Alzheimer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Neurofibrillary Tangles: Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Plaque, Amyloid: Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Apolipoprotein E4: A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Neurofibrils: The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the CYTOPLASM of the body of a NEURON and extending from one DENDRITE into another or into the AXON.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Mice, Inbred BALB CSAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Presenilin-1: Integral membrane protein of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Its homodimer is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. PSEN1 mutations cause early-onset ALZHEIMER DISEASE type 3 that may occur as early as 30 years of age in humans.Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases: Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Staphylococcal VaccinesDiphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.

Increased T cell reactivity to amyloid beta protein in older humans and patients with Alzheimer disease. (1/58)

Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the progressive deposition of the 42-residue amyloid beta protein (Abeta) in brain regions serving memory and cognition. In animal models of AD, immunization with Abeta results in the clearance of Abeta deposits from the brain. However, a trial of vaccination with synthetic human Abeta1-42 in AD resulted in the development of meningoencephalitis in some patients. We measured cellular immune responses to Abeta in middle-aged and elderly healthy subjects and in patients with AD. A significantly higher proportion of healthy elderly subjects and patients with AD had strong Abeta-reactive T cell responses than occurred in middle-aged adults. The immunodominant Abeta epitopes in humans resided in amino acids 16-33. Epitope mapping enabled the identification of MHC/T cell receptor (TCR) contact residues. The occurrence of intrinsic T cell reactivity to the self-antigen Abeta in humans has implications for the design of Abeta vaccines, may itself be linked to AD susceptibility and course, and appears to be associated with the aging process.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease abeta vaccine reduces central nervous system abeta levels in a non-human primate, the Caribbean vervet. (2/58)

Amyloid beta (Abeta) protein immunotherapy lowers cerebral Abeta and improves cognition in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we show that Caribbean vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops, SK) develop cerebral Abeta plaques with aging and that these deposits are associated with gliosis and neuritic dystrophy. Five aged vervets were immunized with Abeta peptide over 10 months. Plasma and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected periodically from the immunized vervets and five aged controls; one monkey per group expired during the study. By Day 42, immunized animals generated plasma Abeta antibodies that labeled Abeta plaques in human, AD transgenic mouse and vervet brains; bound Abeta1-7; and recognized monomeric and oligomeric Abeta but not full-length amyloid precursor protein nor its C-terminal fragments. Low anti-Abeta titers were detected in CSF. Abetax-40 levels were elevated approximately 2- to 5-fold in plasma and decreased up to 64% in CSF in immunized vervets. Insoluble Abetax-42 was decreased by 66% in brain homogenates of the four immunized animals compared to archival tissues from 13 age-matched control vervets. Abeta42-immunoreactive plaques were detected in frontal cortex in 11 of the 13 control animals, but not in six brain regions examined in each of the four immunized vervets. No T cell response or inflammation was observed. Our study is the first to demonstrate age-related Abeta deposition in the vervet monkey as well as the lowering of cerebral Abeta by Abeta vaccination in a non-human primate. The findings further support Abeta immunotherapy as a potential prevention and treatment of AD.  (+info)

Clearing tau pathology with Abeta immunotherapy--reversible and irreversible stages revealed. (3/58)

The report by Oddo and colleagues in this issue of Neuron demonstrates for the first time that clearance of amyloid also results in the removal of early-stage tau pathology in mice that develop both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), the two hallmark lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This result supports a primary role for Abeta in AD etiology.  (+info)

Abeta immunotherapy leads to clearance of early, but not late, hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates via the proteasome. (4/58)

Amyloid-beta (Abeta) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the hallmark neuropathological lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using a triple transgenic model (3xTg-AD) that develops both lesions in AD-relevant brain regions, we determined the consequence of Abeta clearance on the development of tau pathology. Here we show that Abeta immunotherapy reduces not only extracellular Abeta plaques but also intracellular Abeta accumulation and most notably leads to the clearance of early tau pathology. We find that Abeta deposits are cleared first and subsequently reemerge prior to the tau pathology, indicative of a hierarchical and direct relationship between Abeta and tau. The clearance of the tau pathology is mediated by the proteasome and is dependent on the phosphorylation state of tau, as hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates are unaffected by the Abeta antibody treatment. These findings indicate that Abeta immunization may be useful for clearing both hallmark lesions of AD, provided that intervention occurs early in the disease course.  (+info)

Prototype Alzheimer's disease vaccine using the immunodominant B cell epitope from beta-amyloid and promiscuous T cell epitope pan HLA DR-binding peptide. (5/58)

Immunization of amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice with fibrillar beta-amyloid (Abeta) prevents Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neuropathology. The first immunotherapy clinical trial used fibrillar Abeta, containing the B and T cell self epitopes of Abeta, as the immunogen formulated with QS21 as the adjuvant in the vaccine. Unfortunately, the clinical trial was halted during the phase II stage when 6% of the participants developed meningoencephalitis. The cause of the meningoencephalitis in the patients that received the vaccine has not been definitively determined; however, analysis of two case reports from the AN-1792 vaccine trial suggest that the meningoencephalitis may have been caused by a T cell-mediated autoimmune response, whereas production of anti-Abeta Abs may have been therapeutic to the AD patients. Therefore, to reduce the risk of an adverse T cell-mediated immune response to Abeta immunotherapy we have designed a prototype epitope vaccine that contains the immunodominant B cell epitope of Abeta in tandem with the synthetic universal Th cell pan HLA DR epitope, pan HLA DR-binding peptide (PADRE). Importantly, the PADRE-Abeta(1-15) sequence lacks the T cell epitope of Abeta. Immunization of BALB/c mice with the PADRE-Abeta(1-15) epitope vaccine produced high titers of anti-Abeta Abs. Splenocytes from immunized mice showed robust T cell stimulation in response to peptides containing PADRE. However, splenocytes from immunized mice were not reactivated by the Abeta peptide. New preclinical trials in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mouse models may help to develop novel immunogen-adjuvant configurations with the potential to avoid the adverse events that occurred in the first clinical trial.  (+info)

Current concepts in therapeutic strategies targeting cognitive decline and disease modification in Alzheimer's disease. (6/58)

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the leading cause of dementia in the Western world. Postmortem, it is characterized neuropathologically by the presence of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and a profound gray matter loss. Neurofibrillary tangles are composed of an abnormally hyperphosphorylated intracellular protein called tau, tightly wound into paired helical filaments and thought to impact microtubule assembly and protein trafficking, resulting in the eventual demise of neuronal viability. The extracellular amyloid plaque deposits are composed of a proteinacious core of insoluble aggregated amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide and have led to the foundation of the amyloid hypothesis. This hypothesis postulates that Abeta is one of the principal causative factors of neuronal death in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. With multiple drugs now moving through clinical development for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we will review current and future treatment strategies aimed at improving both the cognitive deficits associated with the disease, as well as more novel approaches that may potentially slow or halt the deadly neurodegenerative progression of the disease.  (+info)

Papillomavirus-like particles are an effective platform for amyloid-beta immunization in rabbits and transgenic mice. (7/58)

Immunization with amyloid-beta (Abeta) prevents the deposition of Abeta in the brain and memory deficits in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), opening the possibility for immunotherapy of AD in humans. Unfortunately, the first human trial of Abeta vaccination was complicated, in a small number of vaccinees, by cell-mediated meningoencephalitis. To develop an Abeta vaccine that lacks the potential to induce autoimmune encephalitis, we have generated papillomavirus-like particles (VLP) that display 1-9 aa of Abeta protein repetitively on the viral capsid surface (Abeta-VLP). This Abeta peptide was chosen because it contains a functional B cell epitope, but lacks known T cell epitopes. Rabbit and mouse vaccinations with Abeta-VLP were well tolerated and induced high-titer autoAb against Abeta, that inhibited effectively assembly of Abeta(1-42) peptides into neurotoxic fibrils in vitro. Following Abeta-VLP immunizations of APP/presenilin 1 transgenic mice, a model for human AD, we observed trends for reduced Abeta deposits in the brain and increased numbers of activated microglia. Furthermore, Abeta-VLP vaccinated mice also showed increased levels of Abeta in plasma, suggesting efflux from the brain into the vascular compartment. These results indicate that the Abeta-VLP vaccine induces an effective humoral immune response to Abeta and may thus form a basis to develop a safe and efficient immunotherapy for human AD.  (+info)

Amyloid-beta peptide remnants in AN-1792-immunized Alzheimer's disease patients: a biochemical analysis. (8/58)

Experiments with amyloid-beta (Abeta)-42-immunized transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease have revealed amyloid plaque disruption and apparent cognitive function recovery. Neuropathological examination of patients vaccinated against purified Abeta-42 (AN-1792) has demonstrated that senile plaque disruption occurred in immunized humans as well. Here, we examined tissue histology and quantified and biochemically characterized the remnant amyloid peptides in the gray and white matter and leptomeningeal/cortical vessels of two AN-1792-vaccinated patients, one of whom developed meningoencephalitis. Compact core and diffuse amyloid deposits in both vaccinated individuals were focally absent in some regions. Although parenchymal amyloid was focally disaggregated, vascular deposits were relatively preserved or even increased. Immunoassay revealed that total soluble amyloid levels were sharply elevated in vaccinated patient gray and white matter compared with Alzheimer's disease cases. Our experiments suggest that although immunization disrupted amyloid deposits, vascular capture prevented large-scale egress of Abeta peptides. Trapped, solubilized amyloid peptides may ultimately have cascading toxic effects on cerebrovascular, gray and white matter tissues. Anti-amyloid immunization may be most effective not as therapeutic or mitigating measures but as a prophylactic measure when Abeta deposition is still minimal. This may allow Abeta mobilization under conditions in which drainage and degradation of these toxic peptides is efficient.  (+info)

  • Aluminum is included in vaccines as an "adjuvant," a component that boosts the body's short-term immune response in order to produce antibodies to the vaccine agent faster. (
  • Another benefit is that the vaccine can be administered orally, since it does not require an adjuvant, which is added to vaccines to enhance the immune response. (
  • Interestingly, nobody really understands exactly how aluminum performs as an adjuvant, and there is a desperate search for other adjuvants because the vaccine industry understands just how toxic it is. (
  • The new vaccine uses a smaller fragment of the protein and combines it with a booster, called an adjuvant , intended to prevent T-cell activation. (
  • The predicted reason for the lack of inflammation is due to the vaccine being developed as a dendritic cell vaccine, acting as a natural adjuvant, as it uses dendritic cells to generate the antibodies. (
  • To generate an immunogenic formulation of AD vaccines we tested various GMP-grade adjuvants and selected a novel pharmaceutical-grade adjuvant, called Advax CpG . (
  • This adjuvant derived from delta inulin provides optimal immune enhancement for all types of AD vaccines based on the MultiTEP platform. (
  • Using a combination of anti-amyloid-beta and anti-tau vaccines with powerful and safe adjuvant technology called Advax™ developed by Vaxine Pty Ltd "shows promise for both preventive and therapeutic approaches in AD," Professor David Cribbs from the UCI Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders (UCI MIND) told Bloomberg news agency in the US. (
  • Placebo consists of vaccine adjuvant in saline solution. (
  • July 2011 - On June 21, the Georgia Straight reported about the aluminum adjuvant found in most vaccines. (
  • Vaccine manufacturers always attempt to downplay their use of adjuvant chemicals , and few media outlets focus on this important point, but it is the adjuvant that is most likely responsible for sending these Australian children into hospitals with convulsions. (
  • It is an umbrella term for a collection of similar symptoms, including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, that result after exposure to an adjuvant - an environmental agent including common vaccine ingredients that stimulate the immune system. (
  • Childhood vaccination has saved many lives, yet lots more has to be done to increase awareness and eliminate myths regarding vaccines. (
  • It would be great if at that time of birth or very short afterward if there were a vaccine, an active vaccination that will protect us," says Dr. Arancio. (
  • This dilemma was discussed with my colleagues, and we decided to try vaccination with an amyloid gene, rather than the amyloid protein vaccine," said Dr. Rosenberg. (
  • This research not only highlights the vital importance of vaccination, but also illustrates why ongoing vaccine research is vital to improve outcomes for all. (
  • In a randomized placebo-controlled study published in 2018, the team showed that BCG vaccination protects against experimental infection with a weakened form of the yellow fever virus, which is used as a vaccine. (
  • Widespread HPV vaccination has the potential to reduce cervical cancer incidence around the world by as much as 90 percent" and "no serious side effects have been shown to be caused by the vaccines. (
  • While the study - conducted during a mass vaccination campaign in Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo - is not the first to provide hints that fractional doses of yellow fever vaccine are effective, it was the first such study undertaken outside the artificial confines of a laboratory. (
  • The study monitored 716 people who were vaccinated during the Kinshasa campaign, looking for antibodies in their blood after vaccination as a measure of whether the vaccine worked. (
  • The study could not actually assess whether the vaccine was protective because the outbreak was waning by the time the vaccination campaign got underway. (
  • The film gives a detailed look into how vaccines work, addresses the need for vaccination later in life, and encourages open communication with health care professionals. (
  • A study that looked at flu vaccine effectiveness over the course of three flu seasons estimated that flu vaccination lowered the risk of hospitalizations by 61 percent in people 50 years of age and older. (
  • There are special vaccination instructions for children aged 6 months through to eight years of age as some children require two doses of influenza vaccine. (
  • On the other hand, many reports that describe post-vaccination autoimmunity strongly suggest that vaccines can indeed trigger autoimmunity . (
  • When WHO conducted its first purported neonatal tetanus eradication vaccination campaigns in South America using a fertility regulating vaccine, the population most affected were Catholics. (
  • This is what is causing the confusion when the Church states that the tetanus injection used in the vaccination campaign is unsafe but the routine vaccine is safe! (
  • TAMPA, Fla (Oct. 20, 2020) -- Our immune system's capacity to mount a well-regulated defense against foreign substances, including toxins, weakens with age and makes vaccines less effective in people over age 65. (
  • For example, a vaccine might target amyloid beta, a believed precursor to tau, which exists in the brain throughout one's life but only becomes toxic with the onset of Alzheimer's. (
  • One group was vaccinated with the investigational E22W42 DC vaccine, another received an endogenous amyloid beta peptide to stimulate dendritic cells (wild-type vaccine group), and the third was injected with dendritic cells only, containing no Aβ peptide (DC control group). (
  • The vaccine works by stimulating the activity of microglial cells, the body's natural nervous system defenders, which are able to attack and prevent the proliferation of amyloid beta, the toxic plaque molecules that form in the brain and largely are responsible for the progression of Alzheimer's. (
  • A decade ago, doctors launched a first attempt at an amyloid beta vaccine, called AN1792. (
  • The vaccine, called E22W42 DC, uses immune cells known as dendritic cells (DC) loaded with a modified Aβ peptide as the antigen. (
  • For example the MMR vaccine, for measles, mumps and rubella, contains three live viruses. (
  • The findings don't apply to most existing vaccines, such as those used against smallpox, measles, and mumps. (
  • Thompson broke a decade of silence over the government's deliberate concealment of the link between the MMR vaccine (for measles, mumps, and rubella) and a dramatically increased risk of autism, particularly in African American boys. (
  • Our research demonstrates that the use of leaky vaccines can promote the evolution of nastier 'hot' viral strains that put unvaccinated individuals at greater risk. (
  • Some vaccines put viral molecules into the body - the important bits that our immune cells can recognise - rather than whole viruses. (
  • So human and animal B cells fail to make antibodies against the HIV envelope's vulnerable spots when natural HIV envelope is injected as a vaccine candidate, even though these viral envelopes are the target of protective, neutralizing antibodies. (
  • Evidence suggests that Big Pharma is developing a new Alzheimer's vaccine to treat Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. (
  • The 271 vaccines in development span a wide array of diseases, and employ exciting new scientific strategies and technologies. (
  • These potential vaccines - all in human clinical trials or under review by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - include 137 for infectious diseases, 99 for cancer, 15 for allergies and 10 for neurological disorders. (
  • Dr Foerster said, "As an academic dermatologist with special interest in the immune system, my specific attention is on vaccines to be developed against chronic skin diseases. (
  • Vaccines and older people - Because they tend to have weaker immune systems, older people are particularly vulnerable to infectious diseases. (
  • Saint Louis University, one of the Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units (VTEUs) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which is part of the NIH, is the only site in the country conducting the study. (
  • Inviragen's dengue vaccine, invented by researchers at the CDC's Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, is based on a safe and weakened dengue virus that has been demonstrated to generate long-lasting anti-dengue immune responses against one of the four dengue viruses. (
  • Inviragen is focused on developing life-saving vaccines to protect against emerging infectious diseases worldwide. (
  • Vaccines for human diseases are the least-expensive, most-effective public-health interventions we ever have had," Read said . (
  • These vaccines have been very, very important throughout our history to reduce the spread of potentially dangerous diseases. (
  • The small and rare risks associated with vaccines are outweighed by the enormity of the diseases we're preventing by providing these vaccines to children. (
  • Since the first vaccine was developed in 1796, vaccinations have been phenomenally successful at preventing infectious diseases, and wiping out some altogether. (
  • Gandy is a member of the editorial advisory board for the journals Public Library of Science-Medicine (PLoSM), Neurodegenerative Diseases, and Current Alzheimer Research. (
  • Evolution may also play a role in how other diseases react to vaccines. (
  • They also have shown with West Nile, yellow fever, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses that NS5 mutations weaken those viruses, which suggests that NS5 could be a vaccine target for those diseases as well. (
  • Dr. Erin Staples, senior author of the paper and a yellow fever expert in CDC's vectorborne diseases operation at Fort Collins, Colo., said the early results are fueling questions about whether the vaccine dose could be lowered and whether using a lower dose would reduce the rate of adverse reactions to the vaccine. (
  • as shown by the infectious diseases and lately cancer vaccines. (
  • The vaccine could be given to people who are at risk, those who show very early symptoms of these diseases, and those who have already suffered strokes to repair any vascular damage. (
  • John Mascola, Peter Kwong and colleagues at the Vaccine Research Center of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) have shown that very complex, broadly neutralizing B cell maturation pathways may require targeting early B cell receptors. (
  • Each year, thousands of Americans are hospitalized or die from vaccine-preventable diseases and even more are unable to carry out daily tasks while they recover from such illnesses. (
  • The research is hard to ignore, vaccines can trigger autoimmunity with a laundry list of diseases to follow. (
  • But something strange is happening in the world of immunology lately and a small evidence of it is that the Godfather of Autoimmunology is pointing to vaccines - specifically, some of their ingredients including the toxic metal aluminum - as a significant contributor to the growing global epidemic of autoimmune diseases. (
  • On one hand," vaccines prevent infections which can trigger autoimmunity, say the paper's authors, Alessandra Soriano, of the Department of Clinical Medicine and Rheumatology at the Campus Bio-Medico University in Rome, Gideon Nesher, of the Hebrew University Medical School in Jerusalem and Shoenfeld, founder and head of the Zabludowicz Center of Autoimmune Diseases in the Sheba Medical Center at Tel Hashomer. (
  • In this phase 1 study, the vaccine showed improvements in tests of cognitive function, including 1 test where the result correlated with antibody titers. (
  • The vaccine used in that study activated certain white blood cells (T cells), which started to attack the body's own brain tissue. (
  • A study shows a DNA vaccine reduces both amyloid and. (
  • In this study, the researchers tested the vaccine they formulated using modified Aβ-sensitized dendritic cells derived from mouse bone marrow. (
  • The results obtained indicate that the vaccine is well tolerated and that a portion of patients developed a sufficient immunological response to AN-1792 to warrant the initiation of the additional study. (
  • It is therefore important to note that this study itself did not assess the ability of the vaccine to treat Alzheimer's. (
  • The next step after this Phase 1 safety trial should be a larger test, possibly with modifications of the dose, to see if the vaccine works, says the study. (
  • This study suggests that we can immunize patients with early stages of AD with our anti-AB vaccine and, if it progresses, then vaccinate with our anti-tau vaccine," says Dr. Michael Agadjanyan, Professor and Head of Immunology at the Institute for Molecular Medicine and faculty at the Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders, UCI, and one of the senior authors of the study. (
  • In the phase I study, the vaccine demonstrated a good safety and tolerability profile and produced an immune response in a high percentage of patients. (
  • Our study demonstrates that we can create a potent but safe version of a vaccine that utilizes the strategy of immune response shaping to prevent Alzheimer's-related pathologies and memory deficits," said William Bowers, associate professor of neurology and of microbiology and immunology at the Medical Center and lead author of the article. (
  • The study authors also said the vaccine developed for patients with Alzheimer's can potentially strengthen the immune system of older patients. (
  • This Phase 1 clinical study is designed to test the safety of the vaccine in adult volunteers that have not been exposed to dengue virus. (
  • For the clinical study , 72 healthy adult volunteers will receive two injections, three months apart, of a placebo or one of two strengths of investigational vaccine. (
  • For more information about the study, contact the Saint Louis University Center for Vaccine Development at and (314) 977-6333. (
  • GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) will partner with VBI Vaccines to study VBI's LPV™ Platform, a formulation and process designed to help develop vaccines and biologics with improved stability and potency. (
  • Southern Illinois University researcher William Halford, who was responsible for the creation of the vaccine and the injections themselves, died last summer, but the recipients of his vaccine are claiming compensation from his company, Rational Vaccines, which they claim violated US and international laws that protect the rights of study participants. (
  • This vaccine elicits a very strong immune response ," says study co-senior author Geert-Jan Boons, Ph.D., Franklin Professor of Chemistry and a researcher in the UGA Cancer Center and its Complex Carbohydrate Research Center in Athens. (
  • The study authors are encouraged by their study results, but they caution that further testing of the modified M. smegmatis TB vaccine is needed before it might be evaluated in human clinical trials. (
  • A recent study showed that flu vaccine reduced children's risk of flu-related pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission by 74 percent during flu seasons from 2010-2012. (
  • The study, in which vaccine data was gathered on 2,583 children in metropolitan Atlanta born between 1986 and 1993, concluded that there were "no significant associations" between the age at which the vaccine is administered and the incidence of "developmental regression" such as autism. (
  • This study has been used for the past decade by the those seeking to say there is no link between autism and vaccines. (
  • In this letter he discusses his intention to present, at an Institute of Medicine meeting on vaccines and autism the following week, "several problematic results" that the Atlanta study had produced. (
  • Two drug companies are facing charges in France over a hepatitis B vaccine blamed for the death of a 28-year-old woman in 1998 and which caused serious side effects among 1,300 patients. (
  • Aluminum is said to be the most widely used metal on the planet and is found in cookware, aspirin, antacids, baking soda, and flour, as well as vaccines. (
  • Many childhood vaccines also contain aluminum , as Natural News has separately detailed. (
  • This very function may be part of what makes aluminum in vaccines risky. (
  • It is important to understand that there are important differences between orally-ingested aluminum (in some antacids) and intramuscularly-injected aluminum (which is commonly used in many vaccines). (
  • It depends on the total body burden of poisonous metals like aluminum, lead, mercury, iron, cadmium and manganese and the presence of other toxins like psychiatric drugs, vaccines, food additives, etc. (
  • ST. LOUIS - Sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Saint Louis University's Center for Vaccine Development is conducting research of an investigational vaccine designed to prevent people from contracting dengue, a potentially lethal virus that has rapidly spread around the world. (
  • The investigational vaccine is designed to protect people from all four closely related dengue viruses. (
  • When tested against Aβ 1-42 , the antibodies reacted only with the Aβ 1-14 N-terminus site, indicating specificity for the epitope contained in the vaccine. (
  • epitope vaccines composed of self B cell epitope of A b peptide and foreign universal T cell epitopes such as synthetic Pan DR epitope PADRE or epitopes from currently approved conventional vaccines. (
  • Currently the safety and efficacy of a DNA AD epitope vaccine is being tested in monkeys using the TDS-IM electroporation system in collaboration with ICHOR Medical Systems . (
  • Another negative factor is that these vaccines' β-amyloid derived immunogens lack the critical conformational epitope characteristic of pathogenic aggregates. (
  • The new research was a collaborative effort among universities in the United Kingdom and Switzerland, and the findings were published in the journal Nature Vaccines . (
  • Chang Yi, on the other hand, is something of a legend in the fields of immunology and biochemistry: she has two PhDs, developed tests for HIV and Hepatitis C, and conducted pioneering research into an HIV vaccine. (
  • Rivest says other vaccines in research stage have been ineffective, and one was found to cause inflammation of the brain. (
  • The new research, which was published in the Open Access journal PLOS Biology on July 27, investigates how the use of "leaky" or "imperfect" vaccines can influence the evolution of virulence in viruses. (
  • Bhaskar is optimistic that it will receive them The funding of the vaccine from a federal research grant for small businesses to advance the research project. (
  • Bhaskar is confident that she will finance the vaccine from a government research fellowship for small businesses to advance the research project. (
  • GSK's research collaboration with VBI marks the second vaccine-related partnership for the pharma giant in as many days. (
  • Yesterday, Valneva said it will supply process development services for GSK toward manufacturing influenza vaccines based on Valneva's EB66 ® cell line, in a collaboration partly financed by the U.S. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority. (
  • This avenue of research provides additional evidence about why some of the earlier, traditional vaccine approaches for HIV may not have been successful. (
  • Take for example, a recent article published in the journal Pharmacological Research in which Shoenfeld and colleagues issue unprecedented guidelines naming four categories of people who are most at risk for vaccine-induced autoimmunity. (
  • This is first step towards a new way of making vaccines against HIV: targeting immature immune cells and attempting to drive a pathway of events that rarely occur," said Barton Haynes, M.D., co-senior author and director of the national Center for HIV-AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI) laboratory and Frederic M. Hanes Professor of Medicine and Immunology at Duke University School of Medicine. (
  • While this treatment stands to bring in blockbuster drug revenue, there are other advantages for Big Pharma which could lead to much exploitation and manipulation for those receiving the vaccine, as will be explained later. (
  • An Alzheimer's vaccine will have a number of advantages for Big Pharma. (
  • 2. Unlike drugs, the Big Pharma manufacturers are not legally obligated to pay out for damages resulting from the adverse effects of vaccines. (
  • 3. Providing it doesn't cause death or harm, or not cure, an Alzheimer's vaccine will indeed be quite profitable for Big Pharma. (
  • They concluded the vaccine prevents about 30% of infections with any known pathogen, including viruses, in the first year after it's given. (
  • The latest video in our new YouTube series, Science with Sam, explains how vaccines work by training your immune system to recognise viruses and bacteria. (
  • Then there are vaccines that are made from live viruses, but they are weakened so they won't grow well in the human body. (
  • The answer is more terrifying than you might think, because it's not "weakened flu viruses" that vaccine manufacturer claim they put into the vaccines. (
  • Evidence from R&D sources suggests that a vaccine is in the pipeline. (
  • He was one of the six representatives of the Catholic Church in the joint committee of experts drawn from the Catholic Church and Ministry of Health appointed to test the tetanus vaccine in Kenya. (