Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the CYTOPLASM of the body of a NEURON and extending from one DENDRITE into another or into the AXON.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.
Integral membrane protein of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Its homodimer is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. PSEN1 mutations cause early-onset ALZHEIMER DISEASE type 3 that may occur as early as 30 years of age in humans.
Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Staphylococcal vaccines are prophylactic agents developed to prevent infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogenic bacterium that frequently colonizes human skin and mucous membranes, often targeting surface proteins or toxins for immune response induction.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.

Increased T cell reactivity to amyloid beta protein in older humans and patients with Alzheimer disease. (1/58)

Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the progressive deposition of the 42-residue amyloid beta protein (Abeta) in brain regions serving memory and cognition. In animal models of AD, immunization with Abeta results in the clearance of Abeta deposits from the brain. However, a trial of vaccination with synthetic human Abeta1-42 in AD resulted in the development of meningoencephalitis in some patients. We measured cellular immune responses to Abeta in middle-aged and elderly healthy subjects and in patients with AD. A significantly higher proportion of healthy elderly subjects and patients with AD had strong Abeta-reactive T cell responses than occurred in middle-aged adults. The immunodominant Abeta epitopes in humans resided in amino acids 16-33. Epitope mapping enabled the identification of MHC/T cell receptor (TCR) contact residues. The occurrence of intrinsic T cell reactivity to the self-antigen Abeta in humans has implications for the design of Abeta vaccines, may itself be linked to AD susceptibility and course, and appears to be associated with the aging process.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease abeta vaccine reduces central nervous system abeta levels in a non-human primate, the Caribbean vervet. (2/58)

Amyloid beta (Abeta) protein immunotherapy lowers cerebral Abeta and improves cognition in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we show that Caribbean vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops, SK) develop cerebral Abeta plaques with aging and that these deposits are associated with gliosis and neuritic dystrophy. Five aged vervets were immunized with Abeta peptide over 10 months. Plasma and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected periodically from the immunized vervets and five aged controls; one monkey per group expired during the study. By Day 42, immunized animals generated plasma Abeta antibodies that labeled Abeta plaques in human, AD transgenic mouse and vervet brains; bound Abeta1-7; and recognized monomeric and oligomeric Abeta but not full-length amyloid precursor protein nor its C-terminal fragments. Low anti-Abeta titers were detected in CSF. Abetax-40 levels were elevated approximately 2- to 5-fold in plasma and decreased up to 64% in CSF in immunized vervets. Insoluble Abetax-42 was decreased by 66% in brain homogenates of the four immunized animals compared to archival tissues from 13 age-matched control vervets. Abeta42-immunoreactive plaques were detected in frontal cortex in 11 of the 13 control animals, but not in six brain regions examined in each of the four immunized vervets. No T cell response or inflammation was observed. Our study is the first to demonstrate age-related Abeta deposition in the vervet monkey as well as the lowering of cerebral Abeta by Abeta vaccination in a non-human primate. The findings further support Abeta immunotherapy as a potential prevention and treatment of AD.  (+info)

Clearing tau pathology with Abeta immunotherapy--reversible and irreversible stages revealed. (3/58)

The report by Oddo and colleagues in this issue of Neuron demonstrates for the first time that clearance of amyloid also results in the removal of early-stage tau pathology in mice that develop both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), the two hallmark lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This result supports a primary role for Abeta in AD etiology.  (+info)

Abeta immunotherapy leads to clearance of early, but not late, hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates via the proteasome. (4/58)

Amyloid-beta (Abeta) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the hallmark neuropathological lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using a triple transgenic model (3xTg-AD) that develops both lesions in AD-relevant brain regions, we determined the consequence of Abeta clearance on the development of tau pathology. Here we show that Abeta immunotherapy reduces not only extracellular Abeta plaques but also intracellular Abeta accumulation and most notably leads to the clearance of early tau pathology. We find that Abeta deposits are cleared first and subsequently reemerge prior to the tau pathology, indicative of a hierarchical and direct relationship between Abeta and tau. The clearance of the tau pathology is mediated by the proteasome and is dependent on the phosphorylation state of tau, as hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates are unaffected by the Abeta antibody treatment. These findings indicate that Abeta immunization may be useful for clearing both hallmark lesions of AD, provided that intervention occurs early in the disease course.  (+info)

Prototype Alzheimer's disease vaccine using the immunodominant B cell epitope from beta-amyloid and promiscuous T cell epitope pan HLA DR-binding peptide. (5/58)

Immunization of amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice with fibrillar beta-amyloid (Abeta) prevents Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neuropathology. The first immunotherapy clinical trial used fibrillar Abeta, containing the B and T cell self epitopes of Abeta, as the immunogen formulated with QS21 as the adjuvant in the vaccine. Unfortunately, the clinical trial was halted during the phase II stage when 6% of the participants developed meningoencephalitis. The cause of the meningoencephalitis in the patients that received the vaccine has not been definitively determined; however, analysis of two case reports from the AN-1792 vaccine trial suggest that the meningoencephalitis may have been caused by a T cell-mediated autoimmune response, whereas production of anti-Abeta Abs may have been therapeutic to the AD patients. Therefore, to reduce the risk of an adverse T cell-mediated immune response to Abeta immunotherapy we have designed a prototype epitope vaccine that contains the immunodominant B cell epitope of Abeta in tandem with the synthetic universal Th cell pan HLA DR epitope, pan HLA DR-binding peptide (PADRE). Importantly, the PADRE-Abeta(1-15) sequence lacks the T cell epitope of Abeta. Immunization of BALB/c mice with the PADRE-Abeta(1-15) epitope vaccine produced high titers of anti-Abeta Abs. Splenocytes from immunized mice showed robust T cell stimulation in response to peptides containing PADRE. However, splenocytes from immunized mice were not reactivated by the Abeta peptide. New preclinical trials in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mouse models may help to develop novel immunogen-adjuvant configurations with the potential to avoid the adverse events that occurred in the first clinical trial.  (+info)

Current concepts in therapeutic strategies targeting cognitive decline and disease modification in Alzheimer's disease. (6/58)

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the leading cause of dementia in the Western world. Postmortem, it is characterized neuropathologically by the presence of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and a profound gray matter loss. Neurofibrillary tangles are composed of an abnormally hyperphosphorylated intracellular protein called tau, tightly wound into paired helical filaments and thought to impact microtubule assembly and protein trafficking, resulting in the eventual demise of neuronal viability. The extracellular amyloid plaque deposits are composed of a proteinacious core of insoluble aggregated amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide and have led to the foundation of the amyloid hypothesis. This hypothesis postulates that Abeta is one of the principal causative factors of neuronal death in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. With multiple drugs now moving through clinical development for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we will review current and future treatment strategies aimed at improving both the cognitive deficits associated with the disease, as well as more novel approaches that may potentially slow or halt the deadly neurodegenerative progression of the disease.  (+info)

Papillomavirus-like particles are an effective platform for amyloid-beta immunization in rabbits and transgenic mice. (7/58)

Immunization with amyloid-beta (Abeta) prevents the deposition of Abeta in the brain and memory deficits in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), opening the possibility for immunotherapy of AD in humans. Unfortunately, the first human trial of Abeta vaccination was complicated, in a small number of vaccinees, by cell-mediated meningoencephalitis. To develop an Abeta vaccine that lacks the potential to induce autoimmune encephalitis, we have generated papillomavirus-like particles (VLP) that display 1-9 aa of Abeta protein repetitively on the viral capsid surface (Abeta-VLP). This Abeta peptide was chosen because it contains a functional B cell epitope, but lacks known T cell epitopes. Rabbit and mouse vaccinations with Abeta-VLP were well tolerated and induced high-titer autoAb against Abeta, that inhibited effectively assembly of Abeta(1-42) peptides into neurotoxic fibrils in vitro. Following Abeta-VLP immunizations of APP/presenilin 1 transgenic mice, a model for human AD, we observed trends for reduced Abeta deposits in the brain and increased numbers of activated microglia. Furthermore, Abeta-VLP vaccinated mice also showed increased levels of Abeta in plasma, suggesting efflux from the brain into the vascular compartment. These results indicate that the Abeta-VLP vaccine induces an effective humoral immune response to Abeta and may thus form a basis to develop a safe and efficient immunotherapy for human AD.  (+info)

Amyloid-beta peptide remnants in AN-1792-immunized Alzheimer's disease patients: a biochemical analysis. (8/58)

Experiments with amyloid-beta (Abeta)-42-immunized transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease have revealed amyloid plaque disruption and apparent cognitive function recovery. Neuropathological examination of patients vaccinated against purified Abeta-42 (AN-1792) has demonstrated that senile plaque disruption occurred in immunized humans as well. Here, we examined tissue histology and quantified and biochemically characterized the remnant amyloid peptides in the gray and white matter and leptomeningeal/cortical vessels of two AN-1792-vaccinated patients, one of whom developed meningoencephalitis. Compact core and diffuse amyloid deposits in both vaccinated individuals were focally absent in some regions. Although parenchymal amyloid was focally disaggregated, vascular deposits were relatively preserved or even increased. Immunoassay revealed that total soluble amyloid levels were sharply elevated in vaccinated patient gray and white matter compared with Alzheimer's disease cases. Our experiments suggest that although immunization disrupted amyloid deposits, vascular capture prevented large-scale egress of Abeta peptides. Trapped, solubilized amyloid peptides may ultimately have cascading toxic effects on cerebrovascular, gray and white matter tissues. Anti-amyloid immunization may be most effective not as therapeutic or mitigating measures but as a prophylactic measure when Abeta deposition is still minimal. This may allow Abeta mobilization under conditions in which drainage and degradation of these toxic peptides is efficient.  (+info)

There is currently no medical definition for "Alzheimer vaccines" as there are no vaccines that have been approved for use in preventing or curing Alzheimer's disease. However, there are several experimental immunotherapy treatments being investigated in clinical trials. These therapies aim to stimulate the immune system to target and clear beta-amyloid plaques, which are a hallmark pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease.

One type of experimental immunotherapy is known as an active immunization approach, where a vaccine is used to stimulate the patient's own immune system to produce antibodies against beta-amyloid. An example of this approach is the AN1792 vaccine, which was tested in clinical trials but unfortunately showed significant side effects and did not demonstrate clinical benefits.

Another type of experimental immunotherapy is known as a passive immunization approach, where pre-made antibodies are given to the patient through infusions. Several monoclonal antibodies targeting beta-amyloid have been tested in clinical trials, with some showing promise in reducing beta-amyloid levels and slowing cognitive decline. However, further research is needed to determine their safety and efficacy before they can be approved for use as a treatment or prevention for Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder that causes brain cells to waste away (degenerate) and die. It's the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that disrupts a person's ability to function independently.

The early signs of the disease include forgetting recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer's disease will develop severe memory impairment and lose the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

Currently, there's no cure for Alzheimer's disease. However, treatments can temporarily slow the worsening of dementia symptoms and improve quality of life.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Inactivated vaccines, also known as killed or non-live vaccines, are created by using a version of the virus or bacteria that has been grown in a laboratory and then killed or inactivated with chemicals, heat, or radiation. This process renders the organism unable to cause disease, but still capable of stimulating an immune response when introduced into the body.

Inactivated vaccines are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines since they cannot revert back to a virulent form and cause illness. However, they may require multiple doses or booster shots to maintain immunity because the immune response generated by inactivated vaccines is not as robust as that produced by live vaccines. Examples of inactivated vaccines include those for hepatitis A, rabies, and influenza (inactivated flu vaccine).

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Combined vaccines are defined in medical terms as vaccines that contain two or more antigens from different diseases, which are given to provide protection against multiple diseases at the same time. This approach reduces the number of injections required and simplifies the immunization schedule, especially during early childhood. Examples of combined vaccines include:

1. DTaP-Hib-IPV (e.g., Pentacel): A vaccine that combines diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, and poliovirus components in one injection to protect against these five diseases.
2. MMRV (e.g., ProQuad): A vaccine that combines measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox) antigens in a single injection to provide immunity against all four diseases.
3. HepA-HepB (e.g., Twinrix): A vaccine that combines hepatitis A and hepatitis B antigens in one injection, providing protection against both types of hepatitis.
4. MenACWY-TT (e.g., MenQuadfi): A vaccine that combines four serogroups of meningococcal bacteria (A, C, W, Y) with tetanus toxoid as a carrier protein in one injection for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by these serogroups.
5. PCV13-PPSV23 (e.g., Vaxneuvance): A vaccine that combines 13 pneumococcal serotypes with PPSV23, providing protection against a broader range of pneumococcal diseases in adults aged 18 years and older.

Combined vaccines have been thoroughly tested for safety and efficacy to ensure they provide a strong immune response and an acceptable safety profile. They are essential tools in preventing various infectious diseases and improving overall public health.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Vaccines, DNA." However, I can provide you with some information about DNA vaccines.

DNA vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses genetically engineered DNA to stimulate an immune response in the body. They work by introducing a small piece of DNA into the body that contains the genetic code for a specific antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response). The cells of the body then use this DNA to produce the antigen, which prompts the immune system to recognize and attack it.

DNA vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. They are relatively easy to produce, can be stored at room temperature, and can be designed to protect against a wide range of diseases. Additionally, because they use DNA to stimulate an immune response, DNA vaccines do not require the growth and culture of viruses or bacteria, which can make them safer than traditional vaccines.

DNA vaccines are still in the experimental stages, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, they have shown promise in animal studies and are being investigated as a potential tool for preventing a variety of infectious diseases, including influenza, HIV, and cancer.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

An AIDS vaccine is a type of preventive vaccine that aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The goal of an AIDS vaccine is to induce the production of immune cells and proteins that can recognize and eliminate HIV-infected cells, thereby preventing the establishment of a persistent infection.

Despite decades of research, there is still no licensed AIDS vaccine available. This is due in part to the unique challenges posed by HIV, which has a high mutation rate and can rapidly evolve to evade the immune system's defenses. However, several promising vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials around the world, and researchers continue to explore new approaches and strategies for developing an effective AIDS vaccine.

A subunit vaccine is a type of vaccine that contains a specific piece or component of the microorganism (such as a protein, sugar, or part of the bacterial outer membrane), instead of containing the entire organism. This piece of the microorganism is known as an antigen, and it stimulates an immune response in the body, allowing the development of immunity against the targeted infection without introducing the risk of disease associated with live vaccines.

Subunit vaccines offer several advantages over other types of vaccines. They are generally safer because they do not contain live or weakened microorganisms, making them suitable for individuals with weakened immune systems or specific medical conditions that prevent them from receiving live vaccines. Additionally, subunit vaccines can be designed to focus on the most immunogenic components of a pathogen, potentially leading to stronger and more targeted immune responses.

Examples of subunit vaccines include the Hepatitis B vaccine, which contains a viral protein, and the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, which uses pieces of the bacterial polysaccharide capsule. These vaccines have been crucial in preventing serious infectious diseases and reducing associated complications worldwide.

Conjugate vaccines are a type of vaccine that combines a part of a bacterium with a protein or other substance to boost the body's immune response to the bacteria. The bacterial component is usually a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of sugars that makes up part of the bacterial cell wall.

By itself, a polysaccharide is not very immunogenic, meaning it does not stimulate a strong immune response. However, when it is conjugated or linked to a protein or other carrier molecule, it becomes much more immunogenic and can elicit a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Conjugate vaccines are particularly effective in protecting against bacterial infections that affect young children, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal disease. These vaccines have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of these diseases and their associated complications, such as meningitis and pneumonia.

Overall, conjugate vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection and stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections with the same bacterium. By combining a weakly immunogenic polysaccharide with a protein carrier, these vaccines can elicit a stronger and more effective immune response, providing long-lasting protection against bacterial infections.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

Malaria vaccines are biological preparations that induce immunity against malaria parasites, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of malaria disease. They typically contain antigens (proteins or other molecules derived from the parasite) that stimulate an immune response in the recipient, enabling their body to recognize and neutralize the pathogen upon exposure.

The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate is RTS,S/AS01 (Mosquirix), which targets the Plasmodium falciparum parasite's circumsporozoite protein (CSP). This vaccine has shown partial protection in clinical trials, reducing the risk of severe malaria and hospitalization in young children by about 30% over four years. However, it does not provide complete immunity, and additional research is ongoing to develop more effective vaccines against malaria.

Amyloid beta-peptides (Aβ) are small protein fragments that are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. They are derived from a larger transmembrane protein called the amyloid precursor protein (APP) through a series of proteolytic cleavage events.

The two primary forms of Aβ peptides are Aβ40 and Aβ42, which differ in length by two amino acids. While both forms can be harmful, Aβ42 is more prone to aggregation and is considered to be the more pathogenic form. These peptides have the tendency to misfold and accumulate into oligomers, fibrils, and eventually insoluble plaques that deposit in various areas of the brain, most notably the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

The accumulation of Aβ peptides is believed to initiate a cascade of events leading to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, synaptic dysfunction, and neuronal death, which are all hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact role of Aβ in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's is still under investigation, it is widely accepted that they play a central part in the development of this debilitating neurodegenerative disorder.

Papillomavirus vaccines are vaccines that have been developed to prevent infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that is capable of infecting the skin and mucous membranes. Certain types of HPV are known to cause cervical cancer, as well as other types of cancer such as anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers. Other types of HPV can cause genital warts.

There are currently two papillomavirus vaccines that have been approved for use in the United States: Gardasil and Cervarix. Both vaccines protect against the two most common cancer-causing types of HPV (types 16 and 18), which together cause about 70% of cervical cancers. Gardasil also protects against the two most common types of HPV that cause genital warts (types 6 and 11).

Papillomavirus vaccines are given as a series of three shots over a period of six months. They are most effective when given to people before they become sexually active, as this reduces the risk of exposure to HPV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all boys and girls get vaccinated against HPV at age 11 or 12, but the vaccine can be given to people as young as age 9 and as old as age 26.

It is important to note that papillomavirus vaccines do not protect against all types of HPV, and they do not treat existing HPV infections or cervical cancer. They are intended to prevent new HPV infections and the cancers and other diseases that can be caused by HPV.

Meningococcal vaccines are vaccines that protect against Neisseria meningitidis, a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (bloodstream infection). There are several types of meningococcal vaccines available, including conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against the different serogroups of N. meningitidis, including A, B, C, Y, and W-135. The specific type of vaccine used and the number of doses required may depend on a person's age, health status, and other factors. Meningococcal vaccines are recommended for certain high-risk populations, such as infants, young children, adolescents, and people with certain medical conditions, as well as for travelers to areas where meningococcal disease is common.

"Hepatitis B vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. They work by introducing a small and harmless piece of the virus to your body, which triggers your immune system to produce antibodies to fight off the infection. These antibodies remain in your body and provide protection if you are exposed to the real hepatitis B virus in the future.

The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given as a series of three shots over a six-month period. It is recommended for all infants, children and adolescents who have not previously been vaccinated, as well as for adults who are at increased risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, people who inject drugs, and those with certain medical conditions.

It's important to note that hepatitis B vaccine does not provide protection against other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A or C."

A measles vaccine is a biological preparation that induces immunity against the measles virus. It contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of the measles virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against future infection with the wild-type (disease-causing) virus. Measles vaccines are typically administered in combination with vaccines against mumps and rubella (German measles), forming the MMR vaccine.

The measles vaccine is highly effective, with one or two doses providing immunity in over 95% of people who receive it. It is usually given to children as part of routine childhood immunization programs, with the first dose administered at 12-15 months of age and the second dose at 4-6 years of age.

Measles vaccination has led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of measles worldwide and is considered one of the greatest public health achievements of the past century. However, despite widespread availability of the vaccine, measles remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in some parts of the world, particularly in areas with low vaccination coverage or where access to healthcare is limited.

A Pertussis vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against pertussis, also known as whooping cough. It contains components that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the bacteria that cause pertussis, Bordetella pertussis. There are two main types of pertussis vaccines: whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. wP vaccines contain killed whole cells of B. pertussis, while aP vaccines contain specific components of the bacteria, such as pertussis toxin and other antigens. Pertussis vaccines are often combined with diphtheria and tetanus to form combination vaccines, such as DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis) and TdaP (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis). These vaccines are typically given to young children as part of their routine immunization schedule.

Haemophilus vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a bacterium that can cause serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. There are two main types of Hib vaccines:

1. Polysaccharide vaccine: This type of vaccine is made from the sugar coating (polysaccharide) of the bacterial cells. It is not effective in children under 2 years of age because their immune systems are not yet mature enough to respond effectively to this type of vaccine.
2. Conjugate vaccine: This type of vaccine combines the polysaccharide with a protein carrier, which helps to stimulate a stronger and more sustained immune response. It is effective in infants as young as 6 weeks old.

Hib vaccines are usually given as part of routine childhood immunizations starting at 2 months of age. They are administered through an injection into the muscle. The vaccine is safe and effective, with few side effects. Vaccination against Hib has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of Hib infections worldwide.

BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a type of immunization used primarily to prevent tuberculosis (TB). It contains a live but weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which is related to the bacterium that causes TB in humans (Mycobacterium tuberculosis).

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, enabling it to better resist infection with TB bacteria if exposed in the future. It is often given to infants and children in countries where TB is common, and its use varies depending on the national immunization policies. The protection offered by the BCG vaccine is moderate and may not last for a very long time.

In addition to its use against TB, the BCG vaccine has also been investigated for its potential therapeutic role in treating bladder cancer and some other types of cancer. The mechanism of action in these cases is thought to be related to the vaccine's ability to stimulate an immune response against abnormal cells.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated (IPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio), a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. IPV contains inactivated (killed) polioviruses of all three poliovirus types. It works by stimulating an immune response in the body, but because the viruses are inactivated, they cannot cause polio. After vaccination, the immune system recognizes and responds to the inactivated viruses, producing antibodies that protect against future infection with wild, or naturally occurring, polioviruses. IPV is typically given as an injection in the leg or arm, and a series of doses are required for full protection. It is a safe and effective way to prevent polio and its complications.

Rabies vaccines are medical products that contain antigens of the rabies virus, which stimulate an immune response in individuals who receive them. The purpose of rabies vaccines is to prevent the development of rabies, a viral disease that is almost always fatal once symptoms appear.

There are two primary types of rabies vaccines available:

1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) vaccines: These vaccines are given to individuals who are at high risk of coming into contact with the rabies virus, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, and travelers visiting areas where rabies is common. The vaccine series typically consists of three doses given over a period of 28 days.
2. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) vaccines: These vaccines are administered to individuals who have already been exposed to the rabies virus, usually through a bite or scratch from an infected animal. The vaccine series typically consists of four doses given over a period of 14 days, along with a dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG) to provide immediate protection while the immune system responds to the vaccine.

Both types of rabies vaccines are highly effective at preventing the disease, but it is essential to receive them as soon as possible after exposure or before potential exposure, as the virus can be fatal if left untreated.

Rotavirus vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration among infants and young children worldwide. These vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of the rotavirus, a pathogen that infects and causes symptoms by multiplying inside cells lining the small intestine.

The weakened or inactivated virus in the vaccine stimulates an immune response in the body, enabling it to recognize and fight off future rotavirus infections more effectively. The vaccines are usually administered orally, as a liquid droplet or on a sugar cube, to mimic natural infection through the gastrointestinal tract.

There are currently two licensed rotavirus vaccines available globally:

1. Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline): This vaccine contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of human rotavirus and is given in a two-dose series, typically at 2 and 4 months of age.
2. RotaTeq (Merck): This vaccine contains five reassortant viruses, combining human and animal strains to provide broader protection. It is administered in a three-dose series, usually at 2, 4, and 6 months of age.

Rotavirus vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and related hospitalizations among infants and young children. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of rotavirus vaccination in national immunization programs, particularly in countries with high child mortality rates due to diarrheal diseases.

Cholera vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against the infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. There are several types of cholera vaccines available, including:

1. Inactivated oral vaccine (ICCV): This vaccine contains killed whole-cell bacteria and is given in two doses, with each dose administered at least 14 days apart. It provides protection for up to six months and can be given to adults and children over the age of one year.
2. Live attenuated oral vaccine (LCV): This vaccine contains weakened live bacteria that are unable to cause disease but still stimulate an immune response. The most commonly used LCV is called CVD 103-HgR, which is given in a single dose and provides protection for up to three months. It can be given to adults and children over the age of six years.
3. Injectable cholera vaccine: This vaccine contains inactivated bacteria and is given as an injection. It is not widely available and its effectiveness is limited compared to oral vaccines.

Cholera vaccines are recommended for travelers visiting areas with known cholera outbreaks, particularly if they plan to eat food or drink water that may be contaminated. They can also be used in response to outbreaks to help control the spread of the disease. However, it is important to note that vaccination alone is not sufficient to prevent cholera infection and good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, should always be followed.

The Amyloid Beta-Protein Precursor (AβPP) is a type of transmembrane protein that is widely expressed in various tissues and organs, including the brain. It plays a crucial role in normal physiological processes, such as neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and repair.

AβPP undergoes proteolytic processing by enzymes called secretases, resulting in the production of several protein fragments, including the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is a small peptide that can aggregate and form insoluble fibrils, which are the main component of amyloid plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).

The accumulation of Aβ plaques is believed to contribute to the neurodegeneration and cognitive decline observed in AD. Therefore, AβPP and its proteolytic processing have been the focus of extensive research aimed at understanding the pathogenesis of AD and developing potential therapies.

Tau proteins are a type of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) found primarily in neurons of the central nervous system. They play a crucial role in maintaining the stability and structure of microtubules, which are essential components of the cell's cytoskeleton. Tau proteins bind to and stabilize microtubules, helping to regulate their assembly and disassembly.

In Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies, tau proteins can become abnormally hyperphosphorylated, leading to the formation of insoluble aggregates called neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) within neurons. These aggregates disrupt the normal function of microtubules and contribute to the degeneration and death of nerve cells, ultimately leading to cognitive decline and other symptoms associated with these disorders.

Typhoid-Paratyphoid vaccines are immunizations that protect against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers, which are caused by the Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi, respectively. These vaccines contain inactivated or attenuated bacteria or specific antigens that stimulate an individual's immune system to develop immunity against these diseases without causing the illness itself. There are several types of typhoid-paratyphoid vaccines available, including:

1. Ty21a (oral live attenuated vaccine): This is a live but weakened form of the Salmonella Typhi bacteria. It is given orally in capsule form and requires a series of 4 doses taken every other day. The vaccine provides protection for about 5-7 years.
2. Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) typhoid vaccine: This vaccine contains purified Vi antigens from the Salmonella Typhi bacterium's outer capsular layer. It is given as an injection and provides protection for approximately 2-3 years.
3. Combined typhoid-paratyphoid A and B vaccines (Vi-rEPA): This vaccine combines Vi polysaccharide antigens from Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A and B. It is given as an injection and provides protection for about 3 years against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers A and B.
4. Typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs): These vaccines combine the Vi polysaccharide antigen from Salmonella Typhi with a protein carrier to enhance the immune response, particularly in children under 2 years of age. TCVs are given as an injection and provide long-lasting protection against typhoid fever.

It is important to note that none of these vaccines provides 100% protection, but they significantly reduce the risk of contracting typhoid or paratyphoid fevers. Additionally, good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, can further minimize the risk of infection.

Neurofibrillary tangles are a pathological hallmark of several neurodegenerative disorders, most notably Alzheimer's disease. They are intracellular inclusions composed of abnormally phosphorylated and aggregated tau protein, which forms paired helical filaments. These tangles accumulate within the neurons, leading to their dysfunction and eventual death. The presence and density of neurofibrillary tangles are strongly associated with cognitive decline and disease progression in Alzheimer's disease and other related dementias.

The Smallpox vaccine is not a live virus vaccine but is instead made from a vaccinia virus, which is a virus related to the variola virus (the virus that causes smallpox). The vaccinia virus used in the vaccine does not cause smallpox, but it does cause a milder illness with symptoms such as a fever and a rash of pustules or blisters at the site of inoculation.

The smallpox vaccine was first developed by Edward Jenner in 1796 and is one of the oldest vaccines still in use today. It has been highly effective in preventing smallpox, which was once a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In fact, smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980, thanks in large part to the widespread use of the smallpox vaccine.

Despite the eradication of smallpox, the smallpox vaccine is still used today in certain circumstances. For example, it may be given to laboratory workers who handle the virus or to military personnel who may be at risk of exposure to the virus. The vaccine may also be used as an emergency measure in the event of a bioterrorism attack involving smallpox.

It is important to note that the smallpox vaccine is not without risks and can cause serious side effects, including a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle). As a result, it is only given to people who are at high risk of exposure to the virus and who have been determined to be good candidates for vaccination by a healthcare professional.

A tuberculosis vaccine, also known as the BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, is a type of immunization used to prevent tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The BCG vaccine contains a weakened strain of the bacteria that causes TB in cattle.

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, which helps to protect against severe forms of TB, such as TB meningitis and TB in children. However, it is not very effective at preventing pulmonary TB (TB that affects the lungs) in adults.

The BCG vaccine is not routinely recommended for use in the United States due to the low risk of TB infection in the general population. However, it may be given to people who are at high risk of exposure to TB, such as healthcare workers, laboratory personnel, and people traveling to countries with high rates of TB.

It is important to note that the BCG vaccine does not provide complete protection against TB and that other measures, such as testing and treatment for latent TB infection, are also important for controlling the spread of this disease.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

The chickenpox vaccine, also known as varicella vaccine, is a preventive measure against the highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. The vaccine contains a live but weakened form of the virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce a response without causing the disease itself.

The chickenpox vaccine is typically given in two doses, with the first dose administered between 12 and 15 months of age and the second dose between 4 and 6 years of age. In some cases, the vaccine may be given to older children, adolescents, or adults who have not previously been vaccinated or who have never had chickenpox.

The chickenpox vaccine is highly effective at preventing severe cases of the disease and reducing the risk of complications such as bacterial infections, pneumonia, and encephalitis. It is also effective at preventing transmission of the virus to others.

Like any vaccine, the chickenpox vaccine can cause mild side effects such as soreness at the injection site, fever, or a mild rash. However, these side effects are generally mild and short-lived. Serious side effects are rare but may include allergic reactions or severe immune responses.

Overall, the chickenpox vaccine is a safe and effective way to prevent this common childhood disease and its potential complications.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough).

Diphtheria is an upper respiratory infection that can lead to breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, or even death. Tetanus is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, leading to "lockjaw." Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection characterized by severe coughing fits, which can make it difficult to breathe and may lead to pneumonia, seizures, or brain damage.

The DTaP vaccine contains inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause these diseases. It is typically given as a series of five shots, with doses administered at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years of age. The vaccine helps the immune system develop protection against the diseases without causing the actual illness.

It is important to note that there are other combination vaccines available that protect against these same diseases, such as DT (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis), which contain higher doses of the diphtheria and pertussis components. These vaccines are recommended for different age groups and may be used as booster shots to maintain immunity throughout adulthood.

Amyloid plaque is a pathological hallmark of several degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. It refers to extracellular deposits of misfolded proteins that accumulate in various tissues and organs, but are most commonly found in the brain. The main component of these plaques is an abnormally folded form of a protein called amyloid-beta (Aβ). This protein is produced through the normal processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), but in amyloid plaques, it aggregates into insoluble fibrils that form the core of the plaque.

The accumulation of amyloid plaques is thought to contribute to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and other related disorders. The exact mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood, but it is believed that the aggregation of Aβ into plaques leads to the disruption of neuronal function and viability, as well as the activation of inflammatory responses that can further damage brain tissue.

It's important to note that while amyloid plaques are a key feature of Alzheimer's disease, they are not exclusive to this condition. Amyloid plaques have also been found in other neurodegenerative disorders, as well as in some normal aging brains, although their significance in these contexts is less clear.

The Mumps Vaccine is a biological preparation intended to induce immunity against mumps, a contagious viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands. The vaccine contains live attenuated (weakened) mumps virus, which stimulates the immune system to develop a protective response without causing the disease.

There are two types of mumps vaccines available:

1. The Jeryl Lynn strain is used in the United States and is part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine and the Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) vaccine. This strain is derived from a clinical isolate obtained from the throat washings of a child with mumps in 1963.
2. The Urabe AM9 strain was used in some countries but has been discontinued in many places due to an increased risk of meningitis as a rare complication.

The MMR vaccine is typically given to children at 12-15 months of age and again at 4-6 years of age, providing long-lasting immunity against mumps in most individuals. The vaccine has significantly reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications worldwide.

Hepatitis A vaccines are inactivated or live attenuated viral vaccines that are administered to prevent infection and illness caused by the hepatitis A virus. The vaccine contains antigens that stimulate an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies that protect against future infection with the virus.

The inactivated hepatitis A vaccine is made from viruses that have been chemically treated to destroy their ability to cause disease while preserving their ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine is typically given in two doses, six months apart, and provides long-term protection against the virus.

The live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine contains a weakened form of the virus that is unable to cause illness but can still stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine is given as a single dose and provides protection against the virus for at least 20 years.

Hepatitis A vaccines are recommended for people who are at increased risk of infection, including travelers to areas where hepatitis A is common, men who have sex with men, people who use injection drugs, and people with chronic liver disease or clotting factor disorders. The vaccine is also recommended for children in certain states and communities where hepatitis A is endemic.

An immunization schedule is a series of planned dates when a person, usually a child, should receive specific vaccines in order to be fully protected against certain preventable diseases. The schedule is developed based on scientific research and recommendations from health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The immunization schedule outlines which vaccines are recommended, the number of doses required, the age at which each dose should be given, and the minimum amount of time that must pass between doses. The schedule may vary depending on factors such as the individual's age, health status, and travel plans.

Immunization schedules are important for ensuring that individuals receive timely protection against vaccine-preventable diseases, and for maintaining high levels of immunity in populations, which helps to prevent the spread of disease. It is important to follow the recommended immunization schedule as closely as possible to ensure optimal protection.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Secondary immunization, also known as "anamnestic response" or "booster," refers to the enhanced immune response that occurs upon re-exposure to an antigen, having previously been immunized or infected with the same pathogen. This response is characterized by a more rapid and robust production of antibodies and memory cells compared to the primary immune response. The secondary immunization aims to maintain long-term immunity against infectious diseases and improve vaccine effectiveness. It usually involves administering additional doses of a vaccine or booster shots after the initial series of immunizations, which helps reinforce the immune system's ability to recognize and combat specific pathogens.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

The Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three infectious diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. It contains live attenuated viruses of each disease, which stimulate an immune response in the body similar to that produced by natural infection but do not cause the diseases themselves.

The MMR vaccine is typically given in two doses, the first at 12-15 months of age and the second at 4-6 years of age. It is highly effective in preventing these diseases, with over 90% effectiveness reported after a single dose and near 100% effectiveness after the second dose.

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease that can cause fever, rash, cough, runny nose, and red, watery eyes. It can also lead to serious complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and even death.

Mumps is a viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands, causing swelling and tenderness in the cheeks and jaw. It can also cause fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Mumps can lead to serious complications such as deafness, meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), and inflammation of the testicles or ovaries.

Rubella, also known as German measles, is a viral infection that typically causes a mild fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes. However, if a pregnant woman becomes infected with rubella, it can cause serious birth defects such as hearing impairment, heart defects, and developmental delays in the fetus.

The MMR vaccine is an important tool in preventing these diseases and protecting public health.

Streptococcal vaccines are immunizations designed to protect against infections caused by Streptococcus bacteria. These vaccines contain antigens, which are substances that trigger an immune response and help the body recognize and fight off specific types of Streptococcus bacteria. There are several different types of streptococcal vaccines available or in development, including:

1. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV): This vaccine protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a type of bacteria that can cause pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious infections. PCV is recommended for all children under 2 years old, as well as older children and adults with certain medical conditions.
2. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine also protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, but it is recommended for adults 65 and older, as well as younger people with certain medical conditions.
3. Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group A Streptococcus (GAS), which can cause a variety of infections, including strep throat, skin infections, and serious diseases like rheumatic fever and toxic shock syndrome. There are several different GAS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.
4. Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group B Streptococcus (GBS), which can cause serious infections in newborns, pregnant women, and older adults with certain medical conditions. There are several different GBS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.

Overall, streptococcal vaccines play an important role in preventing bacterial infections and reducing the burden of disease caused by Streptococcus bacteria.

Anthrax vaccines are biological preparations designed to protect against anthrax, a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can affect both humans and animals, and it is primarily transmitted through contact with contaminated animal products or, less commonly, through inhalation of spores.

There are two types of anthrax vaccines currently available:

1. Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA): This vaccine is licensed for use in the United States and is approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis in high-risk individuals, such as military personnel and laboratory workers who handle the bacterium. AVA contains a cell-free filtrate of cultured B. anthracis cells that have been chemically treated to render them non-infectious. The vaccine works by stimulating the production of antibodies against protective antigens (PA) present in the bacterial culture.
2. Recombinant Anthrax Vaccine (rPA): This vaccine, also known as BioThrax, is a newer generation anthrax vaccine that was approved for use in the United States in 2015. It contains only the recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of B. anthracis, which is produced using genetic engineering techniques. The rPA vaccine has been shown to be as effective as AVA in generating an immune response and offers several advantages, including a more straightforward manufacturing process, fewer side effects, and a longer shelf life.

Both vaccines require multiple doses for initial immunization, followed by periodic booster shots to maintain protection. Anthrax vaccines are generally safe and effective at preventing anthrax infection; however, they may cause mild to moderate side effects, such as soreness at the injection site, fatigue, and muscle aches. Severe allergic reactions are rare but possible.

It is important to note that anthrax vaccines do not provide immediate protection against anthrax infection. They require several weeks to stimulate an immune response, so they should be administered before potential exposure to the bacterium. In cases of known or suspected exposure to anthrax, antibiotics are used as a primary means of preventing and treating the disease.

Dengue vaccines are designed to protect against dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms and potentially life-threatening complications. Dengue is caused by four distinct serotypes of the virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), and infection with one serotype does not provide immunity against the others.

The first licensed dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV), is a chimeric yellow fever-dengue tetravalent vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur. It is approved for use in several countries and has demonstrated efficacy against dengue fever caused by all four serotypes in clinical trials. However, the vaccine has raised concerns about the risk of severe disease in individuals who have not been previously exposed to dengue. As a result, it is recommended primarily for people with a documented past dengue infection or living in areas with high dengue prevalence and where the benefits outweigh the risks.

Another dengue vaccine candidate, Takeda's TAK-003 (also known as TDV), is a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine that has shown efficacy against all four serotypes in clinical trials. It was granted approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and several other countries for use in individuals aged 4-16 years old, living in endemic areas.

Research and development of additional dengue vaccine candidates are ongoing to address concerns about safety, efficacy, and accessibility, particularly for at-risk populations in low- and middle-income countries where dengue is most prevalent.

Virosomes are artificially constructed spherical vesicles composed of lipids and viral envelope proteins. They are used as a delivery system for vaccines and other therapeutic agents. In the context of vaccines, virosomes can be used to present viral antigens to the immune system in a way that mimics a natural infection, thereby inducing a strong immune response.

Virosome-based vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. For example, they are non-infectious, meaning they do not contain live or attenuated viruses, which makes them safer for certain populations such as immunocompromised individuals. Additionally, virosomes can be engineered to target specific cells in the body, leading to more efficient uptake and presentation of antigens to the immune system.

Virosome-based vaccines have been developed for a variety of diseases, including influenza, hepatitis A, and HIV. While they are not yet widely used, they show promise as a safe and effective alternative to traditional vaccine approaches.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Viral hepatitis vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by various hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis A and B. These vaccines contain antigens that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against infection with the corresponding virus. The vaccines are typically administered through injection and may require multiple doses for full protection.

The hepatitis A vaccine is made from inactivated hepatitis A virus, while the hepatitis B vaccine is made from recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen. Both vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing infection and reducing the risk of complications associated with viral hepatitis, such as liver disease and liver cancer.

It's important to note that there are no vaccines available for other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis C, D, or E. Prevention strategies for these types of viral hepatitis typically involve measures to reduce exposure to the virus, such as safe injection practices and avoiding high-risk behaviors like sharing needles or having unprotected sex with infected individuals.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral (OPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio). It contains live attenuated (weakened) polioviruses, which stimulate an immune response in the body and provide protection against all three types of wild, infectious polioviruses. OPV is given by mouth, usually in drops, and it replicates in the gastrointestinal tract, where it induces a strong immune response. This response not only protects the individual who receives the vaccine but also helps to stop the spread of poliovirus in the community, providing indirect protection (herd immunity) to those who are not vaccinated. OPV is safe, effective, and easy to administer, making it an important tool for global polio eradication efforts. However, due to the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended for routine immunization in some countries.

The Yellow Fever Vaccine is a vaccine that protects against the yellow fever virus, which is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The vaccine contains live, weakened yellow fever virus, and it works by stimulating the immune system to produce an immune response that provides protection against the disease.

The yellow fever vaccine is recommended for people who are traveling to areas where yellow fever is common, including parts of Africa and South America. It is also required for entry into some countries in these regions. The vaccine is generally safe and effective, but it can cause mild side effects such as headache, muscle pain, and fever in some people. Serious side effects are rare, but may include allergic reactions or infection with the weakened virus used in the vaccine.

It's important to note that yellow fever vaccine may not be recommended for certain individuals, including infants younger than 6 months, pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems, and those with a history of severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine or any component of the vaccine. It is always best to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccination.

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a gene that provides instructions for making a protein involved in the metabolism of fats called lipids. One variant of this gene, APOE4, is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

The APOE4 allele (variant) is less efficient at clearing beta-amyloid protein, a component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease. This can lead to an accumulation of beta-amyloid and an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

It is important to note that having one or two copies of the APOE4 allele does not mean that a person will definitely develop Alzheimer's disease, but it does increase the risk. Other factors, such as age, family history, and the presence of other genetic variants, also contribute to the development of this complex disorder.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

A plague vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against the bacterial infection caused by Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. The vaccine contains killed or weakened forms of the bacteria, which stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and activate immune cells that can recognize and fight off the infection if the person is exposed to the bacteria in the future.

There are several types of plague vaccines available, including whole-cell killed vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, and subunit vaccines. The choice of vaccine depends on various factors, such as the target population, the route of exposure (e.g., respiratory or cutaneous), and the desired duration of immunity.

Plague vaccines have been used for many years to protect military personnel and individuals at high risk of exposure to plague, such as laboratory workers and people living in areas where plague is endemic. However, their use is not widespread, and they are not currently recommended for general use in the United States or other developed countries.

It's important to note that while plague vaccines can provide some protection against the disease, they are not 100% effective, and other measures such as antibiotics and insect control are also important for preventing and treating plague infections.

A fungal vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity against fungal infections. It contains one or more fungal antigens, which are substances that can stimulate an immune response, along with adjuvants to enhance the immune response. The goal of fungal vaccines is to protect against invasive fungal diseases, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy, organ transplantation, or HIV/AIDS treatment.

Fungal vaccines can work by inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Humoral immunity involves the production of antibodies that recognize and neutralize fungal antigens, while cell-mediated immunity involves the activation of T cells to directly attack infected cells.

Currently, there are no licensed fungal vaccines available for human use, although several candidates are in various stages of development and clinical trials. Some examples include vaccines against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Pneumocystis jirovecii.

Neurofibrils are thin, thread-like structures found within the cytoplasm of nerve cells (neurons). They are primarily composed of various proteins and are involved in maintaining the structure and function of neurons. Neurofibrils include two types: neurofilaments and microtubule-associated protein tau (TAU) proteins.

Neurofilaments are intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons, while TAU proteins are involved in microtubule assembly, stability, and intracellular transport. Abnormal accumulation and aggregation of these proteins can lead to neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Rubella vaccine is a preventive measure used to immunize individuals against rubella, also known as German measles. It contains inactivated or weakened forms of the rubella virus that stimulate an immune response when introduced into the body. The two types of rubella vaccines available are:

1. Live Attenuated Rubella Vaccine (RAV): This vaccine contains a weakened form of the rubella virus, which triggers an immune response without causing the disease. It is the most commonly used rubella vaccine and is often combined with measles and mumps vaccines to create the Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) or Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella (MMRV) vaccines.

2. Inactivated Rubella Vaccine: This vaccine contains a killed rubella virus, which is less commonly used but can still provide immunity against the disease.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that children receive one dose of MMR vaccine at 12-15 months of age and another dose at 4-6 years of age. This schedule ensures optimal protection against rubella and other diseases included in the vaccines.

It is important to note that pregnant women should not receive the rubella vaccine, as it can potentially harm the developing fetus. Women who are planning to become pregnant should ensure they have had their rubella immunization before conceiving.

Acellular vaccines are a type of vaccine that contain one or more antigens but do not contain whole cell parts or components of the pathogen. They are designed to produce an immune response in the body that is specific to the antigen(s) contained within the vaccine, while minimizing the risk of adverse reactions associated with whole cell vaccines.

Acellular vaccines are often produced using recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene from the pathogen is inserted into a different organism (such as yeast or bacteria) that can produce large quantities of the antigen. The antigen is then purified and used to create the vaccine.

One example of an acellular vaccine is the DTaP vaccine, which is used to protect against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (whooping cough). This vaccine contains only a small portion of the pertussis bacterium, along with purified versions of the toxins produced by the bacteria. By contrast, whole cell pertussis vaccines contain entire killed bacteria, which can cause more frequent and severe side effects.

Overall, acellular vaccines offer a safer and more targeted approach to immunization than whole cell vaccines, while still providing effective protection against infectious diseases.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

I believe there may be a slight confusion in your question. AIDS is a condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and it weakens the immune system, making people more susceptible to other infections and diseases. There is no vaccine for AIDS itself. However, there are vaccines being developed and tested to prevent HIV infection, which would help prevent AIDS from developing.

SAIDS is not a medical term. If you meant to ask about "HIV vaccines," I can provide a definition:

An HIV vaccine aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). An effective HIV vaccine would ideally prevent the initial infection or significantly reduce viral replication and disease progression in infected individuals. Currently, no licensed HIV vaccines are available, but research is ongoing to develop a protective vaccine against HIV infection.

Salmonella vaccines are immunizations that are developed to protect against Salmonella infections, which are caused by bacteria of the Salmonella enterica species. These vaccines typically contain antigens or weakened forms of the Salmonella bacteria that stimulate an immune response in the body, enabling it to recognize and fight off future Salmonella infections.

There are two main types of Salmonella vaccines:

1. Live Attenuated Vaccines: These vaccines contain weakened (attenuated) forms of the Salmonella bacteria that can still replicate but at a much slower rate and with reduced virulence compared to the wild-type bacteria. Examples include Ty21a, a live oral typhoid vaccine, and χ 144, an experimental live oral vaccine against nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars.
2. Inactivated (Killed) Vaccines: These vaccines contain killed Salmonella bacteria or their components, such as proteins or polysaccharides. They cannot replicate and are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines. However, they may not stimulate as strong an immune response compared to live vaccines. An example is the Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever.

Salmonella vaccines are primarily used for preventing Salmonella infections in humans and animals, particularly those that cause typhoid fever and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections. Vaccination is an essential component of controlling Salmonella infections, especially in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene, where the risk of exposure to Salmonella bacteria is higher.

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are nanostructures that mimic the organization and conformation of authentic viruses but lack the genetic material required for replication. VLPs can be produced from one or more viral proteins, which can be derived from various expression systems including bacteria, yeast, insect, or mammalian cells.

VLP-based vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses these virus-like particles to induce an immune response in the body. These vaccines can be designed to target specific viruses or other pathogens and have been shown to be safe and effective in inducing both humoral and cellular immunity.

VLPs resemble authentic viruses in their structure, size, and antigenic properties, making them highly immunogenic. They can be designed to present specific epitopes or antigens from a pathogen, which can stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and activate T-cells that recognize and attack the pathogen.

VLP vaccines have been developed for several viruses, including human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). They offer several advantages over traditional vaccines, such as a strong immune response, safety, and stability.

Dementia is a broad term that describes a decline in cognitive functioning, including memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment, severe enough to interfere with daily life. It is not a specific disease but rather a group of symptoms that may be caused by various underlying diseases or conditions. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for 60-80% of cases. Other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Huntington's disease.

The symptoms of dementia can vary widely depending on the cause and the specific areas of the brain that are affected. However, common early signs of dementia may include:

* Memory loss that affects daily life
* Difficulty with familiar tasks
* Problems with language or communication
* Difficulty with visual and spatial abilities
* Misplacing things and unable to retrace steps
* Decreased or poor judgment
* Withdrawal from work or social activities
* Changes in mood or behavior

Dementia is a progressive condition, meaning that symptoms will gradually worsen over time. While there is currently no cure for dementia, early diagnosis and treatment can help slow the progression of the disease and improve quality of life for those affected.

Ebola vaccines are medical products designed to confer immunity against the Ebola virus, a deadly pathogen that causes hemorrhagic fever. Several Ebola vaccine candidates have been developed and tested in clinical trials, with some showing promising results. The most advanced Ebola vaccine is rVSV-ZEBOV, which has been shown to be highly effective in preventing the disease in clinical trials. It uses a weakened version of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to deliver a protein from the Ebola virus surface, triggering an immune response that protects against infection. Other Ebola vaccine candidates use different approaches, such as delivering Ebola virus genes using a harmless adenovirus vector or using inactivated whole Ebola viruses. These vaccines are still in development and have not yet been approved for widespread use.

Presenilin-1 (PSEN1) is a gene that provides instructions for making one part of an enzyme complex called gamma-secretase. This enzyme is involved in the breakdown of certain proteins, most notably the amyloid precursor protein (APP), into smaller fragments called peptides. One of these peptides, called beta-amyloid, can accumulate and form clumps called plaques, which are a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease.

Mutations in the PSEN1 gene have been identified as a major cause of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), a rare, inherited form of the disorder that usually develops before age 65. These mutations result in an abnormal gamma-secretase enzyme that produces more toxic beta-amyloid peptides and fewer harmless ones, leading to the formation of amyloid plaques and neurodegeneration.

It's important to note that while mutations in PSEN1 are associated with early-onset FAD, most cases of Alzheimer's disease are sporadic and develop later in life, typically after age 65. The role of PSEN1 and other genes associated with FAD in the more common, late-onset form of Alzheimer's is still being researched.

Amyloid precursor protein (APP) secretases are enzymes that are responsible for cleaving the amyloid precursor protein into various smaller proteins. There are two types of APP secretases: α-secretase and β-secretase.

α-Secretase is a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) family, specifically ADAM10 and ADAM17. When APP is cleaved by α-secretase, it produces a large ectodomain called sAPPα and a membrane-bound C-terminal fragment called C83. This pathway is known as the non-amyloidogenic pathway because it prevents the formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which are associated with Alzheimer's disease.

β-Secretase, also known as β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), is a type II transmembrane aspartic protease. When APP is cleaved by β-secretase, it produces a large ectodomain called sAPPβ and a membrane-bound C-terminal fragment called C99. Subsequently, C99 is further cleaved by γ-secretase to generate Aβ peptides, including the highly neurotoxic Aβ42. This pathway is known as the amyloidogenic pathway because it leads to the formation of Aβ peptides and the development of Alzheimer's disease.

Therefore, APP secretases play a crucial role in the regulation of APP processing and have been the focus of extensive research in the context of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.

Influenza, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral infection that attacks the respiratory system of humans. It is caused by influenza viruses A, B, or C and is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, cough, runny nose, and fatigue. Influenza can lead to complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections, and can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can also survive on surfaces for a period of time. Influenza viruses are constantly changing, which makes it necessary to get vaccinated annually to protect against the most recent and prevalent strains.

Amyloid is a term used in medicine to describe abnormally folded protein deposits that can accumulate in various tissues and organs of the body. These misfolded proteins can form aggregates known as amyloid fibrils, which have a characteristic beta-pleated sheet structure. Amyloid deposits can be composed of different types of proteins, depending on the specific disease associated with the deposit.

In some cases, amyloid deposits can cause damage to organs and tissues, leading to various clinical symptoms. Some examples of diseases associated with amyloidosis include Alzheimer's disease (where amyloid-beta protein accumulates in the brain), systemic amyloidosis (where amyloid fibrils deposit in various organs such as the heart, kidneys, and liver), and type 2 diabetes (where amyloid deposits form in the pancreas).

It's important to note that not all amyloid deposits are harmful or associated with disease. However, when they do cause problems, treatment typically involves managing the underlying condition that is leading to the abnormal protein accumulation.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

Neutralizing antibodies are a type of antibody that defends against pathogens such as viruses or bacteria by neutralizing their ability to infect cells. They do this by binding to specific regions on the surface proteins of the pathogen, preventing it from attaching to and entering host cells. This renders the pathogen ineffective and helps to prevent or reduce the severity of infection. Neutralizing antibodies can be produced naturally in response to an infection or vaccination, or they can be generated artificially for therapeutic purposes.

Staphylococcal vaccines are immunizations that are developed to protect against infections caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus. These vaccines typically contain components of the bacterial cell wall or toxins that stimulate an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies that can recognize and neutralize the bacteria if they invade the body in the future.

There are currently no licensed staphylococcal vaccines available for use in humans, although several candidates are in various stages of development. These vaccines aim to prevent a range of staphylococcal infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and toxic shock syndrome.

It's important to note that while antibiotics can be effective against staphylococcal infections, the bacteria have become increasingly resistant to these drugs over time, making vaccines an important area of research and development for preventing and controlling the spread of these infections.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis (DTaP) vaccines are a type of combination vaccine that protect against three serious diseases caused by bacteria: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough).

Diphtheria is a highly contagious respiratory infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, and even death. Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, which can be severe enough to cause broken bones or suffocation. Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection that causes severe coughing fits, making it difficult to breathe, eat, or drink.

The "a" in DTaP stands for "acellular," which means that the pertussis component of the vaccine contains only parts of the bacteria, rather than the whole cells used in older vaccines. This reduces the risk of side effects associated with the whole-cell pertussis vaccine while still providing effective protection against the disease.

DTaP vaccines are typically given as a series of five shots, starting at 2 months of age and ending at 4-6 years of age. Booster doses may be recommended later in life to maintain immunity. DTaP vaccines are an essential part of routine childhood immunization schedules and have significantly reduced the incidence of these diseases worldwide.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccines are medical products being developed to prevent or ameliorate infection and disease caused by the human cytomegalovirus. CMV is a type of herpesvirus that can cause serious health problems in people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing organ transplantation, people living with HIV/AIDS, and newborns infected with the virus before birth (congenital CMV infection).

There are currently no approved vaccines for CMV. However, several vaccine candidates are being investigated in clinical trials to evaluate their safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. These vaccine candidates use various approaches, such as:

1. Live-attenuated viruses: These vaccines contain weakened forms of the virus that can stimulate an immune response without causing disease. An example is the Towne vaccine, which has been studied in clinical trials for several decades.
2. Recombinant proteins: These vaccines use specific viral proteins to induce an immune response. For instance, a glycoprotein B (gB) subunit vaccine has shown promising results in phase II clinical trials.
3. Virus-like particles (VLPs): VLPs mimic the structure of the virus but do not contain any viral genetic material. They can be used to induce an immune response without causing infection.
4. DNA vaccines: These vaccines use plasmids containing CMV genes to stimulate an immune response. A DNA vaccine encoding the CMV phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) has been tested in clinical trials.
5. mRNA vaccines: Similar to DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines use genetic material to induce an immune response. Moderna Therapeutics is developing an mRNA vaccine candidate for CMV.

The development of a safe and effective CMV vaccine remains a significant public health priority, as CMV infection can lead to severe complications in vulnerable populations.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

Immunization programs, also known as vaccination programs, are organized efforts to administer vaccines to populations or communities in order to protect individuals from vaccine-preventable diseases. These programs are typically implemented by public health agencies and involve the planning, coordination, and delivery of immunizations to ensure that a high percentage of people are protected against specific infectious diseases.

Immunization programs may target specific age groups, such as infants and young children, or populations at higher risk of certain diseases, such as travelers, healthcare workers, or individuals with weakened immune systems. The goals of immunization programs include controlling and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases, reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases, and protecting vulnerable populations from outbreaks and epidemics.

Immunization programs may be delivered through a variety of settings, including healthcare facilities, schools, community centers, and mobile clinics. They often involve partnerships between government agencies, healthcare providers, non-governmental organizations, and communities to ensure that vaccines are accessible, affordable, and acceptable to the populations they serve. Effective immunization programs require strong leadership, adequate funding, robust data systems, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation to assess their impact and identify areas for improvement.

"Intramuscular injections" refer to a medical procedure where a medication or vaccine is administered directly into the muscle tissue. This is typically done using a hypodermic needle and syringe, and the injection is usually given into one of the large muscles in the body, such as the deltoid (shoulder), vastus lateralis (thigh), or ventrogluteal (buttock) muscles.

Intramuscular injections are used for a variety of reasons, including to deliver medications that need to be absorbed slowly over time, to bypass stomach acid and improve absorption, or to ensure that the medication reaches the bloodstream quickly and directly. Common examples of medications delivered via intramuscular injection include certain vaccines, antibiotics, and pain relievers.

It is important to follow proper technique when administering intramuscular injections to minimize pain and reduce the risk of complications such as infection or injury to surrounding tissues. Proper site selection, needle length and gauge, and injection technique are all critical factors in ensuring a safe and effective intramuscular injection.

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Furthermore, one study found that past exposure to influenza vaccines is associated with lower risk for Alzheimer's disease. In ... The scientific consensus says that no evidence links the vaccine to the development of autism and that the vaccine's benefits ... "Past exposure to vaccines and subsequent risk of Alzheimer's disease". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 165 (11): 1495- ... The proposal of a vaccine-autism link has been called "the most damaging medical hoax of the last 100 years". Fudenberg claimed ...
Other examples include experimental AIDS, cancer and Alzheimer's disease vaccines. Such immunizations aim to trigger an immune ... The term "vaccine failure" does not necessarily imply that the vaccine is defective. Most vaccine failures are simply due to ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.09.124. PMID 22001122. "Thimerosal in Vaccines Thimerosal Concerns Vaccine Safety CDC". www.cdc.gov ... U.S. government Vaccine Research Center: Information regarding preventive vaccine research studies The Vaccine Page links to ...
Gorski, David (22 February 2021). "Can mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines cause prion disease or Alzheimer's?". Science-Based ... Funke, Daniel (26 February 2021). "The coronavirus vaccine doesn't cause Alzheimer's, ALS". Politifact. The Poynter Institute. ... He is best known for publishing research concluding that vaccines, in particular the Hib vaccine, cause insulin-dependent ... and he is quoted on many anti-vaccine websites, such as that of the National Vaccine Information Center. His work has been ...
The U.S. Alzheimer's Association has stated that currently available COVID-19 vaccines are safe for persons with Alzheimer's ... but the article was promoted and twisted by anti-vaccine groups to raise doubt about vaccine safety. Anti-vaccine activists ... COVID-19 vaccine misinformation and hesitancy, COVID-19 vaccines, COVID-19 misinformation, Vaccine hesitancy). ... "Fact Check-No evidence that Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine causes Alzheimer's disease". Reuters. 12 May 2021. Rauhala E, Paquette D ...
... "vaccine-preventable illnesses"; adult immunization registries; managing emerging health issues such as food-borne infection ... outbreaks and waterborne diseases; and programs that support Alzheimer's, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke prevention ... and promotes the scientific study of vaccination and access to important childhood vaccines. The Society sponsors the HIV ...
For instance, CMV infection is strongly associated with development of Alzheimer's disease. Development of such a vaccine has ... Other cytomegalovirus vaccines candidates are the CMV-MVA Triplex vaccine and the CMVpp65-A*0201 peptide vaccine. Both vaccine ... Moderna is working on mRNA-1647, a mRNA CMV vaccine. It was the first mRNA vaccine to enter phase 2 clinical trials. Inoue N, ... A Cytomegalovirus vaccine is a vaccine to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or curb virus re-activation (symptomatic ...
"First human trial of Alzheimer's disease nasal vaccine to begin at Boston hospital". www.cbsnews.com. CBS News. 16 November ... a novel adjuvant for intranasal vaccines". Vaccine. 22 (27-28): 3691-3697. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.03.035. PMID 15315848. " ... "Human trials for nasal Alzheimer's vaccine due to start". Newsweek. 2021-11-17. Retrieved 2021-11-19. " ... Vaccine. 24 (10): 1625-1632. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.09.052. ISSN 0264-410X. PMID 16243411. Jones, Taff; Cyr, Sonya; Allard ...
This is based in part on the erroneous popular belief that aluminium causes Alzheimer disease. There is no substantial ... parental concerns about vaccine 'overload' and 'immune-vulnerability'". Vaccine. 24 (20): 4321-7. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.03 ... Vaccine. 36 (39): 5825-31. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.08.036. PMID 30139653. S2CID 52073320. "Vaccines, Autism, and Retraction ... Vaccine overload became popular after the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program in the United States accepted the case of nine- ...
"Alzheimer's Disease Nasal Vaccine To Be Tested At Brigham And Women's Hospital". 2021-11-16. Retrieved 2021-12-10. Emanuel, ... In 2021, he initiated human trials of a nasal vaccine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In 1994, Weiner founded ... "Role of the Innate Immune System in Aging and Development of Alzheimer's Disease". "IMDB:What is Life: The Movie". IMDb. "LAMA ... He performs clinical and basic research focused on multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurologic diseases such as Alzheimer's ...
"Fact Check-No evidence that Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine causes Alzheimer's disease". Reuters. May 12, 2021. Archived from the ... "alongside vaccines", and that the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine caused neurodegenerative conditions. National File also ... It is known for publishing false or misleading claims about COVID-19 and the COVID-19 vaccines. National File was founded in ... Kornbluh, Jacob (October 1, 2021). "4 GOP candidates in key House races invoke the Holocaust against mask and vaccine mandates ...
Cancer vaccine C-Met#Active immunotherapy, Alzheimer's disease clinical research#Active immunotherapy, Mantle cell lymphoma § ... Vaccine therapies are a type of specific active immunotherapy. Vaccine therapies deliver various agents that will lead to a ... "Active immunotherapy options for Alzheimer's disease". Alzheimer's Research & Therapy. 6 (1): 7. doi:10.1186/alzrt237. ISSN ... These agents include the following agents and markers: The BCG vaccine has been used against tuberculosis, mycobacteria, and ...
Mice were given a seasonal flu vaccine, or a vaccine against the specific flu virus tested in the study (PR8). The mice were ... "Feasibility of an early Alzheimer's disease immunosignature diagnostic test", doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2012.09.014, Journal of ... "A general method for characterization of humoral immunity induced by a vaccine or infection". doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.04. ... was compared to the immunosignatures of the mice groups given less protective vaccines. The more protective a mouse's vaccine ...
Vaccines are being researched for AIDS and tuberculosis. Genes associated with type 1 diabetes and certain types of cancer have ... Neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's may soon be curable with the use of stem cells. Breakthroughs in ...
Wilson has spread anti-vaccine messages, including a claim that vaccines are linked to Alzheimer's disease. She states that her ... We don't need any more vaccines. We don't need any more 5G." In 2004, Wilson was the subject of a New Zealand TV Channel Three ... he's stopping mandatory vaccines, all the key things that need to happen, he's onto it a lot more than most people realise." ... so I'm not a believer in vaccines..." Elsewhere in the video, Wilson defends Donald Trump, saying "He's now my hero. He's one ...
Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved 29 July 2012. Khan, A (1 September 2008). "Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease". Alzheimer's ... Precipitated aluminium hydroxide is included as an adjuvant in some vaccines (e.g. anthrax vaccine). One of the well-known ... it also functions to stabilize vaccines by preventing the proteins in the vaccine from precipitating or sticking to the walls ... Cranage, MP; Robinson A (2003). Robinson A; Hudson MJ; Cranage MP (eds.). Vaccine Protocols - Volume 87 of Methods in Molecular ...
"More or Less: Behind the Stats - Vaccine claims, Alzheimer's treatment and Tim's Parkrun times". www.bbc.co.uk. BBC Sounds. ... Teoh F (October 14, 2021). "Incorrect vaccine administration is a potential cause of post-vaccine adverse effects, but more ... Teoh F (January 6, 2023). "Video by John Campbell comparing historical and COVID-19 vaccines misleads on vaccine safety". ... In March 2022, Campbell posted a misleading video about the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine, claiming that a Pfizer document admitted ...
Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express a vaccine against Alzheimer's disease. Hilary Koprowski, who was ... "Transgenic tomatoes expressing human beta-amyloid for use as a vaccine against Alzheimer's disease". Biotechnology Letters. 30 ... Goyal, R.; Ramachandran, R.; Goyal, P.; Sharma, V. (2007). "Edible vaccines: Current status and future". Indian Journal of ... Tomatoes (along with potatoes, bananas and other plants) are being investigated as vehicles for delivering edible vaccines. ...
... such as Alzheimer's disease. A live vector vaccine is a vaccine that uses an organism (typically virus or bacterium) that does ... If the vaccine or gene therapy fails in clinical trials, the virus can't be used again in the patient for a different vaccine ... Unlike attenuated vaccines, viral vector vaccines lack other pathogen genes required for replication, so infection by the ... based on the same rationale as DNA vaccines. The genes used in such vaccines are usually antigen coding surface proteins from ...
Moreover, mice trials have started as a method to treat Alzheimer's using tomatoes that have undergone agrobacterium mediated ... Edible vaccines also offer a profuse amount of potential health benefits that edible vaccines have over traditional vaccines. ... Edible vaccines also have multiple disadvantages compared to traditional vaccines. Since edible vaccines are still in their ... Edible vaccines differ from traditional vaccines in many ways and overcome many of their limitations. Traditional vaccines can ...
... has multiple partnerships around this product to study its effects with vaccines for diseases including Alzheimer's, ... Wang, Pengfei (2021-03-05). "Natural and Synthetic Saponins as Vaccine Adjuvants". Vaccines. 9 (3): 222. doi:10.3390/ ... "Malaria Vaccine Study". Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-12. "Agenus Expands QS-21 Adjuvant License ... RTS,S is the most advanced vaccine for malaria in development. Agenus is the sole US-manufacturer of a patented and FDA- ...
These include a process patent approved on June 30, 1998 for the detection of Alzheimer disease using cultured cells, and a ... Additionally, cloning allowed the development of new vaccines and advanced the study of stem cells. Later in her career Sanford ... She also developed the first laboratory test to distinguish people with Alzheimer's disease and people predisposed to cancer. ... It was found that Alzheimer's and cancer patients had significantly more chromatid breaks under certain conditions, which ...
... the company originally focused on possible vaccines for Alzheimer's and animal health but shifted to working on a vaccine for ... Wired UK website, article dated June 24, 2019 "A vaccine for Alzheimer's is on the verge of becoming a reality". Wired UK. ... The companies later created testing for HIV and Hepatitis C, and carried out research on a vaccine for HIV. Wang is the author ... in New York - the company's main focus is on medicine and vaccine development. She founded United Biomedical, Inc. Asia in ...
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.10.095. PMID 23137844. Jones, Stacy V. (19 September 1964). "Peanut Oil Used in a New Vaccine". New ... Tomljenovic, Lucija (2010). "Aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease: After a Century of Controversy, Is there a Plausible Link?". ... "Illegal vaccine link to Gulf war syndrome". TheGuardian.com. 30 July 2001. The Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (21 ... It is used in the approved Novavax Covid-19 vaccine and in the malaria vaccine R21/Matrix-M. Several unmethylated cytosine ...
... has been theorized that a vaccine could activate the body's own immune system to combat the beta amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's ... "Neuroticism and other personality traits in midlife linked to Alzheimer's risk - Alzheimer's Research UK". 1 October 2014. ... "Personality and risk of Alzheimer's disease: New data and meta-analysis". Alzheimer's & Dementia. 10 (2): 179-186. doi:10.1016/ ... "Personality and risk of Alzheimer's disease: New data and meta-analysis". Alzheimer's & Dementia. 10 (2): 179-186. doi:10.1016/ ...
Bacterial cell surface and secreted proteins are also of interest for their potential as vaccine candidates or as diagnostic ... such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Secreted proteins from some archaea that can survive in unusual environments have ...
When Crucell was acquired by Johnson and Johnson Goudsmit became head of the Crucell Vaccine Institute from 2011-2015, an ... In 2017 Goudsmit retired from Johnson & Johnson and returned to academia to study Alzheimer's Disease and Ageing. Goudsmit is a ... He shifted his research interest to aging and neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's Disease. He is also a prolific ... In 2019 Goudsmit was appointed Senior Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer of the Human Vaccines Project (www. ...
Alzheimer's disease and apolipoprotein E (apoE). Uncovered the molecular pathways that link apoE and Alzheimer's disease, and ... "Pfizer, Moderna COVID-19 vaccines induce responses against 2 key variants, small study finds". FiercePharma. May 17, 2021. ... Alzheimer's disease and tau. Understanding how lowering brain levels of the tau protein improves memory and other cognitive ... "Future Alzheimer's Therapy: Scientists fix ApoE4 in human brain cells". Neuroscience from Technology Networks. Retrieved July 8 ...
... and interleukin-10 gene polymorphism on antibody response to tetanus vaccine in family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's ... "Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH)". Alzheimer's Association. Archived from the original on 2013-05- ... Alzheimer's disease is the most commonly diagnosed type but research says that caring for a person with Frontal Temporal ... The most important thing the caregiver can do is keep the person with Alzheimer's safe. Research has shown that caregivers ...
Share Is Alzheimers Infectious, and Is a Vaccine Possible? on Facebook Share Is Alzheimers Infectious, and Is a Vaccine ... Is Alzheimers Infectious, and Is a Vaccine Possible? Meryl Comer: For the general public the other issue is, is Alzheimers ... Then one thing that we should also know is that there are two kinds of vaccines. One kind of vaccine is what we call "active ... Alzheimers starts in one area and spreads all over the brain, like an infection. Does this mean that its possible to develop ...
A DNA vaccine shown to reduce the accumulation of toxic proteins associated with Alzheimers disease in mice could be moving ... A DNA vaccine shown to reduce the accumulation of toxic proteins associated with Alzheimers disease in mice could be moving ... Explore,, New treatment tested on mice could hold hope for Alzheimers patients, families. The vaccine is delivered to the skin ... It showed that the DNA vaccine developed by Rosenberg and his team "prompted a 40 percent reduction in beta-amyloid and up to a ...
Alzheimers Vaccine Trial a Success , Neuroscience News: Alzheimers disease vaccine trial is successful. Read m… http://t.co/ ... Alzheimers Vaccine Trial a Success , Neuroscience News: Alzheimers disease vaccine trial is successful. Read m… http://t.co/ ... A study led by Karolinska Institutet reports for the first time the positive effects of an active vaccine against Alzheimers ... Alzheimers Vaccine Trial a Success , Neuroscience News: There is currently no cure for Alzheimers disease, and… http://t.co/ ...
Ever had pneumonia vaccine (%).. At least 90% of adults aged 65 or older who ever received a pneumonia vaccine.. ... Screenings and Vaccines. Mammogram within past 2 years (%).. At least 81.1% of women aged 50-74 years have had a mammogram in ... Influenza vaccine in past year (%).. At least 90% of adults aged 65 or older who had a flu shot within the past year.. ... Increase the proportion of people with diagnosed Alzheimers disease and other dementias, or their caregiver, who are aware of ...
Researchers Return to Alzheimers Vaccines, Buoyed by Recent Drug Success * What to Tell Your Patients About Anti-amyloids for ... I Forget Names All the Time: Could This Be Alzheimers Disease? * Neuroscientist Alleges Irregularities in Alzheimers Research ... but they are the first wave of effective treatments for Alzheimers, with more to come," the Alzheimers Association said. ... Still, the Alzheimers Association said in a statement that "the trials further illustrate the relationship between removal of ...
AC Immune Gains On Alzheimers Disease Vaccine Candidate Update. AC Immune SA ACIU said it is completing a Phase 2 study of its ... Moderna Announces New Supply Agreements For Its COVID-19 Vaccine. Moderna, Inc. MRNA said it has entered into an additional ... The Daily Biotech Pulse: FDA Nod For Novartis, iRhythm CEO Quits Abruptly, Moderna Inks Vaccine Supply Agreements. ... labeling and packaging to support the production of hundreds of millions of doses of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. Production ...
Israeli scientists discover TB vaccine lowers rates of Alzheimers disease in cancer patients * 24.12.2019 [10:40] ... The researchers noted that they have not developed a vaccine that prevents Alzheimers. ... Alzheimers Disease affects one-in-ten adults over the age of 65, a number that is expected to triple by 2030, and scientists ... understanding the ways in which our immune system is a major player in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers and how the BCG vaccine ...
Filed Under: Influenza Vaccines, Seasonal Flu Tagged With: alzheimers, flu vaccines, long term effects ... Filed Under: Influenza, Nervous System, Seasonal Flu, World News Tagged With: al, alzheimers, efficacy, seasonal flu vaccines ... Filed Under: Gardasil / Silgard, Merck & Co., United States Tagged With: 8 new drugs, alzheimers, anacetrapib, chronic ... Flu shots linked to Alzheimers disease. October 12, 2011. By Norma 1 Comment ...
Researchers Create Experimental Vaccine Against Alzheimers. ScienceBlog.com Categories Blog Entry, Brain & Behavior, Health, ... Gene therapy cuts levels of Alzheimers protein. ScienceBlog.com A molecule that naturally degrades a protein linked to ... Alzheimers missing link found: Is a promising target for new drugs. ScienceBlog.com ... Protein in the brain could be a key target in controlling Alzheimers. ScienceBlog.com ...
Global vaccine delivery: Our contribution to COVAX resulted in the delivery of over 1 billion COVID-19 vaccines and our efforts ... Davos Alzheimers Collaborative: Through this collaborative initiative, we are working to accelerate progress in the discovery ... testing and delivery of interventions for Alzheimers - building a cohort of 1 million people living with the disease who ... in launching Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, has helped save more than 13 million lives over the past 20 years. ...
Laura Helft, Emily Willingham (5 September 2014). "The Autism-Vaccine Myth". PBS. Retrieved 2 July 2019. "Your Inner Fish web ... ". "Can Alzheimers Be Stopped web page". "The Lucky Specials official website". "I Contain Multitudes YouTube page". "The ... ". "Vaccines: Calling the Shots web page". "Mass Extinction: Life at the Brink web page". "Spillover -- Zika, Ebola & Beyond ...
Is the BCG vaccine a potential cure for Alzheimers?. It is important to note that the research on the BCG vaccine and ... How does the BCG vaccine affect Alzheimers disease?. Recent studies have suggested that the BCG vaccine may have a protective ... It is also unclear whether the BCG vaccine can cure Alzheimers disease once it has already developed. However, the BCG vaccine ... What is the BCG vaccine?. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine that was first developed in ...
Percentage of Adults Aged 18-26 Years Who Ever Received a Human Papillomavirus Vaccine, by Race and Hispanic Origin§ and Sex - ... QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Aged 18-26 Years Who Ever Received a Human Papillomavirus Vaccine, by Race and Hispanic Origin ... Alzheimers disease (9) *ambulatory care (6) *Americas Children (3) *anemia (2) *angioplasty (1) ...
Alzheimers drug adoption in U.S. slowed by doctors skepticism Nine months into the U.S. launch of the first drug proven to ... Adults and children who have received two doses of measles vaccine, such as the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, are almost ... many walk-in clinics or travel medicine clinics also have the vaccine. Call ahead to a clinic to see if they have the vaccine ... But if a baby under one year of age will travel,they should get one dose of measles vaccine before leaving if they are at least ...
Senior K. Dosing in phase II trial of Alzheimers vaccine suspended. Lancet Neurol. 2002 May. 1(1):3. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Alzheimer disease has a normal-sequence protein, except in some cases of familial Alzheimer disease, in which mutant beta ... Amyloid and Alzheimers disease: inside and out. Can J Neurol Sci. 2012 May. 39(3):286-98. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Aβ peptide is known as a factor in the pathology of Alzheimer disease. Aβ aggregation is dependent on monomer concentration, ...
... have started human trials for an experimental universal flu vaccine that has shown promise in animal studies. ... Keto diet may help lower cholesterol, toxic proteins in Alzheimers disease. *. Zepbound and Mounjaro improve sleep apnea ... Are swine flu vaccines safe and effective? Read on to learn more about swine flu vaccines, such as their role in both the 1976 ... "A universal vaccine," said Dr. Palese, "could be defined as a vaccine that you dont have to take every year, maybe only once ...
Categories: Alzheimer Vaccines Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Mineral Water Found to Reduce the Symptoms of Alzheimers Disease and Vaccine Injury is Boycotted by Supermarkets. ... Originally published on Vaccine Reaction. Traditional toxicology relies on archaic methods that focus on the short term while ... The research is hard to ignore, vaccines can trigger autoimmunity with a laundry list of diseases to follow. With harmful and ... Additional Keywords : aluminum, aluminum toxicity, Alzheimers disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Motor Neuron ...
... have made remarkable strides in unraveling the underlying mechanisms that lead to the devastating memory loss of Alzheimers ... Many promising drugs and vaccines are currently undergoing testing.. Better care. Better understanding of the tremendous ... Understanding Alzheimers DiseaseAlzheimers DiagnosisDementia vs. AlzheimersTop Ten Signs of AlzheimersClinical Stages of ... Understanding Alzheimers DiseaseTop Ten Signs of AlzheimersClinical Stages of AlzheimersAlzheimers Disease Facts and ...
That will help drug design, vaccine design and the understanding of diseases from Alzheimers to Covid. The spike on the virus ... The novel techniques for developing vaccines based on RNA that were so rapidly successful last year will turn their attention ... Genomics will grapple with Alzheimers and mental health. And ageing itself may gradually turn into a curable ailment. Its not ...
Implicated as a cause of brain damage; suspected factor in Alzheimers Disease, dementia, convulsions and comas. More hazardous ... Used in vaccines as a preservative.) Before you say, But havent they removed mercury from the vaccines on the childhood ... are in several vaccines. Casein (milk protein) is in the triple antigen, i.e. DPT vaccine. As explained above, when injected, ... An infant can receive in one day s doses of vaccines as much as the absolute maximum set by the W.H.O. for 3 months of exposure ...
Risk for developing Alzheimers disease DOUBLES in men receiving common treatment for prostate cancer ... Another factor in colon cancer rates skyrocketing in young people is the ever-increasing vaccine schedule from the U.S. Centers ... frankenfood GMO health science junk food research stop eating poison synthetic nutrients toxic ingredients vaccination vaccines ... for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This includes Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) "vaccines," which are linked to acute ...
AgeCare Skypointe has been selected to start receiving the vaccine. ... I lost him through Alzheimers but theres still another stage and journey to go through," Miner said. "Now we are down to life ... Miner is a retired nurse and received word her husband and his fellow residents were going to get the vaccine starting New ... "The fact they are one of the first facilities to have residents getting vaccines is great news. At least theyre taking notice ...
The COVID-19 vaccine could lead to prion diseases, Alzheimers, ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. ... "Some people are going to die from the vaccine directly. But a large number of people are going to start getting horribly sick ... "mRNA is not a vaccine" - its "actually an operating system" thats run by Bill Gates to program humans. ...
talk contribs‎ m 21,924 bytes +66‎ →‎Vaccine. *curprev. 20:07, 25 August 2006‎ Alisa Opar. talk contribs‎ 21,858 bytes +151‎ →‎ ... talk contribs‎ m 21,489 bytes +52‎ Protected Alzheimers disease: copyedited [edit=sysop:move=sysop] ... Revision history of "Alzheimers disease" - New World Encyclopedia. From New World Encyclopedia ...
Research team will seek to develop a novel prophylactic vaccine to prevent HCV. ... FDA Grants Breakthrough Device Designation to Assay Supporting Earlier Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease ... "The SBVD team is one example of several programs at the Institute engaged in novel vaccine development, next generation protein ... NIH Awards $6 Million Grant for Hepatitis C Vaccine. June 15, 2017. Lauren Santye, Assistant Editor ...
... aluminum-containing vaccines children receive and the rate of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), vaccine safety concerns ... Aluminium DOES cause Alzheimers: Expert says new findings confirm the metal plays a role in the devastating brain disease. ... Vaccine scientists and policymakers promote a "one-size-fits-all" approach for vaccine dosage and the vaccine schedule. ... "vaccine hesitancy" a major global health threat.3 The vaccine religion persists even though the efficacy and safety of vaccines ...
First-in-human successful Phase I for an Alzheimers vaccine. AXON Neuroscience has completed a pioneer Phase I that offers new ... Roche and Evotec knocked down by their Alzheimer candidate. The progressive aging of the population in developed countries is ... AB Science: One step further towards a cure to Alzheimers disease. AB Science SA, a pharmaceutical company specialized in ... This makes AXON the first company to successfully complete this clinical trial for a vaccine that targets diseased tau proteins ...
250 million option with Moderna to jointly develop and commercialize cancer vaccine mRNA-4157/V940. ... Lonza Set to Manufacture Acumen Pharmaceuticals mAb for Alzheimers Disease. Genmab to Acquire ProfoundBio in $1.8 Billion ... 250 million option to jointly develop and commercialize a personalized cancer vaccine (PCV), mRNA-4157/V940. The vaccine is ... Merck has exercised a $250 million option with Moderna to jointly develop and commercialize cancer vaccine mRNA-4157/V940. ...
  • Is Alzheimer's Infectious, and Is a Vaccine Possible? (bigthink.com)
  • A DNA vaccine shown to reduce the accumulation of toxic proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease in mice could be moving closer to human trial, according to researchers University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. (springfieldnewssun.com)
  • This study is the culmination of a decade of research that has repeatedly demonstrated that this vaccine can effectively and safely target in animal models what we think may cause Alzheimer's disease," Dr. Roger Rosenburg, founding director of the Alzheimer's Disease Center at UT Southwestern, said in a news release. (springfieldnewssun.com)
  • A study led by Karolinska Institutet reports for the first time the positive effects of an active vaccine against Alzheimer's disease. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • The researchers believe that this suggests that the CAD106 vaccine is a tolerable treatment for patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • A glimmer of hope recently emerged in the form of a research team, headed by Hervé Bercovier, Charles Greenblatt and Benjamin Klein at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem's Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, that has discovered that the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, originally developed for tuberculosis and commonly used to treat bladder cancer, may also be an effective treatment to prevent Alzheimer's. (azertag.az)
  • There's data reaching back to the 1960s that shows that countries treating bladder cancer patients with the BCG vaccine had a lower prevalence of Alzheimer's disease, but it hadn't been properly analyzed," said Bercovier. (azertag.az)
  • The researchers noted that they have not developed a vaccine that prevents Alzheimer's. (azertag.az)
  • However, their study "is an important step towards understanding the ways in which our immune system is a major player in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and how the BCG vaccine, which modulates the immune system, may serve as an effective preventative treatment to this crippling condition," Bercovier explained. (azertag.az)
  • How does the BCG vaccine affect Alzheimer's disease? (topgolf.kr)
  • Recent studies have suggested that the BCG vaccine may have a protective effect against Alzheimer's disease. (topgolf.kr)
  • In a recent study conducted by researchers at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, the BCG vaccine was found to have a protective effect against Alzheimer's disease in mice. (topgolf.kr)
  • Is the BCG vaccine a potential cure for Alzheimer's? (topgolf.kr)
  • It is important to note that the research on the BCG vaccine and Alzheimer's disease is still in its early stages. (topgolf.kr)
  • While the recent studies are promising, more research is needed to determine how effective the BCG vaccine is in preventing Alzheimer's in humans. (topgolf.kr)
  • It is also unclear whether the BCG vaccine can cure Alzheimer's disease once it has already developed. (topgolf.kr)
  • However, the BCG vaccine could be a low-cost and easily accessible way to prevent Alzheimer's disease, especially in low-income countries where access to expensive drugs is limited. (topgolf.kr)
  • Recent research has suggested that the BCG vaccine may have a protective effect against Alzheimer's disease by stimulating the immune system to break down beta-amyloid plaques. (topgolf.kr)
  • While more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of the BCG vaccine in preventing Alzheimer's disease in humans, the recent studies are promising and could provide a low-cost and easily accessible way to prevent this debilitating disease. (topgolf.kr)
  • That will help drug design, vaccine design and the understanding of diseases from Alzheimer's to Covid. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Don't tell me that the aluminum in the vaccines will give them Alzheimer's. (scarymommy.com)
  • Professor Lars Lannfelt, the preclinical developer of the first Alzheimer's vaccine that showed clinical benefits, and co-founder of the Swedish company BioArctic will speak on May 21 in Fernströmsalen, BMC. (lu.se)
  • Dr. Palese explained the value of developing a universal flu vaccine: "We have always four components in our influenza vaccine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If someone with measles exits a room, others can be infected up to two hours after that person has left, said Shelly Bolotin, director of the Centre for Vaccine Preventable Diseases at the University of Toronto's Dalla Lana School of Public Health. (ctvnews.ca)
  • It brings information about vaccine preventable diseases: a FAQ from the disease and another from its vaccine, photos, videos, case histories, recommendations, references and links. (bvsalud.org)
  • Case reports, personal testimonies, newspaper and journal articles about people who have suffered or died from vaccine-preventable diseases. (bvsalud.org)
  • As we head into the spring break travel season, the Public Health Agency of Canada is concerned that the global surge in measles activity, combined with the decline in measles vaccine coverage among school-aged children in Canada, could lead to more imported cases, potentially resulting in transmission of measles in communities in Canada,' the agency said in an emailed statement Thursday. (ctvnews.ca)
  • Adults and children who have received two doses of measles vaccine, such as the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, are almost 100 per cent protected against getting the disease, the Public Health Agency of Canada said. (ctvnews.ca)
  • It is very important for parents to ensure their child(ren) receive a second dose of a measles-containing vaccine for full protection,' the public health agency said. (ctvnews.ca)
  • But if a baby under one year of age will travel,they should get one dose of measles vaccine before leaving if they are at least six months old so they have some protection, said Bolotin. (ctvnews.ca)
  • Adults born in or after 1970 likely received one dose of measles vaccine as a child. (ctvnews.ca)
  • People who don't know if they got a second dose of measles vaccine should also consider a booster if they are a health-care worker, in the military or attending college or university. (ctvnews.ca)
  • The MMR vaccine protects your child against not only measles but also mumps and rubella. (scarymommy.com)
  • In this case one would think about prevention of using vaccine to prevent the disease. (bigthink.com)
  • The new vaccine, CAD106, can prove a breakthrough in the search for a cure for this seriously debilitating dementia disease. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Another factor in colon cancer rates skyrocketing in young people is the ever-increasing vaccine schedule from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (newstarget.com)
  • 2 The vaccines have been linked to epidemics of the childhood illness dubbed "hand, foot and mouth disease," brain and spinal cord inflammation (encephalomyelitis), neurological disorders-including epilepsy, peripheral nerve damage (polyneuritis) and multiple sclerosis-and death. (westonaprice.org)
  • As physicians, we can significantly reduce the effects of all of these diseases, possibly even including Alzheimer disease . (medscape.com)
  • Even the risk for Alzheimer disease can be reduced through exercise. (medscape.com)
  • The research will be conducted over a 5-year period, as investigators examine the efficacy of immune responses in animal models using its HCV vaccine candidates to determine which candidate has the highest efficacy in protecting against most HCV genotypes. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Those who question the efficacy and safety of vaccines are viewed as heretics, with entities like the World Health Organization (WHO) even pronouncing so-called "vaccine hesitancy" a major global health threat. (westonaprice.org)
  • 3 The vaccine religion persists even though the efficacy and safety of vaccines have never been adequately studied nor proven. (westonaprice.org)
  • For example, the pre-licensure trials for Gardasil, a vaccine that is supposed to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV), appears to have studied fewer than twelve hundred girls under age sixteen, and it is unclear how long they were followed. (westonaprice.org)
  • Except the amount of formaldehyde in a vaccine is less than the amount circulating in your infant's body. (scarymommy.com)
  • The research is hard to ignore, vaccines can trigger autoimmunity with a laundry list of diseases to follow. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Thirty years ago, we vaccinated against eight diseases, according to CHOP's Vaccine Education Center . (scarymommy.com)
  • A team with the center's Peter O'Donnell Jr. Brain Institute tested the vaccine, which researchers say prompts an immune response that reduces the build-up of toxic tau and beta-amyloid proteins. (springfieldnewssun.com)
  • It showed that the DNA vaccine developed by Rosenberg and his team "prompted a 40 percent reduction in beta-amyloid and up to a 50 percent reduction in tau, with no adverse immune response," according to UT Southwestern. (springfieldnewssun.com)
  • The new treatment, which is presented in Lancet Neurology , involves active immunisation, using a type of vaccine designed to trigger the body's immune defence against beta-amyloid. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • In this second clinical trial on humans, the vaccine was modified to affect only the harmful beta-amyloid. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • The researchers found that the BCG vaccine reduced the number of beta-amyloid plaques in the brains of the mice and improved their cognitive function. (topgolf.kr)
  • One kind of vaccine is what we call "active vaccination," which would be just the same thing that we do with the flu, so you take vaccine and you're protected for a certain number of years in your life. (bigthink.com)
  • It would be great if at that time of birth or very short afterward if there were a vaccine, an active vaccination and that will protect us at the very end, but we have to be very careful there too because if for instance what do we vaccinate against? (bigthink.com)
  • While the final publication of Dr. Taubenberger's research is not expected until later this month, it has become the basis of a universal vaccine candidate called BPL-1357. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There were a little more than 3,000 bacterial and viral proteins in those vaccines. (scarymommy.com)
  • This makes AXON the first company to successfully complete this clinical trial for a vaccine that targets diseased tau proteins, which cause neural degeneration. (labiotech.eu)
  • Vaccine clinical trials are fraught with other methodological problems as well. (westonaprice.org)
  • Recently, there has been some promising research on the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, which is typically used to prevent tuberculosis. (topgolf.kr)
  • The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine that was first developed in the early 1900s to prevent tuberculosis. (topgolf.kr)
  • In summary, the BCG vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine that has been used for over a century to prevent tuberculosis. (topgolf.kr)
  • At least 90% of adults aged 65 or older who ever received a pneumonia vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccines can significantly reduce the risks from influenza and pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Consider the fact that most pre-licensure clinical trials exclude the participants who would be most at risk of serious adverse events-such as pregnant women or children with cancer or diabetes-but after licensure, the same vaccines are routinely administered to those vulnerable groups. (westonaprice.org)
  • Proceedings of the Conference on Malaria in Africa : practical considerations on malaria vaccines and clinical trials, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., December 1-4, 1986 / edited by Alfred A. Buck. (who.int)
  • The SBVD team is one example of several programs at the Institute engaged in novel vaccine development, next generation protein therapeutics, and macromolecular drug delivery technologies that have done an excellent job in working together across the scientific disciplines and campuses. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • The vaccine is delivered to the skin and appears to be safe for humans, researchers said. (springfieldnewssun.com)
  • Merck has exercised a $250 million option with Moderna to jointly develop and commercialize cancer vaccine mRNA-4157/V940. (biopharminternational.com)
  • Moderna announced on Oct. 12, 2022 that Merck, known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, had exercised its $250 million option to jointly develop and commercialize a personalized cancer vaccine (PCV), mRNA-4157/V940. (biopharminternational.com)
  • This is thought to be because the BCG vaccine stimulates the immune system to produce more white blood cells, which are responsible for fighting infections. (topgolf.kr)
  • Dr. Taubenberger is the principal investigator of a promising animal study testing a universal flu vaccine in mice. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 4 Thousands of independent studies demonstrate the dangers of vaccines. (westonaprice.org)
  • With harmful and toxic metals as some vaccine ingredients, who is susceptible and which individuals are more at risk? (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Below is a list of ingredients in vaccines. (inoz.com)
  • Scientists hope the vaccine can be delivered nasally, blocking infections and reducing transmission to other people. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A successful universal flu vaccine would be effective against current and future viral strains and not require yearly reformulation or shots. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There is no harm in getting another dose of MMR vaccine, even if it turns out you did have two shots, said Bolotin. (ctvnews.ca)
  • A universal vaccine would be more effective and not require yearly shots. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 4) Even the manufacturers admit to a large list of adverse effects of vaccines, including even death. (inoz.com)
  • However, the vast majority of vaccine safety trials use comparison groups whose participants either receive other vaccines or false (non-inert) "placebos" that contain aluminum or other toxic adjuvants. (westonaprice.org)
  • According to the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), the amount of aluminum in a vaccine is "similar to that found in a liter of infant formula. (scarymommy.com)
  • Breastfed infants still ingest 7 milligrams of aluminum in their first six months of life, compared to the 4.4 mg they get from vaccines. (scarymommy.com)
  • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) have begun testing an experimental universal flu vaccine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If such a vaccine strategy could be developed," said Dr. Taubenberger, "this would be a major public health achievement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The grant is funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and will be a collaboration between IBBR's Structure-Based Vaccine Design (SBVD) team and Steven Foung, MD, a professor at Stanford University School of Medicine. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Many] older people have a partial pre-immunity that makes the live vaccine not as good in adults as one would hope. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Throughout the history of smallpox vaccines, many people from all walks of life spoke out against them, including doctors as well as the spiritual leader, Mahatma Gandhi. (westonaprice.org)
  • The fact they are one of the first facilities to have residents getting vaccines is great news. (globalnews.ca)
  • Indeed a very good amount of research in terms of treatment research done on this, on finding a vaccine. (bigthink.com)
  • While theoretically safe, Dr. Sylvie Alonso , associate professor at the National University of Singapore - not involved in the current research - cautioned, "manufacturing of this type of vaccine is a complicated process that has a certain level of safety risk since big quantities of live virus need to be grown and handled. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research (IBBR) at the University of Maryland was recently awarded a $6 million grant to develop a hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine, according to a press release . (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Despite their failure from the outset, a consensus prevails among the medical community and the public at large that vaccines are unilaterally "effective and safe. (westonaprice.org)
  • In the case of vaccines, that comparison should be between those who receive the vaccine and those who receive an inert placebo. (westonaprice.org)
  • We can't force our patients to stop smoking, exercise, eat well, get plenty of sleep, or receive vaccines. (medscape.com)
  • When Dr. Alois Alzheimer first noted severe memory loss and personality changes in a 50-year-old woman nearly 100 years ago, the illness was thought to be a rare form of early age-related dementia. (alzinfo.org)
  • The vaccine used in that study activated certain white blood cells (T cells), which started to attack the body's own brain tissue. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • TB vaccines can vary greatly, study finds. (cdc.gov)
  • Does this mean that it's possible to develop a vaccine? (bigthink.com)
  • 6 Without a harmless placebo, it is impossible to determine true cause-effect relationships between the vaccine and the observed outcomes. (westonaprice.org)