INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Specialized junctions between NEURONS which connect the cytoplasm of one neuron to another allowing direct passage of an ion current.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Function of the human eye that is used in dim illumination (scotopic intensities) or at nighttime. Scotopic vision is performed by RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS with high sensitivity to light and peak absorption wavelength at 507 nm near the blue end of the spectrum.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that is found in ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and CONE PHOTORECEPTORS. It interacts with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 in a Ca2+ dependent manner and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that was initially found in the NEURONS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. It interacts with NEURONAL APOPTOSIS-INHIBITORY PROTEIN.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A POU domain factor that activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS; alpha internexin; SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25; and BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Diurnal and circadian variation of protein kinase C immunoreactivity in the rat retina. (1/364)

We studied the dependence of the expression of protein kinase C immunoreactivity (PKC-IR) in the rat retina on the light:dark (LD) cycle and on circadian rhythmicity in complete darkness (DD). Two anti-PKC alpha antibodies were employed: One, which we call PKCalphabeta recognized the hinge region; the other, here termed PKCalpha, recognized the regulatory region of the molecule. Western blots showed that both anti-PKC antibodies stained an identical single band at approximately 80 kD. The retinal neurons showing PKC-IR were rod bipolar cells and a variety of amacrine neurons. After 3 weeks on an LD cycle, PKCalphabeta-IR in both rod bipolar and certain amacrine cells manifested a clear rhythm with a peak at zeitgeber time (ZT) of 06-10 hours and a minimum at ZT 18. No rhythm in total PKC-IR was observed when using the PKCalpha antibody, but, at ZT 06-10 hours, rod bipolar axon terminals showed increased immunostaining. After 48 hours in DD, with either antibody, rod bipolar cells showed increased PKC-IR. The PKCalpha antibody alone revealed that, after 48 hours, AII amacrine neurons, which lacked PKC-IR in an LD cycle, manifested marked PKC-IR, which became stronger after 72 hours. Light administered early in the dark period greatly increased PKCalphabeta-IR in rod bipolar and some amacrine neurons. Our data indicate that light and darkness exert a strong regulatory influence on PKC synthesis, activation, and transport in retinal neurons.  (+info)

Characterization of the spontaneous synaptic activity of amacrine cells in the mouse retina. (2/364)

Amacrine cells are a heterogeneous class of interneurons that modulate the transfer of the light signals through the retina. In addition to ionotropic glutamate receptors, amacrine cells express two types of inhibitory receptors, GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) and glycine receptors (GlyRs). To characterize the functional contribution of these different receptors, spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) were recorded with the whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique in acutely isolated slices of the adult mouse retina. All amacrine cells investigated (n = 47) showed spontaneous synaptic activity. In six amacrine cells, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents could be identified by their sensitivity to kynurenic acid. They were characterized by small amplitudes [mean: -13.7 +/- 1.5 (SE) pA] and rapid decay kinetics (mean tau: 1.35 +/- 0.16 ms). In contrast, the reversal potential of sPSCs characterized by slow decay kinetics (amplitude-weighted time constant, tau(w), >4 ms) was dependent on the intracellular Cl(-) concentration (n = 7), indicating that they were spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs). In 14 of 34 amacrine cells sIPSCs were blocked by bicuculline (10 microM), indicating that they were mediated by GABA(A)Rs. Only four amacrine cells showed glycinergic sIPSCs that were inhibited by strychnine (1 microM). In one amacrine cell, sIPSCs mediated by GABA(A)Rs and GlyRs were found simultaneously. GABAergic sIPSCs could be subdivided into one group best fit by a monoexponential decay function and another biexponentially decaying group. The mean amplitude of GABAergic sIPSCs (-42.1 +/- 5.8 pA) was not significantly different from that of glycinergic sIPSCs (-28.0 +/- 8.5 pA). However, GlyRs (mean T10/90: 2.4 +/- 0.08 ms) activated significantly slower than GABA(A)Rs (mean T10/90: 1.2 +/- 0.03 ms). In addition, the decay kinetics of monoexponentially decaying GABA(A)Rs (mean tau(w): 20.3 +/- 0.50), biexponentially decaying GABA(A)Rs (mean tau(w): 30.7 +/- 0.95), and GlyRs (mean tau(w) = 25.3 +/- 1.94) were significantly different. These differences in the activation and decay kinetics of sIPSCs indicate that amacrine cells of the mouse retina express at least three types of functionally different inhibitory receptors: GlyRs and possibly two subtypes of GABA(A)Rs.  (+info)

Modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission by GABA(C) receptor-mediated feedback in the mouse inner retina. (3/364)

In many vertebrate CNS synapses, the neurotransmitter glutamate activates postsynaptic non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and NMDA receptors. Since their biophysical properties are quite different, the time course of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) depends largely on the relative contribution of their activation. To investigate whether the activation of the two receptor subtypes is affected by the synaptic interaction in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the mouse retina, we analyzed the properties of the light-evoked responses of ON-cone bipolar cells and ON-transient amacrine cells in a retinal slice preparation. ON-transient amacrine cells were whole cell voltage-clamped, and the glutamatergic synaptic input from bipolar cells was isolated by a cocktail of pharmacological agents (bicuculline, strychnine, curare, and atropine). Direct puff application of NMDA revealed the presence of functional NMDA receptors. However, the light-evoked EPSC was not significantly affected by D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), but suppressed by 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX) or 1-(4-aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine hydrochloride (GYKI 52466). These results indicate that the light-evoked EPSC is mediated mainly by AMPA receptors under this condition. Since bipolar cells have GABA(C) receptors at their terminals, it has been suggested that bipolar cells receive feedback inhibition from amacrine cells. Application of (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA), a specific blocker of GABA(C) receptors, suppressed both the GABA-induced current and the light-evoked feedback inhibition observed in ON-cone bipolar cells and enhanced the light-evoked EPSC of ON-transient amacrine cells. In the presence of TPMPA, the light-evoked EPSC of amacrine cells was composed of AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated components. Our results suggest that photoresponses of ON-transient amacrine cells in the mouse retina are modified by the activation of presynaptic GABA(C) receptors, which may control the extent of glutamate spillover.  (+info)

Temporal contrast adaptation in salamander bipolar cells. (4/364)

This work investigates how the light responses of salamander bipolar cells adapt to changes in temporal contrast: changes in the depth of the temporal fluctuations in light intensity about the mean. Contrast affected the sensitivity of bipolar cells but not of photoreceptors or horizontal cells, suggesting that adaptation occurred in signal transfer from photoreceptors to bipolars. This suggestion was confirmed by recording from photoreceptor-bipolar pairs and observing a direct dependence of the gain of signal transfer on the contrast of the light input. After an increase in contrast, the onset of adaptation in the bipolar cell had a time constant of 1-2 sec, similar to a fast component of contrast adaptation in the light responses of retinal ganglion cells (Kim and Rieke, 2001). Contrast adaptation was mediated by processes in the dendrites of both on and off bipolars. The functional properties of adaptation differed for the two bipolar types, however, with contrast having a much more pronounced effect on the kinetics of the responses of off cells than on cells.  (+info)

Defocus-induced changes in ZENK expression in the chicken retina. (5/364)

PURPOSE: To characterize the visual stimuli that control the expression of the transcription factor ZENK in glucagon-immunoreactive amacrine cells of the chicken retina. ZENK was previously found to change in correlation with the sign (+ or -) of imposed defocus, making it a potential candidate for regulation of the synthesis of growth factors involved in emmetropization. METHODS: Chicks were unilaterally treated with positive or negative lenses from 40 minutes to 2 hours. They were either kept in their cage environment (1000 lux) or in a large hemispheric dome under more homogeneous illumination (300 lux) in white or quasimonochromatic light (555 nm). In another experiment they were permitted only one viewing distance. ZENK expression was quantified in glucagon amacrine cells after the different treatments by means of double staining and cell counting. RESULTS: In all conditions tested, the number of ZENK-expressing cells was increased with positive lenses and reduced with negative lenses after only 40 minutes of exposure. If only one viewing distance was possible, the level of ZENK still responded to the sign of imposed defocus, although it required 80 minutes of treatment. In this experiment, the interocular difference was largely produced by changes in the contralateral control eyes rather than the lens-treated eyes. Finally, changes in ZENK expression appeared to be related to lens powers with a sigmoidal function, with saturation at approximately +7 D and -7 D of defocus, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm that changes in ZENK expression are selective for the sign of imposed defocus. They may be independent of illuminance and do not require chromatic cues or variable viewing distances. The pathways for the substantial interactions between both eyes are not clear at present.  (+info)

Morphological and electrophysiological evidence for an ionotropic GABA receptor of novel pharmacology. (6/364)

Evidence from toxicological studies suggested that an ionotropic GABA receptor of novel pharmacology (picrotoxin-insensitive, bicuculline-sensitive) exists in the chick embryo retina. In this report, we provide direct morphological and electrophysiological evidence for the existence of such an iGABA receptor. Chick embryo retinas (14-16 days old) incubated in the presence of kainic acid showed pronounced histopathology in all retinal layers. Maximal protection from this toxicity required a combination of bicuculline and picrotoxin. Individual application of the antagonists indicated that a picrotoxin-insensitive, bicuculline-sensitive GABA receptor is likely to be present on ganglion and amacrine, but not bipolar, cells. GABA currents in embryonic and mature chicken retinal neurons were measured by whole cell patch clamp. GABA was puffed at the dendritic processes in the IPL. Picrotoxin (500 microM, in the bath) eliminated all (>95%) the GABA current in the majority of ganglion and amacrine cells tested, but many cells possessed a substantial picrotoxin-insensitive component. This current was eliminated by bicuculline (200 microM). This current was not a transporter-associated current, since it was not altered by GABA transport blockers or sodium removal. The current-voltage relation was linear and reversed near E(Cl), as expected for a ligand-gated chloride current. Both pentobarbital and lorazepam enhanced the picrotoxin-insensitive current. We conclude that chicken retinal ganglion and amacrine cells express a GABA receptor that is GABA-A-like, in that it can be blocked by bicuculline, and positively modulated by barbiturates and benzodiazepines, but is insensitive to the noncompetitive blocker picrotoxin. Understanding the molecular properties of this receptor will be important for understanding both physiological GABA neurotransmission and the pathology of GABA receptor overactivation.  (+info)

The transcription factor cSox2 and Neuropeptide Y define a novel subgroup of amacrine cells in the retina. (7/364)

The retina has been extensively used as a model to study the mechanisms responsible for the production of different neural cell phenotypes. The importance of both extrinsic and intrinsic cues in these processes is now appreciated and numerous transcription factors have been identified which are required for both neuronal determination and cell differentiation. In this study we have analysed the expression of the transcription factor Sox2 during development of the chick retina. Expression was found in the proliferating cells of the retina during development and was down regulated by nearly all cell types as they started to differentiate and migrate to the different layers of the retina. In one cell type, however, Sox2 expression was retained after the cells have ceased division and migrated to their adult location. These cells formed two rows located on either side of the inner plexiform layer and were also positive for Neuropeptide Y, characteristics which indicate that they were a subpopulation of amacrine cells. The expression of Sox2 by only this population of post-mitotic neurones makes it possible to follow these cells as they migrate to their adult location and shows that they initially form a single row of cells which subsequently divides to form the double row seen in the adult tissue. We suggest that retained expression of Sox2 is involved in directing the differentiation of these cells and is an early marker of this cell type.  (+info)

Non-linear, high-gain and sustained-to-transient signal transmission from rods to amacrine cells in dark-adapted retina of Ambystoma. (8/364)

In darkness, On-Off amacrine cells (ACs) of the tiger salamander retina exhibited large spontaneous transient depolarizing potentials (sTDPs) with average peak amplitude of 5.05 +/- 2.5 mV and average frequency of 0.42 +/- 0.25 s(-1). Under voltage-clamp conditions the cell displayed large spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) with average peak amplitude of 98 +/- 39 pA and average frequency of 0.45 +/- 0.22 s(-1). To a light step, ACs gave rise to a transient 'On' response at the light onset and a transient 'Off' response at light offset, followed by a train of TDPs ('After' response). Near the response threshold (0.3 activated rhodopsin molecules per rod per second), light-evoked TDPs (leTDPs) of similar amplitude and kinetics as the large sTDPs observed in darkness were seen, and about half of these leTDPs elicited a regenerative potential (RP). Brighter light steps gave rise to more leTDPs and higher rates of RPs in the On, Off and After responses. Within the linear response range of the rods, the AC response was non-linear, with the highest gain (676 +/- 429) near the dark potential. The amplitude of Off responses increased with the duration of the light step, and ACs may use this to encode speeds of moving stimuli: the faster the light object moves, the smaller the AC Off response. Moreover, the number of leTDPs in the AC After response increased with light intensity, and the onset of the After response coincides with bipolar cell tail response recovery. One possible origin of the large sTDPs and leTDPs is the spontaneous and depolarization-induced regenerative calcium potentials (RCaPs) in bipolar cell synaptic terminals. RCaPs in bipolar cell synaptic terminals cause transient glutamate release that results in the sTDPs in darkness, and leTDPs in On, Off and After responses in ACs.  (+info)

Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina. Amacrine cells are responsible for 70% of input to retinal ganglion cells. Bipolar cells, which are responsible for the other 30% of input to retinal ganglia, are regulated by amacrine cells. Amacrine cells operate at the inner plexiform layer (IPL), the second synaptic retinal layer where bipolar cells and ganglion cells form synapses. There are about 40 different types of amacrine cells and are classified by the width of their field of connection, which layer(s) of the stratum in the IPL they are in, and by neurotransmitter type. No single type of amacrine cell predominates; the type with most frequency is observed only 13% of total population, and the remainders are distributed among many types of cell, each making up 5% or less of the total amacrine cell population. The average diameter of dendritic field for each type varies over 34 to 400 microns, and their overall shapes alone are enough to serve as criterion of classification. There is no ...
Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina. Amacrine cells operate at the inner plexiform layer (IPL), the second synaptic retinal layer where bipolar cells and ganglion cells form synapses. There are about 40 different types of amacrine cells and are classified by the width of their field of connection, which layer(s) of the stratum in the IPL they are in, and by neurotransmitter type. No single type of amacrine cell predominates; the type with most frequency is observed only 13% of total population, and the remainders are distributed among many types of cell, each making up 5% or less of the total amacrine cell population. The average diameter of dendritic field for each type varies over 34 to 400 microns, and their overall shapes alone are enough to serve as criterion of classification. There is no clear distinction between dendrites and axons in the processes of most of the amacrine cells, though they are often referred to as dendrites in general. Like horizontal cells, amacrine cells ...
purpose. Intrauterine infection has been linked to preterm delivery and neurologic injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fetal inflammation induced by exposure to endotoxin on the structure and neurochemistry of the retina and optic nerve.. methods. The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was administered to fetal sheep at ∼0.65 of the ∼147-day gestation period via repeated bolus doses (1 μg/kg per day) over 5 days, with fetal retinas and optic nerves assessed 10 days after the first LPS exposure.. results. In the retina, the total number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR), dopaminergic amacrine cells was reduced (P , 0.05) in LPS-exposed compared with control fetuses. There was no difference in the number of ChAT-, substance P-, or NADPH-d-positive amacrine cells. The total number of myelinated axons in the optic nerve was not different (P , 0.05) between groups; however, the myelin sheath was thinner (P , 0.05) in LPS-exposed ...
The intricate circuitry formed by amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina suggests that these interneurons play a major role in shaping the visual message. The majority of amacrine cells in the vertebrate retina are GABAergic. Thus, elucidating how GABAergic signaling is modulated in the IPL is critical in order to understand how the visual message is processed in the retina. The results presented here suggest that GABAergic signaling between amacrine cells can be modulated by the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) or by the production of the second messenger, nitric oxide (NO). A novel mGluR5 splice variant was isolated from the chicken retina with a truncated carboxy-terminal tail. Whole cell electrophysiological experiments indicated that activation of mGluR5 enhances GABA-gated currents recorded from cultured chick amacrine cells. This mGluR5-dependent enhancement occurred through the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway and was dependent upon ...
Because there are no known perfectly exclusive markers of all amacrine cells, the absence of other cell type-specific genes was useful to establish that a profiled cell belonged to the amacrine cell class. Markers of rod (Rho and Gcap2), bipolar (Cabp5 and Og9x), Müller glial (ApoE and Aqp4), ganglion (Nefl and Pou4f2), and progenitor (Sfrp2 and Fgf15) cells were analyzed for expression in the single amacrine cells and, as a positive control, in previously profiled single cells representing each of these classes (Fig. 2A) (8, 10-12). Markers of horizontal (Lim1) and cone (Opmw) cells were also analyzed, although these cell types were not available for comparison. In the majority of the amacrine cells there was no expression of these markers. In rare cases, where one of these genes was found to be expressed at low levels, no other markers of that same cell class were observed. Notably, 2 amacrine cells expressed Fgf15, a marker of retinal progenitor cells. Kurose et al. have reported expression ...
Autoradiographic studies of cat retina showed an accumulation of [3H]dopamine in a subpopulation of amacrine cells whose process ramify in the outermost stratum of the inner plexiform layer. Dendrites of these cells are characterized by numerous varicosities measuring up to 2 micron in diameter whic …
Quantifying the number of neurites per cell and the average segment length roughly grouped the amacrine cells into clusters (Figs. 3D, 3E) suggesting the existence of more than one cell subpopulation in our cultures. To address this observation, and ask whether in vitro amacrine cells retain morphologic diversity analogous to that exhibited in vivo, we performed a principal component analysis. This is a multivariate analysis method that reduces our original seven variables into fewer components when (and if) these variables are highly correlated. We found that three components were able to explain 90% to 99% of the variance in the samples analyzed (Table 2). Component 1, which accounted for approximately 53% of the variability in amacrine cell neurite growth, described a variable largely based on total neurite growth capacity, with a spectrum running from short, simple cells on one end to long, complex neurite morphologies on the other (example cells in Fig. 4). Component 2, which explained 24% ...
Glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the retina. Approximately half of the amacrine cells release glycine at their synapses with bipolar, other amacrine, and ganglion cells. Glycinergic amacrine cells are small-field amacrine cells with vertically oriented dendrites and comprise more than 10 different morphological types. The retinal distributions of glycine receptor (GlyR) α1, α2, α3 and α4 subtypes have been mapped with subunit-specific antibodies. GlyRs were clustered at postsynaptic hot spots which showed selective distributions for the different subunits. As a rule, only one α subunit was expressed at a given postsynaptic site. The kinetic properties of GlyRs were measured by recording spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) from identified retinal neurons in wildtype, Glra1spd-ot, Glra2 and Glra3 knockout mice. From observed differences of sIPSCs in wildtype and mutant mice, the cell-type specific subunit composition of GlyRs
In the frog retina most bipolar cells, sparsely distributed amacrine cells and some ganglion cells contain calretinin (CaR). Double-label immunocytochemistry shows that in the Xenopus retina many calretinin positive amacrine cells are also gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (IR), none col …
Male and female adult mice (2 to 4 months old) were used for the present study. The mice were housed in the Oakland University animal facility on a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. All procedures conformed to National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines for laboratory animals and were performed in conformity with the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Oakland University. The four mouse lines described below were used for the present study. All of the lines were bred on a mixed C57BL/129 background. The first mouse line was the wild-type mice used for the immunohistochemistry study. The second mouse line was wild-type mice in which DACs are genetically labeled by the rate-limiting enzyme catecholamine biosynthesis tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-driven red fluorescent protein (RFP) used to visualize DACs for the mEPSC recordings (referred to as ...
Principal Investigator:KANEKO Akimichi, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:神経・脳内生理学
Mammalian retinae express histamine receptors. In the macaque retinal bipolar cell, histamine has been reported to enhance the potassium current via histamine receptors. Recent immunohistochemical studies showed that histamine H1 receptor (HR1) was expressed in the mammalian amacrine cells. Here we investigated the effect of histamine on mouse amacrine cells, using the whole-cell version of the patch-clamp technique. Mouse retinae were sliced at 200 µm in thickness. The slice patch-clamp recording was performed at the inner nuclear layer of the retina. The amacrine cells were identified by the locations of the soma in the retinal layer and by the shapes of the fluorescence with injected Lucifer yellow. First, we confirmed the effect of histamine in the amacrine cells (n = 19). Under voltage-clamp conditions, the amplitude of the voltage-gated outward currents was enhanced by the application of 100 µM histamine in eleven amacrine cells (37.9 ± 7.3%; mean ± SEM). Although histamine decreased ...
In many parts of the central nervous system, including the retina, it is unclear whether cholinergic transmission is mediated by rapid, point-to-point synaptic mechanisms, or slower, broad-scale non-synaptic mechanisms. Here, we characterized the ultrastructural features of cholinergic connections between direction-selective starburst amacrine cells and downstream ganglion cells in an existing serial electron microscopy data set, as well as their functional properties using electrophysiology and two-photon acetylcholine (ACh) imaging. Correlative results demonstrate that a tripartite structure facilitates a multi-directed form of transmission, in which ACh released from a single vesicle rapidly (~1 ms) co-activates receptors expressed in multiple neurons located within ~1 µm of the release site. Cholinergic signals are direction-selective at a local, but not global scale, and facilitate the transfer of information from starburst to ganglion cell dendrites. These results suggest a distinct ...
This image of ganglion cells, Müller cells and starburst amacrine cells in the human retina is from a patient suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP). This disease this patient suffered from slowly causes people affected with this disease to go blind and is a constant reminder to me of why we engage in our research. For some, this is a pretty, […]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distribution of nitric oxide syntheses in the retinas of WISTAR and RCS rats. AU - Pan, Feng. AU - WANG, Wei. AU - Zhang, Huirong. AU - You, Debo. AU - Ren, Lei. AU - Shen, Li. PY - 2000/10. Y1 - 2000/10. N2 - Objective: To determine the difference in localization of Nitric Oxide Syntheses (NOS) in the retinas of Wistar rats and Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. Methods: Immunocytochemistry staining technique was used and observed under light microscopy. Six eyes of 74ds Wistar rats and RCS rats were divided and processed for light microscopic analysis. The quantity of NOS-positive amacrine cells was gauged. Results: The NOS-positive amacrine cells could he observed in inner plexiform layer(IPL) of the equation, ore serratas and posterior pole. There were significant differences in the numbers of the NOS-positive amacrine cells between the RCS rats and the Wistar rats. Conclusion: Due to photoreceptor cell degeneration, the quantity of the NOS-positive amacrine cells in the ...
KEYWORDS: Prdm13; amacrine cell; interneuron; retina; subtype specification; visual function ◆Contact; takahisa.furukawa at
Anatomical and electrophysiological techniques were combined to study the morphology, synaptic connections, and response properties of two neurons in the rod pathway of the rabbit retina: the rod bipolar cell and the narrow-field, bistratified (NFB) amacrine cell. Rod bipolars receive synaptic input from rod cells in the outer plexiform layer (OPL), where their dendrites end as central elements in the invaginating synapse of rod spherules. Their main synaptic output in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) is onto NFB amacrine cells and at least one other type of amacrine, which in turn feeds a reciprocal synapse back onto the bipolar endings. Rod bipolars, or a variety of them, respond to diffuse, white light stimulation with a transient-sustained depolarization dominated by rods; with high-intensity flashes, they generate a secondary depolarization at off, which is homologous to the rod aftereffect of horizontal cells, although opposite in polarity. NFB amacrine cells receive synaptic input from rod ...
The regularity of neuronal cell bodies and processes is one of the most striking features of the nervous system and is crucial for cognitive function. The aim...
Morphological diversity of amacrine cells (ACs) is clearly a general characteristic of vertebrate retinae. Beginning with the comparative work of Cajal (1893), much detailed information concerning...
This abstract was presented today at the Association for Research in Vision and Opthalmology (ARVO) meetings in Seattle, Washington by Robert E. Marc, Felix R. Vazquez-Chona, John V. Hoang, Crystal Sigulinsky, Carl B. Watt, Bryan W. Jones, James R. Anderson and J. Scott Lauritzen. Continue reading Pure Feedforward Amacrine Cells. ...
Amacrine cells are an inhibitory neuron located in the retina. The cell bodies are located at the inner nuclear layer, while the dendrites are located at the inner plexiform layer ...
Promoting the regeneration or survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is one focus of regenerative medicine. Homeobox Barhl transcription factors might be instrumental in these processes. In mammals, only barhl2 is expressed in the retina and is required for both subtype identity acquisition of amacrine cells and for the survival of RGCs downstream of Atoh7, a transcription factor necessary for RGC genesis. The underlying mechanisms of this dual role of Barhl2 in mammals have remained elusive. Whole genome duplication in the teleost lineage generated the barhl1a and barhl2 paralogues. In the Zebrafish retina, Barhl2 functions as a determinant of subsets of amacrine cells lineally related to RGCs independently of Atoh7. In contrast, barhl1a expression depends on Atoh7 but its expression dynamics and function have not been studied. Here we describe for the first time a Barhl1a reporter line in vivo showing that barhl1a turns on exclusively in subsets of RGCs and their post-mitotic precursors. We ...
The detection of approaching objects, such as looming predators, is necessary for survival. Which neurons and circuits mediate this function? We combined genetic labeling of cell types, two-photon microscopy, electrophysiology and theoretical modeling to address this question. We identify an approach-sensitive ganglion cell type in the mouse retina, resolve elements of its afferent neural circuit, and describe how these confer approach sensitivity on the ganglion cell. The circuits essential building block is a rapid inhibitory pathway: it selectively suppresses responses to non-approaching objects. This rapid inhibitory pathway, which includes AII amacrine cells connected to bipolar cells through electrical synapses, was previously described in the context of night-time vision. In the daytime conditions of our experiments, the same pathway conveys signals in the reverse direction. The dual use of a neural pathway in different physiological conditions illustrates the efficiency with which ...
To a first rough approximation, it appears that each GABAergic amacrine cell feedback and feedforward can finasteride alternatives prostate an additional lateral antagonistic interaction, generating an additional receptive field surround superimposed upon the feedback and feed-forward interactions mediated by horizontal cells at the outer retina. (2002).
In the present study, we characterized the effects of ON transection and BDNF on retinal NOS expression and activity. Although ON transection does substantially increase retinal NOS-I expression, it leads only to a rather small increase in NOS activity. Additional application of exogenous BDNF, although not further increasing NOS-I expression, leads to a dramatic post-translational upregulation of NOS-I activity. Furthermore, BDNF induces NOS-II expression, most likely by activating retinal microglia.. In unlesioned control retinas, we found NOS-I-immunoreactive amacrine cells in the inner INL and a modest number of NOS-I-immunoreactive displaced amacrine cells and RGCs in the GCL. These observations are in good agreement with previous studies showing a similar distribution of NOS-I immunoreactivity in the rat retina (Yamamoto et al., 1993). The pattern of NADPH-d staining corresponds well with NOS-I immunoreactivity, suggesting that retinal NOS activity is mainly activity of the neuronal ...
Figure 3. Expression of Crb2 mRNA in the adult mouse eye. A: The cellular expression of the Crb2 gene in the adult mouse eye was analyzed by mRNA in situ hybridizations. Crb2 is expressed in both the outer nuclear layer (ONL; photoreceptor cells) and inner nuclear layer (INL; horizontal, amacrine, and bipolar cells). The ganglion cell layer (GC), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and outer segments (OS) are labeled. The OPL collapses as an artifact of fixation/sectioning, but can be seen as a dark line between the INL and ONL. B: In some sections, Crb2 expression is also detected in some cells of the ganglion cell layer. These may represent displaced amacrine cells. C: Negative control experiment of the same retina.. ...
Functional interactions between neurons, vasculature, and glia within neurovascular units are critical for maintenance of the retina and other CNS tissues. For example, the architecture of the neurosensory retina is a highly organized structure with alternating layers of neurons and blood vessels that match the metabolic demand of neuronal activity with an appropriate supply of oxygen within perfused blood. Here, using murine genetic models and cell ablation strategies, we have demonstrated that a subset of retinal interneurons, the amacrine and horizontal cells, form neurovascular units with capillaries in 2 of the 3 retinal vascular plexuses. Moreover, we determined that these cells are required for generating and maintaining the intraretinal vasculature through precise regulation of hypoxia-inducible and proangiogenic factors, and that amacrine and horizontal cell dysfunction induces alterations to the intraretinal vasculature and substantial visual deficits. These findings demonstrate that ...
The most visually striking aspect of Vision Starburst starts at the sight of the front grille and air intake vents. The front grille has dramatically changed from previous Geely Auto designs; Vision Starbursts sharp and unique new parabolic pattern, in combination with the new lighting design, creates an effect which echoes the theme of energy releasing from a Starburst. The concept that headlamps are the eyes of a vehicle has also been overturned as Geely designers imagine future vehicles seen through high-tech sensors. The whole vehicle visually extends from the center towards the sides, up and down, giving the front face of the vehicle a more powerful and three-dimensional aura ...
I was outside working and I came in for lunch when I noticed that the lights and peoples faces were either surrounded by a starburst looking effect or the face was entirely blocked out. After I was in...
We have defined a network of interacting Drosophila cell surface proteins in which a 21-member IgSF subfamily, the Dprs, binds to a nine-member subfamily, the DIPs. The structural basis of the Dpr-DIP interaction code appears to be dictated by shape complementarity within the Dpr-DIP binding interface. Each of the six dpr and DIP genes examined here is expressed by a unique subset of larval and pupal neurons. In the neuromuscular system, interactions between Dpr11 and DIP-γ affect presynaptic terminal development, trophic factor responses, and neurotransmission. In the visual system, dpr11 is selectively expressed by R7 photoreceptors that use Rh4 opsin (yR7s). Their primary synaptic targets, Dm8 amacrine neurons, express DIP-γ. In dpr11 or DIP-γ mutants, yR7 terminals extend beyond their normal termination zones in layer M6 of the medulla. DIP-γ is also required for Dm8 survival or differentiation. Our findings suggest that Dpr-DIP interactions are important determinants of synaptic ...
A growing list... Mach bands are a result of lateral inhibition, which is what the horizontal and amacrine cells do with the information provided by a photoreceptor in order to facilitate...
Chemists and biologists often use BODIPYs, also known as boron-dipyrromethene compounds, as fluorescent dyes due to the molecules chemical toughness and sharp spectroscopic features. Also many chemists try to improve them further. Roberto Diaz-Rodriguez and Sarah Greening were purifying an aza-BODIPY by chromatography when they found these crystals in one of the resulting fractions. The crystals forming in the test-tube give a visual of which test-tube contains the majority of the product, Greening says.. ...
3mm Rigid Board. If you are looking for a long lasting sign which is extremely outdoor durable, rigid board is the material for you. ...
This is the natural shelter of a Pterinochilus junodi in south africa the grow to 9 for Females and males max 1 common name soutpansberg starburst baboon...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Seizure-related gene 6 (Sez-6) in amacrine cells of the rodent retina and the consequence of gene deletion. AU - Gunnersen, Jenny M.. AU - Kuek, Annabel. AU - Phipps, Joanna A.. AU - Hammond, Vicki E.. AU - Puthussery, Theresa. AU - Fletcher, Erica L.. AU - Tan, Seong Seng. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/8/7. Y1 - 2009/8/7. N2 - Background: Seizure-related gene 6 (Sez-6) is expressed in neurons of the mouse brain, retina and spinal cord. In the cortex, Sez-6 plays a role in specifying dendritic branching patterns and excitatory synapse numbers during development. Methodology/Principal Findings: The distribution pattern of Sez-6 in the retina was studied using a polyclonal antibody that detects the multiple isoforms of Sez-6. Prominent immunostaining was detected in GABAergic, but not in All glycinergic, amacrine cell subpopulations of the rat and mouse retina. Amacrine cell somata displayed a distinct staining pattern with the Sez-6 ...
Inhibitory interneurons represent a diverse population of cell types in the central nervous system, whose general role is to suppress activity of target neurons. The timing of spikes in principal neurons has millisecond precision, and I asked what are the roles of inhibition in shaping the temporal codes that emerge from different parallel local neural circuits. First I investigated the local circuitry of melanopsin-containing ganglion cells in the mouse retina, which are intrinsically photosensitive and responsible for circadian photoentrainment. Using transsynaptic viral tracing, I identified three types of melanopsin-containing ganglion cell, and found that inhibitory (GABAergic) dopaminergic amacrine cells are presynaptic to one of these types. These results provided a direct circuitry link between the medium time scale process of light-dark adaptation, which involves dopamine, and the longer time scale of the circadian rhythm. Next I characterised a subpopulation of genetically-identified ...
Gap junctions are prevalent throughout the neural retina, with expression by every major neuronal class and at every level of signal processing. Yet, the functional roles and expressing cells/participating networks for many remain unknown. Spontaneous network spontaneous hyperactivity observed during retinal degeneration contributes to visual impairment and requires gap junctional coupling in the Aii amacrine cell/ON cone bipolar cell (CBC) network. However, it remains unclear whether this hyperactivity reflects changes in the underlying circuitry or dysfunction of the normative circuitry. Here, we used connectomics-based mapping of retinal circuitry to 1) define the coupling architecture of the Aii/ON CBC network in healthy adult rabbit retina using connectome RC1 and 2) evaluate changes in coupling motifs in RPC1, a pathoconnectome from a rabbit retinal degeneration model.. Methods:. RC1 and RPC1 are connectomes built by automated transmission electron microscopy at ultrastructural (2 ...
The retina is a sensory tissue that collects light and color information of objects and converts into electrical signals, which are then sent to the brain. After light detection by the photoreceptors in the retina, the first step in visual processing occurs in retinal interneurons that are either stimulated or inhibited by photoreceptors during the transmission of the light information to retinal ganglion cells wired to the brain. Changes in the composition and connectivity of these retinal interneurons, therefore, alter the output of the retina, modifying the visual information sent to the brain.. Neurons comprising the retina are produced before animals open their eyes for the first time. This process is regulated by various transcription factors, which bind specific DNA sequences and induce the expression of target genes that define the features of each cell type. Paired-homeobox 6 (PAX6) is an important transcription factor of retinal interneurons named as amacrine cells that tune the ...
UCSB researchers demonstrate that cholinergic amacrine cells create a personal space in much the same way that people distance themselves from one another in an elevator. ...
Visually guided behavior can depend critically on detecting the direction of object movement. This computation is first performed in the retina where direction is encoded by direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) that respond strongly to an object moving in the preferred direction and weakly to an object moving in the opposite, or null, direction (reviewed in [1]). DSGCs come in multiple types that are classified based on their morphologies, response properties, and targets in the brain. This study focuses on two types-ON and ON-OFF DSGCs. Though animals can sense motion in all directions, the preferred directions of DSGCs in adult retina cluster along distinct directions that we refer to as the cardinal axes. ON DSGCs have three cardinal axes-temporal, ventral, and dorsonasal-while ON-OFF DSGCs have four-nasal, temporal, dorsal, and ventral. How these preferred directions emerge during development is still not understood. Several studies have demonstrated that ON [2] and ON-OFF DSGCs are ...
J:151918 Jiang H, Xiang M, Subtype specification of GABAergic amacrine cells by the orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a2/Nurr1. J Neurosci. 2009 Aug 19;29(33):10449-59 ...
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It starts off like this...I got a minute to talk with Jeff and his lovely wife before his set...some other fans came up and Jeff being the consumate professional asked my indulgence to speak with them. So I continued chatting with his wife. Rebecca (hope I spelled that right, if not someone let me know and I will edit it) reached into her purse and pulled out a pack of Starburst candy and offered me one. I gladly accepted as I was a bit parched from the festivities from the night before and little spit generation seemed to be a good thing ...
The Starburst Foundation wishes to thank Matt Pulver for creating this Model G simulator. Also thanks to David Jonsson for his contribution to the simulation effort and his suggestion that we develop a Model G simulator that could be run on a web browser.. .. Experiment No. 1: Showing the particle formation results of a fluctuation emerging in an ether environment that is either a) modestly supercritical, b) subcritical or c) excessively supercritical.. In playing with these values, you will find that a stable particle is formed when parameter g is within the range 0.092 to 0.1025. Above the upper limit of this range, when g , 0.1025, the reaction system enters its subcritical mode and any ordered structures will progressively dissipate. For example, choose g = 0.1026 to see what happens. A subatomic particle will initially form due to the temporary core supercritical region created by the initial seed fluctuation. But when the seed fluctuation recedes and the particle is left on its own, its ...
Starburst wrapper bracelets were the DIY trend back before rainbow loom bracelets took over, and were not too proud to admit that we both wore them and made them, forcing our friends to open their Starbursts slowly in order to keep the wrapper pristine.
Rods, cones and nerve layers from the retina. The entrance (anterior) of the attention is on the still left. Light-weight (in the left) passes by means of several transparent nerve levels to get to the rods and cones (much correct). A chemical adjust during the rods and cones send out a signal again to your nerves. The sign goes to start with towards the bipolar and horizontal cells (yellow layer), then towards the amacrine cells and ganglion cells (purple layer), then to your optic nerve fibres ...
79. This new method involves the use of percutaneous approach to perform a balloon angioplasty and placement of a stent. Nasanen, amacrine cells, and horizontal cells in human retinas with retinitis pigmentosa.
With this years prom theme being Candyland, its only appropriate that River Falls High School senior Tara Frey wear a dress made out of Starburst wrappers.. The dress was crafted by her mom Kerrin after collecting the thousands of colored wax papers over the past 6 years.. Now thats dedication!. The finished product is pretty awesome, but we cant say her boyfriend and his matching vest feel the same way.. Check out the Tags: candyland, kerrin frey, prom dress, river falls high school, starburst, starburst wrappers, tara frey. ...
So Sugar Queen Amanda here, just took a stroll down to the hospital cafeteria to get some sugar. I picked up a package of Starbursts which I have not had in the longest time. The package says gluten free in small letters under the ingredients. It was exciting! Thought I would share especially in ...
Heres my latest creation! This is a dramatic view of the Inner Nuclear Layer (INL) of the retina as seen from within the INL. The cells shown are amacrine, bipolar and Müller glia cells. Its the first in a series of images on the layers of the retina ...
Fibrocytes decrease with age and perhaps this accounts for slower healing in the biwerkingen. Parallel processing in the mammalian retina The Proctor Lecture.
Amacrine cells[edit]. Scotopic vision is dominated by retina amacrine cells, specifically AII-amacrine cells. AII-amacrine ... cells capture rod bipolar cell input and redistribute it to cone bipolar cells since rod-driven bipolar cells do not synapse on ... "The AII amacrine cell connectome: A dense network hub". Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 8: 104. doi:10.3389/fncir.2014.00104. PMC ... "The AII amacrine cell connectome: A dense network hub". Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 8: 104. doi:10.3389/fncir.2014.00104. PMC ...
... bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells. The bipolar cells, by far the most numerous, are round or oval in shape, ... The amacrine cells are placed in the inner part of the inner nuclear layer, and are so named because they have not yet been ... The bipolar cells corresponds to the intermediary cells between the touch and heat receptors on the skin and the medulla or ... The horizontal cells lie in the outer part of the inner nuclear layer and possess somewhat flattened cell bodies. Their ...
Instead, two types of amacrine cell - AII and A17 - allow lateral information flow from rod bipolar cells to cone bipolar cells ... which in turn contact ganglion cells. Rod signals, mediated by amacrine cells, therefore dominate scotopic vision. Scotopic ... Rods signal light increments to rod bipolar cells, which, unlike most bipolar cell types, do not form direct connections with ... "The AII amacrine cell connectome: A dense network hub". Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 8: 104. doi:10.3389/fncir.2014.00104. PMC ...
"Intraretinal signaling by ganglion cell photoreceptors to dopaminergic amacrine neurons". Proceedings of the National Academy ... Cell. 129 (3): 605-616. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.02.047. PMC 3749832. PMID 17482552. Zhang, Dao-Qi; Wong, Kwoon Y.; Sollars, ... Further research showed that it was the increase of cAMP within the cell resulting from dopamine binding to AMPA receptor that ... In addition, he helped find that constant light can desynchronize the circadian cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). He ...
Directionally selective calcium signals in dendrites of starburst amacrine cells. Denk & Horstmann 2004, PLoS Biology. Serial ... "Directionally selective calcium signals in dendrites of starburst amacrine cells". Nature. 418 (6900): 845-852. doi:10.1038/ ... He went on to show that hair cells can sense their own Brownian motion. Central to Denk's early career was his intuition that ... 2p excitation can also be used to map cells' receptor distributions by releasing substances from their chemical "cages". Denk ...
Tachibana, M; Kaneko, A (1988). "Retinal bipolar cells receive negative feedback input from GABAergic amacrine cells". Visual ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 101 (5 Pt 1): 1990-8. doi:10.1083/jcb.101.5.1990. PMC 2113966. PMID 3902859. ...
2004). "AII amacrine cells in the mammalian retina show disabled-1 immunoreactivity". J. Comp. Neurol. 470 (4): 372-81. doi: ... Being related to organizing the cells of the areas in the brain associated with cognitive function, it is speculated that the ... 2009). "Activated protein C ligation of ApoER2 (LRP8) causes Dab1-dependent signaling in U937 cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. ... DAB1 functions downstream of Reln in a signaling pathway that controls cell positioning in the developing brain and during ...
Of the retina's nerve cells, only the retinal ganglion cells and few amacrine cells create action potentials. In the retinal ... Inner nuclear layer - contains the nuclei and surrounding cell bodies (perikarya) of the amacrine cells, bipolar cells, and ... The photoreceptors are also cross-linked by horizontal cells and amacrine cells, which modify the synaptic signal before it ... Cells showing linear spatial summation are termed X cells (also called parvocellular, P, or midget ganglion cells), and those ...
These connect to amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer of the retina. Ultimately, via this retinohypothalamic tract (RHT ... the light gets collected by rod cells and cone cells and the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), or it is directly collected by ... There are five known types of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs): M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5. Each of ...
Since amacrine cells, which are a type of non-spiking neurons, undergo a transformation from spiking to non-spiking cells, ... Starburst amacrine cells use action potentials during retinal development, and once the retina is mature, these cells transform ... Amacrine cells are another major type of non-spiking neuron and their lifetime involves the conversion to a non-spiking neuron ... The amacrine cell study poses new and exciting components to the study of altering the chemical and mechanical properties of ...
Maguire, Greg (1989). "Amacrine cell interactions underlying the response to change in the tiger salamander retina". Journal of ... In this manner, whole cell patch recording of amacrine neurons in the salamander retina allowed light evoked excitatory post- ... The micropipette used to record from each cell contained a dye so that each physiologically identified cell could also be ... Precise localization of synaptic inputs to the cell, and localization of functional receptors in the cell was achieved. The ...
It is also found in a subset of amacrine cells in the Inner Nuclear Layer. No role as of yet has been proposed for the peculiar ... adrenomedullary cells, islet somatostatin cells, and in rat antral gastrin cells. Other structures and pathways associated with ... CART is also found in a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the primary afferent neurons in the retina. Specifically, it ... May 2011). "Retinal ganglion cells with distinct directional preferences differ in molecular identity, structure, and central ...
In rodents, MLP is transiently expressed in amacrine cells of the retina during postnatal development. In the adult nervous ... Cell Physiology. 301 (2): C373-82. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00206.2010. PMC 3154547. PMID 21562304. Mery A, Taghli-Lamallem O, Clark ... Gautel M (February 2011). "The sarcomeric cytoskeleton: who picks up the strain?". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 23 (1): 39- ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 153 (4): 763-72. doi:10.1083/jcb.153.4.763. PMC 2192386. PMID 11352937. Kong Y, Flick MJ, Kudla AJ ...
... suppresses melanopsin expression mediated by failure dopaminergic amacrine cells in RCS rats". Cellular Signalling. 24 (3): 685 ... "MicroRNA regulation of cell lineages in mouse and human embryonic stem cells". Cell Stem Cell. 2 (3): 219-29. doi:10.1016/j. ... miR-133 suppresses Prdm16 expression in skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells), which controls myogenic vs. brown ... "MicroRNA-133 controls brown adipose determination in skeletal muscle satellite cells by targeting Prdm16". Cell Metabolism. 17 ...
These neurons are amacrine cells, meaning that they have no axons. They release dopamine into the extracellular medium, and are ... Dopamine is synthesized in a restricted set of cell types, mainly neurons and cells in the medulla of the adrenal glands. The ... This retinal dopamine acts to enhance the activity of cone cells in the retina while suppressing rod cells-the result is to ... L-DOPA treatment cannot restore the dopamine cells that have been lost, but it causes the remaining cells to produce more ...
Loss of Crsp34/Med27 decreases amacrine cell number, but increases the number of rod photoreceptor cells. The activation of ... Cell. 14 (5): 685-91. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.05.006. PMID 15175163. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The ... Cell. 5 (4): 753-60. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80254-3. PMID 10882111. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). " ...
... where amacrine cells synapse with retinal ganglion cells. The synapses in the outer plexiform layer are between the rod cell ... endings or cone cell branched foot plates and horizontal cells. Unlike in most systems, rod and cone cells release ... It consists of a dense network of synapses between dendrites of horizontal cells from the inner nuclear layer, and ... photoreceptor cell inner segments from the outer nuclear layer. It is much thinner than the inner plexiform layer, ...
Z.-H. Action potential generation at an AIS-like process in the axonless retinal AII amacrine cell. J. Neurosci. 31:14654-14659 ... In the summer of 2004, he used a virus carrying the channelrhodopsin DNA to infect the ganglion cells in the eyes of blind mice ... Pan, Z.-H. and Hu, H.-J. Voltage-dependent Na+ currents in mammalian retinal cone bipolar cells. J. Neurophysiol. 84:2564-2571 ... and two types of low-voltage-activated calcium currents in rod and cone bipolar cells of the rat retina. J. Neurophysiol. 83: ...
In fact, the types of neurons called amacrine cells have no axons, and communicate only via their dendrites.) Neural signals ... which produce cell-to-cell signals at points where axon terminals make synaptic contact with other cells. Synapses may be ... Mauthner cells are not the only identified neurons in fish-there are about 20 more types, including pairs of "Mauthner cell ... Glial cells (named from the Greek for "glue") are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, ...
Are Localized To Distinct Subsets Of Amacrine Cells In The Anuran Retina". Neuroscience Letters. 386 (3): 194-198. doi:10.1016/ ... Mackay, Ian R.; Rosen, Fred S. (2000). "T-Cell Function and Migration - Two Sides of the Same Coin". N Engl J Med. 343 (14): ... Neurokinin A has an inhibitory effect on the formation of myeloid cells, and appear to be involved in one specific receptor ... 2008 Sep;295(3):C679-91 Like Substance P [SP], Neurokinin A is present in excitatory neurons and secretory cells of the ...
... in ganglion and amacrine cells of the rat retina". Molecular Vision. 14: 1600-1613. PMC 2528027. PMID 18769561. Calcium-Binding ... One of the functions of calcium binding proteins is to regulate the amount of free (unbound) Ca2+ in the cytosol of the cell. ... It is involved in cell signaling and shown to exist in neurons. This type of protein is also found in large quantities in ... When levels of Ca(2+) increase in the cell, these members of the EF-hand superfamily regulate transcription indirectly by ...
This is mediated by neurons such as the amacrine and horizontal cells, which functionally render the spread or convergence of ... These changes include a marked decrease in the number of cells connected to the affected eye as well as cells connected to both ... As determined from single-cell experiments on the cat and primate, different ganglion cells in the retina are tuned to ... and amacrine and horizontal cells can merge messages just as easily as inhibit them. Light travels from the fixation object to ...
The merging of signals by virtue of the diffuse ganglion cells, as well as horizontal and amacrine cells, allow a cumulative ... In humans, rod cells are exclusively responsible for night vision as cone cells are only able to function at higher ... Because rod cells are insensitive to long wavelengths, the use of red lights and red lens glasses has become a common practice ... Cone cells are able to regain maximum retinal sensitivity in 9-10 minutes of darkness whereas rods require 30-45 minutes to do ...
They are found in the brain and retina, in this last location it is found as the amacrine cell and retina horizontal cells. ... and Neuroglial Cells. Thieme. p. 21. ISBN 978-3-13-781801-4. Takahata, M; Nagayama, T; Hisada, M (Dec 7, 1981). "Physiological ... and the unipolar brush cell (UBC), that has no axon and only a dendritic arbour. ...
Gunhan, E.; Choudary, P. V.; Landerholm, T. E.; Chalupa, L. M. (2002). "Depletion of cholinergic amacrine cells by a novel ... immunotoxin does not perturb the formation of segregated on and off cone bipolar cell projections". The Journal of Neuroscience ...
... bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells. The basic circuitry of the retina incorporates a three- ... There are two types of hair cells: inner and outer. The inner hair cells are the sensory receptors . Problems with sensory ... This mechanoelectrical transduction is mediated with hair cells within the ear. Depending on the movement, the hair cell can ... and the ganglion cell. The first action potential occurs in the retinal ganglion cell. This pathway is the most direct way for ...
Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum, and the amacrine cells and cone bipolar cells of the retina. Calcium-binding protein 1 ... Cabp1 is found in cone bipolar and amacrine cells. We can also express that CaBP1 may regulate Ca2+ dependent activity of ... Expression of L-CaBP1 also help in the inhibition of histamine-induced [Ca2+] oscillations in HeLa cells. L-CaBP1 is able to ... It has two EF hand motifs and is expressed in neuronal cells in such areas as hippocampus, habenular nucleus of the epithalamus ...
This "nonvesicular release" of neurotransmitters is used by some cells, such as amacrine cells in the retina, as a normal form ... Neurotransmitter transporters frequently use electrochemical gradients that exist across cell membranes to carry out their work ... and choline is subsequently transported back into the cell and reconverted into acetylcholine. Transporters associated with ...
Acting in an opposite manner, dopamine, which is synthesized by amacrine and interplexiform cells is stimulated by light and ... The retina contains two types of photoreceptor - rod cells and cone cells. There are about 6-7 million cones that provide color ... Cell, 130, 535-547. Young, R.W. (1967). "The renewal of photoreceptor outer segments". The Journal of Cell Biology. 33 (1): 61- ... This idea arose from the observation that the band of radioactive protein that they injected in the two photoreceptor cells ...
Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ... which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. Farther back is the cell body, which contains the cell's ... Photoreceptor cell. Functional parts of the rods and cones, which are two of the three types of photosensitive cells in the ...
Talk:Amacrine cell. *Talk:Amniotic cavity. *Talk:Amniotic sac. *Talk:Ampulla of Vater ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... mechanism involving the transdifferentiation of venous endothelial cells in the eye into lymphatic-like endothelial cells.[2][3 ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory receptor cells), neural pathways, and parts of the brain ... Satir, P; Christensen, ST (2008). "Structure and function of mammalian cilia". Histochemistry and Cell Biology. 129 (6).. ...
... comprising bipolar cells and horizontal cells) do not produce action potentials; only some amacrine cells and the third layer, ... Several types of cells support an action potential, such as plant cells, muscle cells, and the specialized cells of the heart ( ... endocrine cells, and in some plant cells. In neurons, action potentials play a central role in cell-to-cell communication by ... Action potentials occur in several types of animal cells, called excitable cells, which include neurons, muscle cells, ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Retinal neurons include photoreceptor cells, horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells. ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... Ganglion cells. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e Masland, RH (2012). "The neuronal organization of the retina". Neuron. 76 (2): ...
In addition, other neurons in the retina, particularly horizontal and amacrine cells, transmit information laterally (from a ... By contrast, layers two, three and five (2, 3, & 5) of the LGN connect to the M cells and P (parvocellular) cells of the optic ... In between the six layers are smaller cells that receive information from the K cells (color) in the retina. The neurons of the ... In the retina, the photoreceptors synapse directly onto bipolar cells, which in turn synapse onto ganglion cells of the ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... The pupillary dilator consists of a spokelike arrangement of modified contractile cells called myoepithelial cells. These cells ... are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.[3] When stimulated, the cells contract, widening the pupil and allowing more ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... Apart from the cells, the major non-aqueous constituents of the stroma are collagen fibrils and proteoglycans. The collagen ... The lamellæ are produced by keratocytes (corneal connective tissue cells), which occupy about 10% of the substantia propria. ...
The signal goes first to the Retina bipolar cell and Retina horizontal cell(yellow layer), then to the Retina amacrine cell and ... Rodieck RW (১৯৬৫)। "Quantitative analysis of cat retinal ganglion cell response to visual stimuli"। Vision Res.। 5 (11): 583- ... How stem cells might restore sight Technology Review. *Australian Vision Prosthesis Group, Graduate School of Biomedical ... First, the signals start as raw outputs of points in the rod and cone cells. Then the nerve layers identify simple shapes, such ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... Rod bipolar cells do not synapse directly on to ganglion cells. Instead, rod bipolar cells synapse on to a Retina amacrine cell ... Bipolar cells effectively transfer information from rods and cones to ganglion cells. The horizontal cells and the amacrine ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. Because there are no rods or ... The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. Because there are no rods or ...
... the passage of signals from where they start in the receptors to where they arrive at the amacrine and ganglion cells. Bipolar ... bipolar cells are crucial as they serve as both direct and indirect cell pathways. The specific location of the bipolar cells ... A bipolar neuron or bipolar cell, is a type of neuron which has two extensions (one axon and one dendrite). Many bipolar cells ... Common examples are the retina bipolar cell, the ganglia of the vestibulocochlear nerve,[2] the extensive use of bipolar cells ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... The retina contains two types of photosensitive cells, the rod cells and the cone cells. ... The anatomical macula is defined histologically in terms of having two or more layers of ganglion cells.[6] The umbo is the ...
The signal goes first to the bipolar and horizontal cells (yellow layer), then to the amacrine cells and ganglion cells (purple ... regulates differentiation and cell fate determination maintains Muller glial quiescence N-cadherin mediates cell-cell ... "Nature Cell Biology. 12: 1101-1107. doi:10.1038/ncb2115. PMC 2972404.. *^ Wan, J; Ramachandran, R; Goldman, D (2012). "HB-EGF ... which dedifferentiate into stem-like cells and proliferate into neural progenitor cells in response to retinal damage. While ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... in Histochemistry and Cell Biology, Vol 129:6. *^ a b "eye, human." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate ... A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory receptor cells), neural pathways, and parts of the brain ...
... inner retinal cells (bipolar and amacrine cells), and the ganglion cells. Electrodes (DTL silver/nylon fiber string) are ... while the remainder of the wave is produced by a mixture of cells including photoreceptors, bipolar, amacrine, and Muller cells ... Electroretinography measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the photoreceptors (rods ... The ERG is composed of electrical potentials contributed by different cell types within the retina, and the stimulus conditions ...
In parallel with the DA amacrine cell inhibition, somatostatin-releasing amacrine cells, themselves inhibited by DA amacrine ... ipRGCs are both pre- and postsynaptic to dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA cells) via reciprocal synapses, with ipRGCs sending ... "Parallel inhibition of dopamine amacrine cells and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in a non-image-forming ... Lay summary - Cell Press (December 13, 2007).. *^ Berson DM (August 2007). "Phototransduction in ganglion-cell photoreceptors ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... The perifovea ends when the Henle's fiber layer disappears and the ganglion cells are one-layered.[4] ...
... are a subtype of amacrine cells present in the retina of mammals. AII amacrine cell serve the critical role ... Other AII amacrine cells ON-cone bipolar cells In sublamina A, the dendrites of the AII amacrine cell usually form inhibitory ... the AII amacrine cell then modulates the cone ON and OFF channels): In sublamina B, the dendrites of the AII amacrine cell also ... synapse with an AII amacrine cell in sublamina B (within the inner plexiform layer) The AII amacrine cells becomes activated (i ...
... ganglion cells receive inputs from bipolar cells and starburst amacrine cells. The DS ganglion cells respond to their preferred ... Starburst amacrine cells have been viewed as a strong candidate for direction selectivity in ganglion cells because they can ... There are three known types of DS cells in the vertebrate retina of the mouse, ON/OFF DS ganglion cells, ON DS ganglion cells, ... that retinal ganglion cells may receive asymmetrical inhibitory inputs directly from starburst amacrine cells, and therefore ...
... lamina intrinsic amacrine neurons (Lai) and the T1 basket cell. The outer photoreceptors, R1-R6, terminate in the lamina, where ... Cell Tissue Res". Cell and Tissue Research. 258 (3): 441-475. doi:10.1007/bf00218858. S2CID 9680961. Tuthill, JC; Nern, A; ... There are twelve distinct neuron classes in the lamina: the lamina monopolar cells L1-L5, two GABAergic feedback neurons (C2 ...
Glycinergic amacrine cells arent as extensively characterized as GABAergic amacrine cells. All glycinergic amacrine cells ... amacrine cells work laterally, but whereas horizontal cells are connected to the output of rod and cone cells, amacrine cells ... of amacrine cells are neither GABAergic or glycinergic. These amacrine cells are sometimes known as nGnG amacrine cells, and it ... One type of GABAergic amacrine cell that is fairly well studied is the starburst amacrine cell. These amacrine cells are ...
AII amacrine cells are a subtype of amacrine cells present in the retina of mammals. AII amacrine cell serve the critical role ... Other AII amacrine cells ON-cone bipolar cells In sublamina A, the dendrites of the AII amacrine cell usually form inhibitory ... the AII amacrine cell then modulates the cone ON and OFF channels): In sublamina B, the dendrites of the AII amacrine cell also ... synapse with an AII amacrine cell in sublamina B (within the inner plexiform layer) The AII amacrine cells becomes activated (i ...
Pure Feedforward Amacrine Cells. This abstract was presented today at the Association for Research in Vision and Opthalmology ( ... AII Amacrine Cells by Mahnoosh Farsaii and Victoria P. Connaughton. *Midget pathways of the primate retina underlie resolution ... Ganglion Cell Physiology by Ralph Nelson. *Melanopsin-expressing, Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) ... Tag: amacrine cells. Posted on May 6, 2013. January 3, 2016. ... Glial cells of the Retina by Helga Kolb. *The Architecture of ...
AII cell partnerships. AII cell 2610 with its rod bipolar cell input (magenta), amacrine cell input synaptic input (red), ... AI cell 66257 forms adherens junctions (a) with AII cell 3679 and glycinergic amacrine cell (GAC) 66258. AI cell 66259 forms a ... Glycine and GABA signals in amacrine cells. (A) Slice 030, volume RC1. Three of the AII amacrine cells are marked. The gray ... Basic AII cell networks. Vertebrate rod R and cone C signal convergence patterns onto bipolar cells, amacrine or ganglion cells ...
C, cones; H, horizontal cells; B, ON-type cone bipolar cells; t-DA, transient dopamine cells; s-DA, sustained dopamine cells; G ... light signal flow from rods/cones to ganglion cells through ON-bipolar cells to transient dopamine cells and the LGN. Red ... Intraretinal signaling by ganglion cell photoreceptors to dopaminergic amacrine neurons.. Zhang DQ1, Wong KY, Sollars PJ, ... Intraretinal signaling by ganglion cell photoreceptors to dopaminergic amacrine neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 16; ...
Interestingly, no genes were found to be expressed in all amacrine cells and only in amacrine cells. Because amacrine cells are ... Profiled cells were confirmed to be amacrine cells by (i) expression of genes known to be expressed in every amacrine cell, (ii ... For example, an AII amacrine cell (green cell, Fig. 1E Right) can synapse with a rod bipolar cell (gray cell with process in ... GABAergic amacrine cells are born and differentiate earlier than glycinergic amacrine cells. (A) Among profiled cells, ...
Morphological diversity of amacrine cells (ACs) is clearly a general characteristic of vertebrate retinae. Beginning with the ... Perry VH, Walker M (1980) Amacrine cells, displaced amacrine cells and interplexiform cells in the retina of the rat. Proc R ... Kolb H (1982) The morphology of bipolar cells, amacrine cells and ganglion cells in the retina of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta ... The ramification pattern of amacrine cells within the inner plexiform layer of the carp retina. Cell Tissue Res 220: 699-723 ...
... positive amacrine cells (γACs), glycine-positive amacrine cells (GACs), and ganglion cells. Most ON cone bipolar cell axonal ... ON cone bipolar cells make noncanonical axonal synapses onto specific targets and receive amacrine cell synapses in the nominal ... forming new architectures for generating ON-OFF amacrine cells. Many of these ON-OFF GACs target ON cone bipolar cell axons, ON ... AII Amacrine Cells by Mahnoosh Farsaii and Victoria P. Connaughton. *Midget pathways of the primate retina underlie resolution ...
... multistratified glycinergic neuron best known for its role in collecting scotopic signals from rod bipolar cells and ... The mammalian AII retinal amacrine cell is a narrow-field, ... Homologs of AII amacrine cells have yet to be identified in non ... ON cone bipolar cell gap junctions. Long considered a simple cell, a full connectomics analysis shows that AII cells possess ... The mammalian AII retinal amacrine cell is a narrow-field, multistratified glycinergic neuron best known for its role in ...
It is not known which retinal cell first performs the neural computations that give rise to directional selectivit … ... In many species, unique classes of retinal ganglion cells selectively respond to visual stimuli that move in specific ... Directionally selective calcium signals in dendrites of starburst amacrine cells Nature. 2002 Aug 22;418(6900):845-52. doi: ... A prominent candidate has been an interneuron called the starburst amacrine cell. Using two-photon optical recordings of ...
NFB amacrine cells receive synaptic input from rod bipolars, cone bipolars, and other types of amacrine cells; they are ... the rod bipolar cell and the narrow-field, bistratified (NFB) amacrine cell. Rod bipolars receive synaptic input from rod cells ... is onto NFB amacrine cells and at least one other type of amacrine, which in turn feeds a reciprocal synapse back onto the ... NFB amacrine cells exhibit a depolarizing rod aftereffect at the termination of high-intensity flashes. Thus, this amacrine ...
ON cone bipolar cell gap junctions. Long considered a simple cell, a full connectomics analysis shows that AII cells possess ... ON cone bipolar cell gap junctions. Long considered a simple cell, a full connectomics analysis shows that AII cells possess ... Homologues of AII amacrine cells have yet to be identified in non-mammalians, but we propose that such homologues should be ... Homologues of AII amacrine cells have yet to be identified in non-ma... ...
... PLoS Biol. 2015 Apr 1;13(4):e1002115. doi: ... Finally, we presented evidence that amacrine cell feedback regulation helps maintain light sensitivity in ambient light. Our ... We discovered that Ih channels regulate glutamate release from amacrine cells by modulating calcium channel activity. Moreover ... is expressed in photoreceptors and receives the glutamate signal released from amacrine cells. ...
The TRPM1 Channel Is Required for Development of the Rod ON Bipolar Cell-AII Amacrine Cell Pathway in the Retinal Circuit. ... The TRPM1 Channel Is Required for Development of the Rod ON Bipolar Cell-AII Amacrine Cell Pathway in the Retinal Circuit ... The TRPM1 Channel Is Required for Development of the Rod ON Bipolar Cell-AII Amacrine Cell Pathway in the Retinal Circuit ... The TRPM1 Channel Is Required for Development of the Rod ON Bipolar Cell-AII Amacrine Cell Pathway in the Retinal Circuit ...
L-AC stands for L-type amacrine cells. L-AC is defined as L-type amacrine cells rarely. ... This amacrine cell.. Amacrine cells perform where the second synaptic retianl layer where ganglion cells and bipolar cells form ... amacrine cells work laterally, but whereas horizontal cells are connected to the output of rod and cone cells, amacrine cells ... There are close to 50 types of amacrine cells, many of which do not have axons. An amacrine cell is a horizontal cell and it ...
... where CART is found in dopaminergic amacrine cells and ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells. The CART-positive cells in ... The CART-positive amacrine cells received synapses from bipolar cell axons and made synapses onto the axons in a reciprocal ... Wide-field stratified amacrine cells in primate retina contain CART Ye Long; Andrea Bordt; Weiley Liu; Stephen Lee; Elizabeth ... Wide-field stratified amacrine cells in primate retina contain CART You will receive an email whenever this article is ...
Stable whole cell patch recordings were obtained on each cell in the pair, and each cell was held at -40 or -60 mV. Voltage ... gap junctions couple heterologous cell types such as AII amacrine cells (AIIs) and on-center cone bipolars (CBs). Functional ... Gap Junction Coupling between Cone Bipolars and AII Amacrine Cells You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected ... EB Trexler, W Li, SC Massey; Gap Junction Coupling between Cone Bipolars and AII Amacrine Cells . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. ...
The majority of amacrine cells in the vertebrate retina are GABAergic. Thus, elucidating how GABAergic signaling is modulated ... The intricate circuitry formed by amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina suggests that these ... The results presented here suggest that GABAergic signaling between amacrine cells can be modulated by the activation of ... NO also modulated GABAergic transmission between amacrine cells, but through two different pathways. Lower concentrations of NO ...
... rod bipolar cell → AII amacrine cell → cone bipolar cell) and then enter the DACs. In this rod pathway, AII amacrine cells ... such as horizontal cells, bipolar cells, AII, and A17 amacrine cells, as well as retinal ganglion cells [25-33]. In particular ... Ectopic retinal ON bipolar cell synapses in the OFF inner plexiform layer: contacts with dopaminergic amacrine cells and ... NMDA Receptors Contribute to Retrograde Synaptic Transmission from Ganglion Cell Photoreceptors to Dopaminergic Amacrine Cells ...
... mechanisms shape direction selectivity at the dendrites of starburst amacrine cells and ganglion cells in the mouse retina. ... they find ganglion cells to remain directionally selective when fed with non-directional signals from amacrine cells. As ... one relating to DS in amacrine cell dendrites, the other to DS in ganglion cells ... The network of starburst amacrine cells produces temporal E/I asymmetries in DSGCs. Before the discovery of DS in starburst ...
... and in spite of extensive overlap between arbors of neighboring cells population activity in the VG3-AC plexus encodes stimulus ... Neurite arbors of VGluT3-expressing amacrine cells (VG3-ACs) process visual information locally uniformly detecting object ... In this way it differs from the previous studies on starburst amacrine cells and A17 amacrine cells, which yielded specific ... In this way it differs from the previous studies on starburst amacrine cells and A17 amacrine cells, which yielded specific ...
The progenitor cell lost its ability to be inhibited for production of an amacrine cell as it entered M phase of the cell cycle ... The source of the inhibitor of the amacrine cell fate appeared to be previously generated amacrine cells, suggesting that ... one signal inhibited the production of amacrine cells and a second affected the production of cone cells. No increase in cell ... 1986) Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase-containing amacrine cell number in larval frog retina. Dev. Biol 114, 463-469. ...
A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an ...
The main excitatory inputs to the amacrine cells are believed to originate from the bipolar cells while the amacrine cell ... To elucidate some of the factors which might affect the differing responses of amacrine cells, we undertook the whole-cell ... The amacrine cells are an important group of secondary neurons which can exhibit a wide variety of light-evoked responses. ... The light-evoked responses of the amacrine cells in the goldfish retina have been classified into three main groups with some ...
... amacrine cells. VIP-like immunoreactive amacrine cells were classified into four types. ... VIP-like immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm of amacrine cells of the inner nuclear layer (INL) and their varicose ... VIP-like immunoreactive amacrine cells were present in both central and peripheral retinal regions. In some sections fine ... Multiple cell types form the VIP amacrine cell population. Luis Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Alexander Solomon, +3 authors Nicholas ...
In the mammalian retina, glutamatergic rod bipolar cells are presynaptic to two rod amacrine cells (AII and A17) that ... Functional NMDA receptors are expressed by both AII and A17 amacrine cells in the rod pathway of the mammalian retina. Zhou, ... Pressure application of NMDA did not evoke a response in rod bipolar cells, but for both AII and A17 amacrines, NMDA evoked ... NMDA receptors is common to both AII and A17 amacrine cells and suggest that these receptors could play an important role for ...
In the mammalian retina, glutamatergic rod bipolar cells are presynaptic to two rod amacrine cells (AII and A17) that ... Functional NMDA receptors are expressed by both AII and A17 amacrine cells in the rod pathway of the mammalian retina. Type. ... Pressure application of NMDA did not evoke a response in rod bipolar cells, but for both AII and A17 amacrines, NMDA evoked ... Functional NMDA receptors are expressed by both AII and A17 amacrine cells in the rod pathway of the mammalian retina. Journal ...
The CART-positive cells also received synapses from other amacrine cells. Some of these were located on their primary dendrites ... Wide-field diffuse amacrine cells in the monkey retina contain immunoreactive Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript ( ... and the presynaptic cells there included dopaminergic amacrine cells. Although some CART-positive somas were localized in the ... CART was localized to GABAergic amacrine cells in baboon retinas. The CART-positive cells had thin, varicose dendrites that ...
... but little is known about the cells that release NO. We show that a single type of amacrine cell (AC) controls NO release in ... 1 . Jacoby J, Nath A, Jessen ZF, Schwartz GW (2018) A Self-Regulating Gap Junction Network of Amacrine Cells Controls Nitric ... A gap junction network of Amacrine Cells controls Nitric Oxide release (Jacoby et al 2018). ...
Loeliger, M., Duncan, J., Cock, M. L., Harding, R., & Rees, S. M. (2007). Vulnerability of dopaminergic amacrine cells and ... Vulnerability of dopaminergic amacrine cells and optic nerve myelination to prenatal endotoxin exposure. / Loeliger, Michelle; ... Loeliger, M, Duncan, J, Cock, ML, Harding, R & Rees, SM 2007, Vulnerability of dopaminergic amacrine cells and optic nerve ... Vulnerability of dopaminergic amacrine cells and optic nerve myelination to prenatal endotoxin exposure. Investigative ...
  • Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medium field amacrine cells also contribute to vertical communication in the cells of the retina, but much of their overall function is still unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, wide field amacrine cells are hard to research and even discover because they span the entire retina so there aren't many of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • AII amacrine cells are a subtype of amacrine cells present in the retina of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • AII amacrine cell serve the critical role of transferring light signals from rod photoreceptors to the retinal ganglion cells (which contain the axons of the optic nerve) The Classical Rod Pathway described the role of AII amacrine cells in the mammalian retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • This unprecedented centrifugal outflow of ganglion-cell signals within the retina provides a novel basis for the restructuring of retinal circuits by light. (nih.gov)
  • The vertebrate retina uses diverse neuronal cell types arrayed into complex neural circuits to extract, process, and relay information from the visual scene to the higher order processing centers of the brain. (pnas.org)
  • Amacrine cells, a class of interneurons, are thought to mediate much of the processing of the visual signal that occurs within the retina. (pnas.org)
  • The retina contains 5 major neuronal cell classes and 1 glial cell type. (pnas.org)
  • To investigate how cell diversity arises during development, we focused on amacrine interneurons, the most diverse class of cells in the mammalian retina. (pnas.org)
  • To characterize the diversity of amacrine cells and how it arises during development, we first used genetic reporters to label individual amacrine cells within the developing retina and observed a range of distinct morphologies. (pnas.org)
  • To visualize single amacrine cells during development, we introduced genetic reporters into the developing retina by in vivo or ex vivo electroporation ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • GFP ( 6 , 7 ), and confirmed that these plasmids specifically label a range of amacrine cell morphologies when electroporated into the retina at birth (p0). (pnas.org)
  • Ammermuller J, Weiler R (1981) The ramification pattern of amacrine cells within the inner plexiform layer of the carp retina. (springer.com)
  • Deplano S, Vallerga S (1984) Quantitative morphology of amacrine cells in teleost retina. (springer.com)
  • Djamgoz MBA (1984) Electrophysiological characterization of the spectral sensitivities of the horizontal cells in cyprinid fish retina. (springer.com)
  • Djamgoz MBA, Ruddock KH (1983) Spectral characteristic of transient amacrine cells in a cyprinid fish (roach) retina in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Djamgoz MBA, Downing JEG, Wagner E, Wagner H-J, Zeutzius I (1985) Functional organization of amacrine cells in the teleost fish retina. (springer.com)
  • Neuronal architecture of 'on' and off1 pathways to ganglion cells in carp retina. (springer.com)
  • Anatomical and electrophysiological techniques were combined to study the morphology, synaptic connections, and response properties of two neurons in the rod pathway of the rabbit retina: the rod bipolar cell and the narrow-field, bistratified (NFB) amacrine cell. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, this amacrine cell type is inserted in series along the rod pathway in the rabbit retina and modulates the transfer of scotopic signals from rod bipolars to ganglion cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • The network spanning photoreceptor input and ganglion cell output in the mammalian retina was detailed by Kolb and Famiglietti (1974) using serial section transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, overexpression of Channelrhodopsin-2 partially rescued rod bipolar cell development in the TRPM1 −/− retina, whereas the rescue effect by a constitutively closed form of TRPM1 was lower than that by the native form. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the current study, we focused on neurotransmission between rod photoreceptor cells and rod bipolar cells in the retina. (jneurosci.org)
  • Amacrine cells are interneurons located in the most inner layer of the inner nuclear layer of the vertebrate retina. (acronymattic.com)
  • Amacrine cells are so named because they are nerve cells thought to lack an axon (Santiago Ram?n y Cajal, 1892) but today we know that certain large field amacrine cells of the vertebrate retina can have long 'axon-like' processes, which probably function as true axons. (acronymattic.com)
  • Gap junctions couple homologous cell types, forming lateral networks of neurons that synapse with vertical processing units in both the outer and inner plexiform layers of the retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • The intricate circuitry formed by amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina suggests that these interneurons play a major role in shaping the visual message. (openthesis.org)
  • The majority of amacrine cells in the vertebrate retina are GABAergic. (openthesis.org)
  • The results presented here suggest that GABAergic signaling between amacrine cells can be modulated by the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) or by the production of the second messenger, nitric oxide (NO). A novel mGluR5 splice variant was isolated from the chicken retina with a truncated carboxy-terminal tail. (openthesis.org)
  • In the mammalian retina, direction-selectivity is thought to originate in the dendrites of GABAergic/cholinergic starburst amacrine cells, where it is first observed. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here, we used two-photon Ca 2+ imaging to study visual processing in VGluT3-expressing amacrine cells (VG3-ACs) in the mouse retina. (elifesciences.org)
  • The seven major classes of cells of the vertebrate neural retina are generated from a pool of multipotent progenitor cells. (biologists.org)
  • A labeled population of progenitors from the embryonic rat retina were cultured with an excess of postnatal retinal cells and then assayed for their cell fate choices. (biologists.org)
  • 1996 ) Quantitative analysis of proliferation and cell cycle length during development of the rat retina. (biologists.org)
  • 1996 ) Cell fate determination in the vertebrate retina. (biologists.org)
  • 1997 ) Postmitotic cells fated to become rod photoreceptors can be respecified by CNTF treatment of the retina. (biologists.org)
  • The light-evoked responses of the amacrine cells in the goldfish retina have been classified into three main groups with some subdivisions within these three main groups. (nii.ac.jp)
  • As determined by intercellular recordings, amacrine cells of the goldfish retina can respond to a light stimulus by yielding a transient, a sustained depolarizing, or a sustained hyperpolarizing response. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To elucidate some of the factors which might affect the differing responses of amacrine cells, we undertook the whole-cell patch clamp study of the amacrine cells of the goldfish retina in a slice preparation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Takahashi,K.-I.,Miyoshi,S.,Kaneko,A.& Copenhagen,D.R.: 'Actions of nipecotic acid and SKF89976A on GABA transporter in cone-driven horizontal cells dissociated from the catfish retina. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Kaneda,M.,Hashimoto,M.& Kaneko,A.: 'Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of ganglion cells in the cat retina. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Sasaki,T.& Kaneko,A.: 'L-glutamated-induced responses in OFF-type bipolar cells of the cat retina. (nii.ac.jp)
  • VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide)-like immunoreactive amacrine cells in the retina of the rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Morphology and function of three VIP-expressing amacrine cell types in the mouse retina. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Distribution and synaptic connectivity of neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive amacrine cells in the rat retina. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Light- and electron-microscopic analysis of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive amacrine cells in the guinea pig retina. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the mammalian retina, glutamatergic rod bipolar cells are presynaptic to two rod amacrine cells (AII and A17) that constitute dyad postsynaptic partners opposite each presynaptic active zone. (uib.no)
  • The effects of the neuromodulator nitric oxide (NO) have been studied in many circuits, including in the vertebrate retina, where it regulates synaptic release, gap junction coupling, and blood vessel dilation, but little is known about the cells that release NO. We show that a single type of amacrine cell (AC) controls NO release in the inner retina, and we report its light responses, electrical properties, and calcium dynamics. (yale.edu)
  • 1 . Jacoby J, Nath A, Jessen ZF, Schwartz GW (2018) A Self-Regulating Gap Junction Network of Amacrine Cells Controls Nitric Oxide Release in the Retina. (yale.edu)
  • In contrast, gene expression profiling and histological data suggest an increased survival of amacrine cells in the postischemic retina of P2Y1R-KO mice. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • We record from transgenically labeled CRH-1 amacrine cells and identify a postsynaptic target for CRH-1 amacrine cell inhibition in an atypical retinal ganglion cell (RGC) in mouse retina, the Suppressed-by-Contrast (SbC) RGC. (cdc.gov)
  • That the inhibitory response induced by imposed myopic defocus remains intact, in spite of total ablation of glucagon cells (Chapter 5) or elimination of the peripheral glucagon cells (Chapter 3) and other unintended adverse retina effects, compared to findings from previous studies involving QUIS (Chapter 2) of this thesis, is a novel finding. (escholarship.org)
  • Amacrine cells have their cell bodies located in the inner nuclear layer of the retina and have projections in the inner plexiform layer. (eyewire.org)
  • Scotopic vision is dominated by retina amacrine cells , specifically AII-amacrine cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another reason that vision is poor under scotopic vision is that rods, which are the only cells active under scotopic vision, converge to a smaller number of neurons in the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • This startling property is displayed by neurons in the cerebral cortex, and by certain neurons in the retina (ganglion cells) that relay visual information to lower brain centres concerned with eye movements. (nature.com)
  • Conclusions: We report that several subpopulations of amacrine cells in inner nuclear layers of the retina form cilia during early retinal development in mice and primates. (marclab.org)
  • Cryosections of the retina were cut at 14 µm thickness and processed for immunocytochemistry with 15 antibodies that specifically stain different retinal cell types. (molvis.org)
  • Hence, cells in the inner retina may be affected in glaucoma as well as following ischemic damage. (molvis.org)
  • In the retina, six classes of neurons and one class of glia develop from a pool of precursor cells, whose competence decreases during development ( W etts and F raser 1988 ). (genetics.org)
  • Enzymes involved in the synthesis of catecholamines were detected in amacrine and what appeared to be a specific class of horizontal cells in the ferret retina. (elsevier.com)
  • The dendritic fields of cells near the center of the retina were substantially smaller. (elsevier.com)
  • In the central retina, there were about 200 cells/mm 2 with substantial overlap of dendrites of neighboring cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Bohn, M. C. / Catecholaminergic horizontal and amacrine cells in the ferret retina . (elsevier.com)
  • However, in the developing rat retina, eNOS was expressed exclusively in the vascular endothelial cells. (hku.hk)
  • Apoptotic cells in the retina were quantified using terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and active caspase-3 (CM-1) immunohistochemistry. (elsevier.com)
  • At each end point, the number of CM-1-IR cells in the retina was elevated by diabetes. (elsevier.com)
  • A modified nerve cell in the retina that has dendrites but no axon. (tabers.com)
  • Prominent immunostaining was detected in GABAergic, but not in All glycinergic, amacrine cell subpopulations of the rat and mouse retina. (elsevier.com)
  • In order to assess the role of Sez-6 in the retina, we analyzed the morphology of the Sez-6 knockout mouse retina with immunohistochemical markers and compared ganglion cell dendritic arbor patterning in Sez-6 null retinae with controls. (elsevier.com)
  • A unique role for Kv3 voltage-gated potassium channels in starburst amacrine cell signaling in mouse retina. (mtak.hu)
  • To understand the intrinsic membrane properties of starburst cells responsible for direction-selective GABA release, we performed whole-cell recordings from starburst cells in mouse retina. (mtak.hu)
  • Immunoblots confirmed the presence of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 proteins in retina and immunohistochemistry revealed their expression in starburst cell somata and dendrites. (mtak.hu)
  • As a part of the retina , bipolar cells exist between photoreceptors ( rod cells and cone cells ) and ganglion cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, rod bipolar cells synapse on to a Retina amacrine cell , which in turn excite cone ON bipolar cells (via gap junctions) and inhibit cone OFF bipolar cells (via glycine -mediated inhibitory synapses) thereby overtaking the cone pathway in order to send signals to ganglion cells at scotopic (low) ambient light conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • OFF bipolar cells synapse in the outer layer of the inner plexiform layer of the retina, and ON bipolar cells terminate in the inner layer of the inner plexiform layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional analysis of APLP2 using an APLP2 knockout mouse model confirmed functional significance of APLP2 in refractive development and implicated a potential role of synaptic transmission at the level of glycinergic amacrine cells of the retina for the development of myopia. (plos.org)
  • In the retina, Ca 2+ waves propagated through astrocytes and Müller cells, the principal retinal glial cell ( Newman, 2001 ), can either excite or inhibit the light-evoked spike activity of nearby neurons ( Newman and Zahs, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, the two neurobiologists have demonstrated what is also suspected for amacrine cells in the mammalian retina: It is possible that numerous isolated microcircuits exist in a single nerve cell. (mpg.de)
  • Isoform 1 is critical for hindlimb motor control and for the differentiation of amacrine and horizontal cells in the retina. (uniprot.org)
  • We examined the role of Ranbp2 haploinsufficiency on cellular and metabolic manifestations linked to tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH + ) dopaminergic neurons and glial cells of the brain and retina upon acute challenge to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a parkinsonian neurotoxin, which models facets of Parkinson disease. (springer.com)
  • These studies demonstrate contrasting gene-environment phenodeviances and roles of Ranbp2 between dopaminergic and glial cells of the brain and retina upon oxidative stress-elicited signaling and factors triggering a continuum of metabolic and cellular manifestations and proxies linked to oxidative stress, and chorioretinal and neurological disorders such as Parkinson. (springer.com)
  • Unusual physiological properties of smooth monostratified ganglion cell types in primate retina. (stanford.edu)
  • We use large-scale multi-electrode recording from the retina to study normal light-evoked activity in hundreds of retinal ganglion cells of multiple types simultaneously, and then evoke similar patterns of activity by electrical stimulation. (stanford.edu)
  • A polyaxonal amacrine cell population in the primate retina. (duke.edu)
  • Amacrine cells are the most diverse and least understood cell class in the retina. (duke.edu)
  • Development of ON and OFF cholinergic amacrine cells in the human fetal retina. (washington.edu)
  • In the goldfish retina, GAD is localized in some horizontal cells (H1 type), a few amacrine cells and sublamina b of the inner plexiform layer. (springer.com)
  • Since several types of amacrine cells exist in the mouse retina, we expect that the difference of histaminergic responses may depend on the types of amacrine cells. (jnss.org)
  • The amacrine cells participate in the lateral modulation in the retina. (jnss.org)
  • Cells in the retina of mice can be coaxed to create new neurons following an injury, according to new research from the University of Washington. (technologyreview.com)
  • A regenerated amacrine cell, which is a type of cell found in the inner retina. (technologyreview.com)
  • This is an excellent, clear demonstration that you can regrow cells of the inner retina," says Stephen Rose , chief research officer at the nonprofit Foundation Fighting Blindness. (technologyreview.com)
  • The retina, which is located in the back of the eye, has an outer layer of cells that detect light and translate it into electrical signals. (technologyreview.com)
  • In particular, they formed amacrine cells, which are located in the inner retina. (technologyreview.com)
  • The current work may help build a foundation for future therapies in which cells of the inner retina-and potentially other cells, including photoreceptors-are regenerated in situ, in the living human eye, says Reh. (technologyreview.com)
  • Conditional gene expression and lineage tracing of tuba1a expressing cells during zebrafish development and retina regeneration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • When bred to mice carrying Tg(Chx10-EGFP/cre,-ALPP)2Clc (see Stock No. 005105 for example) Cre recombinase expression in retina and Muller glial cells, this mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of embryonic retinal development. (jax.org)
  • Bistratified starburst amacrine cells in the Sox2 conditional knockout mouse retina display ON and OFF responses. (berkeley.edu)
  • The retina is a complex tissue in the back of the eye that contains the rod and cone photoreceptor cells. (berkeley.edu)
  • In particular, for retinal gene therapy it would be highly advantageous to transduce a single cell type that spans the entire retina after an intravitreal injection of a gene delivery vehicle for the subsequent secretion of a general neuroprotective factor throughout the retina. (berkeley.edu)
  • Amacrine cells are inhibitory neurons, and they project their dendritic arbors onto the inner plexiform layer (IPL), they interact with retinal ganglion cells and/or bipolar cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraretinal signaling by ganglion cell photoreceptors to dopaminergic amacrine neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Retinal dopaminergic amacrine neurons (DA neurons) play a central role in reconfiguring retinal function according to prevailing illumination conditions, yet the mechanisms by which light regulates their activity are poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, ganglion-cell photoreceptors provide excitatory drive to DA neurons, most likely by way of the coramification of their dendrites and the processes of DA neurons in the inner plexiform layer. (nih.gov)
  • Transient and sustained light responses in dopaminergic amacrine neurons. (nih.gov)
  • C-E ) Whole-cell voltage clamp recordings of light responses from transient and sustained DA neurons. (nih.gov)
  • We found that the TRPM1 transduction channel is required for the development of rod bipolar cells and their synaptic formation with subsequent neurons, independently of glutamate transmission. (jneurosci.org)
  • The amacrine cells are an important group of secondary neurons which can exhibit a wide variety of light-evoked responses. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Whereas there is strong evidence for expression of non-NMDA receptors by both AII and A17 amacrines, the expression of NMDA receptors by the pre- and postsynaptic neurons in this microcircuit has not been resolved. (uib.no)
  • Gliosis of retinal Müller glial cells may have both beneficial and detrimental effects on neurons. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Decades of research have focused on the circuit connectivity between retinal neurons, but only a handful of amacrine cells have been described functionally and placed in the context of a specific retinal circuit. (cdc.gov)
  • amacrine cell any of five types of retinal neurons that seem to lack large axons, having only processes that resemble dendrites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For auditory receptor neurons, the physical stimulus corresponds to the mechanical displacement of the receiver (for example, the stereocilia of cochlear hair cells). (nature.com)
  • Displaced amacrines in the ganglion cell layer were also positive for Sez-6 and weaker staining was occasionally observed in neurons with the morphology of alpha ganglion cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Unlike most neurons, bipolar cells communicate via graded potentials , rather than action potentials . (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, the number of wild-type retinal TH + -amacrine neurons compared to Ranbp2 +/− underwent milder declines without apoptosis followed by stronger recoveries without neurogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Neurons are one of the most morphologically diverse cell types, in large part owing to their intricate dendrite branching patterns. (biologists.org)
  • If researchers could spur the development of different types of new neurons in the living human eye, they might be able to replace cells that are lost in diseases like macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. (technologyreview.com)
  • The immature cells then started to proliferate, some of them differentiating into mature neurons. (technologyreview.com)
  • In lower vertebrates like fish and chickens, retinal cells are known to generate new neurons in response to damage, often restoring sight. (technologyreview.com)
  • Reh's current work offers more definitive evidence that immature cells, derived from muller glia, can differentiate again into mature neurons, says Michael Young of the Schepens Eye Research Institute. (technologyreview.com)
  • For example, scientists need to show that regenerated neurons behave normally in the eye, integrating into circuits with other cells and contributing to vision. (technologyreview.com)
  • The retinal cellular origin of this response, named "negative photopic response" (NPR), was dissected by applying agents that disrupt synaptic signaling between specific cell types to identify the contributing neurons. (nih.gov)
  • The cell surface receptors of BDNF such as p75 NT receptor (p75 NTR ), which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, and the tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), a member of tropomyosine-related kinase family, mediate opposite functions on neurons [ 17 - 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It promotes development and differentiation of neurons, cell survival, and synaptic plasticity [ 22 - 24 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • One type of GABAergic amacrine cell that is fairly well studied is the starburst amacrine cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • One type of narrow field cells that does this is the starburst amacrine cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formation of retinal direction-selective circuitry initiated by starburst amacrine cell homotypic contact. (duke.edu)
  • Moreover, we showed that the eye-enriched kainate receptor (EKAR) is expressed in photoreceptors and receives the glutamate signal released from amacrine cells. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings suggest plausible molecular underpinnings and physiological effects of feedback regulation from amacrine cells to photoreceptors. (nih.gov)
  • While control retinae of P2Y1R-KO mice displayed reduced cell numbers in the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers, ischemia induced apoptotic death of cells in all retinal layers in both, Wt and P2Y1R-KO mice, but the damage especially on photoreceptors was more pronounced in retinae of P2Y1R-KO mice. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Although the role of cilia in photoreceptors is well-studied, the formation of cilia in other retinal cell types has received little attention. (marclab.org)
  • Several electrophysiological studies support the notion that the b-wave component of the ERG is generated by the interaction between the photoreceptors and the "on" bipolar cells. (molvis.org)
  • eNOS expression in amacrine cells and photoreceptors was observed in the central-to-peripheral and temporal-to-nasal gradients. (hku.hk)
  • They act, directly or indirectly, to transmit signals from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bipolar cells then transmit the signals from the photoreceptors or the horizontal cells, and pass it on to the ganglion cells directly or indirectly (via amacrine cells ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Previous studies showed that besides photoreceptors, Muller cells as well as depolarizing bipolar cells are also closely associated with changes in ERG b-waves [13-17]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Blimp1 (Prdm1) prevents re-specification of photoreceptors into retinal bipolar cells by restricting competence. (washington.edu)
  • In degenerative disorders like macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, outer-layer cells, called photoreceptors, break down in the early stages of disease, leading to loss of vision. (technologyreview.com)
  • These cells mediate electrical signals coming from the photoreceptors and are particularly important to motion detection and night vision, says Reh. (technologyreview.com)
  • Inherited forms of retinal degeneration, which afflict 1 in 3000 people worldwide, arise primarily from mutations in transcripts expressed in rod and cone photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells. (berkeley.edu)
  • Another subtype of GABAergic amacrine cells are those that are dopaminergic. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also received synapses from amacrine cells on their primary dendrites, and based on the light microscopic results with anti-TH, these are likely to be dopaminergic. (arvojournals.org)
  • The pattern of labeling was different from that in rodents, where CART is found in dopaminergic amacrine cells and ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Light can stimulate dopamine release from dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs) by activating three classes of photosensitive retinal cells: rods, cones, and melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). (molvis.org)
  • Some of these were located on their primary dendrites, and the presynaptic cells there included dopaminergic amacrine cells. (ovid.com)
  • Loss of Crsp150/Med14, on the other hand, only slightly reduces dopaminergic amacrine cells, which are absent from both crsp34 m885 and trap100 lessen mutant embryos. (genetics.org)
  • A quantitative analysis revealed a 20% decrease in the number of cholinergic and a 16% decrease in dopaminergic amacrine cells in the diabetic mouse retinas, compared with the nondiabetic control. (elsevier.com)
  • Dopaminergic and cholinergic amacrine cells are lost during the early stages of retinal neuropathy in diabetes. (elsevier.com)
  • Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. (cdc.gov)
  • Amacrine cells operate at inner plexiform layer (IPL), the second synaptic retinal layer where bipolar cells and retinal ganglion cells form synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rod photoreceptor synapses with the rod bipolar cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homologs of AII amacrine cells have yet to be identified in non-mammalians, but we propose that such homologs should be narrow-field glycinergic amacrine cells driving photopic ON-OFF crossover via heterocellular coupling with ON cone bipolar cells and glycinergic synapses on OFF cone bipolar cells. (nih.gov)
  • ON cone bipolar cells make noncanonical axonal synapses onto specific targets and receive amacrine cell synapses in the nominal OFF layer, creating novel motifs, including inhibitory crossover networks. (utah.edu)
  • The targeting precision of ON cone bipolar cell axonal synapses shows that this drive incidence is necessarily a joint distribution of cone bipolar cell axonal frequency and target cell trajectories through a given volume of the OFF layer. (utah.edu)
  • The cylinder is capped at top and bottom with 10-section CMP series allowing molecular segmentation of cells, and an activity marker, 1-amino-4-guanidobutane (AGB), to mark cells differentially stimulated via glutamatergic synapses. (utah.edu)
  • The CART-positive amacrine cells received synapses from bipolar cell axons and made synapses onto the axons in a reciprocal configuration, and based on the light microscopic results with anti-PKC, these are likely rod bipolar cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • The mGluR5-dependent enhancement of synaptic currents was nearly twice that observed for whole cell GABA-gated currents, suggesting that the receptors and signaling molecules are targeted to GABAergic synapses. (openthesis.org)
  • We show that temporal asymmetries between excitation/inhibition, arising from the differential connectivity patterns of starburst cholinergic and GABAergic synapses to ganglion cells, form the basis for a parallel mechanism generating direction selectivity. (elifesciences.org)
  • The CART-positive cells received synapses from rod bipolar cell axons and made synapses onto the axons in a reciprocal configuration. (ovid.com)
  • The CART-positive cells also received synapses from other amacrine cells. (ovid.com)
  • these bipolar-to-amacrine cell synapses occur in the inner plexiform layer and are thought to be excitatory. (eyewire.org)
  • this suggests that amacrine cells serve to regulate the output of bipolar cells in a negative-feedback loop fashion, and in fact it is thought that these amacrine-to-bipolar cell synapses are inhibitory. (eyewire.org)
  • They can synapse with either rods or cones (rod/cone mixed input BCs have been found in teleost fish but not mammals), and they also accept synapses from horizontal cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • The cones contact both depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs) and hyperpolarizing bipolar cells (HBCs) through sign-inverting (−) synapses (ON synapse) and sign-preserving (+) synapses (OFF synapse), respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Perhaps the most important feature of a neuron is its ability to communicate with other cells at synapses. (lsu.edu)
  • On the postsynaptic side, we are also investigating the role that nitric oxide plays in regulating the sign (inhibitory or excitatory) of synapses between amacrine cells. (lsu.edu)
  • GABAergic, glycinergic, or neither: Amacrine cells can be either GABAergic, glycinergic or neither depending on what inhibitory neurotransmitter they express (GABA, glycine, or neither). (wikipedia.org)
  • GABAergic amacrine cells are usually wide field amacrine cells and are found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and the inner nuclear layer (INL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many other divisions of GABAergic amacrine cells have been noted, but those listed above are some of the most extensively researched and discussed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycinergic amacrine cells aren't as extensively characterized as GABAergic amacrine cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • One importance function of the AII amacrine cells is that they capture cellular input from rod bipolar cells and redistribute it to cone bipolar cells using the synaptic endings of cone bipolar cells as adaptors Around 15% of amacrine cells are neither GABAergic or glycinergic. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also unexpectedly observed that GABAergic amacrine cells emerge before glycinergic amacrine cells in development. (pnas.org)
  • We pursued this observation by birthdating GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells and found that the 2 groups are born during distinct, but overlapping windows of development. (pnas.org)
  • NO also modulated GABAergic transmission between amacrine cells, but through two different pathways. (openthesis.org)
  • In this circuit, direction is encoded by output DS ganglion cells (DSGCs), whose response properties are shaped by DS inputs arising from GABAergic/cholinergic starburst amacrine cells (starbursts) and non-DS inputs from glutamatergic bipolar cells ( Figure 1A ). (elifesciences.org)
  • DSGCs receive glutamatergic inputs from ON and OFF bipolar cells, and inputs from mirror symmetric populations of ON and OFF GABAergic/cholinergic starburst amacrine cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Using in situ hybridization, light and electron microscopic immunolabeling, CART was localized to GABAergic amacrine cells in baboon retinas. (ovid.com)
  • Inhibition from GABAergic CRH-1 amacrine cells shapes this unique contrast response profile to positive contrast. (cdc.gov)
  • GABAergic/glycinergic) amacrine cells [2] , which make up the majority of amacrine cells, though it is unclear if this holds for all amacrine cells. (eyewire.org)
  • These eNOS-positive cells coexpressed syntaxin and glutamate decarboxylase, and are probably GABAergic amacrine cells. (hku.hk)
  • Moreover, both light-evoked ON and OFF responses of those cells can be modulated by inhibitory synaptic inputs originated from GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • These are widely spreading amacrine cells, and they diffusely release dopamine, while still releasing GABA and carrying out all normal synaptic release. (wikipedia.org)
  • and (3) that AII cells strongly differentiate partner cohorts by synaptic and/or coupling weights. (nih.gov)
  • Other cells had broader dendritic arbors ( Fig. 1 D ). The morphologically identifiable AII amacrine cell was frequently labeled ( Fig. 1 A ). Labeled amacrine cells that ramify to distinct sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) will contact distinct synaptic partners. (pnas.org)
  • Rod bipolars receive synaptic input from rod cells in the outer plexiform layer (OPL), where their dendrites end as central elements in the invaginating synapse of rod spherules. (jneurosci.org)
  • Their main synaptic output in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) is onto NFB amacrine cells and at least one other type of amacrine, which in turn feeds a reciprocal synapse back onto the bipolar endings. (jneurosci.org)
  • The solution was a unique interneuron, the AII amacrine cell (Figures 1A,B ), which captured rod bipolar cell input and redistributed it to cone bipolar cells (Figure 1C ), using the synaptic endings of cone bipolar cells as adaptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • These TEM studies of AII amacrine cells described an architecture and synaptic partnerships that still cannot be explained by or predicted from physiological data. (frontiersin.org)
  • We found that deletion of the ON bipolar cation channel TRPM1 results in the abnormal contraction of rod bipolar terminals and a decreased number of their synaptic connections with amacrine cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • They are synaptically active in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), the second synaptic retinal layer, that influences retinal signal processing in response to visual stimuli at the level of contact between the bipolar and ganglion cells. (acronymattic.com)
  • Amacrine cells perform where the second synaptic retianl layer where ganglion cells and bipolar cells form a synapse. (acronymattic.com)
  • These results indicate that expression of functional (i.e., conductance-increasing) NMDA receptors is common to both AII and A17 amacrine cells and suggest that these receptors could play an important role for synaptic signaling, integration, or plasticity in the rod pathway. (uib.no)
  • Bipolar cells receive synaptic input from either rods or cones, or both rods and cones, though they are generally designated rod bipolar or cone bipolar cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • resulting in a depolarization action of synaptic inputs from horizontal cells to BC dendrites and a hyperpolarization action of synaptic inputs from amacrine cells to BC axons. (frontiersin.org)
  • To further examine any changes associated with the contact and activity of bipolar cells , we looked at the paired PKC[alpha]/Bassoon profile which accounts for ON-rod bipolar cells and the photoreceptor synaptic ribbon, respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This information is important in order to be able to understand the function of the cells or, for example, the direction of the information flow at the synaptic contact points, says Schubert, who is already looking forward to the next task: "Now we can finally analyze the larger data sets! (mpg.de)
  • 2012) The influences of metabotropic receptor activation on cellular signaling and synaptic function in amacrine cells. (lsu.edu)
  • 2006) Nitric Oxide transiently converts synaptic inhibition to excitation in retinal amacrine cells. (lsu.edu)
  • Beyond its basic role in distributing rod signals to cone pathways, the AII cell may also mediate narrow-field feedback and feedforward inhibition for the photopic OFF channel, photopic ON-OFF inhibitory crossover signaling, and serves as a nexus for a collection of inhibitory networks arising from cone pathways that likely negotiate fast switching between cone and rod vision. (nih.gov)
  • The main excitatory inputs to the amacrine cells are believed to originate from the bipolar cells while the amacrine cell itself is thought to provide the main inhibitory inputs to the ganglion cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The research described in this dissertation aimed to elucidate the respective roles in eye growth regulation of specific subpopulations of retinal glucagonergic amacrine cells, which have been the subject of much speculation as the source of inhibitory growth signals, i.e. stop signals, yet not thoroughly investigated. (escholarship.org)
  • [1] Thus, amacrine cells take excitatory signals coming from bipolar cells around a certain ganglion cell and consequently mediate inhibitory signals to a postsynaptic ganglion cell in the 'center' of its respective receptive field. (eyewire.org)
  • The asymmetric computation is thought to be hardwired, arising from asymmetric inhibitory inputs from starburst amacrine cells (SACs). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Each type of amacrine cell releases one or several neurotransmitters where it connects with other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each type of amacrine cell connects with a particular type of bipolar cell , and generally has a particular type of neurotransmitter. (eyewire.org)
  • It is not known which retinal cell first performs the neural computations that give rise to directional selectivity in the ganglion cell. (nih.gov)
  • 1993 ) Taurine promotes the differentiation of a vertebrate retinal cell type in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • To study alterations in different retinal cell types associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death after elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in rats. (molvis.org)
  • how can retinal cell types be recognized and separately targeted by the implant? (stanford.edu)
  • The laboratory (STRRMD) is structured to include a broad range of expertise: retinal electrophysiology, genetic models of human blinding diseases, retinal cell biology and biochemistry, molecular biology, and gene therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Current projects in our lab involve development of retinal cell specific viral vectors based upon lentivirus and adeno-associated viruses. (berkeley.edu)
  • Contribution of cholinergic amacrine cells to directional selectivity in rabbit retinal ganglion cells. (cambridge.org)
  • Although amacrine cells display extensive morphological diversity, the molecular nature of this diversity is largely unknown. (pnas.org)
  • Over 30 morphological types of amacrine cells have been characterized to date, each of which is believed to be functionally distinct ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Distinct Morphological Types of Amacrine Cell Are Labeled by Electroporation. (pnas.org)
  • Morphological diversity of amacrine cells (ACs) is clearly a general characteristic of vertebrate retinae. (springer.com)
  • Three main morphological subtypes of amacrine cells were observed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • How many morphological types of ganglion cells are there? (brainscape.com)
  • they are presynaptic to ganglion cell dendrites and communicate via gap junctions with other processes, whose parent neuron has not yet been identified. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, here we demonstrate that direction selectivity in downstream ganglion cells remains remarkably unaffected when starburst dendrites are rendered non-directional, using a novel strategy combining a conditional GABA A α2 receptor knockout mouse with optogenetics. (elifesciences.org)
  • The CART-positive cells had thin, varicose dendrites that gradually descended through the inner plexiform layer and ramified extensively in the innermost stratum. (ovid.com)
  • There is no clear distinction between dendrites and axons in the processes of most of the amacrine cells, though they are often referred to as dendrites in general. (eyewire.org)
  • As detailed below, starburst amacrine cells exhibit very selective visual response properties that have to do with a stimulus' direction with respect to the SAC's dendrites. (eyewire.org)
  • [3] SAC dendrite-specific direction selectivity is thought to underlie the direction selectivity of on/off direction-selective ganglion cells [3] , but the mechanism by which this direction selectivity is generated in SAC dendrites remains unknown. (eyewire.org)
  • Amacrine cell dendrites are known to synapse onto ganglion cell neurites in the IPL, mediating "antagonistic inputs from bipolar cells in the ganglion cell's surround. (eyewire.org)
  • The cell bodies were 9-12 μm in diameter and gave rise to stout dendrites that tapered rapidly after emergence from the somata. (elsevier.com)
  • Examination of horizontal sections showed that each TH-positive cell body gave rise to 4-5 major dendrites that branched to form a roughly circular dendritic field. (elsevier.com)
  • After 6 months of diabetes in the Ins2 Akita mouse, the morphology of the labeled ChAT-IR and TH-IR amacrine cell somas and dendrites appeared normal. (elsevier.com)
  • This provides a mechanism likely to contribute to the electrical isolation of individual starburst cell dendrites, a property thought essential for direction selectivity. (mtak.hu)
  • The horizontal cells introduce lateral inhibition to the dendrites and give rise to the center-surround inhibition which is apparent in retinal receptive fields . (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, CT1 cells specifically target the motion-sensitive T4 and T5 cells only on one-half of their dendrites. (mpg.de)
  • The ON-OFF retinal ganglion cell (RGC) processes both ON and OFF visual signals via its ON and OFF dendrites, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • In starburst amacrine cells of rabbit retinae, KCC2 and NKCC2 are preferentially located at distal and proximal dendrites, respectively, resulting in GABA-evoked hyperpolarization at distal dendrites and depolarization at proximal dendrites. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ON-OFF retinal ganglion cell (RGC) extends multi-stratified dendrites into both the sublamina a and b of the inner plexiform layer, where it receives visual information from OFF and ON bipolar cells, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent studies in Drosophila on the molecular basis of dendrite diversity, dendritic guidance, the cell biology of dendritic branch patterning and territory formation have identified numerous intrinsic and extrinsic cues that shape diverse features of dendrites. (biologists.org)
  • Electron microscopic examination showed that these processes were presynaptic to ganglion cell dendrites (infrequently), amacrine cell telodendrons, and bipolar cell terminals. (springer.com)
  • (A) Non-mammalian networks display two channel types: pure cone bipolar cell (CB) and mixed rod-cone bipolar cell (MB) channels that drive sets of retinal ganglion cells (GC) projecting to CNS targets via high gain (n) glutamate signaling (black arrows). (nih.gov)
  • The rod input is collected by rod bipolar cells (Rod BC) which drive AII cells by ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). (nih.gov)
  • We discovered that Ih channels regulate glutamate release from amacrine cells by modulating calcium channel activity. (nih.gov)
  • Publications] De la Villa,P.,Kurahashi,T.& Kaneko,A.: 'L-Glutamate-induced responses and cGMP-activated channels in three subtypes of retinal bipolar cells dissociated from the cat. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the dark, a photoreceptor (rod/cone) cell will release glutamate, which inhibits (hyperpolarizes) the ON bipolar cells and excites (depolarizes) the OFF bipolar cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In photoreceptor cells, there is an abundance of cGMP in dark conditions, keeping cGMP-gated Na channels open and so, activating PDE diminishes the supply of cGMP, reducing the number of open Na channels and thus hyperpolarizing the photoreceptor cell, causing less glutamate to be released. (wikipedia.org)
  • When colchicine was injected intravitreally before glutamate decarboxylase staining, cell bodies with the characteristic shape and location of amacrine cells were found to be immunochemically labeled. (springer.com)
  • There are at least 33 different subtypes of amacrine cells based just on their dendrite morphology and stratification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different subtypes of amacrine cells project differently in the inner plexiform layer [4] , as shown in the figure to the right depicting different types of narrow-field amacrine cells. (eyewire.org)
  • These projections arborize differently for different subtypes of amacrine cells. (eyewire.org)
  • As mentioned above, there are several different ways to divide the many different types of amacrine cells into subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CART-positive amacrine cells resembled the wide-field stratified types described using the Golgi method, and based on their soma sizes and spatial distribution there appeared to be 2 subtypes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Amacrine cells have these projections distributed roughly circularly in the inner plexiform layer, though some subtypes arborize asymmetrically. (eyewire.org)
  • The cilia of subtypes of amacrine cells in mice were shown by immunostaining and electron microscopy. (marclab.org)
  • Yet, we and others find that subtypes of retinal cells can switch their polarity following repetitive stimulation or following changes in ambient light levels. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • One transcription factor that was found to be selectively expressed in nGnG amacrine cells is Neurod6 Length of dendritic arbors: Based on length, spread of dendritic arbors, amacrine cells can be categorized as narrow field amacrine cells (around 70 micrometers in diameter), medium field amacrine cells (around 170 micrometers in diameter) and wide field amacrine cells (around 350 micrometers in diameter). (wikipedia.org)
  • Narrow field amacrine cells allow vertical communication among different retinal levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • These narrow field amacrine cells and their overlap in these subunits can allow certain ganglion cells to detect small amounts of movement of a very small spot in a field of vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on these results and electrophysiological studies in other mammals, the CART-positive amacrine cells would be expected to play a major role in the primary rod pathway of primates, providing feedback inhibition to rod bipolar cells. (ovid.com)
  • In terms of visual response properties, this means that an amacrine cell in this sort of lateral pathway located within the surround of an ON-center ganglion cell will hyperpolarize in the presence of light on the surround of the ganglion's receptive field, while one located in the surround of an OFF-center ganglion cell will depolarize under the same circumstances. (eyewire.org)
  • The GIPC1-Akt1 Pathway Is Required for the Specification of the Eye Field in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. (washington.edu)
  • W. Maddox and E. Gleason (2017) Nitric oxide promotes GABA release by activating a voltage-independent Ca2+ influx pathway in retinal amacrine cells. (lsu.edu)
  • Many of these ON-OFF GACs target ON cone bipolar cell axons, ON γACs, and/or ON-OFF ganglion cells, representing widespread mechanisms for OFF to ON crossover inhibition. (utah.edu)
  • There are close to 50 types of amacrine cells , many of which do not have axons. (acronymattic.com)
  • Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by the elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) that leads to degeneration of the axons and somas of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (molvis.org)
  • One very well characterized glycinergic amacrine cell is the AII amacrine cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A specific amacrine cell interacts with a specific bipolar cell, and usually have a specific neurotransmitter. (acronymattic.com)
  • Here, we identify a circuit where inhibition from a specific amacrine cell plays a vital role in shaping the feature selectivity of a postsynaptic ganglion cell. (cdc.gov)
  • Due to the fact that their dendritic arbor size is pretty similar to that of ganglion cells, they could blur the edge of the ganglion cell visual field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Observed cell morphologies included diffusely ( Fig. 1 A ) or narrowly stratifying ( Fig. 1 B and C) amacrine cells with narrow dendritic arbors. (pnas.org)
  • Using two-photon optical recordings of intracellular calcium concentration, here we find that individual dendritic branches of starburst cells act as independent computation modules. (nih.gov)
  • Dendritic calcium signals, but not somatic membrane voltage, are directionally selective for stimuli that move centrifugally from the cell soma. (nih.gov)
  • This demonstrates that direction selectivity is computed locally in dendritic branches at a stage before ganglion cells. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, TRPM1 deficiency led to the reduction of total dendritic length, branch numbers, and cell body size in AII amacrine cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • The PNMT-positive cells in horizontal sections appeared identical with respect to cell size and dendritic field characteristics. (elsevier.com)
  • Retinal morphology, ganglion cell dendritic branching and ERG waveforms appeared normal in the Sez-6 knockout mouse suggesting that, in spite of widespread expression of Sez-6, retinal function in the absence of Sez-6 is not affected. (elsevier.com)
  • We focus on several key questions, including: what are the cell biological mechanisms that specify the distribution of dendritic branches along an arbor? (biologists.org)
  • AMPA receptor-mediated light responses and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents were recorded from genetically labeled DACs in mouse retinas with the whole-cell voltage-clamp mode. (molvis.org)
  • The excitatory input is probably suppressed upstream of the ganglion cell. (nature.com)
  • Authors: Stincic TL, Keeley PW, Reese BE, Taylor WR Abstract Cell-intrinsic factors, in conjunction with environmental signals, guide migration, differentiation and connectivity during early development of neuronal circuits. (berkeley.edu)
  • The biophysical and pharmacological data showed that only Ca 2+ -impermeable AMPA receptors contribute to DAC light responses driven by ipRGCs or cones (via depolarizing bipolar cells). (molvis.org)
  • The results indicated that GluA2-containing Ca 2+ -impermeable AMPA receptors contribute to signal transmission from photosensitive retinal cells to DACs. (molvis.org)
  • In addition, spontaneous current events, carried by chloride ions through GABA_A receptors, were recorded in most of the amacrine cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this study, using patch-clamp recording from visually identified cells in rat retinal slices, we investigated the expression and functional properties of NMDA receptors in these cells with a combination of pharmacological and biophysical methods. (uib.no)
  • While it is known that an important cell in the process is the horizontal cell , the exact sequence of receptors and molecules is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the macaque retinal bipolar cell, histamine has been reported to enhance the potassium current via histamine receptors. (jnss.org)
  • Next, we identified the type of histamine receptors in the amacrine cells. (jnss.org)
  • ON cone bipolar cell gap junctions. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, gap junctions couple heterologous cell types such as AII amacrine cells (AIIs) and on-center cone bipolars (CBs). (arvojournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the gap junctions between AIIs and CBs are open under light-adapted conditions and allow bi-directional electrical signaling between the two cell types. (arvojournals.org)
  • Intercellular Ca 2+ waves are believed to propagate through networks of glial cells in culture in one of two ways: by diffusion of IP 3 between cells through gap junctions or by release of ATP, which functions as an extracellular messenger. (jneurosci.org)
  • Glial cells in culture and in situ are coupled extensively by gap junctions ( Ransom, 1995 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The targets include γ-aminobutyrate (GABA)-positive amacrine cells (γACs), glycine-positive amacrine cells (GACs), and ganglion cells. (utah.edu)
  • Whole cell electrophysiological experiments indicated that activation of mGluR5 enhances GABA-gated currents recorded from cultured chick amacrine cells. (openthesis.org)
  • Publications] Takahashi,K.-I.,Miyoshi,S.& Kaneko,A.: 'GABA-induced chloride current in catfish horizontal cells mediated by non-GABA_A receptor channels. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In autoradiographic studies by intravitreal injection of [ 3 H] GABA a diffuse labeling of the inner plexiform layer and a dense labeling of certain amacrine cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer was observed. (springer.com)
  • Both immunocytochemical and autoradiographic results support the notion that certain, if not all, amacrine cells use GABA as their neurotransmitter. (springer.com)
  • Amacrine cells and other retinal interneuron cells are less likely to be near neighbours of the same subtype than would occur by chance, resulting in 'exclusion zones' that separate them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet these findings provided little clue to directional selectivity, because both starburst and ganglion cells branch out symmetrically from their centres, and a stimulus swept across a starburst neuron evokes the same response in all directions 9 . (nature.com)
  • 11 used an immunotoxin to ablate all starburst cells, directional selectivity was abolished. (nature.com)
  • Thus, precise spatiotemporal patterns of inhibition and excitation that determine directional responses in ganglion cells are shaped by two 'core' mechanisms, both arising from distinct specializations of the starburst network. (elifesciences.org)
  • The source of the inhibitor of the amacrine cell fate appeared to be previously generated amacrine cells, suggesting that amacrine cell number is controlled by feedback inhibition. (biologists.org)
  • This selectivity is governed by direction-selective inhibition from starburst amacrine cells occurring during stimulus movement in the opposite or null direction. (mtak.hu)
  • This causes the ON bipolar cell to lose its inhibition and become active (depolarized), while the OFF bipolar cell loses its excitation (becomes hyperpolarized) and becomes silent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amacrine cells also introduce lateral inhibition to the axon terminal, serving various visual functions including efficient signal transduction with high signal-to-noise ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especially under ischemic conditions, maintenance of this Müller cell function may dampen cytotoxic neuronal hyperexcitation and subsequent neuronal cell loss. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • During the development of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), a multitude of neuronal and glial cell types differentiate under tight temporal and spatial control. (genetics.org)
  • Propagated Ca 2+ waves in glial cells may modulate neuronal activity and influence information processing in the CNS. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. (cdc.gov)
  • How does an apparently uniform sheet of neural precursor cells differentiate into a functional neural network with many different neuronal cell types. (powershow.com)
  • Here, we have combined in vivo genetic labeling, single cell genome-wide expression profiling, and classical birthdating to ( i ) identify specific molecular types of amacrine cells, ( ii ) demonstrate the molecular diversity of the amacrine cell class, and ( iii ) show that amacrine cell diversity arises at least in part through temporal patterning. (pnas.org)
  • These cell classes may, additionally, contain diverse cell types ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • There are about 40 different types of amacrine cells . (acronymattic.com)
  • No increase in cell types generated postnatally was observed. (biologists.org)
  • They resembled two types of wide-field diffuse amacrine cells that had been described previously in macaque retinas using the Golgi method and also A17, serotonin-accumulating and waterfall cells of other mammals. (ovid.com)
  • There are about 40 different types of amacrine cells and are classified by the width of their field of connection, which layer(s) of the stratum in the IPL they are in, and by neurotransmitter type. (eyewire.org)
  • the type with most frequency is observed only 13% of total population, and the remainders are distributed among many types of cell, each making up 5% or less of the total amacrine cell population. (eyewire.org)
  • In mammals, all new cells arise from existing cells through cell division, and an animal's growth results largely from increases in the number of its cells, most of which differentiate into specialized cell types to form the body's various tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. In the lung, either of two types of epithelial cells lining the alveoli. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Changes in the expression of GluR1-4 subunits and changes in amacrine cells types in response to ischemia/reperfusion. (uva.nl)
  • what visual signals are transmitted by the diverse ganglion cell types to the brain? (stanford.edu)
  • Our findings suggest that histamine contributes to the modulation of the membrane potential in the particular types of amacrine cell. (jnss.org)
  • It is hard enough to grow different cell types," says Rose. (technologyreview.com)
  • EGFP or inducible CreERT2 expression may also be observed in other Lgr5 -expressing cell types (including pre-malignant mouse adenomas, colon cancer cells, epithelial stem cells of the stomach gland, basal epithelial layer stem cells of the mammary glands, and hair follicle stem cells). (jax.org)
  • VIP-like immunoreactive amacrine cells were present in both central and peripheral retinal regions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The TH-positive amacrine cells were clearly distinguishable from the immunoreactive cells in the outer tier of the INL by their position, branching pattern, and intensity of staining. (elsevier.com)
  • At 17 to 28 WG, eNOS-immunoreactive cells were located in the innermost part of the inner nuclear layer and in the ganglion cell layer, expanding to both temporal and nasal retinas and the processes projecting into the inner plexiform layer. (hku.hk)
  • In rats, CM-1-immunoreactive (IR) cells were found primarily in the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers after 2, 8, and 16 weeks of diabetes. (elsevier.com)
  • However, an amacrine cell whose processes are restricted to more apical sublaminae (green cell, Fig. 1 E Left ) cannot. (pnas.org)
  • VIP-like immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm of amacrine cells of the inner nuclear layer (INL) and their varicose processes ramifying in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). (semanticscholar.org)
  • [4] Further, "amacrine processes are also seen to contact other amacrine processes" in the IPL. (eyewire.org)
  • Cell division involves two major processes: karyokinesis, the division of the nucleus, and cytokinesis, the division of the remainder of the cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The processes formed a planar array in the inner half of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) slightly external to the cells of origin. (elsevier.com)
  • Bipolar cells are so-named as they have a central body from which two sets of processes arise. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, a nerve cell receives input from a number of presynaptic cells, processes the signals, and passes its output to downstream cells. (mpg.de)
  • Each cell column processes changes in light perceived by "their" facet. (mpg.de)
  • Polyaxonal amacrine cells (PACs) are a unique subset identified by multiple long axonal processes. (duke.edu)
  • Often, bipolar cell terminals were found which were densely innervated by several GAD-positive processes. (springer.com)
  • The CMNs also recognize whether a cell area belongs to the cell body, the axon, a dendrite, or its spinous processes. (mpg.de)
  • This rod bipolar cell will directly (exclusively) synapse with an AII amacrine cell in sublamina B (within the inner plexiform layer) The AII amacrine cells becomes activated (i.e., it depolarises) when light stimulates a rod. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is only one type of rod bipolar cell: an ON-bipolar cell This is a 'sign-inverting' synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, an AII amacrine cell (green cell, Fig. 1 E Right ) can synapse with a rod bipolar cell (gray cell with process in the IPL) because their termini occupy the same deep sublamina of the IPL. (pnas.org)
  • mammalian photoreceptor networks were parsed into discrete cone and rod bipolar cell pathways and, remarkably, rod-driven bipolar cells did not synapse on ganglion cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • AII-amacrine cells capture rod bipolar cell input and redistribute it to cone bipolar cells since rod-driven bipolar cells do not synapse on ganglion cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Rod bipolar cells do not synapse directly on to ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direction-selective retinal ganglion cells show an increased activity evoked by light stimuli moving in the preferred direction. (mtak.hu)
  • Direction selective retinal ganglion cells respond strongly to an image moving in one direction (the "preferred" direction) and weakly to an image moving in the opposite, "null", direction. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The visually-induced functional switches are not restricted to direction selective ganglion cells. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • They also aid in creating functional subunits in the receptive field of ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • On balance and despite its extensive analysis, the evolution, functional scope and connectivity of the AII amacrine cell remains unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • A cell is the fundamental, structural, and functional unit of living organisms . (ndif.org)
  • In addition, cilia were present in the outer limiting membrane, suggesting that a population of Müller glial cells forms cilia. (marclab.org)
  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin expression in glial cells increased after one week of elevated IOP. (molvis.org)
  • Experiments were conducted to determine the mechanism of Ca 2+ wave propagation between glial cells in an intact CNS tissue. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, these results indicate that Ca 2+ waves are propagated through retinal glial cells by two mechanisms. (jneurosci.org)
  • Stimulation of glial cells often evokes increases in intracellular Ca 2+ that propagate into neighboring glial cells as intercellular Ca 2+ waves. (jneurosci.org)
  • The human brain consists of about 86 billion nerve cells and about as many glial cells. (mpg.de)
  • The CMNs can now assign the nerve cells extracted from an image stack to a nerve cell type or a glial cell depending on their appearance. (mpg.de)
  • These amacrine cells are usually characterised by their expression of choline acetyltransferase, or ChAT, and are known to play a role in direction selectivity and detection of directional motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The approach taken to investigate this problem is to ablate glucagonergic amacrine cells in vivo using different neurotoxins, and to examine how this affects the sign-dependent circuitry of eye growth regulation. (escholarship.org)
  • For example, one such population, AII, 'piggybacks' rod bipolar cells onto the cone bipolar circuitry. (eyewire.org)
  • Like horizontal cells, amacrine cells work laterally, but whereas horizontal cells are connected to the output of rod and cone cells, amacrine cells affect the output from bipolar cells, and are often more specialized. (wikipedia.org)
  • one signal inhibited the production of amacrine cells and a second affected the production of cone cells. (biologists.org)
  • [1] In the human eye , cone cells are nonfunctional in low visible light . (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal light ( luminance level 10 to 10 8 cd /m²), the vision of cone cells dominates and is photopic vision . (wikipedia.org)
  • These are rod and cone cells. (igi-global.com)
  • In the current study, we investigated the role of neurotransmission from photoreceptor cells to ON bipolar cells in development using mutant mouse lines of both sexes in which this transmission is abrogated. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our analysis shows that loss of Crsp34/Med27 decreases amacrine cell number, but increases the number of rod photoreceptor cells. (genetics.org)
  • In contrast, loss of Trap100/Med24 decreases rod photoreceptor cells. (genetics.org)
  • Required for normal postnatal development of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. (uniprot.org)
  • In cone photoreceptor cells, regulates transcription of OPN1SW. (uniprot.org)
  • The inherited retinal degenerations are typified by retinitis pigmentosa (RP), which results in blindness from destruction of photoreceptor cells, and the RPE. (berkeley.edu)
  • [5] Amacrine cells have their postsynaptic targets in the inner plexiform layer as well. (eyewire.org)
  • The CART-positive cells in primates resembled A17 and serotonin-accumulating amacrine cells of other mammals, and they would be expected to play a major role in rod vision. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although arbors of neighboring cells overlap extensively, imaging population activity revealed continuous topographic maps of visual space in the VG3-AC plexus. (elifesciences.org)
  • Most amacrine cells can be classified according to the diameter of their projection arborization: "narrow-field" cells have arbors less than 125 µm in diameter, "medium-field" cell arbors range from 125 to 400 µm in diameter, and "wide-field" cell arbors are larger than 400 µm. (eyewire.org)