepam enhanced the picrotoxin-insensitive current. We conclude that chicken retinal ganglion and amacrine cells express a GABA receptor that is GABA-A-like, in that it can be blocked by bicuculline, and positively modulated by barbiturates and benzodiazepines, but is insensitive to the noncompetitive blocker picrotoxin. Understanding the molecular properties of this receptor will be important for understanding both physiological GABA neurotransmission and the pathology of GABA receptor overactivation.  (+info)

The transcription factor cSox2 and Neuropeptide Y define a novel subgroup of amacrine cells in the retina. (7/364)

The retina has been extensively used as a model to study the mechanisms responsible for the production of different neural cell phenotypes. The importance of both extrinsic and intrinsic cues in these processes is now appreciated and numerous transcription factors have been identified which are required for both neuronal determination and cell differentiation. In this study we have analysed the expression of the transcription factor Sox2 during development of the chick retina. Expression was found in the proliferating cells of the retina during development and was down regulated by nearly all cell types as they started to differentiate and migrate to the different layers of the retina. In one cell type, however, Sox2 expression was retained after the cells have ceased division and migrated to their adult location. These cells formed two rows located on either side of the inner plexiform layer and were also positive for Neuropeptide Y, characteristics which indicate that they were a subpopulation of amacrine cells. The expression of Sox2 by only this population of post-mitotic neurones makes it possible to follow these cells as they migrate to their adult location and shows that they initially form a single row of cells which subsequently divides to form the double row seen in the adult tissue. We suggest that retained expression of Sox2 is involved in directing the differentiation of these cells and is an early marker of this cell type.  (+info)

Non-linear, high-gain and sustained-to-transient signal transmission from rods to amacrine cells in dark-adapted retina of Ambystoma. (8/364)

In darkness, On-Off amacrine cells (ACs) of the tiger salamander retina exhibited large spontaneous transient depolarizing potentials (sTDPs) with average peak amplitude of 5.05 +/- 2.5 mV and average frequency of 0.42 +/- 0.25 s(-1). Under voltage-clamp conditions the cell displayed large spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) with average peak amplitude of 98 +/- 39 pA and average frequency of 0.45 +/- 0.22 s(-1). To a light step, ACs gave rise to a transient 'On' response at the light onset and a transient 'Off' response at light offset, followed by a train of TDPs ('After' response). Near the response threshold (0.3 activated rhodopsin molecules per rod per second), light-evoked TDPs (leTDPs) of similar amplitude and kinetics as the large sTDPs observed in darkness were seen, and about half of these leTDPs elicited a regenerative potential (RP). Brighter light steps gave rise to more leTDPs and higher rates of RPs in the On, Off and After responses. Within the linear response range of the rods, the AC response was non-linear, with the highest gain (676 +/- 429) near the dark potential. The amplitude of Off responses increased with the duration of the light step, and ACs may use this to encode speeds of moving stimuli: the faster the light object moves, the smaller the AC Off response. Moreover, the number of leTDPs in the AC After response increased with light intensity, and the onset of the After response coincides with bipolar cell tail response recovery. One possible origin of the large sTDPs and leTDPs is the spontaneous and depolarization-induced regenerative calcium potentials (RCaPs) in bipolar cell synaptic terminals. RCaPs in bipolar cell synaptic terminals cause transient glutamate release that results in the sTDPs in darkness, and leTDPs in On, Off and After responses in ACs.  (+info)

*Retinal ganglion cell

... bipolar cells and retina amacrine cells. Retina amacrine cells, particularly narrow field cells, are important for creating ... The six types of retinal neurons are bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, retina amacrine cells, and rod and cone ... Midget cell (Parvocellular, or P pathway; P cells) Parasol cell (Magnocellular, or M pathway; M cells) Bistratified cell ( ... Ganglion cell Receptive field Masland, R. H. (2012). "The tasks of amacrine cells". Visual neuroscience. 29 (1): 3-9. doi: ...

*Amacrine cell

Glycinergic amacrine cells aren't as extensively characterized as GABAergic amacrine cells. All glycinergic amacrine cells ... amacrine cells work laterally, but whereas horizontal cells are connected to the output of rod and cone cells, amacrine cells ... of amacrine cells are neither GABAergic or glycinergic. These amacrine cells are sometimes known as nGnG amacrine cells, and it ... One type of GABAergic amacrine cell that is fairly well studied is the starburst amacrine cell. These amacrine cells are ...

*Scotopic vision

... specifically AII-amacrine cells. AII-amacrine cells capture rod bipolar cell input and redistribute it to cone bipolar cells ... Marc, R. E.; Anderson, J. R.; Jones, B. W.; Sigulinsky, C. L.; Lauritzen, J. S. (2014). "The AII amacrine cell connectome: A ... Marc, R. E.; Anderson, J. R.; Jones, B. W.; Sigulinsky, C. L.; Lauritzen, J. S. (2014). "The AII amacrine cell connectome: A ... In the human eye, cone cells are nonfunctional in low light - scotopic vision is produced exclusively through rod cells which ...

*Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations

Tachibana, M; Kaneko, A (1988). "Retinal bipolar cells receive negative feedback input from GABAergic amacrine cells". Visual ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 101 (5 Pt 1): 1990-8. doi:10.1083/jcb.101.5.1990. PMC 2113966 . PMID 3902859. ...

*DAB1

2004). "AII amacrine cells in the mammalian retina show disabled-1 immunoreactivity". J. Comp. Neurol. 470 (4): 372-81. doi: ... Being related to organizing the cells of the areas in the brain associated with cognitive function, it is speculated that the ... 2009). "Activated protein C ligation of ApoER2 (LRP8) causes Dab1-dependent signaling in U937 cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. ... DAB1 functions downstream of Reln in a signaling pathway that controls cell positioning in the developing brain and during ...

*Light effects on circadian rhythm

These connect to amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer of the retina. Ultimately, via this retinohypothalamic tract (RHT ... the light either gets collected by rod cells and cone cells before being transmitted to the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), or ... There are five known types of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs): M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5. ...

*Non-spiking neuron

Since amacrine cells, which are a type of non-spiking neurons, undergo a transformation from spiking to non-spiking cells, ... Starburst amacrine cells use action potentials during retinal development, and once the retina is mature, these cells transform ... Amacrine cells are another major type of non-spiking neuron and their lifetime involves the conversion to a non-spiking neuron ... The amacrine cell study poses new and exciting components to the study of altering the chemical and mechanical properties of ...

*Retina bipolar cell

Rod bipolar cells do not synapse directly on to ganglion cells. Instead, rod bipolar cells synapse on to a Retina amacrine cell ... Bipolar cells effectively transfer information from rods and cones to ganglion cells. The horizontal cells and the amacrine ... As a part of the retina, bipolar cells exist between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells. They act, ... and pass it on to the ganglion cells directly or indirectly (via amacrine cells). Unlike most neurons, bipolar cells ...

*Frank Werblin

Maguire, Greg (1989). "Amacrine cell interactions underlying the response to change in the tiger salamander retina". Journal of ... In this manner, whole cell patch recording of amacrine neurons in the salamander retina allowed light evoked excitatory post- ... The micropipette used to record from each cell contained a dye so that each physiologically identified cell could also be ... Precise localization of synaptic inputs to the cell, and localization of functional receptors in the cell was achieved. The ...

*Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript

It is also found in a subset of amacrine cells in the Inner Nuclear Layer. No role as of yet has been proposed for the peculiar ... adrenomedullary cells, islet somatostatin cells, and in rat antral gastrin cells. Other structures and pathways associated with ... CART is also found in a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the primary afferent neurons in the retina. Specifically, it ... CART is also expressed outside of the nervous system in pituitary endocrine cells, ...

*Mir-133 microRNA precursor family

... suppresses melanopsin expression mediated by failure dopaminergic amacrine cells in RCS rats". Cellular Signalling. 24 (3): 685 ... "MicroRNA regulation of cell lineages in mouse and human embryonic stem cells". Cell Stem Cell. 2 (3): 219-29. doi:10.1016/j. ... miR-133 suppresses Prdm16 expression in skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells), which controls myogenic vs. brown ... "MicroRNA-133 controls brown adipose determination in skeletal muscle satellite cells by targeting Prdm16". Cell Metabolism. 17 ...

*Outer plexiform layer

... where amacrine cells synapse with retinal ganglion cells. The synapses in the outer plexiform layer are between the rod cell ... endings or cone cell branched foot plates and horizontal cells. Unlike in most systems, rod and cone cells release ... It consists of a dense network of synapses between dendrites of horizontal cells from the inner nuclear layer, and ... photoreceptor cell inner segments from the outer nuclear layer. It is much thinner than the inner plexiform layer, ...

*MED27

Loss of Crsp34/Med27 decreases amacrine cell number, but increases the number of rod photoreceptor cells. The activation of ... Cell. 14 (5): 685-91. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.05.006. PMID 15175163. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The ... Cell. 5 (4): 753-60. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80254-3. PMID 10882111. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). " ...

*Nervous system

In fact, the types of neurons called amacrine cells have no axons, and communicate only via their dendrites.) Neural signals ... which produce cell-to-cell signals at points where axon terminals make synaptic contact with other cells. Synapses may be ... Mauthner cells are not the only identified neurons in fish-there are about 20 more types, including pairs of "Mauthner cell ... Glial cells (named from the Greek for "glue") are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, ...

*Neurokinin A

Are Localized To Distinct Subsets Of Amacrine Cells In The Anuran Retina". Neuroscience Letters. 386 (3): 194-198. doi:10.1016/ ... Mackay, Ian R.; Rosen, Fred S. (2000). "T-Cell Function and Migration - Two Sides of the Same Coin". N Engl J Med. 343: 1020- ... Neurokinin A has an inhibitory effect on the formation of myeloid cells, and appear to be involved in one specific receptor ... 2008 Sep;295(3):C679-91 Like Substance P [SP], Neurokinin A is present in excitatory neurons and secretory cells of the ...

*Calcium-binding protein

... in ganglion and amacrine cells of the rat retina". Molecular Vision. 14: 1600-1613. PMC 2528027 . PMID 18769561. Calcium- ... One of the functions of Calcium binding proteins is to regulate the amount of free (unbound) Ca2+ in the cytosol of the cell. ... It is involved in cell signaling and shown to exist in neurons. This type of protein is also found in large quantities in ... When levels of Ca(2+) increase in the cell, these members of the EF-hand superfamily regulate transcription indirectly by ...

*Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

In parallel with the DA amacrine cell inhibition, somatostatin-releasing amacrine cells, themselves inhibited by DA amacrine ... ipRGCs are both pre- and postsynaptic to dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA cells) via reciprocal synapses, with ipRGCs sending ... Bistratified cell Melanopsin Midget cell Parasol cell Photoreceptor DO, MICHAEL TRI HOANG; YAU, KING-WAI (2017-04-03). " ... "Parallel inhibition of dopamine amacrine cells and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in a non-image-forming ...

*Ganglion cell layer

... is a layer of the retina that consists of retinal ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells. In the macula lutea, the layer ... The ganglion cells vary much in size, and the dendrites of the smaller ones as a rule arborize in the inner plexiform layer as ... soon as they enter it; while those of the larger cells ramify close to the inner nuclear layer. This article incorporates text ... forms several strata.[citation needed] The cells are somewhat flask-shaped; the rounded internal surface of each resting on the ...

*Adaptation (eye)

The merging of signals by virtue of the diffuse ganglion cells, as well as horizontal and amacrine cells, allow a cumulative ... Long wavelengths, such as extreme red, create the absence of a distinct rod/cone break as the rod and cone cells have similar ... Conversely at short wavelengths the rod/cone break is more prominent, because the rod cells are much more sensitive than cones ... This allows for the photoreceptor cell to hyperpolarize again in response to changes in brightness level even in the dark ...

*Leo M. Chalupa

Gunhan, E.; Choudary, P. V.; Landerholm, T. E.; Chalupa, L. M. (2002). "Depletion of cholinergic amacrine cells by a novel ... immunotoxin does not perturb the formation of segregated on and off cone bipolar cell projections". The Journal of Neuroscience ...

*Neurotransmitter transporter

This "nonvesicular release" of neurotransmitters is used by some cells, such as amacrine cells in the retina, as a normal form ... Neurotransmitter transporters frequently use electrochemical gradients that exist across cell membranes to carry out their work ... and choline is subsequently transported back into the cell and reconverted into acetylcholine. Transporters associated with ...

*MEGF10

... starburst amacrine cells and horizontal cells in mice. These cells are less likely to be near neighbours of the same subtype ... MEGF10 is a regulator of satellite cell myogenesis and interacts with Notch1 in myoblasts. It has been shown to be the cause of ... Mosaic arrangements provide a mechanism to distribute each cell type evenly across the retina, ensuring that all parts of the ... Experimental Cell Research. 313 (17): 3729-42. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.06.015. PMID 17643423. Chen X, Wang X, Chen Q, ...

*Opsin

... within the horizontal and amacrine cells, as well as the pineal organ and habenular region of the brain. It is sensitive to ... expressed in rod cells, used in night vision Three cone opsins (also known as photopsins) - expressed in cone cells, used in ... Cell. 147 (7): 1446-1457. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.004. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 4166436 . PMID 22196724. Feuda, R.; Hamilton, S. ... Cone opsins, employed in color vision, are less-stable opsins located in the cone photoreceptor cells. Cone opsins are further ...

*Motion sensing in vision

... ganglion cells receive inputs from bipolar cells and starburst amacrine cells. The DS ganglion cells respond to their preferred ... Starburst amacrine cells have been viewed as a strong candidate for direction selectivity in ganglion cells because they can ... There are three known types of DS cells in the vertebrate retina of the mouse, ON/OFF DS ganglion cells, ON DS ganglion cells, ... that retinal ganglion cells may receive asymmetrical inhibitory inputs directly from starburst amacrine cells, and therefore ...

*Neuronal self-avoidance

It was later (2012) confirmed, by Lefebvre et al., in a study with amacrine cells and Purkinje cells of Mus musculus, that ... rod bipolar cells (RBCs) and amacrine cells in visual system. The occurrence of correct stratification and connection with ... with Dscam being expressed in a subset of amacrine cells and most retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and Dscaml1 expressed in the rod ... shows that removal of ganglion cells doesn't decrease the retinal ganglion cell types and that position of these cells isnot ...

*Sensory neuron

... bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells. The basic circuitry of the retina incorporates a three- ... There are two types of hair cells: inner and outer. The inner hair cells are the sensory receptors . Problems with sensory ... This mechanoelectrical transduction is mediated with hair cells within the ear. Depending on the movement, the hair cell can ... and the ganglion cell. The first action potential occurs in the retinal ganglion cell. This pathway is the most direct way for ...
Isolated SAC dynamics.Starburst amacrine cells obey Morris-Lecar dynamics with voltage term , refractory variable , sAHP variable and acetylcholine concentrati
The intricate circuitry formed by amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina suggests that these interneurons play a major role in shaping the visual message. The majority of amacrine cells in the vertebrate retina are GABAergic. Thus, elucidating how GABAergic signaling is modulated in the IPL is critical in order to understand how the visual message is processed in the retina. The results presented here suggest that GABAergic signaling between amacrine cells can be modulated by the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) or by the production of the second messenger, nitric oxide (NO). A novel mGluR5 splice variant was isolated from the chicken retina with a truncated carboxy-terminal tail. Whole cell electrophysiological experiments indicated that activation of mGluR5 enhances GABA-gated currents recorded from cultured chick amacrine cells. This mGluR5-dependent enhancement occurred through the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway and was dependent upon ...
Decades of research have focused on the circuit connectivity between retinal neurons, but only a handful of amacrine cells have been described functionally and placed in the context of a specific retinal circuit. Here, we identify a circuit where inhibition from a specific amacrine cell plays a vital role in shaping the feature selectivity of a postsynaptic ganglion cell. We record from transgenically labeled CRH-1 amacrine cells and identify a postsynaptic target for CRH-1 amacrine cell inhibition in an atypical retinal ganglion cell (RGC) in mouse retina, the Suppressed-by-Contrast (SbC) RGC. Unlike other RGC types, SbC RGCs spike tonically in steady illumination and are suppressed by both increases and decreases in illumination. Inhibition from GABAergic CRH-1 amacrine cells shapes this unique contrast response profile to positive contrast. We show the existence and impact of this circuit, with both paired recordings and cell-type-specific ablation ...
Starburst amacrine cells, which modulate the activity of the ganglion cells through inhibitory synaptic connections, play an important role in this direction selectivity. The same research group at the Max Planck Institute in Heidelberg demonstrated a number of years ago that starburst amacrine cells are activated by moving stimuli. Each branch in the circular dendrite tree reacts preferentially to stimuli that move away from the cell body; movements in the opposite direction, towards the cell body, inhibit its activity. In the central area around the cell body dendrites function only as receivers of synaptic signals, while the dendrites on the periphery act as transmitters as well - and, therefore, double as axons. Whether these dendrites cause the direction selectivity in the ganglion cells or whether the ganglion cells "compute" it using other signals was unclear up to now.. Max Planck researchers Kevin Briggman, Moritz Helmstaedter and Winfried Denk have now discovered that, although the ...
Figure 6. The excitatory but not inhibitory inputs onto the pDSGCs from the DS group in Vgatflox/floxCTD mice are directionally tuned to the posterior direction. A, Summary plot showing the log ratio of IPSC amplitudes in the null and preferred directions (log(N/P)) for On and Off components for control (n = 17 cells, 11 mice), non-DS (On: n = 6 cells, Off: n = 11 cells), and DS (On: n = 14 cells, Off: n = 11 cells, On and Off data from 18 mice) groups. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. On: Control 0.34 ± 0.04, non-DS 0.07 ± 0.05, DS −0.04 ± 0.04; Off: Control 0.45 ± 0.04, non-DS 0.05 ± 0.04, DS −0.08 ± 0.04. B, Scatter plots of IPSC log(N/P) ratio versus spike DSI for On (left) and Off (right) components in the DS group. DSI values for On and Off spiking activity are calculated separately. Dashed lines indicate linear regression fit for this and subsequent plots. C, Summary plot showing the log ratio of EPSC amplitudes in the preferred and null directions [log(P/N)] for On and Off ...
Quantifying the number of neurites per cell and the average segment length roughly grouped the amacrine cells into clusters (Figs. 3D, 3E) suggesting the existence of more than one cell subpopulation in our cultures. To address this observation, and ask whether in vitro amacrine cells retain morphologic diversity analogous to that exhibited in vivo, we performed a principal component analysis. This is a multivariate analysis method that reduces our original seven variables into fewer components when (and if) these variables are highly correlated. We found that three components were able to explain 90% to 99% of the variance in the samples analyzed (Table 2). Component 1, which accounted for approximately 53% of the variability in amacrine cell neurite growth, described a variable largely based on total neurite growth capacity, with a spectrum running from short, simple cells on one end to long, complex neurite morphologies on the other (example cells in Fig. 4). Component 2, which explained 24% ...
Glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the retina. Approximately half of the amacrine cells release glycine at their synapses with bipolar, other amacrine, and ganglion cells. Glycinergic amacrine cells are small-field amacrine cells with vertically oriented dendrites and comprise more than 10 different morphological types. The retinal distributions of glycine receptor (GlyR) α1, α2, α3 and α4 subtypes have been mapped with subunit-specific antibodies. GlyRs were clustered at postsynaptic hot spots which showed selective distributions for the different subunits. As a rule, only one α subunit was expressed at a given postsynaptic site. The kinetic properties of GlyRs were measured by recording spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) from identified retinal neurons in wildtype, Glra1spd-ot, Glra2 and Glra3 knockout mice. From observed differences of sIPSCs in wildtype and mutant mice, the cell-type specific subunit composition of GlyRs
The loss of DA cells and lowered expression of TH in surviving neurons suggests that levels of retinal dopamine are likely lowered in OIR. To test this, we measured the dopamine and DOPAC content of individual eyeballs isolated from control mice and mice with OIR at P42. Two groups of mice were used for this experiment, one of which was light-adapted and the other dark-adapted. For the dark-adapted group, mice were maintained in the dark from room lights off (7:30 PM) until noon the next day (12:00 PM) and then euthanized. For the light-adapted group, mice were euthanized on the day of the experiment 4.5 hours after lights on (12:00 AM, illuminance 300-350 lux). The results from the light-adapted group (Figs. 7A-C) show that levels of dopamine were significantly lower in oxygen-treated eyes compared to control eyes (OIR, 505.3 ± 66.6 pg/eye versus control, 1064.9 ± 88.5 pg/eye; n = 10 eyes; P , 0.001; Fig. 7A). Similarly, a substantial loss of DOPAC was observed in OIR eyes compared to control ...
Male and female adult mice (2 to 4 months old) were used for the present study. The mice were housed in the Oakland University animal facility on a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. All procedures conformed to National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines for laboratory animals and were performed in conformity with the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Oakland University. The four mouse lines described below were used for the present study. All of the lines were bred on a mixed C57BL/129 background. The first mouse line was the wild-type mice used for the immunohistochemistry study. The second mouse line was wild-type mice in which DACs are genetically labeled by the rate-limiting enzyme catecholamine biosynthesis tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-driven red fluorescent protein (RFP) used to visualize DACs for the mEPSC recordings (referred to as ...
Principal Investigator:KANEKO Akimichi, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:神経・脳内生理学
Home » Amacrine cell. Amacrine cell (Science: cell biology) a class of neuron of the middle layer of the retina, with processes parallel to the plane of the retina. They are thought to be involved in image processing. ...
This image of ganglion cells, Müller cells and starburst amacrine cells in the human retina is from a patient suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP). This disease this patient suffered from slowly causes people affected with this disease to go blind and is a constant reminder to me of why we engage in our research. For some, this is a pretty, […]. ...
The retinoblastoma protein (Rb), a tumor suppressor, promotes the differentiation of starburst amacrine cells in the retina by inhibiting the transcription factor E2f3a, whereas it suppresses retinal cell division and death by inhibiting E2f1.
Anatomical and electrophysiological techniques were combined to study the morphology, synaptic connections, and response properties of two neurons in the rod pathway of the rabbit retina: the rod bipolar cell and the narrow-field, bistratified (NFB) amacrine cell. Rod bipolars receive synaptic input from rod cells in the outer plexiform layer (OPL), where their dendrites end as central elements in the invaginating synapse of rod spherules. Their main synaptic output in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) is onto NFB amacrine cells and at least one other type of amacrine, which in turn feeds a reciprocal synapse back onto the bipolar endings. Rod bipolars, or a variety of them, respond to diffuse, white light stimulation with a transient-sustained depolarization dominated by rods; with high-intensity flashes, they generate a secondary depolarization at off, which is homologous to the rod aftereffect of horizontal cells, although opposite in polarity. NFB amacrine cells receive synaptic input from rod ...
The regularity of neuronal cell bodies and processes is one of the most striking features of the nervous system and is crucial for cognitive function. The aim...
Morphological diversity of amacrine cells (ACs) is clearly a general characteristic of vertebrate retinae. Beginning with the comparative work of Cajal (1893), much detailed information concerning...
To a first rough approximation, it appears that each GABAergic amacrine cell feedback and feedforward can finasteride alternatives prostate an additional lateral antagonistic interaction, generating an additional receptive field surround superimposed upon the feedback and feed-forward interactions mediated by horizontal cells at the outer retina. (2002).
Recent physiological studies coupled with intracellular staining have subdivided ON directionally selective (DS) ganglion cells of rabbit retina into two types. One exhibits more "transient" and more "brisk" responses (ON DS-t), and the other has more "sustained and more "sluggish" responses (ON DS-s), although both represent the same three preferred directions and show preference for low stimulus velocity, as reported in previous studies of ON DS ganglion cells in rabbit retina. ON DS-s cells have the morphology of ganglion cells previously shown to project to the medial terminal nucleus (MTN) of the accessory optic system, and the MTN-projecting, class IVus1 cells have been well-characterized previously in terms of their dendritic morphology, branching pattern, and stratification. ON DS-t ganglion cells have a distinctly different morphology and exhibit heterotypic coupling to amacrine cells, including axon-bearing amacrine cells, with accompanying synchronous firing, while ON DS-s cells are ...
Figure 3. Expression of Crb2 mRNA in the adult mouse eye. A: The cellular expression of the Crb2 gene in the adult mouse eye was analyzed by mRNA in situ hybridizations. Crb2 is expressed in both the outer nuclear layer (ONL; photoreceptor cells) and inner nuclear layer (INL; horizontal, amacrine, and bipolar cells). The ganglion cell layer (GC), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and outer segments (OS) are labeled. The OPL collapses as an artifact of fixation/sectioning, but can be seen as a dark line between the INL and ONL. B: In some sections, Crb2 expression is also detected in some cells of the ganglion cell layer. These may represent displaced amacrine cells. C: Negative control experiment of the same retina.. ...
Neurolex is being transitioned to a new system and is currently not accepting new additions. If you have additions or questions please contact us at [email protected], or submit an issue to the github issue tracker at https://github.com/SciCrunch/NIF-Ontology/issues ...
Functional interactions between neurons, vasculature, and glia within neurovascular units are critical for maintenance of the retina and other CNS tissues. For example, the architecture of the neurosensory retina is a highly organized structure with alternating layers of neurons and blood vessels that match the metabolic demand of neuronal activity with an appropriate supply of oxygen within perfused blood. Here, using murine genetic models and cell ablation strategies, we have demonstrated that a subset of retinal interneurons, the amacrine and horizontal cells, form neurovascular units with capillaries in 2 of the 3 retinal vascular plexuses. Moreover, we determined that these cells are required for generating and maintaining the intraretinal vasculature through precise regulation of hypoxia-inducible and proangiogenic factors, and that amacrine and horizontal cell dysfunction induces alterations to the intraretinal vasculature and substantial visual deficits. These findings demonstrate that ...
I was outside working and I came in for lunch when I noticed that the lights and peoples faces were either surrounded by a starburst looking effect or the face was entirely blocked out. After I was in...
We have defined a network of interacting Drosophila cell surface proteins in which a 21-member IgSF subfamily, the Dprs, binds to a nine-member subfamily, the DIPs. The structural basis of the Dpr-DIP interaction code appears to be dictated by shape complementarity within the Dpr-DIP binding interface. Each of the six dpr and DIP genes examined here is expressed by a unique subset of larval and pupal neurons. In the neuromuscular system, interactions between Dpr11 and DIP-γ affect presynaptic terminal development, trophic factor responses, and neurotransmission. In the visual system, dpr11 is selectively expressed by R7 photoreceptors that use Rh4 opsin (yR7s). Their primary synaptic targets, Dm8 amacrine neurons, express DIP-γ. In dpr11 or DIP-γ mutants, yR7 terminals extend beyond their normal termination zones in layer M6 of the medulla. DIP-γ is also required for Dm8 survival or differentiation. Our findings suggest that Dpr-DIP interactions are important determinants of synaptic ...
A growing list... Mach bands are a result of lateral inhibition, which is what the horizontal and amacrine cells do with the information provided by a photoreceptor in order to facilitate...
3mm Rigid Board. If you are looking for a long lasting sign which is extremely outdoor durable, rigid board is the material for you. ...
Inhibitory interneurons represent a diverse population of cell types in the central nervous system, whose general role is to suppress activity of target neurons. The timing of spikes in principal neurons has millisecond precision, and I asked what are the roles of inhibition in shaping the temporal codes that emerge from different parallel local neural circuits. First I investigated the local circuitry of melanopsin-containing ganglion cells in the mouse retina, which are intrinsically photosensitive and responsible for circadian photoentrainment. Using transsynaptic viral tracing, I identified three types of melanopsin-containing ganglion cell, and found that inhibitory (GABAergic) dopaminergic amacrine cells are presynaptic to one of these types. These results provided a direct circuitry link between the medium time scale process of light-dark adaptation, which involves dopamine, and the longer time scale of the circadian rhythm. Next I characterised a subpopulation of genetically-identified ...
The retina is a sensory tissue that collects light and color information of objects and converts into electrical signals, which are then sent to the brain. After light detection by the photoreceptors in the retina, the first step in visual processing occurs in retinal interneurons that are either stimulated or inhibited by photoreceptors during the transmission of the light information to retinal ganglion cells wired to the brain. Changes in the composition and connectivity of these retinal interneurons, therefore, alter the output of the retina, modifying the visual information sent to the brain.. Neurons comprising the retina are produced before animals open their eyes for the first time. This process is regulated by various transcription factors, which bind specific DNA sequences and induce the expression of target genes that define the features of each cell type. Paired-homeobox 6 (PAX6) is an important transcription factor of retinal interneurons named as amacrine cells that tune the ...
UCSB researchers demonstrate that cholinergic amacrine cells create a "personal space" in much the same way that people distance themselves from one another in an elevator. ...
Visually guided behavior can depend critically on detecting the direction of object movement. This computation is first performed in the retina where direction is encoded by direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) that respond strongly to an object moving in the preferred direction and weakly to an object moving in the opposite, or null, direction (reviewed in [1]). DSGCs come in multiple types that are classified based on their morphologies, response properties, and targets in the brain. This study focuses on two types-ON and ON-OFF DSGCs. Though animals can sense motion in all directions, the preferred directions of DSGCs in adult retina cluster along distinct directions that we refer to as the cardinal axes. ON DSGCs have three cardinal axes-temporal, ventral, and dorsonasal-while ON-OFF DSGCs have four-nasal, temporal, dorsal, and ventral. How these preferred directions emerge during development is still not understood. Several studies have demonstrated that ON [2] and ON-OFF DSGCs are ...
J:151918 Jiang H, Xiang M, Subtype specification of GABAergic amacrine cells by the orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a2/Nurr1. J Neurosci. 2009 Aug 19;29(33):10449-59 ...
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Figure: The visual information encoding the flight path of a butterfly is conveyed by cone photoreceptors depicted as old video cameras with clocks that have different gradations. The "foveal camera clock" has coarser gradations and the "camera reel" carrying the information of the butterflys flight to the brain with the highest spatial resolution has a slower frame rate with half as many frames compared to the peripheral camera reel. Concept by Jacob Baudin and artwork by Xiaoyun Wu.. A major theme of recent retinal work has been the surprising computational specializations of non-foveal retinal circuits, eg. direction selectivity, selectivity for complex stimulus features, etc (Ref. 1). These computations rely on inhibitory signals generated by diverse populations of inhibitory retinal neurons called amacrine cells. Surprisingly, we find that inner retinal synaptic inhibition minimally shapes responses of foveal midget ganglion cells (the dominant output neurons of the fovea). In contrast, ...
It starts off like this...I got a minute to talk with Jeff and his lovely wife before his set...some other fans came up and Jeff being the consumate professional asked my indulgence to speak with them. So I continued chatting with his wife. Rebecca (hope I spelled that right, if not someone let me know and I will edit it) reached into her purse and pulled out a pack of Starburst candy and offered me one. I gladly accepted as I was a bit parched from the festivities from the night before and little spit generation seemed to be a good thing ...
Starburst wrapper bracelets were the DIY trend back before rainbow loom bracelets took over, and were not too proud to admit that we both wore them and made them, forcing our friends to open their Starbursts slowly in order to keep the wrapper pristine.
Rods, cones and nerve layers from the retina. The entrance (anterior) of the attention is on the still left. Light-weight (in the left) passes by means of several transparent nerve levels to get to the rods and cones (much correct). A chemical adjust during the rods and cones send out a signal again to your nerves. The sign goes to start with towards the bipolar and horizontal cells (yellow layer), then towards the amacrine cells and ganglion cells (purple layer), then to your optic nerve fibres ...
Researchers from the Casey Eye Institute, graduate student Benjamin Murphy-Baum and co-investigator W. Rowland Taylor, Ph.D., have deciphered how neurons in the eye detect the orientation of objects in the visual field. The paper detailing their findings, "The synaptic and morphological basis of orientation selectivity in a polyaxonal amacrine cell of the rabbit retina," was published in the Sept. 30, 2015, edition of The Journal of Neuroscience. Vision is a complex sensory system triggered by light energy … Read More. ...
79. This new method involves the use of percutaneous approach to perform a balloon angioplasty and placement of a stent. Nasanen, amacrine cells, and horizontal cells in human retinas with retinitis pigmentosa.
With this years prom theme being Candyland, its only appropriate that River Falls High School senior Tara Frey wear a dress made out of Starburst wrappers.. The dress was crafted by her mom Kerrin after collecting the thousands of colored wax papers over the past 6 years.. Now thats dedication!. The finished product is pretty awesome, but we cant say her boyfriend and his matching vest feel the same way.. Check out the Tags: candyland, kerrin frey, prom dress, river falls high school, starburst, starburst wrappers, tara frey. ...
Fibrocytes decrease with age and perhaps this accounts for slower healing in the biwerkingen. Parallel processing in the mammalian retina The Proctor Lecture.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catecholaminergic horizontal and amacrine cells in the ferret retina. AU - Keyser, K. T.. AU - Karten, H. J.. AU - Katz, Barrett. AU - Bohn, M. C.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Enzymes involved in the synthesis of catecholamines were detected in amacrine and what appeared to be a specific class of horizontal cells in the ferret retina. Antisera directed against the enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which converts tyrosine to DOPA, and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which converts norepinephrine to epinephrine, were used with conventional immunohistochemical techniques. A population of perikarya located at the outer margin of the inner nuclear layer (INL) exhibited TH-like immunoreactivity. The cell bodies were 9-12 μm in diameter and gave rise to stout dendrites that tapered rapidly after emergence from the somata. The processes formed a planar array in the inner half of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) slightly external to the cells of origin. We could not detect ...
Below the photoreceptor level of the retina, there is an intermediate layer containing three types of cells: bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and horizontal cells. Ganglionic cells are located under the intermediate layer. Their axons form the optic nerve.  I: outer nuclear layer  II: outer plexiform layer  III: inner nuclear layer  IV: inner plexiform layer  V: ganglion cell layer Optic nerve Ganglion cell Amacrine cell Bipolar cells Horizontal cell ConeRod I II III IV V Light Info Neurons of the Retina
Our comprehensive examination of the molecular and functional characteristics of the DA cells of the sensory vesicle of Ciona intestinalis revealed unanticipated common features with the DA-producing amacrine cells of the vertebrate retina. Because DA cells of the sensory vesicle of C. intestinalis also share traits with the DA neurons of the vertebrate hypothalamus, a major implication of our work is that these types very likely derive from DA-synthesizing cells that were already present in a primitive proto-hypothalamo-retinal territory at the anterior neural tube of ancestral chordates. A second conclusion of these findings is that the multiple cell types found in the vertebrate retina and involved in photoreception, including PRCs, ganglion cells and amacrine cells, existed before the formation of the retina as an organ, as suggested from other studies conducted in Drosophila [4]. Thus, the absence of amacrine and other accessory cell types in the retina of hagfish, an animal that ...
Cell adhesion molecule that plays a role in neuronal self-avoidance. Promotes repulsion between specific neuronal processes of either the same cell or the same subtype of cells. Mediates within retinal amacrine and ganglion cell subtypes both isoneuronal self-avoidance for creating an orderly dendritic arborization and heteroneuronal self-avoidance to maintain the mosaic spacing between amacrine and ganglion cell bodies (PubMed:10925149). Receptor for netrin required for axon guidance independently of and in collaboration with the receptor DCC. In spinal chord development plays a role in guiding commissural axons projection and pathfinding across the ventral midline to reach the floor plate upon ligand binding (PubMed:18585357, PubMed:19196994). Enhances netrin-induced phosphorylation of PAK1 and FYN (PubMed:15169762). Mediates intracellular signaling by stimulating the activation of MAPK8 and MAP kinase p38 (PubMed:18585357, PubMed:19196994). Adhesion molecule that promotes lamina-specific ...
Bottesch M., Gerlach G., Halbach M., Bally A., Kingsford M. & Mouritsen H. (2016) A magnetic compass that might help coral reef fish larvae return to their natal reef. Current Biology 26, 24 pR1266-R1267. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.10.051 Meyer A, Tetenborg S, Greb H, Segelken J, Dorgau B, Weiler R, Hormuzdi SG, Janssen-Bienhold U, Dedek K (2016) Connexin30.2: In Vitro Interaction with Connexin36 in HeLa Cells and Expression in AII Amacrine Cells and Intrinsically Photosensitive Ganglion Cells in the Mouse Retina. Front Mol Neurosci. 9:36. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2016.00036. Brüggen B, Kremser C, Bickert A, Ebel P, Vom Dorp K, Schultz K, Dörmann P, Willecke K, Dedek K (2016) Defective ceramide synthases in mice cause reduced amplitudes in electroretinograms and altered sphingolipid composition in retina and cornea. Eur J Neurosci in press. doi: 10.1111/ejn.13260. Schwarze S., Steenken F., Thiele N., Kobylkov D., Lefeldt N., Dreyer D., Schneider N-L., and Mouritsen H. (2016) Migratory ...
The gap-junction-forming protein connexin36 (Cx36) represents the anatomical substrate of photoreceptor electrical coupling in mammals. The strength of coupling is directly correlated to the phosphorylation of Cx36 at two regulatory sites: Ser110 and Ser293. Our previous work demonstrated that the extent of biotinylated tracer coupling between photoreceptor cells, which provides an index of the extent of electrical coupling, depends on the mouse strain. In the C57Bl/6J strain, light or dopamine reduces tracer coupling and Cx36 phosphorylation in photoreceptors. Conversely, darkness or a dopaminergic antagonist increases tracer coupling and Cx36 phosphorylation, regardless of the daytime. In the CBA/CaJ strain, photoreceptor tracer coupling is not only regulated by light and dopamine, but also by a circadian clock, a type of oscillator with a period close to 24 h and intrinsic to the retina, so that under prolonged dark-adapted conditions tracer coupling is broader at night compared to daytime. ...
Delosperma floribundum Starburst. Discover the beautiful perennials and graceful grasses grown by Santa Rosa Gardens. Plants and garden accessories available for mail-order throughout the United States.
Motion sensing in vision allows for an organism to detect motion across its visual field. This is crucial for detecting a potential mate, prey, or predator, and thus it is found both in vertebrates and invertebrates vision throughout a wide variety of species although it is not universally found in all species. In vertebrates, the process takes place in retina and more specifically in retinal ganglion cells, which are neurons that receive input from bipolar cells and amacrine cells on visual information and process output to higher regions of the brain including, thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon. The study of directionally selective units began with a discovery of such cells in the cerebral cortex of cats by David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel in 1959. Following the initial report, an attempt to understand the mechanism of directionally selective cells was pursued by Horace B. Barlow and William R. Levick in 1965. Their in-depth experiments in rabbits retina expanded the anatomical and ...
Lateral inhibition looks promising I must say. It resembles a self organising map in , neural networks and seems to be very useful! , Im presuming that the horizontal and amacrine cells exhibit lateral inhibition, so , theres no getting away from it! It may be worthwhile to start with Hartlines work on limulus and advance into the many subsequent modelling (etc) papers. Passaglia and Barlow 98 is an interesting one. Relevance to mammalian retina? Sure, why not ...
I this talk I outline the evidence for the dynamic multi-functionality of the various parts of the brain, and use it to put pressure on the leading account of scientific explanation in the neurosciences, Craver-Bechtel componential mechanistic explanation. Then, via a case-study of Starbust Amacrine Cells, a motion-sensitive neuron in mammalian retina, and of Hippocampal place cells, in both of which cases specific cellular function seems to depend on the state of the overall network, I introduce the notion of enabling constraints as an alternative to componential mechanisms.
In one aspect the present invention provides methods for assessing a physiological state of a mammalian retina in vivo, the methods of this aspect of the invention each include the steps of: (a) irradiating a portion of a mammalian retina, in vivo, with light having a wavelength in the range of from 600 nm to 1000 nm at an intensity sufficient to stimulate two-photon-induced fluorescence in the retina; and (b) assessing a physiological state of the retina by analyzing the fluorescence.
Small bistratified cells (SBCs) in the primate retina carry a major blue-yellow opponent signal to the brain. We found that SBCs also carry signals from rod photoreceptors, with the same sign as S cone input. SBCs exhibited robust responses under low scotopic conditions. Physiological and anatomical experiments indicated that this rod input arose from the AII amacrine cell-mediated rod pathway. Rod and cone signals were both present in SBCs at mesopic light levels. These findings have three implications. First, more retinal circuits may multiplex rod and cone signals than were previously thought to, efficiently exploiting the limited number of optic nerve fibers. Second, signals from AII amacrine cells may diverge to most or all of the approximately 20 retinal ganglion cell types in the peripheral primate retina. Third, rod input to SBCs may be the substrate for behavioral biases toward perception of blue at mesopic light levels ...
Fig. 50. The physiological responses of melanopsin ganglion cells to light. The response on the left shows the melanopsin cells slow onset steady state depolarizing spiking that occurs to a light flash as compared the slow but faster onset hyperpolarization of the green cones in the mouse retina. The action spectra to the right show the melanopsin ganglion cell to have a peak sensitivity to light of 484 nm compared with the rods and other cone types in the mouse. After Berson, 2003. Ralph Nelson. Last Updated: April 10, 2007.. References:. Ammermuller J, Muller J, Kolb H. The organization of the turtle inner retina. II. Analysis of color-coded and directionally selective cells. J Comp Neurol.1995;358:35-62. [PubMed]. Amthor FR, Oyster CW, Takahashi ES. Morphology of ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells in the rabbit retina. Brain Res. 1984;298:187-190. [PubMed]. Amthor FR, Takahashi ES, Oyster CW. Morphologies of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with concentric receptive fields. J Comp ...
Create a bold and pretty look with our Starburst Contact Lens Set . These gorgeous purple contacts have a white starburst pattern that opens up the eye area and lights up your look. Our Contact Lens Complete Sets include everything you need to enjoy your contact lenses. This great value set includes a
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This is an application to collaborate with Dr. Stephen C. Massey, the Elizabeth Morford Chair and Research Director of the Ruiz Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science at the McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas in Houston. Dr. Massey has been a faculty member since 1985 and his research program has been supported by the National Eye Institute for more than 30 years. He proposes to collaborate with Dr. Maarten Kamermans at the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience during two months of faculty development leave, split into two visits. The goals are: a) to develop a program for confocal imaging of retinal circuits in the human retina that can form the basis for future grant applications; b) to develop advanced imaging techniques, and c) to participate in teaching, seminars and lab meetings at the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience.. ...
Dendritic cells (DCs) are thought to mediate HIV-1 transmission but it is becoming evident that different DC subsets at the sites of infection have distinct roles ...
This report describes comprehensive methods for preparing frozen mouse retina sections for immunohistochemistry (IHC). Methods...
A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye. It receives visual information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types: bipolar cells and retina amacrine cells. Retina amacrine cells, particularly narrow field cells, are important for creating functional subunits within the ganglion cell layer and making it so that ganglion cells can observe a small dot moving a small distance. Retinal ganglion cells collectively transmit image-forming and non-image forming visual information from the retina in the form of action potential to several regions in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon, or midbrain. Retinal ganglion cells vary significantly in terms of their size, connections, and responses to visual stimulation but they all share the defining property of having a long axon that extends into the brain. These axons form the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tract. A small percentage of ...
This abstract was presented today at the 2014 Association for Research in Vision and Opthalmology (ARVO) meetings in Orlando, Florida by J Scott Lauritzen, Noah T. Nelson, Crystal L. Sigulinsky, Nathan Sherbotie, John Hoang, Rebecca L. Pfeiffer, James R. Anderson, Carl B. Watt, myself and Robert E. Marc.. Purpose: Despite large-scale efforts aimed at mapping the mammalian nervous system, the entire synaptic cohort of a single mammalian neuron of any class has never been mapped. To this end we reconstructed all chemical and electrical synaptic partners of a single ON cone bipolar cell in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rabbit retina. We then searched all members of the same cell class for repeating network motifs and explored postsynaptic cell sampling topologies from this bipolar cell.. Methods: Cells in retinal connectome 1 (RC1) were annotated with Viking viewer, and explored via graph visualization of connectivity and 3D rendering (Anderson et al., 2011 J Microscopy). Small molecule ...
Starburst talked with Nick Briggs, the Executive Producer of Big Finish (aka the voice of the Daleks, amongst many other talents). Being the year of the 50th anniversary of Doctor Who, there were a lot of things to discuss…. Starburst: Nick, thanks for taking the time to answer a few questions. With the big anniversary in November fast approaching do you find you are getting busier and busier?. Nick Briggs: I suppose I do. There are all sorts of little extra things here and there popping up - like the Proms, for instance. Its been three years since we last did a Doctor Who Proms. But the biggest anniversary-related thing thats taking up a lot of my time at the moment is The Light at the End, our anniversary special Doctor Who audio. Im working through the post-production at the moment and I seem to be answering an unending number of questions about the packaging.. When it came to planning for the anniversary youve gone for a 1963 themed trilogy of stories in the main range ending with the ...
Starburst galaxies transmute gas into new stars at a dizzying pace - up to 1,000 times faster than typical spiral galaxies like the Milky Way. To help understand why some galaxies burst while others do not, an international team of astronomers used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to dissect a cluster of star-forming clouds at the heart of NGC 253, one of the nearest starburst galaxies to the Milky Way.
Researchers at the University of Laval in Québec, Canada discovered unexpected findings with the Phoenix full field Ganzfeld electroretinography (ERG) system studying Alzheimers model mice. ERG assesses the function of the retinal cells including the photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and amacrine cells by flashing light at the retina and recording the electrical responses of the cells. By examining the height and speed of the electrical response wave forms, the retinal function integrity can be measured. The Phoenix Ganzfeld ERG system flashes green or UV light on the entire retina, which can tease out the function of rods, M-cones, and S-cones separately.. ...
An international team of astronomers used ALMA to dissect a cluster of star-forming clouds at the heart of NGC 253, one of the nearest starburst galaxies to the Milky Way.
Cone bipolar cell modifications during retinal degeneration of P23H pigmented L1 rats. Retinal sections stained with antibodies against recoverin in order to vi
To describe the wide-field ganglion cells these were injected intracellularly with Neurobiotin using an planning of macaque retina and labeled with streptavidin-Cy3. trees and shrubs increasing from S4 to S2. One type resembled the parvocellular large cell and another the wide thorny type defined previously in primates. Another INCB 3284 dimesylate broadly stratified cell was known as multi-tufted predicated on its distinct dendritic branching design. The fourth type have been defined however not named previously; it had been called by us comprehensive wavy. There is a bistratified type using its main arbor in S5 the same level as the blue cone bipolar cell; it resembled the top bistratified cell with blue ON-yellow OFF replies defined lately. Two wide-field ganglion cell types had been categorized as diffuse because that they had dendrites through the entire IPL. One acquired many little branches and was called thorny diffuse. The next was called smooth diffuse since it acquired straighter ...
I am so mad at mom. First of all she woke me from my nap, enough said. Then she took me out of my warm cozy soft bed and put me in a cardboard box. But to make things better she did put towels, the cup cake mat, hay, some chew toys, and best of all some veggies. Now the only reason I am mad is that she put starburst in it. I was all like "excuse me if you are going to stick me in a small box, I might as well be in a separate one then my sister." Mom said she thought I would get lonely so she put Starry in there. Then she moved the box into the car. I hate cars so much all the noise and movement. The car stopped an hour later, and we walked into this huge noisy building. Mom said it was an airport, we walked around for a bit then sat down in this long container. Mom said it was an airplane. Well as it turns out I hate airplanes more than cars. By the time the plane stopped I hated mom even more. More cars more noise and then we where in a new house, me and Starburst had to stay in this really ...
The USPBs Potato Nutrition Handbook was unveiled at Potato Expo 2010. Its the brand new guide to all-things-potato. Youll find everything from statistics explaining the important role potatoes play in the overall intake of important nutrients to scientific explanations of resistant starch, the Glycemic Index, and Weight Management. It also goes back to the basics with a brief history of potatoes, how to buy and store, fresh potato varieties, cooking tips and techniques, chef testimonials and more. ...
neurobio 915 ch 9 of Bears book: the eye part 3 (cornea sclera retina fovea lens bipolar cell - neurobio 915 ch 9 of Bears book: the eye part 3 (cornea, sclera, retina, fovea, lens, bipolar cell, ganglion cell, amacrine cell, cone cell, rod cell, rhodopsin) #22
Using high-resolution, multiple-passband Hubble Space Telescope images spanning the entire optical/near-infrared wavelength range, we obtained a statistically complete U-band-selected sample of 846 extended star clusters across the disk of the nearby starburst galaxy M82. Based on a careful analysis of the clusters spectral energy distributions, we determined their galaxy-wide age and mass distributions. The M82 clusters exhibit three clear peaks in their age distribution, thus defining relatively young, log (t yr{sup -1}) ≤ 7.5, intermediate-age, log (t yr{sup -1}) in [7.5, 8.5], and old samples, log (t yr{sup -1}) ≥ 8.5. Comparison of the completeness-corrected mass distributions offers a firm handle on the galaxys star cluster disruption history. The most massive star clusters in the young and old samples are (almost) all concentrated in the most densely populated central region, while the intermediate-age samples most massive clusters are more spatially dispersed, which may reflect ...
Understanding the charge transfer dynamics in dye solar cells (DSCs) is imperative for the development of highly efficient devices. The loss in photocurrent due to recombination can be alleviated by removing holes formed in the oxidized dye molecules away from the TiO2 surface and also by preventing the oxid
The Tohoku earthquake is likely to be the best-studied of all quakes, and the first analyses suggest we may have to rethink how megathrust quakes happen
Dear list fellows is there any simple stain that I can use to differentiate between amacrine, horizontal and bipolar cells in the retina? thanks in advance jose luis Universidad de Oriente-Isla Margarita-Venezuela actualmente en: Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia Puerto Real, C diz, Espa a. email: [email protected] _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
The second of two recent interviews I did for online sci-fi mag Starburst is now up. This one features my thoughts and recollections on Deaths Head, the erstwhile freelance peacekeeping agent, whose 24-year career has seen him progress through Transformers, Doctor Who, Dragons Claws, She-Hulk, Fantastic Four (and many others) into his own series &…
My whitecheek tang has been in my tank for at least four months. He has just started to nip at my toadstools, and today I caught him shredding my starburst polyps. I always leave nori in there, but he
The presently acknowledged onset of synaptogenesis in the chick retina from embryonic day 12 (E12) onward stands in contrast with the appearance of spontaneous electrical activity, of presynaptic proteins, or of neurotransmitters during early formation of the inner (E6-E8) and outer (E9) plexiform layers. Therefore, we investigated the chick retina from E6 to E12 at which age first synapses appear by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The study provides evidence that synaptogenesis in the chick retina begins shortly after the plexiform layers have started to emerge. The first synapses are electrical synapses, which appear on E7, one day after the future inner plexiform layer emerged, and towards the end of E8 in the nascent outer plexiform layer. Conventional chemical synapses appear in both plexiform layers on E8, in the inner plexiform layer (stage 34) only a few hours earlier than in the outer plexiform layer (stage 35). The first synapses are formed close to the apex of the optic fissure and
Previous investigators have reported an increase in numbers of amacrine synapses in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rat retina following light deprivation, and an increase in amacrine along with a decrease in bipolar synapses following light damage. Since there are several points of disagreement between the published reports on this subject we undertook a more detailed study of the effects of light deprivation and light damage on the retina. Four groups of eight male albino rat pups (14 days old) were raised for eight weeks under different conditions: (1) unsutured, bright light reared (UB); (2) bilaterally lid-sutured, bright light reared (SB); (3) unsutured, low light reared (UL); and (4) bilaterally lid-sutured, dark reared (SD). The intensity of the light given the UL group was equated with that striking the corneas of the SB group. Light microscopy showed that the retinas of the SB as well as the UB groups had almost complete degeneration of the outer retinal layers, indicating that ...
One key question the researchers wanted to answer is whether it is best to insert photoswitches into ganglion cells or bipolar cells. Viruses can be made to target one or the other. Because activity flowing from upstream bipolar cells to the retinas output ganglion cells undergoes a lot of processing in the retinal circuit, the researchers were hoping that this same processing would occur when bipolar cells were given a new function they never had before, light-sensitivity.. The answer seems to be yes.. "When we put the photoswitched channels into bipolar cells and record the output of the ganglion cells, we see complicated patterns that look a lot like the activity you get in a normal retina, compared to the on-off activity you get when you put the same photoswitch into a ganglion cell," Isacoff said.. "The dogs behavior should show us if there is a functional difference between driving the system from the bipolar cells versus the ganglion cells," Flannery says.. He notes that the therapy ...
Looking for online definition of Bipolar cells in the Medical Dictionary? Bipolar cells explanation free. What is Bipolar cells? Meaning of Bipolar cells medical term. What does Bipolar cells mean?
Although a profound knowledge of retinal circuitry has been accumulated over the last 100 yr (Masland 2001; Ramon y Cajal 1972; Wässle and Boycott 1991), recent results have modified our views of signaling in the rod pathway. The simplest rod circuit is via RB cells (Bloomfield and Dacheux 2001; Daw et al. 1990; Famiglietti and Kolb 1975; Kolb and Famiglietti 1974; Müller et al. 1988). In addition to this well-documented circuit, recent evidence suggests the existence of alternative parallel pathways that can also carry rod signals (Deans et al. 2002; DeVries and Baylor 1995; Hack et al. 1999; Soucy et al. 1998; Tsukamoto et al. 2001). We have conducted physiological studies to investigate the presence of these alternative routes in three mammalian species of interest for retinal studies. Additionally, we have explored the morphological basis for one alternative rod pathway in the rabbit retina.. In rabbit and mouse retina, we observed that light signals are able to flow through a circuit ...
The Frightfest provides a mix of the good, the bad and the indifferent. Over the years there have been many moments where you wish it could have gone better for the filmmakers. At one screening during the festivals tenure at the Odeon West End in 2007, director Uwe Boll had a moment of concern when an audience member stood up after a double-bill screening of Postal and Seed and openly criticised the filmmaker for what he made, though to be fair the rest of us did wonder why such a person was at Frightfest, considering that you knowingly buy a weekend pass to sample some gory and extreme delights. This is not a Disney weekend, so bemusement at the individuals reaction was understandable. Then, in 2012, there was Tulpa, a giallo film that premiered so soon after completion and prompted unintentional giggles amongst the audience, leading to a rather awkward Q and A session. The laziest entry in this years event was Jackals and the second film after Leatherface to star Stephen Dorff. In this one ...
In the catacombs of the Belz Factory Outlet Mall hung a pair of rayon Day-Glo orange shorts with a fat black elastic waistband, the missing piece to my patchwork fashion sense. My mother didnt flinch when I pulled it off the steel carousel with "clearance" in starburst font on top.. Read more →. ...
Autor: Dübel, Jens et al.; Genre: Poster; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2004; Titel: Chloride imaging in ON−type bipolar cells of a Clomeleon indicator mouse line, ARVO #1324
Conditional knockout is a powerful research tool for specific deletion of target genes, especially for the genes that are widely expressed and developmentally regulated. The development of the retina
Castelino, C. B. and Ball, G. F. (2005), A role for norepinephrine in the regulation of context-dependent ZENK expression in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). European Journal of Neuroscience, 21: 1962-1972. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04028.x ...
Chuang K, Nguyen E, Sergeev Y, Badea TC. Novel Heterotypic Rox Sites for Combinatorial Dre Recombination Strategies. G3 (Bethesda). 2015 Dec 29;6(3):559-71.. Sajgo S, Ali S, Popescu O, Badea TC. Dynamic expression of transcription factor Brn3b during mouse cranial nerve development. J Comp Neurol. 2015 Sep 10.. Kretschmer F, Sajgo S, Kretschmer V, Badea TC. A system to measure the Optokinetic and Optomotor response in mice. J Neurosci Methods. 2015 Aug 14;256:91-105.. Sajgo S, Ghinia MG, Shi M, Liu P, Dong L, Parmhans N, Popescu O, Badea TC. Dre - Cre sequential recombination provides new tools for retinal ganglion cell labeling and manipulation in mice. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 7;9(3):e91435.. Shi M, Kumar SR, Motajo O, Kretschmer F, Mu X, Badea TC. Genetic Interactions between Brn3 Transcription Factors in Retinal Ganglion Cell Type Specification. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 8;8(10):e76347.. Badea TC, Williams J, Smallwood P, Shi M, Motajo O, Nathans J. Combinatorial expression of Brn3 transcription factors ...
This paper presents the XMM-Newton first-light observations of the Hickson-16 compact group of galaxies. Groups are possibly the oldest large-scale structures in the Universe, pre-dating clusters of galaxies, and are highly evolved. This group of small galaxies, at a redshift of 0.0132 (or 80 Mpc) is exceptional in the having the highest concentration of starburst or AGN activity in the nearby Universe. So it is a veritable laboratory for the study of the relationship between galaxy interactions and nuclear activity. Previous optical emission line studies indicated a strong ionising continuum in the galaxies, but its origin, whether from starbursts, or AGN, was unclear. Combined imaging and spectroscopy with the EPIC X-ray CCDs unequivocally reveals a heavily obscured AGN and a separately identified thermal (starburst) plasma, in NGC 835, NGC 833, & NGC 839. NGC 838 shows only starburst thermal emission. Starbursts and AGN can evidently coexist in members of this highly evolved system of merged ...
Chemical and Electrical Synapses. Two Kinds of Synapses. Chemical Electrical Both types of synapses relay information, but do so by very different mechanisms. Much more is known about chemical than about electrical synapses. Slideshow 183993 by sandra_john
My Lasik Dr also mentioned an enhancement may be an option. I expressed that I did not wish to risk my day time vision. He was sympathetic to this. He asked for another wavefront diagnostic to be carried out, which was also performed today. This was a surprise to the technician, and I got the impression she isnt often asked to perform this test after Lasik and better than 20/20 vision is gained. Technician said wavefront analysis looked good, and she actually asked me do the starbursts/halos bother you that much?. A single word response answer - Yes ...
My Lasik Dr also mentioned an enhancement may be an option. I expressed that I did not wish to risk my day time vision. He was sympathetic to this. He asked for another wavefront diagnostic to be carried out, which was also performed today. This was a surprise to the technician, and I got the impression she isnt often asked to perform this test after Lasik and better than 20/20 vision is gained. Technician said wavefront analysis looked good, and she actually asked me do the starbursts/halos bother you that much?. A single word response answer - Yes ...
How does a neural circuit get wired up to perform specific computations? The Feller lab recently addressed this question by studying the circuit mediates direction selectivity in the retina (Wei et al, Nature, 2010). Direction-selective neurons, which respond selectively to motion in one direction, have been characterized in visual circuits across many species. In the retina, it has been postulated that the ability to discern the direction of motion of an object required asymmetric wiring between the retinal neurons. However, the mechanisms that instruct this asymmetric wiring during development were completely unknown.
Global Notes: Note (G1): Assigned profile type as follows: Type 1 = pure exponential disk (d) Type 2 = composite profile with nucleus or bulge: n/b and disk (d); probably an outer halo (h). Type 3 = central light depression (c) or always convex curvature over linear radius (cnv). Type 4 = quasi-stellar (non-resolved) profile (st). Type 5 = definitely non-exponential profile with concave curvature over linear radius (cnc). Note (G2): Morphological classes. Following the prescriptions of Salzer et al. (1989ApJS...70..479S), hereafter SMB89, we classified our ELGs as: * Seyfert galaxies (Sy) and Starburst Nucleus Galaxies (SBN) have, on average, similar magnitudes (MB≤-20) and sizes (∼20 kpc). They can be disentangled from each other by including spectral line characteristics. The classification of a few Seyfert galaxies in our sample was obtained from the literature. Other ELGs with corresponding luminosities and sizes are classified as SBN (or as Giant Irregulars - GI, in a few cases) * Dwarf ...
Inspired by the sun motifs in Tony Duquettes "California Sunburst" stage curtain for the LA Music Center (1964) and his San Francisco Canticle of the Sun exhibition. The rays of hand-polished metal reflect the light in a starburst pattern on the ceiling and walls and let slivers trace through the faceted bottom.. ...
Inspired by the sun motifs in Tony Duquettes "California Sunburst" stage curtain for the LA Music Center (1964) and his San Francisco Canticle of the Sun exhibition. The rays of hand-polished metal reflect the light in a starburst pattern on the ceiling and walls and let slivers trace through the faceted bottom.. ...
Zytron Control Products launched the Series 1900 of digital controllers which provide control for on-off temperature, time/temperature and timing control applications.
We have investigated the locations of the GABA(A) receptor α1-, β2-, γ2- and γ4-subunit mRNAs, in chick retina, by in situ hybridization. The α1-, β2- and γ2-subunit genes were chosen for study because they are co-expressed throughout the mammalian and avian brain. The γ4-polypeptide gene was selected because it is highly expressed, in the chick brain, in those regions that are involved in the processing of visual information. We find that the α1-, β2- and γ2-subunit mRNAs are present in both the inner nuclear layer (INL) and the ganglion cell layer (GCL); however, the distributions of the three transcripts in these two layers show significant differences. In contrast, the γ4-polypeptide mRNA is only detected in the inner portion of the INL. These results strongly suggest the existence of multiple GABA(A) receptor subtypes in chick retina.
Fast acting glucose includes carbohydrates like fruit juice, sugar packets, honey and straight sugar candy like starburst or jelly beans. It is important to note here that I am suggesting there are better carbohydrate choices than others... chocolate for example isnt the best choice because the fat in chocolate slows sugar absorption into the blood; bread is another example of a carbohydrate that takes a longer amount of time (more than five to fifteen minutes) to affect blood glucose levels. If you dont have access to fast acting glucose, any carb will do, but many diabetics carry sugar on them and that is worth checking into... I have starburst (administer at least 4) and sugar packets (administer as many as I have) in my purse at all times. ...
COPYRIGHT (C) 2016 KISTI. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.. 대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] ...
Research Dr. Sampath is an internationally known visual neuroscientist who is recognized as a leader in the study of cellular and circuit level visual processing. His work focuses on signal transmission between photoreceptor cells, the rods and cones, and bipolar cells to determine how information is processed within retinal circuits and gives rise to visual perceptual sensitivity. Not only is his work of broad fundamental scientific interest, it has significant implications for our understanding of visual blinding diseases such as night blindness.. Publications. Majumder Anurima, Pahlberg Johan, Boyd Kimberly K, Kerov Vasily, Kolandaivelu Saravanan, Ramamurthy Visvanathan, Sampath Alapakkam P, Artemyev Nikolai O Transducin translocation contributes to rod survival and enhances synaptic transmission from rods to rod bipolar cells Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2013; 110(30): 12468-73.. Chen Shih-Kuo, Chew Kylie S, McNeill David S, Keeley Patrick ...

Retinal ganglion cell death in experimental glaucoma | British Journal of OphthalmologyRetinal ganglion cell death in experimental glaucoma | British Journal of Ophthalmology

6 Retinal ganglion cells were identified by their well stained cytoplasm and distinct nucleus.2Amacrine cells were ... Cell soma size was reduced by 20% in parasol cells (p = 0.003, t test) and by 16% in midget cells (p ,0.001, Mann-Whitney) ... As cell loss increased the proportion of parasol cells did not decrease and remained in the region of 13-19%. When cell loss is ... A) Mean cell soma size for parasol cells relative to the degree of cell loss relative to the contralateral eye. Error bars show ...
more infohttps://bjo.bmj.com/content/84/3/303?ijkey=63b74125c1ae223966ec166593714b77ba5a045d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

γ-aminobutyrate (GABA)-positive amacrine cells - Webvisionγ-aminobutyrate (GABA)-positive amacrine cells - Webvision

... positive amacrine cells (γACs), glycine-positive amacrine cells (GACs), and ganglion cells. Most ON cone bipolar cell axonal ... ON cone bipolar cells make noncanonical axonal synapses onto specific targets and receive amacrine cell synapses in the nominal ... forming new architectures for generating ON-OFF amacrine cells. Many of these ON-OFF GACs target ON cone bipolar cell axons, ON ... AII Amacrine Cells by Mahnoosh Farsaii and Victoria P. Connaughton. *Midget pathways of the primate retina underlie resolution ...
more infohttps://webvision.med.utah.edu/tag/%CE%B3-aminobutyrate-gaba-positive-amacrine-cells/

Structure-Function Correlation: Amacrine Cells of Fish and Amphibian Retinae | SpringerLinkStructure-Function Correlation: Amacrine Cells of Fish and Amphibian Retinae | SpringerLink

Morphological diversity of amacrine cells (ACs) is clearly a general characteristic of vertebrate retinae. Beginning with the ... Perry VH, Walker M (1980) Amacrine cells, displaced amacrine cells and interplexiform cells in the retina of the rat. Proc R ... Kolb H (1982) The morphology of bipolar cells, amacrine cells and ganglion cells in the retina of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta ... The ramification pattern of amacrine cells within the inner plexiform layer of the carp retina. Cell Tissue Res 220: 699-723 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-74149-4_16

The AII amacrine cell connectome: a dense network hub.  - PubMed - NCBIThe AII amacrine cell connectome: a dense network hub. - PubMed - NCBI

AII cell partnerships. AII cell 2610 with its rod bipolar cell input (magenta), amacrine cell input synaptic input (red), ... AI cell 66257 forms adherens junctions (a) with AII cell 3679 and glycinergic amacrine cell (GAC) 66258. AI cell 66259 forms a ... Glycine and GABA signals in amacrine cells. (A) Slice 030, volume RC1. Three of the AII amacrine cells are marked. The gray ... Basic AII cell networks. Vertebrate rod R and cone C signal convergence patterns onto bipolar cells, amacrine or ganglion cells ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=25237297

Amacrine cell - WikipediaAmacrine cell - Wikipedia

Glycinergic amacrine cells arent as extensively characterized as GABAergic amacrine cells. All glycinergic amacrine cells ... amacrine cells work laterally, but whereas horizontal cells are connected to the output of rod and cone cells, amacrine cells ... of amacrine cells are neither GABAergic or glycinergic. These amacrine cells are sometimes known as nGnG amacrine cells, and it ... One type of GABAergic amacrine cell that is fairly well studied is the starburst amacrine cell. These amacrine cells are ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amacrine_cell

The AII amacrine cell connectome: a dense network hub.The AII amacrine cell connectome: a dense network hub.

... multistratified glycinergic neuron best known for its role in collecting scotopic signals from rod bipolar cells and ... The mammalian AII retinal amacrine cell is a narrow-field, ... Homologs of AII amacrine cells have yet to be identified in non ... ON cone bipolar cell gap junctions. Long considered a simple cell, a full connectomics analysis shows that AII cells possess ... The mammalian AII retinal amacrine cell is a narrow-field, multistratified glycinergic neuron best known for its role in ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/AII-amacrine-cell-connectome-dense/25237297.html

Polyaxonal amacrine cells of rabbit retina: morphology and stratification of PA1 cells.  - PubMed - NCBIPolyaxonal amacrine cells of rabbit retina: morphology and stratification of PA1 cells. - PubMed - NCBI

PA1 amacrine cells co-stratify with nab cone bipolar cells and with certain small tufted amacrine and ganglion cells at the a/b ... Type 1 polyaxonal (PA1) amacrine cells have larger cell bodies than most amacrine cells in Golgi preparations, averaging about ... Polyaxonal amacrine cells are a new class of amacrine cell bearing one to six branching, axon-like processes, closely ... Polyaxonal amacrine cells of rabbit retina: morphology and stratification of PA1 cells.. Famiglietti EV1. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1577992?dopt=Abstract

L-AC - L-type amacrine cells | AcronymAtticL-AC - L-type amacrine cells | AcronymAttic

L-AC stands for L-type amacrine cells. L-AC is defined as L-type amacrine cells rarely. ... This amacrine cell.. Amacrine cells perform where the second synaptic retianl layer where ganglion cells and bipolar cells form ... amacrine cells work laterally, but whereas horizontal cells are connected to the output of rod and cone cells, amacrine cells ... There are close to 50 types of amacrine cells, many of which do not have axons. An amacrine cell is a horizontal cell and it ...
more infohttps://www.acronymattic.com/L_type-amacrine-cells-

Modulation of GABAergic Signaling in Retinal Amacrine Cells - OpenThesisModulation of GABAergic Signaling in Retinal Amacrine Cells - OpenThesis

The majority of amacrine cells in the vertebrate retina are GABAergic. Thus, elucidating how GABAergic signaling is modulated ... The intricate circuitry formed by amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina suggests that these ... The results presented here suggest that GABAergic signaling between amacrine cells can be modulated by the activation of ... NO also modulated GABAergic transmission between amacrine cells, but through two different pathways. Lower concentrations of NO ...
more infohttp://www.openthesis.org/documents/Modulation-GABAergic-Signaling-in-Retinal-525876.html

Frontiers | The AII amacrine cell connectome: a dense network hub | Frontiers in Neural CircuitsFrontiers | The AII amacrine cell connectome: a dense network hub | Frontiers in Neural Circuits

ON cone bipolar cell gap junctions. Long considered a simple cell, a full connectomics analysis shows that AII cells possess ... ON cone bipolar cell gap junctions. Long considered a simple cell, a full connectomics analysis shows that AII cells possess ... Homologues of AII amacrine cells have yet to be identified in non-mammalians, but we propose that such homologues should be ... Homologues of AII amacrine cells have yet to be identified in non-ma... ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncir.2014.00104/full

Wide-field stratified amacrine cells in primate retina contain CART | IOVS | ARVO JournalsWide-field stratified amacrine cells in primate retina contain CART | IOVS | ARVO Journals

... where CART is found in dopaminergic amacrine cells and ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells. The CART-positive cells in ... The CART-positive amacrine cells received synapses from bipolar cell axons and made synapses onto the axons in a reciprocal ... Wide-field stratified amacrine cells in primate retina contain CART Ye Long; Andrea Bordt; Weiley Liu; Stephen Lee; Elizabeth ... Wide-field stratified amacrine cells in primate retina contain CART You will receive an email whenever this article is ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2333078

Gap Junction Coupling between Cone Bipolars and AII Amacrine Cells  | IOVS | ARVO JournalsGap Junction Coupling between Cone Bipolars and AII Amacrine Cells | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Stable whole cell patch recordings were obtained on each cell in the pair, and each cell was held at -40 or -60 mV. Voltage ... gap junctions couple heterologous cell types such as AII amacrine cells (AIIs) and on-center cone bipolars (CBs). Functional ... Gap Junction Coupling between Cone Bipolars and AII Amacrine Cells You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected ... EB Trexler, W Li, SC Massey; Gap Junction Coupling between Cone Bipolars and AII Amacrine Cells . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2419206

The rod pathway in the rabbit retina: a depolarizing bipolar and amacrine cell | Journal of NeuroscienceThe rod pathway in the rabbit retina: a depolarizing bipolar and amacrine cell | Journal of Neuroscience

NFB amacrine cells receive synaptic input from rod bipolars, cone bipolars, and other types of amacrine cells; they are ... the rod bipolar cell and the narrow-field, bistratified (NFB) amacrine cell. Rod bipolars receive synaptic input from rod cells ... is onto NFB amacrine cells and at least one other type of amacrine, which in turn feeds a reciprocal synapse back onto the ... NFB amacrine cells exhibit a depolarizing rod aftereffect at the termination of high-intensity flashes. Thus, this amacrine ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/6/2/331

Voltage-Gated Na Channels in AII Amacrine Cells Accelerate Scotopic Light Responses Mediated by the Rod Bipolar Cell Pathway |...Voltage-Gated Na Channels in AII Amacrine Cells Accelerate Scotopic Light Responses Mediated by the Rod Bipolar Cell Pathway |...

Similarly, individual AII amacrine cells receive input from many (∼20) RBs. AII amacrines are coupled electrically by gap ... Voltage-Gated Na Channels in AII Amacrine Cells Accelerate Scotopic Light Responses Mediated by the Rod Bipolar Cell Pathway. ... Voltage-Gated Na Channels in AII Amacrine Cells Accelerate Scotopic Light Responses Mediated by the Rod Bipolar Cell Pathway ... Voltage-Gated Na Channels in AII Amacrine Cells Accelerate Scotopic Light Responses Mediated by the Rod Bipolar Cell Pathway ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/30/13/4650

Retinal direction selectivity in the absence of asymmetric starburst amacrine cell responses | eLifeRetinal direction selectivity in the absence of asymmetric starburst amacrine cell responses | eLife

... mechanisms shape direction selectivity at the dendrites of starburst amacrine cells and ganglion cells in the mouse retina. ... they find ganglion cells to remain directionally selective when fed with non-directional signals from amacrine cells. As ... one relating to DS in amacrine cell dendrites, the other to DS in ganglion cells ... The network of starburst amacrine cells produces temporal E/I asymmetries in DSGCs. Before the discovery of DS in starburst ...
more infohttps://elifesciences.org/articles/42392

Molecular Vision: Expression of GluA2-containing calcium-impermeable AMPA receptors on dopaminergic amacrine cells in the mouse...Molecular Vision: Expression of GluA2-containing calcium-impermeable AMPA receptors on dopaminergic amacrine cells in the mouse...

... rod bipolar cell → AII amacrine cell → cone bipolar cell) and then enter the DACs. In this rod pathway, AII amacrine cells ... such as horizontal cells, bipolar cells, AII, and A17 amacrine cells, as well as retinal ganglion cells [25-33]. In particular ... Ectopic retinal ON bipolar cell synapses in the OFF inner plexiform layer: contacts with dopaminergic amacrine cells and ... NMDA Receptors Contribute to Retrograde Synaptic Transmission from Ganglion Cell Photoreceptors to Dopaminergic Amacrine Cells ...
more infohttp://www.molvis.org/molvis/v25/780/

KAKEN - Research Projects | Studies on retinal amacrine cells using slice-patch method (KAKENHI-PROJECT-06454715)KAKEN - Research Projects | Studies on retinal amacrine cells using slice-patch method (KAKENHI-PROJECT-06454715)

The main excitatory inputs to the amacrine cells are believed to originate from the bipolar cells while the amacrine cell ... To elucidate some of the factors which might affect the differing responses of amacrine cells, we undertook the whole-cell ... The amacrine cells are an important group of secondary neurons which can exhibit a wide variety of light-evoked responses. ... The light-evoked responses of the amacrine cells in the goldfish retina have been classified into three main groups with some ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-06454715/

Wide-field diffuse amacrine cells in the monkey retina contain immunoreactive Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript ...Wide-field diffuse amacrine cells in the monkey retina contain immunoreactive Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript ...

The CART-positive cells also received synapses from other amacrine cells. Some of these were located on their primary dendrites ... Wide-field diffuse amacrine cells in the monkey retina contain immunoreactive Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript ( ... and the presynaptic cells there included dopaminergic amacrine cells. Although some CART-positive somas were localized in the ... CART was localized to GABAergic amacrine cells in baboon retinas. The CART-positive cells had thin, varicose dendrites that ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/petide/201610000/00078611-201610000-00004

Functional NMDA receptors are expressed by both AII and A17 amacrine cells in the rod pathway of the mammalian retinaFunctional NMDA receptors are expressed by both AII and A17 amacrine cells in the rod pathway of the mammalian retina

In the mammalian retina, glutamatergic rod bipolar cells are presynaptic to two rod amacrine cells (AII and A17) that ... Functional NMDA receptors are expressed by both AII and A17 amacrine cells in the rod pathway of the mammalian retina. Type. ... Pressure application of NMDA did not evoke a response in rod bipolar cells, but for both AII and A17 amacrines, NMDA evoked ... Functional NMDA receptors are expressed by both AII and A17 amacrine cells in the rod pathway of the mammalian retina. Journal ...
more infohttp://bora.uib.no/handle/1956/17117

An excitatory amacrine cell detects object motion and provides feature-selective input to ganglion cells in the mouse retina |...An excitatory amacrine cell detects object motion and provides feature-selective input to ganglion cells in the mouse retina |...

... an unusual type of modulatory cell that uses the transmitter glutamate to activate retinal output cells. ... The mouse visual system is able to detect small moving objects due to the activity of VG3-amacrine cells, ... now reveal that cells called amacrine cells, which regulate the transfer of signals from the bipolar cells to ganglion cells, ... The mouse eye contains up to 50 different types of amacrine cells. One of these-called the VG3-amacrine cell-increases its ...
more infohttps://elifesciences.org/articles/08025

Differential effects of P2Y1 deletion on glial activation and survival of photoreceptors and amacrine cells in the ischemic...Differential effects of P2Y1 deletion on glial activation and survival of photoreceptors and amacrine cells in the ischemic...

Differential effects of P2Y1 deletion on glial activation and survival of photoreceptors and amacrine cells in the ischemic ... In contrast, gene expression profiling and histological data suggest an increased survival of amacrine cells in the ... This may explain why especially these cells appear to benefit from the preserved Kir4.1 expression in Müller cells, which ... Differential effects of P2Y1 deletion on glial activation and survival of photoreceptors and amacrine cells in the ischemic ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/30696/

Participation of retinal glucagonergic amacrine cells in the regulation of eye growth and refractive error: evidence from...Participation of retinal glucagonergic amacrine cells in the regulation of eye growth and refractive error: evidence from...

The approach taken to investigate this problem is to ablate glucagonergic amacrine cells in vivo using different neurotoxins, ... in spite of total ablation of glucagon cells (Chapter 5) or elimination of the peripheral glucagon cells (Chapter 3) and other ... These results point to the same conclusion that glucagon cells themselves are not responsible for the decoding of the sign of ... to elucidate the respective roles in eye growth regulation of specific subpopulations of retinal glucagonergic amacrine cells, ...
more infohttps://escholarship.org/uc/item/4p56w1ms

Modulation of GABAergic signaling in retinal amacrine cells by Brian Kevin Hoffpauir"Modulation of GABAergic signaling in retinal amacrine cells" by Brian Kevin Hoffpauir

The majority of amacrine cells in the vertebrate retina are GABAergic. Thus, elucidating how GABAergic signaling is modulated ... The results presented here suggest that GABAergic signaling between amacrine cells can be modulated by the activation of ... NO also modulated GABAergic transmission between amacrine cells, but through two different pathways. Lower concentrations of NO ... Whole cell electrophysiological experiments indicated that activation of mGluR5 enhances GABA-gated currents recorded from ...
more infohttps://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_dissertations/2946/

Catecholaminergic horizontal and amacrine cells in the ferret retina<...Catecholaminergic horizontal and amacrine cells in the ferret retina<...

A population of PNMT-positive cells was also observed in the outer tier of cells in the INL. These cells were very similar to ... A population of PNMT-positive cells was also observed in the outer tier of cells in the INL. These cells were very similar to ... A population of PNMT-positive cells was also observed in the outer tier of cells in the INL. These cells were very similar to ... A population of PNMT-positive cells was also observed in the outer tier of cells in the INL. These cells were very similar to ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/catecholaminergic-horizontal-and-amacrine-cells-in-the-ferret-ret-2

Visual induction of fos in amacrine cells regulates ocular growth and refraction in chickVisual induction of fos in amacrine cells regulates ocular growth and refraction in chick

... dc.contributor.advisor. Stell, ... McGuire, J. J. (1999). Visual induction of fos in amacrine cells regulates ocular growth and refraction in chick (Unpublished ... Visual induction of fos in amacrine cells regulates ocular growth and refraction in chick. ...
more infohttps://prism.ucalgary.ca/handle/1880/25187?show=full
  • RESULTS In the three glaucomatous retinas with the best labelling 1282 cells could be classified, of which 182 were parasol cells and 1100 were midget cells. (bmj.com)
  • A postmortem study of the LGN in glaucomatous patients has also been interpreted as consistent with selective damage to those retinal ganglion cells comprising the magnocellular pathway. (bmj.com)
  • In addition, the change in cell soma size distributions following ocular hypertension suggests that both parasol and midget retinal ganglion cells undergo shrinkage before cell death. (bmj.com)
  • 9 If this finding holds true, inferences about the pattern of retinal ganglion cells death in experimental glaucoma based on cell soma or axon size distributions should be viewed with caution. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSION The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that selective loss of parasol retinal ganglion cells occurs in experimental glaucoma. (bmj.com)
  • Linear regression analysis did not demonstrate a significant reduction in the proportion of parasol to midget cells with increasing cell loss (regression slope 0.023, 95% CI −0.7 to 0.11). (bmj.com)
  • Anatomical evidence for preferential loss of a class of retinal ganglion cells rests on the assumption that the relation between cell type and cell size is preserved in glaucoma. (bmj.com)
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