Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Neurofibrillary Tangles: Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.Plaque, Amyloid: Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Apolipoprotein E4: A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Neurofibrils: The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the CYTOPLASM of the body of a NEURON and extending from one DENDRITE into another or into the AXON.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases: Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.Presenilin-1: Integral membrane protein of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Its homodimer is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. PSEN1 mutations cause early-onset ALZHEIMER DISEASE type 3 that may occur as early as 30 years of age in humans.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Dementia, Vascular: An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Mild Cognitive Impairment: A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Presenilin-2: Integral membrane protein of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Its homodimer is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. PSEN2 mutations cause ALZHEIMER DISEASE type 4.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Lewy Body Disease: A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Memantine: AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.Presenilins: Integral membrane proteins and essential components of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. Mutations of presenilins lead to presenile ALZHEIMER DISEASE with onset before age 65 years.Aniline CompoundsCerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.National Institute on Aging (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research into the nature of the aging process and diseases associated with the later stages of life. The Institute was established in 1974.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Substantia Innominata: Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Protease Nexins: Extracellular protease inhibitors that are secreted from FIBROBLASTS. They form a covalent complex with SERINE PROTEASES and can mediate their cellular internalization and degradation.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Tauopathies: Neurodegenerative disorders involving deposition of abnormal tau protein isoforms (TAU PROTEINS) in neurons and glial cells in the brain. Pathological aggregations of tau proteins are associated with mutation of the tau gene on chromosome 17 in patients with ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DEMENTIA; PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS; progressive supranuclear palsy (SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE); and corticobasal degeneration.Amyloidogenic Proteins: Proteins that form the core of amyloid fibrils. For example, the core of amyloid A is formed from amyloid A protein, also known as serum amyloid A protein or SAA protein.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.ThiazolesProdromal Symptoms: Clinical or physiological indicators that precede the onset of disease.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Lewy Bodies: Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Clioquinol: A potentially neurotoxic 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative long used as a topical anti-infective, intestinal antiamebic, and vaginal trichomonacide. The oral preparation has been shown to cause subacute myelo-optic neuropathy and has been banned worldwide.Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Neuropil Threads: Abnormal structures located chiefly in distal dendrites and, along with NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES and SENILE PLAQUES, constitute the three morphological hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. Neuropil threads are made up of straight and paired helical filaments which consist of abnormally phosphorylated microtubule-associated tau proteins. It has been suggested that the threads have a major role in the cognitive impairment seen in Alzheimer disease.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Frontotemporal Dementia: The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Psychomotor Agitation: A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.Galantamine: A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in GALANTHUS and other AMARYLLIDACEAE. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE and TUBOCURARINE and has been studied as a treatment for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other central nervous system disorders.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Amyloidosis: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.Dementia, Multi-Infarct: Loss of higher cortical functions with retained awareness due to multiple cortical or subcortical CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Memory, judgment, attention span, and impulse control are often impaired, and may be accompanied by PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY; HEMIPARESIS; reflex abnormalities, and other signs of localized neurologic dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1060)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Apolipoprotein E2: One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Insulysin: An enzyme the catalyzes the degradation of insulin, glucagon and other polypeptides. It is inhibited by bacitracin, chelating agents EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, and by thiol-blocking reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide, but not phosphoramidon. (Eur J Biochem 1994;223:1-5) EC 3.4.24.56.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aphasia, Primary Progressive: A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins: A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Kluver-Bucy Syndrome: A neurobehavioral syndrome associated with bilateral medial temporal lobe dysfunction. Clinical manifestations include oral exploratory behavior; tactile exploratory behavior; hypersexuality; BULIMIA; MEMORY DISORDERS; placidity; and an inability to recognize objects or faces. This disorder may result from a variety of conditions, including CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; infections; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; PICK DISEASE OF THE BRAIN; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration: Heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy associated with neuronal loss, gliosis, and dementia. Patients exhibit progressive changes in social, behavioral, and/or language function. Multiple subtypes or forms are recognized based on presence or absence of TAU PROTEIN inclusions. FTLD includes three clinical syndromes: FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA, semantic dementia, and PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE NONFLUENT APHASIA.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Congo Red: An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.Clusterin: A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.Dominican Republic: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)LDL-Receptor Related Proteins: A family of proteins that share sequence similarity with the low density lipoprotein receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL).Neurocalcin: A neuronal calcium sensor protein that is expressed as several isoforms and can interact with ACTIN; TUBULIN; and CLATHRIN.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Gliosis: The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).CA2 Region, Hippocampal: A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)PrPC Proteins: Normal cellular isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) encoded by a chromosomal gene and found in normal and scrapie-infected brain tissue, and other normal tissue. PrPC are protease-sensitive proteins whose function is unknown. Posttranslational modification of PrPC into PrPSC leads to infectivity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein PrecursorsAcetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Norleucine: An unnatural amino acid that is used experimentally to study protein structure and function. It is structurally similar to METHIONINE, however it does not contain SULFUR.alpha-Synuclein: A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure: A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Caspase 6: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 7; CASPASE 8; and CASPASE 10. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Link to aggression and depression in Alzheimer's patients[edit]. A recent study looked for correlation between the quantitative ... "Increased neurofibrillary tangles in patients with Alzheimer disease with comorbid depression". American Journal of Geriatric ... and aggression frequently found in Alzheimer's patients. It was found that only an increase in neurofibrillary tangle load was ... Alzheimer disease with concomitant dementia with Lewy bodies (AD+DLB)[edit]. The degree of NFT involvement in AD is defined by ...
"Giving Alzheimer's Patients Their Way, Even Chocolate". New York Times. Retrieved 18 September 2017. Dementia patients at ... In a survey of patients with long-term care insurance, the direct and indirect costs of caring for an Alzheimer's disease ... "Effective Communication with Alzheimer's Patients". Care Communities. Retrieved 2011-08-09. ... assessed that "the patients' functional and neuropsychiatric impairments were the main patient factors which increased the ...
Patients suffering from Alzheimer's have shorter granule cell dendrites. Furthermore, the dendrites were less branched and had ... The specific neurofibrillary changes of dentate granule cells occur in patients suffering from Alzheimer's, Lewy body variant ... "Neurofibrillary tangles in the dentate granule cells of patients with Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease and progressive ... fewer spines than those in patients not suffering with Alzheimer's.[26] However, granule cell dendrites are not an essential ...
... not patients". BMJ. 347: f5595. doi:10.1136/bmj.f5595. "Factsheet 483: Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS)". Alzheimer's ... Alzheimer's Society Factsheet 483: Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS), Alzheimer's Society Protecting the Vulnerable? by ... that a detention of an incapacitated patient which did not comply with Article 5 of the European Convention on Human Rights had ...
Cosgrove, Joanna (11 January 2008). "A New Option for Alzheimer's Patients". Nutraceuticals World. Fayerman, Pamela (14 January ... in patients with Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials". Nutritional ... Souvenaid is a medical food in the form of a thick, yogurt-like drink that is marketed as helping people with Alzheimer's ... Fayerman, Pamela (19 July 2012). "The Souvenaid memory drink: What Alzheimer's experts say about the M.I.T.-patented elixir". ...
"Blue Light Helps Alzheimer's Patients Sleep." Laser Focus World 39.1 (2003): 8.Small Business Reference Center. Web. 4 Mar. ... An experiment measured the effect of sleep on patients who had Alzheimer's by seeing how well they slept after being exposed to ... when the patients were exposed to blue light they were able to sleep better throughout the night. In addition, the patients ... Alzheimer's disease affects the sleep of people who carry this disease by making it more difficult to fall and stay asleep. ...
A Purdue study in 2009 examined the effect of aquariums on the nutritional intake of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's ... In two facilities patients were exposed to aquaria, and the patients in the third facility were used as a control group and ... Gaidos, Susan (August 2009). "Study: Aquariums may pacify Alzheimer's patients". Perdue News Service. Retrieved 2010-03-17. ... the patients demonstrated a 12% reduction in self reported pre-treatment anxiety. In a 1985 study of dental patients, both ...
One such use is to tattoo Alzheimer patients with their names, so they may be easily identified if they go missing.[30] ... Hürriyet Daily News: Tattooist offers to tattoo names of Alzheimer patients in İzmir ... Tattoos were probably also used in ancient medicine as part of the treatment of the patient. In 1898, Daniel Fouquet, a medical ... The mastectomy tattoo will become just another option for post cancer patients and a truly personal way of regaining control ...
Herper, Matthew (September 26, 2017). "Axovant Alzheimer's Drug Fails To Help Patients". Forbes. Taylor, Nick Paul (7 June 2016 ... Feuerstein, Adam (8 June 2015). "Inside the Hedge Fund Club Pitching a New Alzheimer's Drug IPO". TheStreet. Pollack, Andy (11 ... Garde, Damian (26 September 2017). "Another Alzheimer's failure: Axovant's drug flops in late-stage trial". STAT News. ... June 2015). "Shares of Axovant, Alzheimer's Drug Developer, Surge on Trading Debut". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 November ...
"Microdose lithium treatment stabilized cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease". Curr Alzheimer Res. 10 (1): ... such as alcoholism and Alzheimer's disease. While lithium orotate is capable of providing lithium to the body, like lithium ...
which claims Alzheimer's Association guidance as a source *^ Inglis, F. (2002). "The tolerability and safety of cholinesterase ... To treat cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. There is some evidence to suggest efficacy in treating positive ... To treat Alzheimer's disease, the Lewy body dementias and Parkinson's disease. In these neurodegenerative conditions AChEIs are ... When used in the central nervous system to alleviate neurological symptoms, such as rivastigmine in Alzheimer's disease, all ...
Carlesimo, G.A.; Oscarberman, M. (1992). "Memory deficits in Alzheimer's patients: a comprehensive review". Neuropsychology ... Amnesic patients do as well on perceptual priming tasks as healthy patients, however they show some difficulties completing ... Perhaps the first use of semantic priming in neurological patients was with stroke patients with aphasia. In one study, ... Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, have been studied extensively as far as priming goes ...
... bradycardia was reported more frequently in galantamine-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients, but was rarely ... It is hypothesized that this action might relieve some of the symptoms of Alzheimer's. Galantamine in its pure form is a white ... Galantamine is indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate vascular dementia and Alzheimer's. In the United States, it is ... This hypothesis forms the basis for use of galantamine as a cholinergic enhancer in the treatment of Alzheimer's. Galantamine ...
Gulaj E, Pawlak K, Bien B, Pawlak D (2010). "Kynurenine and its metabolites in Alzheimer's disease patients". Advances in ... Kynurenine production is increased in Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease where its metabolites are associated with ... relevance for kynurenic acid synthesis in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls". J Psychiatry Neurosci. 37 (1): 53- ... "Plasma kynurenine and related measures in tic disorder patients". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 16: 71-7. doi:10.1007 ...
The patient in the family. New York: Routledge. Lindemann Nelson, Jamie; Lindemann Nelson, Hilde (1996). Alzheimer's: answers ... The Patient in the Family (New York: Routledge, 1995) Lindemann Nelson, Jamie. Rationing Sanity: Ethical Issues in Managed ... Alzheimer's: Answers to Hard Questions for Families (New York: Doubleday, 1996)(Paperback edition, 1997; Dutch edition, ... "Alzheimer's Disease and Socially Extended Mentation," Metaphilosophy 40, nos. 3-4 (July, 2009): 462-474 Lindemann Nelson, Jamie ...
Alzheimer's: Answers to Hard Questions for Families, and The Patient in the Family. Lindemann has also edited five collections ... The Patient in the Family. New York: Routledge, 1995 (with James Lindemann Nelson) Michigan State University/philosophy/Hilde ... Alzheimer's: Answers to Hard Questions for Families. New York: Doubleday, 1996 (with James Lindemann Nelson). In Dutch ... The review of Holding and Letting Go: The Social Practice of Personal Identities and Alzheimer's Answer to Hard Questions for ...
Alzheimer disease Decrease in right medial temporal cortex 10+10 [17] Radioligands[edit]. Labeled with the radioisotope carbon- ... Panic disorder in treated and untreated patients Reducing in binding in raphe in both treated and untreated. Reduced binding in ... Human WAY-100635 binding neuroimaging studies (patients compared to healthy control subjects). What. Result. Subjects. Ref. ... "A positron emission tomography study of 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A receptors in Alzheimer disease". American Journal of Geriatric ...
For example, BACE1-AS ncRNA expression is upregulated in Alzheimer's disease patients and results in increased stability of ... Alzheimer's Disease (AD)[edit]. Main article: Alzheimer's Disease. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of ... Most patients retain cognitive function and sensory neurons are generally unaffected. Patients are often diagnosed after the ... "Epigenetic modifications in frontal cortex from Alzheimer's disease and bipolar disorder patients". primary. Translational ...
The E4 allele of EPOE contributes to the plaque buildup of Alzheimer's. Genetic testing may help patients take early ... It might be possible to prevent or cure Alzheimer's disease and coronary heart disease. APO genes like APOE influence fat and ...
Additional studies on arachidonic acid supplementation for Alzheimer's patients are needed. Another study indicates that air ... Alzheimer's disease[edit]. Studies on arachidonic acid and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is mixed, with one study of ... In adults, the disturbed metabolism of ARA may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and bipolar ... Therefore, the safety of arachidonic acid supplementation in patients suffering from cancer, inflammatory, or other diseased ...
... directed attention and executive functions in early Alzheimer's disease patients". Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. ... "Core candidate neurochemical and imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease". Alzheimer's & Dementia. 4 (1): 38-48. PMID ... In Alzheimer's disease (and other forms of dementia), the hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to suffer damage ... For example, patients asked to guess which of two faces they have seen most recently may give the correct answer most of the ...
"A neuronal antigen in the brains of Alzheimer patients". Science. 232 (4750): 648-650. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 3083509. Wolozin, B ... Wolozin is also experienced in the study of human brain samples or cell lines from patients. His specific research interests ... specific epitopes of microtubule associated protein tau that are abundant in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's ... The Wolozin laboratory has extended this work to explain the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease Work from the Wolozin ...
"Antibody reduces harmful brain amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's patients". Science Daily. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 1 September ... is shown to significantly reduce harmful beta-amyloid plaques in patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease. 1 September - ... 21 April - BioViva USA reports the first successful use of gene therapy to extend the length of telomeres in a human patient. ... 9 October - Nivolumab is shown to more than double the one-year survival rate of patients with head and neck cancer compared ...
Chapman J, Sela BA, Wertman E, Michaelson DM (1988). "Antibodies to ganglioside GM1 in patients with Alzheimer's disease". ... Patients with Anti-GalNAc-GD1a antibodies were less common but had more severe disease (rapidly progressive, predominantly ... In Japan, levels to GM1 were elevated in patients with prodromal diarrhea. Titers to GM1 in other diseases (rheumatoid ... Anti-GQ1b IgG levels were elevated in patients with ophthalmoplegia in Guillain-Barré syndrome Microbial agents include: ...
Compared to currently approved drugs prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, THC is a considerably superior ... the patient's response is not always truthful".[72] ... Link Between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's ... implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease. ...
Diabetes mellitus a guide to patient care. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2007. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-58255-732-8. . ... also been associated with an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia through disease processes such as Alzheimer's ... Diabetes mellitus a guide to patient care. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2007. p. 201. ISBN 978-1-58255-732-8. . ... Colucci RA (January 2011). "Bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes: a viable option". Postgraduate Medicine. 123 (1 ...
A neuropsychologist may test the patients memory and cognition. This exam may rule out another diagnosis, such as Alzheimers ... Patients who have had symptoms for less than a year or have mild to no dementia do better [2]. Men, and all patients of ... The neurologist will consider whether the patient has another disease that mimics NPH, such as Alzheimers disease or brain ... The patient then is admitted to the hospital. Upon admission, a physical therapist evaluates the patients gait to establish a ...
Alzheimers disease is a rare form of dementia that presents unique challenges. Learn more about causes, diagnosis and how to ... Visit Our SchoolsEducators at Mayo Clinic train tomorrows leaders to deliver compassionate, high-value, safe patient care. ... Alzheimers disease has a tremendous impact at any age. But people with young-onset Alzheimers disease may face some unique ... Young-onset Alzheimers: When symptoms begin before age 65. When Alzheimers begins in middle age, misdiagnosis may be more ...
For Alzheimers patients and their families, desperate for an effective treatment for the epidemic disease, theres hope from ... and one of a brain damaged by advanced Alzheimers disease. Alzheimers patients and their families, desperate for an effective ... The number of Alzheimers patients in the U.S. is expected to jump from the current 5.4 million to 16 million by 2050. Costs ... The third study drug could be Lillys BACE inhibitor, now in midstage testing in Alzheimers patients. The company expects by ...
Lighting that mimics natural night-day patterns might improve sleep and mood problems for Alzheimers patients living in ... home/alzheimers center/ alzheimers a-z list/ the right lighting can calm alzheimers patients article ... "One of the main reasons Alzheimers disease patients are institutionalized is lack of sleep and behavior issues," explained ... An estimated 5.7 million Americans have Alzheimers disease, the most common form of dementia, according to the Alzheimers ...
Family members or professional caregivers who do everything for older adults with Alzheimers disease may just be wanting to ... Diet and Alzheimer s Disease. Alzheimers begins with forgetfulness, but over time affects speech and coordination along with ... Genetics of Alzheimer s disease. There are numerous genes that have been discovered that are associated with Alzheimer s ... Rust observed several caregivers and Alzheimers patients in an experimental setting where they were asked to prepare a meal ...
Researchers reviewing drugs to help in rehabilitation after stroke propose antidepressants or drugs used in Alzheimers as ... "Could Alzheimers drugs or antidepressants help stroke patients?." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 23 Oct. 2015. Web. ... There is growing evidence that drugs used to treat depression and Alzheimers disease also can help patients recover from ... Brazier, Y. (2015, October 23). "Could Alzheimers drugs or antidepressants help stroke patients?." Medical News Today. ...
Researchers found people with Alzheimers who consumed probiotics every day for 12 weeks showed improvements in cognitive ... "Probiotics may boost learning, memory for Alzheimers patients." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 11 Nov. 2016. Web.. 22 ... Whiteman, H. (2016, November 11). "Probiotics may boost learning, memory for Alzheimers patients." Medical News Today. ... The researchers found that Alzheimers patients who consumed milk enriched with beneficial live bacteria every day for 12 weeks ...
... in recognition of World Alzheimers Day, GTX Corp, a company that focuses on customizable, miniaturized GPS solutions, ... GPS Shoes now available for Alzheimers Patients. by Courtney Boyd Myers - in Shareables ... Its well-known that Alzheimer patients are at risk of becoming physically lost and thus vulnerable to injury, dehydration and ... What you may not know is that because paranoia is a symptom of the disease, many patients will remove objects placed upon them ...
Patients, family members, the entire community is invited to Pathways Memory Care Thursday May 11 at 7 p.m. for a preview of ... Trend shows patients with early-stage Alzheimers disease arent being treated Managing expectations for Alzheimers during the ... Music sparks memories in Alzheimers patients. By Haley Hernandez - Health Reporter Posted: 4:17 PM, May 11, 2017. Updated: 4: ... HOUSTON - Patients, family members and the entire community are invited to Pathways Memory Care at 7 p.m. Thursday for a ...
As people continue to live longer lives on average, cases of Alzheimers disease and other types of dementia are on the rise as ... Unfortunately, there is no cure for Alzheimers disease at... ... How to Help Alzheimers Patients Stay Active. Co-authored by ... As with most diseases, Alzheimers patients have good days and bad days. Just because a patient vigorously resists attending a ... can make it more comforting and pleasurable for the patient.[4] *Alzheimers patients tend to be more active and responsive ...
Alzheimers buddy program engages patients, teaches students. Published March 04, 2014. Associated Press ... About 75 percent of Northwestern students who participate become doctors in fields that deal with Alzheimers patients, said ... Alzheimers is not Dan, its just a disease that he has. And so, that was huge for us ... realizing we have a lot of living to ... Alzheimers wreaks havoc, he said. But Winship has grown to see it as a chance to meld his loves of medicine and teaching. ...
... just 12 weeks is sufficient to yield a small but significant improvement in the cognitive performance of Alzheimers patients. ... controlled clinical trial on a total of 52 women and men with Alzheimers between 60 and 95 years of age. Half of the patients ... in the blood of the Alzheimer patients, and likewise a reduction in two common measures (called "Homeostatic Model Assessment ... period of just 12 weeks is enough to yield a moderate but significant improvement in the score of elderly Alzheimers patients ...
The hope is that the electrical stimulation delivered by the device could improve memory and slow cognitive decline in patients ... the sixth patient in a multicenter trial of the experimental therapy. ... surgeons at Johns Hopkins implanted a pacemaker-like device into the brain of a patient with mild Alzheimers, ... Last month, surgeons at Johns Hopkins implanted a pacemaker-like device into the brain of a patient with mild Alzheimers, the ...
An implant that delivers electrical stimulation could help improve the memory of Alzheimers patients by stimulating the neural ... In Alzheimers patients, brain tissue atrophies and the reduction of memory and thinking skills increase over time. According ... An implant that delivers electrical stimulation could help improve the memory of Alzheimers patients by stimulating the neural ... Brain pacemaker delivers constant stimulation for Alzheimers patients. ...
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Some patients with early or mid-stage Alzheimer's get up on stage and perform improv comedy in an experiment to see if ... To an Alzheimers patient, theres nothing funny about forgetting to turn off the oven, losing a telephone number or misplacing ... Patients in the early and middle stages of the disease probably still have the brain plasticity to create new neurons and ... Even if a person in the advanced stages of Alzheimers has just a syllable or a gesture left, that can be woven into the story ...
"Various people are working on a blood or spinal fluid test for Alzheimers," says Neil Buckholtz, head of Alzheimers research ... But in Alzheimers, a false signal may be given to start a mass suicide in the brain that spans decades and eventually kills ... Alzheimers is the cause of half of all dementia and is a contributor in another one-fourth of all cases, researchers estimate ... Typically, its patients are dead within four to eight years after the diagnosis, although some live as long as 25 years. ...
... published in the Western Journal of Nursing Research shows that the presence of a dog can help reduce agitation in Alzheimer s ... patients., , , , The findings indicate that dogs can ea... ... Therapy Dogs Can Help Alzheimer s Patients. WEBWIRE - Tuesday, ... Alzheimer s patients need special care and attention. Many experts say that therapy dogs can give comfort to patients with ... The findings indicate that dogs can ease and comfort Alzheimer s patients through companionship a treatment known as dog ...
... depression can speed the decline of cognitive skills and the ability to perform daily tasks among individuals with Alzheimers. ... The relationship between Alzheimers and depression is strong as almost half of Alzheimers patients have depression. ... and daily functioning in 517 patients with probable Alzheimers. Patients were assessed prospectively every six months for more ... Depression Treatment May Help Alzheimers Patients Keep Independence. By Rick Nauert PhD Associate News Editor ...
An estimated 5.5 million Americans were living with Alzheimers disease in 2017, reports the Alzheimers Association. Ten ... Do not try to force patients to see things through your eyes. They simply may not be able to do so, and any efforts may lead to ... Husband with Alzheimers forgot he was married to his wife of 38 years. He proposed, and they married again. ... Elaine Schreiber, 79, is one of those with Alzheimers. Not long ago, I spoke with her husband, Martin, a former governor of ...
This assisted living facility is designed to look like the 1940s so Alzheimers patients feel at home. Chris Weller ... Alzheimers patients can often feel afraid in environments theyd otherwise feel totally comfortable. There is currently no ... Though people with Alzheimers disease and dementia may forget pieces of their recent past, they tend to remember the bulk of ... SEE ALSO: Heres what a cure for Alzheimers disease might actually look like NOW WATCH: This incredible animation breaks ...
Exercise And Melatonin Help Reduce Symptoms For Alzheimers Disease Patients. by editor ... research indicates that a little physical exercise in addition to some melatonin might work to help out Alzheimers patients. ... A study carried out on mice with three different mutations of Alzheimers disease found that the combination of physical ... However, clinical studies found signs of physical and mental benefits in sufferers of Alzheimers resulting from both ...
The distribution of white matter brain abnormalities in some patients after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) closely ... "Sleep-wake disturbances are among the earliest findings of Alzheimers patients, and are also seen in a subset of MTBI patients ... Concussion patients show Alzheimers-like brain abnormalities. June 21, 2013. June 18, 2013. ScienceBlog.com ... problem seen in MTBI patients has been found to predict which patients with memory problems will go on to develop Alzheimers ...
... a trait that can surely help Alzheimers patients.. A brain that has been impacted by Alzheimers disease cannot efficiently ... In regard to helping Alzheimers patients, the ketone bodies, which are given off when coconut oils fatty acids are ... Alzheimers disease is a neurodegenerative brain condition that comes with a multibillion-dollar per year cost to the American ... The end message with coconut oil and Alzheimers disease. Coconut oil provides an alternative fuel source that the brain can ...
An episode of delirium rapidly accelerates cognitive decline and memory loss in Alzheimers patients, according to a study by ... Fong further said that all elderly patients, but particularly patients who have already been diagnosed with Alzheimers disease ... "The cognitive rate of decline was found to be three times more rapid among those Alzheimers patients who had had an episode of ... Fong added: "In other words, the amount of decline you might expect to see in an Alzheimers patient over the course of 18 ...
  • The American Academy of Neurology, an association of more than 18,000 neurologists and neuroscience professionals, is dedicated to improving patient care through education and research. (prohealth.com)
  • A previously unobserved condition in some Alzheimer's patients that physicians are calling 'motion blindness' is a big reason such patients become disoriented and lose their way, asserts a University of Rochester study in the March 23 issue of Neurology . (rochester.edu)
  • We are pioneering immuno-neurology and working closely with our partner AbbVie to bring AL002 to these patients in need as quickly as possible. (marketwatch.com)
  • Previous research had uncovered a small molecule called DAPH-1 that disrupted amyloid-beta-the type of amyloid found in Alzheimer's patients. (nih.gov)
  • In the 856-person trial, all patients had amyloid-beta at baseline and were randomized to placebo or to one of five active treatment groups, from 2.5 mg/kg bi-weekly to 10 mg/kg bi-weekly. (lww.com)
  • In a new clinical trial, scientists show that a daily dose of probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium bacteria taken over a period of just 12 weeks is enough to yield a moderate but significant improvement in the score of elderly Alzheimer's patients on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale, a standard measure of cognitive impairment. (eurekalert.org)
  • Authors say the data suggests it may be more difficult for clinicians to detect AD in its mild to moderate stages among living Hispanic patients compared to non-Hispanic patients. (ucsd.edu)
  • This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, a soak in the tub is not an option for a frail, confused dementia patient - opt instead for sponge baths or a handheld shower head and a shower seat. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Zetterberg agreed, and envisioned that even more sensitive tests may one day identify patients who would benefit from oligomer-based treatments, and allow pharmaceutical companies to track the effects of oligomer-busting drugs. (alzforum.org)
  • In addition to thinking and memory problems, dementia patients typically experience symptoms such as sleep disturbance, irritability, anxiety and wandering. (medicinenet.com)
  • The parahippocampus is important for this process, and involvement of the parahippocampus may, in part, explain the memory problems that occur in many patients after concussion. (scienceblog.com)
  • Over this 15-year period, MADRC staff conducted a number of memory tests on patients, which was done on at least three occasions, separated by intervals of approximately six months. (thaindian.com)
  • In Alzheimer's patients, synapses in the cortex and hippocampus, which are involved in learning and memory, are damaged. (innovations-report.com)
  • In patients with AD, musical memory has been noticed to be well-preserved and constituting a relatively independent part of memory. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Their musicality is assessed with a short version of Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia which contains listening tasks that test the patients' memory, rhythm recognition and pitch discrimination. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some classes are specifically for professionals, but nonprofessional family members could also benefit from a class in caring for memory patients. (distance-education.org)
  • Although the AD E+ and AD E- groups did not differ significantly at the initial testing, the AD E+ patients showed greater deterioration on visual, praxic and expressive speech functions as well as in category memory. (springer.com)
  • That's because the foods that Lawrence photographs and their accompanying scents are based on interviews she conducted with Alzheimer's patients about their food memories, and the sensory and olfactory components are there to enhance memory retrieval. (cbc.ca)
  • They found that mild-to-moderately affected Hispanic patients with AD were significantly less impaired than non-Hispanic patients with AD, relative to their respective culturally appropriate control groups, on measurements of memory, attention and executive functioning. (ucsd.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the P300 is responsive to the deterioration of language, memory, and executive functions observed in AD patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Large randomized trials are warranted to evaluate the effects of treatments such as bright light therapy and engaging activities in the reduction of CRDs in AD patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Antihypertensive treatments targeting the pulsatile component of blood pressure may reduce the vascular contribution to cognitive impairment in AD patients or in individuals at risk of AD. (ucsd.edu)
  • Although many specifics regarding coverage criteria and overall costs to the program remain vague, it's important to understand that the coverage is not for the AD condition but for treatments from which patients with AD can benefit (i.e., pharmacologic, physical, occupational, speech-language, and other therapies). (allnurses.com)
  • Findings showed a significant increase in risk of death for patients who continued taking antipsychotic medication. (eurekalert.org)
  • Commonly prescribed antipsychotic medications used to treat Alzheimer's patients with delusions, aggression, hallucinations, and other similar symptoms can benefit some patients, but they appear to be no more effective than a placebo when adverse side effects are considered, according to the first phase of a large-scale clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (emaxhealth.com)
  • More recently, attention has been focused on the development of potent melatonin analogs with prolonged effects, which were employed in clinical trials in sleep-disturbed or depressed patients in doses considerably higher than those employed for melatonin. (mdpi.com)
  • We must avoid the use of these drugs as a potentially dangerous 'chemical cosh' to patients who would be better off without it. (eurekalert.org)
  • The report come just days after an independent investigation found that almost 2,000 dementia patients a year are being killed by 'chemical cosh' drugs given to keep them quiet. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Half of the patients daily received 200 ml milk enriched with four probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus , L. casei , L. fermentum , and Bifidobacterium bifidum (approximately 400 billion bacteria per species), while the other half received untreated milk. (eurekalert.org)
  • While a number of AD transgenic mouse models have been created, based on the various mutations identified in patients, the trouble is that these models still utilize the cross-species approach of studying "diseased" mouse neurons expressing mutated human genes. (nature.com)