A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
Sarcoidosis affecting predominantly the lungs, the site most frequently involved and most commonly causing morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by sharply circumscribed granulomas in the alveolar, bronchial, and vascular walls, composed of tightly packed cells derived from the mononuclear phagocyte system. The clinical symptoms when present are dyspnea upon exertion, nonproductive cough, and wheezing. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p431)
A condition sometimes occurring after tooth extraction, particularly after traumatic extraction, resulting in a dry appearance of the exposed bone in the socket, due to disintegration or loss of the blood clot. It is basically a focal osteomyelitis without suppuration and is accompanied by severe pain (alveolalgia) and foul odor. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.
A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.
A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A sulfanilamide antibacterial agent.
Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
A family of gram-positive, saprophytic bacteria occurring in soil and aquatic environments.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhaled rare metal BERYLLIUM or its soluble salts which are used in a wide variety of industry including alloys, ceramics, radiographic equipment, and vacuum tubes. Berylliosis is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction in the upper airway leading to BRONCHIOLITIS; PULMONARY EDEMA; and pneumonia.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Difficult or labored breathing.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: experimental production in calves with antigens of Micropolyspora faeni. (1/291)

Pneumonitis was induced in calves by exposure to aerosols of Micropolyspora faeni with or without prior sensitization of the animals by subcutaneous injection of antigen. The pneumonitis primarily involved centrolobular areas and was characterized by alveolar septal thickening and loss of air space by cellular infiltration. Vasculitis and focal haemorrhage occurred in certain individuals and haemoproteinaceous exudate appeared within septa and alveolar lumina. The pneumonitis was compared with human farmer's lung, pneumonitis of housed cattle and other experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitides.  (+info)

Mushroom worker's lung resulting from indoor cultivation of Pleurotus osteatus. (2/291)

Indoor cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus osteatus lead to an outbreak of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in two workers. High titer of indirect fluorescent antibody and positive precipitins against basidiospores of P. osteatus were demonstrated in sera of the patients. Mushroom workers should protect themselves from the basidiospores, being aware of their pathogenicity.  (+info)

Compliance and stability of the bronchial wall in a model of allergen-induced lung inflammation. (3/291)

Airway wall remodeling in response to inflammation might alter load on airway smooth muscle and/or change airway wall stability. We therefore determined airway wall compliance and closing pressures in an animal model. Weanling pigs were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA; ip and sc, n = 6) and were subsequently challenged three times with OVA aerosol. Control pigs received 0.9% NaCl (n = 4) in place of OVA aerosol. Bronchoconstriction in vivo was assessed from lung resistance and dynamic compliance. Semistatic airway compliance was recorded ex vivo in isolated segments of bronchus, after the final OVA aerosol or 0.9% NaCl challenge. Internally or externally applied pressure needed to close bronchial segments was determined in the absence or presence of carbachol (1 microM). Sensitized pig lungs exhibited immediate bronchoconstriction to OVA aerosol and also peribronchial accumulations of monocytes and granulocytes. Compliance was reduced in sensitized bronchi in vitro (P < 0.01), and closing pressures were increased (P < 0.05). In the presence of carbachol, closing pressures of control and sensitized bronchi were not different. We conclude that sensitization and/or inflammation increases airway load and airway stability.  (+info)

Regulatory effects of endogenous protease inhibitors in acute lung inflammatory injury. (4/291)

Inflammatory lung injury is probably regulated by the balance between proteases and protease inhibitors together with oxidants and antioxidants, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Rat tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-2 (TIMP-2) and secreted leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) were cloned, expressed, and shown to be up-regulated at the levels of mRNA and protein during lung inflammation in rats induced by deposition of IgG immune complexes. Using immunoaffinity techniques, endogenous TIMP-2 in the inflamed lung was shown to exist as a complex with 72- and 92-kDa metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9). In inflamed lung both TIMP-2 and SLPI appeared to exist as enzyme inhibitor complexes. Lung expression of both TIMP-2 and SLPI appeared to involve endothelial and epithelial cells as well as macrophages. To assess how these endogenous inhibitors might affect the lung inflammatory response, animals were treated with polyclonal rabbit Abs to rat TIMP-2 or SLPI. This intervention resulted in significant intensification of lung injury (as revealed by extravascular leak of albumin) and substantially increased neutrophil accumulation, as determined by cell content in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. These events were correlated with increased levels of C5a-related chemotactic activity in BAL fluids, while BAL levels of TNF-alpha and chemokines were not affected by treatment with anti-TIMP-2 or anti-SLPI. The data suggest that endogenous TIMP-2 and SLPI dynamically regulate the intensity of lung inflammatory injury, doing so at least in part by affecting the generation of the inflammatory mediator, C5a.  (+info)

Mycobacterium sp. as a possible cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in machine workers. (5/291)

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in workers exposed to metal removal fluids (MRFs) is increasing. This study supports the hypothesis that aerosolized mycobacteria colonizing the MRFs likely cause the disease. Three case studies of HP outbreaks among metal workers showed potentially high exposures to a rare and newly proposed Mycobacterium species. Retrospective review of samples submitted to our laboratory showed an association between presence of mycobacteria and HP.  (+info)

Expression of mucosa-related integrin alphaEbeta7 on alveolar T cells in interstitial lung diseases. (6/291)

The expression of alphaEbeta7 integrin has been related to the selective retention of lymphocytes in mucosal tissues of gut, urogenital tract and lung. To identify potential disease-associated alphaEbeta7 expression patterns on cells accounting for lymphocytic alveolitis in interstitial lung disease (ILD), alphaE expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets was evaluated by dual-colour flow cytometry in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n = 18), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP; n = 20) and sarcoidosis (n = 44) in comparison with healthy controls (n = 15). In both healthy individuals and all patient groups the proportion of alphaE-bearing T cells in peripheral blood was < 2%, whereas the vast majority of alveolar CD8+ T cells consistently co-expressed alphaE. Absolute alveolar CD8+alphaE+ cell numbers/ml were up to 30-fold increased in HP patients. Proportions of alphaE-bearing CD4+ cells in BALF were significantly elevated in IPF (74.0 +/- 2.7%) and HP (70.0 +/- 2.4%) compared with normals (30.0 +/- 1.8%) (mean +/- s.e.m.; P < 0.01). In sarcoidosis, the alphaE expression on BALF CD4+ cells displayed subgroup dependency: proportions significantly lower than normal were noted in chest radiographic stage I (14.3 +/- 1.5%), but increased proportions in stages II (50.0 +/- 3.8%) and III (64.0 +/- 4.8%). Correlations between common markers of T cell activation or BALF transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta ) bioactivity and alphaE expression were not noted. We conclude that the vast majority of alveolar CD8+ T cells consistently express alphaEbeta7 and that distinct patterns of alphaEbeta7 expression on alveolar CD4+ lymphocytes in sarcoidosis are related to the diverse manifestations of the sarcoid inflammatory process in the lung.  (+info)

Viral infection modulates expression of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. (7/291)

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a granulomatous, inflammatory lung disease caused by inhalation of organic Ags, most commonly thermophilic actinomycetes that cause farmer's lung disease. The early response to Ag is an increase in neutrophils in the lung, whereas the late response is a typical Th1-type granulomatous disease. Many patients who develop disease report a recent viral respiratory infection. These studies were undertaken to determine whether viruses can augment the inflammatory responses in HP. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the thermophilic bacteria Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (SR) for 3 consecutive days per wk for 3 wk. Some mice were exposed to SR at 2 wk after infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), whereas others were exposed to SR after exposure to saline alone or to heat-inactivated RSV. SR-treated mice developed a typical, early neutrophil response and a late granulomatous inflammatory response. Up-regulation of IFN-gamma and IL-2 gene expression was also found during the late response. These responses were augmented by recent RSV infection but not by heat-inactivated RSV. Mice with a previous RSV infection also had a greater early neutrophil response to SR, with increased macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2, murine equivalent of IL-8) release in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These studies suggest that viral infection can augment both the early and late inflammatory responses in HP.  (+info)

Polarized type 1 cytokine profile in bronchoalveolar lavage T cells of patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. (8/291)

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is characterized by an inflammatory lymphocytic alveolitis comprised of both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Animal models suggest that HP is facilitated by overproduction of IFN-gamma, and that IL-10 ameliorates severity of the disease, indicating a Th1-type response. To determine whether a Th1 phenotype in HP also exists clinically, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood (PB) T cells were obtained from HP individuals and analyzed for Th1 vs Th2 cytokine profiles. It was determined that soluble OKT3-stimulated BAL T cells cocultured with alveolar macrophages produced more IFN-gamma and less IL-10 than PB T cells cocultured with monocytes, but no difference was observed in IL-4 production. The monocytic cells did not account for this difference, as CD80 and CD86 expressions were similar, and coculturing PB T cells with alveolar macrophages resulted in no difference in IFN-gamma production. Similarly, there was no difference in IL-12 production between stimulated BAL or PB T cells; however, addition of rIL-12 significantly increased production of IFN-gamma by BAL T cells, but not by PB T cells. This effect was due to a difference in IL-12R expression. High affinity IL-12R were only present in association with BAL T cells. These studies indicate that clinical HP is characterized by a predominance of IFN-gamma-producing T cells, perhaps resulting from a reduction in IL-10 production and an increase in high affinity IL-12R compared with blood T cells.  (+info)

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is a type of lung inflammation that occurs in response to inhaling organic dusts or mold spores that contain allergens. It is also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This condition typically affects people who have been repeatedly exposed to the allergen over a period of time, such as farmers, bird fanciers, and workers in certain industries.

The symptoms of extrinsic allergic alveolitis can vary but often include cough, shortness of breath, fever, and fatigue. These symptoms may develop gradually or suddenly, depending on the frequency and intensity of exposure to the allergen. In some cases, the condition may progress to cause permanent lung damage if it is not treated promptly.

Diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and pulmonary function tests. In some cases, blood tests or bronchoscopy with lavage may also be used to help confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for extrinsic allergic alveolitis typically involves avoiding further exposure to the allergen, as well as using medications such as corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization and oxygen therapy may be necessary. With prompt and appropriate treatment, most people with extrinsic allergic alveolitis can recover fully and avoid long-term lung damage.

Pulmonary fibrosis is a specific type of lung disease that results from the thickening and scarring of the lung tissues, particularly those in the alveoli (air sacs) and interstitium (the space around the air sacs). This scarring makes it harder for the lungs to properly expand and transfer oxygen into the bloodstream, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and eventually respiratory failure. The exact cause of pulmonary fibrosis can vary, with some cases being idiopathic (without a known cause) or related to environmental factors, medications, medical conditions, or genetic predisposition.

"Bird Fancier's Lung" is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, which is a lung disease that results from an immune system reaction to inhaled dust particles. In the case of Bird Fancier's Lung, the dust particles come from bird droppings or feathers and are inhaled by people who keep birds as pets or work with them in aviaries or breeding facilities.

The immune system of susceptible individuals mounts an inflammatory response to the inhaled antigens, leading to symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, fever, and fatigue. Over time, repeated exposure can lead to scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, which can impair lung function and cause irreversible damage.

The medical definition of Bird Fancier's Lung is: "A hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by inhalation of antigens derived from avian proteins, most commonly found in people who keep birds as pets or work with them in aviaries or breeding facilities."

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a type of clinical specimen obtained through a procedure called bronchoalveolar lavage. This procedure involves inserting a bronchoscope into the lungs and instilling a small amount of saline solution into a specific area of the lung, then gently aspirating the fluid back out. The fluid that is recovered is called bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

BAL fluid contains cells and other substances that are present in the lower respiratory tract, including the alveoli (the tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs). By analyzing BAL fluid, doctors can diagnose various lung conditions, such as pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and lung cancer. They can also monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions by comparing the composition of BAL fluid before and after treatment.

BAL fluid is typically analyzed for its cellular content, including the number and type of white blood cells present, as well as for the presence of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. The fluid may also be tested for various proteins, enzymes, and other biomarkers that can provide additional information about lung health and disease.

Pulmonary alveoli, also known as air sacs, are tiny clusters of air-filled pouches located at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. They play a crucial role in the process of gas exchange during respiration. The thin walls of the alveoli, called alveolar membranes, allow oxygen from inhaled air to pass into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to pass into the alveoli to be exhaled out of the body. This vital function enables the lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body and remove waste products like carbon dioxide.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a medical procedure in which a small amount of fluid is introduced into a segment of the lung and then gently suctioned back out. The fluid contains cells and other materials that can be analyzed to help diagnose various lung conditions, such as inflammation, infection, or cancer.

The procedure is typically performed during bronchoscopy, which involves inserting a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera on the end through the nose or mouth and into the lungs. Once the bronchoscope is in place, a small catheter is passed through the bronchoscope and into the desired lung segment. The fluid is then introduced and suctioned back out, and the sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis.

BAL can be helpful in diagnosing various conditions such as pneumonia, interstitial lung diseases, alveolar proteinosis, and some types of cancer. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for certain lung conditions. However, like any medical procedure, it carries some risks, including bleeding, infection, and respiratory distress. Therefore, it is important that the procedure is performed by a qualified healthcare professional in a controlled setting.

Farmer's lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, which is a lung inflammation caused by an allergic reaction to inhaled organic dusts. It is commonly associated with farmers and agricultural workers who are exposed to moldy hay, straw, or grain. When these materials are disturbed, such as during farming activities like harvesting, baling, or cleaning, the mold spores become airborne and can be inhaled, leading to an immune response in susceptible individuals.

The symptoms of Farmer's lung typically include cough, shortness of breath, fever, fatigue, and chest tightness, which usually occur within 4-6 hours after exposure. The condition can cause permanent lung damage if not properly diagnosed and managed with avoidance of exposures and/or medication. It is important for farmers and agricultural workers to use appropriate personal protective equipment, such as masks, and to ensure that their work environments are well-ventilated to reduce the risk of developing Farmer's lung.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Systemic Scleroderma, also known as Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), is a rare, chronic autoimmune disease that involves the abnormal growth and accumulation of collagen in various connective tissues, blood vessels, and organs throughout the body. This excessive collagen production leads to fibrosis or scarring, which can cause thickening, hardening, and tightening of the skin and damage to internal organs such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract.

Systemic Scleroderma is characterized by two main features: small blood vessel abnormalities (Raynaud's phenomenon) and fibrosis. The disease can be further classified into two subsets based on the extent of skin involvement: limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc).

Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis affects the skin distally, typically involving fingers, hands, forearms, feet, lower legs, and face. It is often associated with Raynaud's phenomenon, calcinosis, telangiectasias, and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis involves more extensive skin thickening and fibrosis that spreads proximally to affect the trunk, upper arms, thighs, and face. It is commonly associated with internal organ involvement, such as interstitial lung disease, heart disease, and kidney problems.

The exact cause of Systemic Scleroderma remains unknown; however, it is believed that genetic, environmental, and immunological factors contribute to its development. There is currently no cure for Systemic Scleroderma, but various treatments can help manage symptoms, slow disease progression, and improve quality of life.

Sarcoidosis, pulmonary is a specific form of sarcoidosis, which is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas (small clusters of immune cells) in one or more organs. In pulmonary sarcoidosis, these granulomas primarily affect the lungs, but can also involve the lymph nodes within the chest. The condition is often asymptomatic, but some individuals may experience symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. Pulmonary sarcoidosis can lead to complications like pulmonary fibrosis (scarring of lung tissue) and chronic interstitial lung disease, which can impact lung function and quality of life. The exact cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, but it is believed to involve an abnormal immune response triggered by exposure to certain antigens, such as environmental particles or infectious agents.

"Dry socket" is a common term used in dentistry to describe a condition that can occur after a tooth extraction. The medical term for dry socket is "alveolar osteitis." This condition arises when the blood clot that forms in the socket where the tooth was removed becomes dislodged or fails to form properly, exposing the bone and nerves underneath.

Dry socket can be quite painful, causing a throbbing sensation that may radiate to the ear, neck, or temple. It can also lead to bad breath and an unpleasant taste in the mouth. The exact cause of dry socket is not entirely clear, but several factors may increase the risk, including smoking, poor oral hygiene, using birth control pills, and having a history of dry socket.

Treatment for dry socket typically involves cleaning the socket and placing a medicated dressing to promote healing and relieve pain. Over-the-counter pain medications and warm compresses may also help alleviate discomfort. It is essential to follow your dentist's instructions carefully to prevent complications and promote proper healing.

Air conditioning is the process of controlling and maintaining a comfortable indoor environment through the regulation of temperature, humidity, air movement, and cleanliness. It typically involves the use of mechanical systems that circulate and treat air to meet specific comfort requirements. The goal of air conditioning is to provide a comfortable, healthy, and productive indoor environment while also saving energy and reducing environmental impact.

In medical terms, air conditioning can be particularly important in healthcare settings such as hospitals and clinics, where maintaining proper temperature and humidity levels is essential for the health and well-being of patients and staff. Proper air conditioning can help prevent the growth of bacteria, viruses, and mold, reduce the spread of airborne particles, and minimize the risk of infection and illness.

Air conditioning systems in healthcare facilities may include specialized components such as HEPA filters, UV germicidal irradiation, and humidity control to provide a higher level of air quality and protection against infectious diseases. Regular maintenance and testing of these systems is also critical to ensure their proper functioning and to maintain a safe and healthy indoor environment.

Sarcoidosis is a multi-system disorder characterized by the formation of granulomas (small clumps of inflammatory cells) in various organs, most commonly the lungs and lymphatic system. These granulomas can impair the function of the affected organ(s), leading to a variety of symptoms. The exact cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, but it's thought to be an overactive immune response to an unknown antigen, possibly triggered by an infection, chemical exposure, or another environmental factor.

The diagnosis of sarcoidosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as chest X-rays and CT scans), and laboratory tests (including blood tests and biopsies). While there is no cure for sarcoidosis, treatment may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Corticosteroids are often used to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, while other medications may be prescribed to treat specific organ involvement or symptoms. In some cases, sarcoidosis may resolve on its own without any treatment.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Therapeutic irrigation, also known as lavage, is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of fluids or other agents into a body cavity or natural passageway for therapeutic purposes. This technique is used to cleanse, flush out, or introduce medication into various parts of the body, such as the bladder, lungs, stomach, or colon.

The fluid used in therapeutic irrigation can be sterile saline solution, distilled water, or a medicated solution, depending on the specific purpose of the procedure. The flow and pressure of the fluid are carefully controlled to ensure that it reaches the desired area without causing damage to surrounding tissues.

Therapeutic irrigation is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including infections, inflammation, obstructions, and toxic exposures. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help identify abnormalities or lesions within body cavities.

Overall, therapeutic irrigation is a valuable technique in modern medicine that allows healthcare providers to deliver targeted treatment directly to specific areas of the body, improving patient outcomes and quality of life.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a group of disorders that involve the abnormal production and accumulation of abnormal connective tissues in various parts of the body. Connective tissues are the structural materials that support and bind other tissues and organs together. They include tendons, ligaments, cartilage, fat, and the material that fills the spaces between cells, called the extracellular matrix.

Connective tissue diseases can affect many different systems in the body, including the skin, joints, muscles, lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and blood vessels. Some CTDs are autoimmune disorders, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy connective tissues. Others may be caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.

Some examples of connective tissue diseases include:

* Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
* Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
* Scleroderma
* Dermatomyositis/Polymyositis
* Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD)
* Sjogren's syndrome
* Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
* Marfan syndrome
* Osteogenesis imperfecta

The specific symptoms and treatment of connective tissue diseases vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Treatment may include medications to reduce inflammation, suppress the immune system, or manage pain. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged tissues or organs.

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a group of disorders characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) in the interstitium, the tissue and space around the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. The interstitium is where the blood vessels that deliver oxygen to the lungs are located. ILDs can be caused by a variety of factors, including environmental exposures, medications, connective tissue diseases, and autoimmune disorders.

The scarring and inflammation in ILDs can make it difficult for the lungs to expand and contract normally, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and fatigue. The scarring can also make it harder for oxygen to move from the air sacs into the bloodstream.

There are many different types of ILDs, including:

* Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): a type of ILD that is caused by unknown factors and tends to progress rapidly
* Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: an ILD that is caused by an allergic reaction to inhaled substances, such as mold or bird droppings
* Connective tissue diseases: ILDs can be a complication of conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma
* Sarcoidosis: an inflammatory disorder that can affect multiple organs, including the lungs
* Asbestosis: an ILD caused by exposure to asbestos fibers

Treatment for ILDs depends on the specific type of disease and its underlying cause. Some treatments may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and oxygen therapy. In some cases, a lung transplant may be necessary.

Asbestosis is a chronic lung disease that is caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers. It is characterized by scarring (fibrosis) of the lung tissue, which can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe, and it is often progressive, meaning that it tends to worsen over time. Asbestosis is not a malignant condition, but it can increase the risk of developing lung cancer or mesothelioma, which are forms of cancer that are associated with asbestos exposure. The disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests such as chest X-rays or CT scans. There is no cure for asbestosis, but treatment can help to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

In medical terms, "dust" is not defined as a specific medical condition or disease. However, generally speaking, dust refers to small particles of solid matter that can be found in the air and can come from various sources, such as soil, pollen, hair, textiles, paper, or plastic.

Exposure to certain types of dust, such as those containing allergens, chemicals, or harmful pathogens, can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues like asthma, allergies, and lung diseases. Prolonged exposure to certain types of dust, such as silica or asbestos, can even lead to serious conditions like silicosis or mesothelioma.

Therefore, it is important for individuals who work in environments with high levels of dust to take appropriate precautions, such as wearing masks and respirators, to minimize their exposure and reduce the risk of health problems.

Air microbiology is the study of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, that are present in the air. These microorganisms can be suspended in the air as particles or carried within droplets of liquid, such as those produced when a person coughs or sneezes.

Air microbiology is an important field of study because it helps us understand how these microorganisms are transmitted and how they may affect human health. For example, certain airborne bacteria and fungi can cause respiratory infections, while airborne viruses can cause diseases such as the common cold and influenza.

Air microbiology involves various techniques for collecting and analyzing air samples, including culturing microorganisms on growth media, using molecular biology methods to identify specific types of microorganisms, and measuring the concentration of microorganisms in the air. This information can be used to develop strategies for controlling the spread of airborne pathogens and protecting public health.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is commonly used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Prednisolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, leading to changes in gene expression that reduce the production of substances involved in inflammation, such as cytokines and prostaglandins.

Prednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, syrups, and injectable solutions. It can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, skin conditions, and certain types of cancer.

Like other steroid medications, prednisolone can have significant side effects if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diabetes, and adrenal suppression. As a result, the use of prednisolone should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks.

Pulmonary diffusing capacity, also known as pulmonary diffusion capacity, is a measure of the ability of the lungs to transfer gas from the alveoli to the bloodstream. It is often used to assess the severity of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary fibrosis.

The most common measurement of pulmonary diffusing capacity is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), which reflects the transfer of carbon monoxide from the alveoli to the red blood cells in the capillaries. The DLCO is measured during a spirometry test, which involves breathing in a small amount of carbon monoxide and then measuring how much of it is exhaled.

A reduced DLCO may indicate a problem with the lung's ability to transfer oxygen to the blood, which can be caused by a variety of factors including damage to the alveoli or capillaries, thickening of the alveolar membrane, or a decrease in the surface area available for gas exchange.

It is important to note that other factors such as hemoglobin concentration, carboxyhemoglobin level, and lung volume can also affect the DLCO value, so these should be taken into account when interpreting the results of a diffusing capacity test.

Sulfamethoxypyridazine is an antimicrobial agent, specifically a sulfonamide. It is defined as a synthetic antibacterial drug that contains a sulfanilamide moiety (a chemical compound with the formula RSO2NH2, where R is a generic term for any organic radical) combined with a pyridazine ring.

This medication works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by preventing the synthesis of essential bacterial enzymes. It's primarily used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria, such as urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, and certain respiratory infections.

As with all medications, it can have side effects, including gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rashes, and blood disorders. It's essential to use this medication under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can monitor for any potential adverse reactions and ensure the most appropriate use.

Precipitins are antibodies (usually of the IgG class) that, when combined with their respective antigens in vitro, result in the formation of a visible precipitate. They are typically produced in response to the presence of insoluble antigens, such as bacterial or fungal cell wall components, and can be detected through various immunological techniques such as precipitation tests (e.g., Ouchterlony double diffusion, radial immunodiffusion).

Precipitins are often used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergies to identify the presence and specificity of antibodies produced against certain antigens. However, it's worth noting that the term "precipitin" is not commonly used in modern medical literature, and the more general term "antibody" is often preferred.

Vital capacity (VC) is a term used in pulmonary function tests to describe the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath. It is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. In other words, it's the total amount of air you can forcibly exhale after inhaling as deeply as possible. Vital capacity is an important measurement in assessing lung function and can be reduced in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory disorders.

Immune complex diseases are medical conditions that occur when the immune system produces an abnormal response to certain antigens, leading to the formation and deposition of immune complexes in various tissues and organs. These immune complexes consist of antibodies bound to antigens, which can trigger an inflammatory reaction and damage the surrounding tissue.

Immune complex diseases can be classified into two categories: acute and chronic. Acute immune complex diseases include serum sickness and hypersensitivity vasculitis, while chronic immune complex diseases include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.

The symptoms of immune complex diseases depend on the location and extent of tissue damage. They can range from mild to severe and may include fever, joint pain, skin rashes, kidney dysfunction, and neurological problems. Treatment typically involves medications that suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and anti-inflammatory drugs.

Alveolar macrophages are a type of macrophage (a large phagocytic cell) that are found in the alveoli of the lungs. They play a crucial role in the immune defense system of the lungs by engulfing and destroying any foreign particles, such as dust, microorganisms, and pathogens, that enter the lungs through the process of inhalation. Alveolar macrophages also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response. They are important for maintaining the health and function of the lungs by removing debris and preventing infection.

Micromonosporaceae is a family of actinobacteria that are gram-positive, aerobic, and have high guanine-cytosine content in their DNA. These bacteria are typically found in soil and aquatic environments. They are known for producing a wide range of bioactive compounds with potential applications in medicine, agriculture, and industry. The cells of Micromonosporaceae are usually rod-shaped and may form branching filaments or remain as single cells. Some members of this family can form spores, which are often resistant to heat, drying, and chemicals.

It's worth noting that the medical significance of Micromonosporaceae is not well established, but some species have been found to produce antibiotics and other bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic applications. For example, the genus Micromonospora includes several species that are known to produce various antibiotics, such as micromonosporin, xanthomycin, and gentamicin C1A. However, further research is needed to fully understand the medical relevance of this family of bacteria.

The CD4-CD8 ratio is a measurement of the relative numbers of two types of immune cells, CD4+ T cells (also known as helper T cells) and CD8+ T cells (also known as cytotoxic T cells), in the blood. The CD4-CD8 ratio is commonly used as a marker of immune function and health.

CD4+ T cells play an important role in the immune response by helping to coordinate the activity of other immune cells, producing chemical signals that activate them, and producing antibodies. CD8+ T cells are responsible for directly killing infected cells and tumor cells.

A normal CD4-CD8 ratio is typically between 1.0 and 3.0. A lower ratio may indicate an impaired immune system, such as in cases of HIV infection or other immunodeficiency disorders. A higher ratio may be seen in some viral infections, autoimmune diseases, or cancer. It's important to note that the CD4-CD8 ratio should be interpreted in conjunction with other laboratory and clinical findings for a more accurate assessment of immune function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parakeets" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to certain types of small to medium-sized parrots, particularly those with long tail feathers. The term is not associated with medical terminology or healthcare. If you have any questions related to animals or pets, I would be happy to try to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wood" is not a medical term. It is a common name for various hard, fibrous tissues that make up the trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, as well as a term used for a wide range of items made from these materials. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Lung volume measurements are clinical tests that determine the amount of air inhaled, exhaled, and present in the lungs at different times during the breathing cycle. These measurements include:

1. Tidal Volume (TV): The amount of air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing, usually around 500 mL in resting adults.
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): The additional air that can be inhaled after a normal inspiration, approximately 3,000 mL in adults.
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): The extra air that can be exhaled after a normal expiration, about 1,000-1,200 mL in adults.
4. Residual Volume (RV): The air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation, approximately 1,100-1,500 mL in adults.
5. Total Lung Capacity (TLC): The total amount of air the lungs can hold at full inflation, calculated as TV + IRV + ERV + RV, around 6,000 mL in adults.
6. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration, equal to ERV + RV, about 2,100-2,700 mL in adults.
7. Inspiratory Capacity (IC): The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal expiration, equal to TV + IRV, around 3,500 mL in adults.
8. Vital Capacity (VC): The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration, calculated as IC + ERV, approximately 4,200-5,600 mL in adults.

These measurements help assess lung function and identify various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

"Pantoea" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in various environments such as soil, water, and plant surfaces. Some species of Pantoea can cause infections in humans, usually associated with healthcare settings or following trauma. These infections may include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and urinary tract infections. However, human infections caused by Pantoea are relatively rare compared to other bacterial pathogens.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Industrial Oils" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Industrial oils are typically used in machinery and equipment for various industrial applications, such as hydraulic systems, lubricants, and coolants. They are not directly related to medicine or human health.

However, if a person were to come into contact with these oils through their occupation, there could be potential health effects, such as skin irritation or respiratory issues, depending on the specific type of oil and the nature of the exposure. But this would not fall under a medical definition of the term itself.

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream where they circulate and are able to move quickly to sites of infection or inflammation in the body. Neutrophils are capable of engulfing and destroying bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances through a process called phagocytosis. They are also involved in the release of inflammatory mediators, which can contribute to tissue damage in some cases. Neutrophils are characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, which contain enzymes and other proteins that help them carry out their immune functions.

Gallium radioisotopes refer to specific types of gallium atoms that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay towards a more stable state. These isotopes are commonly used in medical imaging, such as in gallium scans, to help diagnose conditions like inflammation, infection, or cancer.

Gallium-67 (^67^Ga) is one of the most commonly used radioisotopes for medical purposes. It has a half-life of about 3.26 days and decays by emitting gamma rays. When administered to a patient, gallium-67 binds to transferrin, a protein that carries iron in the blood, and is taken up by cells with increased metabolic activity, such as cancer cells or immune cells responding to infection or inflammation. The distribution of gallium-67 in the body can then be visualized using a gamma camera, providing valuable diagnostic information.

Occupational air pollutants refer to harmful substances present in the air in workplaces or occupational settings. These pollutants can include dusts, gases, fumes, vapors, or mists that are produced by industrial processes, chemical reactions, or other sources. Examples of occupational air pollutants include:

1. Respirable crystalline silica: A common mineral found in sand, stone, and concrete that can cause lung disease and cancer when inhaled in high concentrations.
2. Asbestos: A naturally occurring mineral fiber that was widely used in construction materials and industrial applications until the 1970s. Exposure to asbestos fibers can cause lung diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
3. Welding fumes: Fumes generated during welding processes can contain harmful metals such as manganese, chromium, and nickel that can cause neurological damage and respiratory problems.
4. Isocyanates: Chemicals used in the production of foam insulation, spray-on coatings, and other industrial applications that can cause asthma and other respiratory symptoms.
5. Coal dust: Fine particles generated during coal mining, transportation, and handling that can cause lung disease and other health problems.
6. Diesel exhaust: Emissions from diesel engines that contain harmful particulates and gases that can cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems.

Occupational air pollutants are regulated by various government agencies, including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States, to protect workers from exposure and minimize health risks.

Cyanates are a class of chemical compounds that contain the functional group -O-C≡N, which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom and double-bonded to an oxygen atom. In medical terms, cyanates are not commonly used, but potassium cyanate has been studied in the past as a possible treatment for certain conditions such as angina and cyanide poisoning. However, its use is limited due to potential side effects and the availability of safer and more effective treatments. It's important to note that cyanides are highly toxic substances, and exposure to them can be life-threatening.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

"Agricultural Workers' Diseases" is a term used to describe a variety of health conditions and illnesses that are associated with agricultural work. These can include both acute and chronic conditions, and can be caused by a range of factors including exposure to chemicals, dusts, allergens, physical injuries, and biological agents such as bacteria and viruses.

Some common examples of Agricultural Workers' Diseases include:

1. Pesticide poisoning: This can occur when agricultural workers are exposed to high levels of pesticides or other chemicals used in farming. Symptoms can range from mild skin irritation to severe neurological damage, depending on the type and amount of chemical exposure.
2. Respiratory diseases: Agricultural workers can be exposed to a variety of dusts and allergens that can cause respiratory problems such as asthma, bronchitis, and farmer's lung. These conditions are often caused by prolonged exposure to moldy hay, grain dust, or other organic materials.
3. Musculoskeletal injuries: Agricultural workers are at risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries due to the physical demands of their job. This can include back pain, repetitive strain injuries, and sprains and strains from lifting heavy objects.
4. Zoonotic diseases: Agricultural workers who come into contact with animals are at risk of contracting zoonotic diseases, which are illnesses that can be transmitted between animals and humans. Examples include Q fever, brucellosis, and leptospirosis.
5. Heat-related illnesses: Agricultural workers who work outside in hot weather are at risk of heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Prevention of Agricultural Workers' Diseases involves a combination of engineering controls, personal protective equipment, and training to help workers understand the risks associated with their job and how to minimize exposure to hazards.

"Saccharopolyspora" is a genus of Gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that forms branched hyphae and spores. These bacteria are known for their ability to produce various bioactive compounds, including antibiotics and enzymes. They are commonly found in soil, water, and decaying vegetation. One species of this genus, Saccharopolyspora erythraea (formerly known as Actinomyces erythreus), is the source of the antibiotic erythromycin.

It's important to note that "Saccharopolyspora" is a taxonomic category used in bacterial classification, and individual species within this genus may have different characteristics and medical relevance. Some species of Saccharopolyspora can cause infections in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals, but these are relatively rare.

If you're looking for information on a specific species of Saccharopolyspora or its medical relevance, I would need more context to provide a more detailed answer.

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

A leukocyte count, also known as a white blood cell (WBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood. Leukocytes are a vital part of the body's immune system and help fight infection and inflammation. A high or low leukocyte count may indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder. The normal range for a leukocyte count in adults is typically between 4,500 and 11,000 cells per microliter (mcL) of blood. However, the normal range can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual's age and sex.

Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate is a radioactive pharmaceutical preparation used as a radiopharmaceutical agent in medical imaging. It is a salt of technetium-99m, a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, which emits gamma rays and has a half-life of 6 hours.

Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate is used in various diagnostic procedures, including renal imaging, brain scans, lung perfusion studies, and bone scans. It is distributed throughout the body after intravenous injection and is excreted primarily by the kidneys, making it useful for evaluating renal function and detecting abnormalities in the urinary tract.

The compound itself is a colorless, sterile, pyrogen-free solution that is typically supplied in a lead shielded container to protect against radiation exposure. It should be used promptly after preparation and handled with care to minimize radiation exposure to healthcare workers and patients.

"Cell count" is a medical term that refers to the process of determining the number of cells present in a given volume or sample of fluid or tissue. This can be done through various laboratory methods, such as counting individual cells under a microscope using a specialized grid called a hemocytometer, or using automated cell counters that use light scattering and electrical impedance techniques to count and classify different types of cells.

Cell counts are used in a variety of medical contexts, including hematology (the study of blood and blood-forming tissues), microbiology (the study of microscopic organisms), and pathology (the study of diseases and their causes). For example, a complete blood count (CBC) is a routine laboratory test that includes a white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value, and platelet count. Abnormal cell counts can indicate the presence of various medical conditions, such as infections, anemia, or leukemia.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

An antigen-antibody complex is a type of immune complex that forms when an antibody binds to a specific antigen. An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response, while an antibody is a protein produced by the immune system to neutralize or destroy foreign substances like antigens.

When an antibody binds to an antigen, it forms a complex that can be either soluble or insoluble. Soluble complexes are formed when the antigen is small and can move freely through the bloodstream. Insoluble complexes, on the other hand, are formed when the antigen is too large to move freely, such as when it is part of a bacterium or virus.

The formation of antigen-antibody complexes plays an important role in the immune response. Once formed, these complexes can be recognized and cleared by other components of the immune system, such as phagocytes, which help to prevent further damage to the body. However, in some cases, the formation of large numbers of antigen-antibody complexes can lead to inflammation and tissue damage, contributing to the development of certain autoimmune diseases.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

Tooth extraction is a dental procedure in which a tooth that is damaged or poses a threat to oral health is removed from its socket in the jawbone. This may be necessary due to various reasons such as severe tooth decay, gum disease, fractured teeth, crowded teeth, or for orthodontic treatment purposes. The procedure is performed by a dentist or an oral surgeon, under local anesthesia to numb the area around the tooth, ensuring minimal discomfort during the extraction process.

Berylliosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the lungs and, less commonly, other organs. It is caused by exposure to beryllium, a lightweight, strong metal used in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, and nuclear energy. The disease can be categorized into two types: acute and chronic.

Acute berylliosis is a rare form of the disease that occurs after high levels of exposure to beryllium, usually through inhalation. Symptoms typically develop within a few weeks to months after exposure and include cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Acute berylliosis can be severe and may require hospitalization.

Chronic berylliosis, also known as beryllium sensitization or beryllium disease, is a more common form of the disease that occurs after long-term exposure to low levels of beryllium. It is characterized by the development of an immune response to beryllium, resulting in chronic inflammation and scarring of the lung tissue. Symptoms may not appear for several years after exposure and can include cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, weight loss, and joint pain.

Diagnosis of berylliosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray or CT scan, pulmonary function tests, and blood tests to detect the presence of beryllium sensitization. Treatment may include corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive medications to manage inflammation and scarring in the lungs. Avoiding further exposure to beryllium is essential to prevent disease progression.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

Thoracic radiography is a type of diagnostic imaging that involves using X-rays to produce images of the chest, including the lungs, heart, bronchi, great vessels, and the bones of the spine and chest wall. It is a commonly used tool in the diagnosis and management of various respiratory, cardiovascular, and thoracic disorders such as pneumonia, lung cancer, heart failure, and rib fractures.

During the procedure, the patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a cassette containing a film or digital detector. The X-ray beam is directed at the chest, and the resulting image is captured on the film or detector. The images produced can help identify any abnormalities in the structure or function of the organs within the chest.

Thoracic radiography may be performed as a routine screening test for certain conditions, such as lung cancer, or it may be ordered when a patient presents with symptoms suggestive of a respiratory or cardiovascular disorder. It is a safe and non-invasive procedure that can provide valuable information to help guide clinical decision making and improve patient outcomes.

Dyspnea is defined as difficulty or discomfort in breathing, often described as shortness of breath. It can range from mild to severe, and may occur during rest, exercise, or at any time. Dyspnea can be caused by various medical conditions, including heart and lung diseases, anemia, and neuromuscular disorders. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing dyspnea, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and responding to potentially harmful substances such as viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells).

B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy foreign substances. When a B-cell encounters a foreign substance, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. These antibodies bind to the foreign substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes, on the other hand, are involved in cell-mediated immunity. They directly attack and destroy infected cells or cancerous cells. T-cells can also help to regulate the immune response by producing chemical signals that activate or inhibit other immune cells.

Lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and mature in either the bone marrow (B-cells) or the thymus gland (T-cells). They circulate throughout the body in the blood and lymphatic system, where they can be found in high concentrations in lymph nodes, the spleen, and other lymphoid organs.

Abnormalities in the number or function of lymphocytes can lead to a variety of immune-related disorders, including immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

Respiratory hypersensitivity, also known as respiratory allergies or hypersensitive pneumonitis, refers to an exaggerated immune response in the lungs to inhaled substances or allergens. This condition occurs when the body's immune system overreacts to harmless particles, leading to inflammation and damage in the airways and alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.

There are two types of respiratory hypersensitivity: immediate and delayed. Immediate hypersensitivity, also known as type I hypersensitivity, is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and results in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and asthma-like symptoms within minutes to hours of exposure to the allergen. Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type III or type IV hypersensitivity, is mediated by other immune mechanisms and can take several hours to days to develop after exposure to the allergen.

Common causes of respiratory hypersensitivity include mold spores, animal dander, dust mites, pollen, and chemicals found in certain occupations. Symptoms may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves avoiding the allergen, if possible, and using medications such as corticosteroids, bronchodilators, or antihistamines to manage symptoms. In severe cases, immunotherapy (allergy shots) may be recommended to help desensitize the immune system to the allergen.

Equipment contamination in a medical context refers to the presence of harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, on the surfaces of medical equipment or devices. This can occur during use, storage, or transportation of the equipment and can lead to the transmission of infections to patients, healthcare workers, or other individuals who come into contact with the contaminated equipment.

Equipment contamination can occur through various routes, including contact with contaminated body fluids, airborne particles, or environmental surfaces. To prevent equipment contamination and the resulting infection transmission, it is essential to follow strict infection control practices, such as regular cleaning and disinfection of equipment, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and proper handling and storage of medical devices.

Pulmonary emphysema is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by abnormal, permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis. This results in loss of elastic recoil, which leads to trappling of air within the lungs and difficulty exhaling. It is often caused by cigarette smoking or long-term exposure to harmful pollutants. The disease is part of a group of conditions known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which also includes chronic bronchitis.

Bronchoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the inside of the airways and lungs with a flexible or rigid tube called a bronchoscope. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to directly visualize the airways, take tissue samples for biopsy, and remove foreign objects or secretions. Bronchoscopy can be used to diagnose and manage various respiratory conditions such as lung infections, inflammation, cancer, and bleeding. It is usually performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and risks associated with the procedure.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a type of corticosteroid hormone. It is primarily used to reduce inflammation in various conditions such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders. Prednisone works by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by the adrenal glands, suppressing the immune system's response and reducing the release of substances that cause inflammation.

It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken at specific times during the day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of prednisone include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and easy bruising. Long-term use or high doses can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Healthcare providers closely monitor patients taking prednisone for extended periods to minimize the risk of adverse effects. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage regimen and not discontinue the medication abruptly without medical supervision, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a rebound of the underlying condition.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

Inhalation exposure is a term used in occupational and environmental health to describe the situation where an individual breathes in substances present in the air, which could be gases, vapors, fumes, mist, or particulate matter. These substances can originate from various sources, such as industrial processes, chemical reactions, or natural phenomena.

The extent of inhalation exposure is determined by several factors, including:

1. Concentration of the substance in the air
2. Duration of exposure
3. Frequency of exposure
4. The individual's breathing rate
5. The efficiency of the individual's respiratory protection, if any

Inhalation exposure can lead to adverse health effects, depending on the toxicity and concentration of the inhaled substances. Short-term or acute health effects may include irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, or lungs, while long-term or chronic exposure can result in more severe health issues, such as respiratory diseases, neurological disorders, or cancer.

It is essential to monitor and control inhalation exposures in occupational settings to protect workers' health and ensure compliance with regulatory standards. Various methods are employed for exposure assessment, including personal air sampling, area monitoring, and biological monitoring. Based on the results of these assessments, appropriate control measures can be implemented to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with inhalation exposure.

Lymphocyte subsets refer to distinct populations of white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are crucial components of the adaptive immune system. There are two main types of lymphocytes: T cells and B cells, and each type has several subsets based on their surface receptors, functions, and activation status.

1. T cell subsets: These include CD4+ T helper cells (Th cells), CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (Tc cells), regulatory T cells (Tregs), and memory T cells. Th cells are further divided into Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tfh cells based on their cytokine production profiles and functions.
* CD4+ T helper cells (Th cells) play a central role in orchestrating the immune response by producing various cytokines that activate other immune cells.
* CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (Tc cells) directly kill virus-infected or malignant cells upon recognition of specific antigens presented on their surface.
* Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress the activation and proliferation of other immune cells to maintain self-tolerance and prevent autoimmunity.
* Memory T cells are long-lived cells that remain in the body after an initial infection or immunization, providing rapid protection upon subsequent encounters with the same pathogen.
2. B cell subsets: These include naïve B cells, memory B cells, and plasma cells. Upon activation by antigens, B cells differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells that produce specific antibodies to neutralize or eliminate pathogens.
* Naïve B cells are resting cells that have not yet encountered their specific antigen.
* Memory B cells are long-lived cells generated after initial antigen exposure, which can quickly differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells upon re-exposure to the same antigen.
* Plasma cells are terminally differentiated B cells that secrete large amounts of specific antibodies.

Analyzing lymphocyte subsets is essential for understanding immune system function and dysfunction, as well as monitoring the effectiveness of immunotherapies and vaccinations.

Bronchitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead to the lungs. This inflammation can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Bronchitis can be either acute or chronic.

Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu, and typically lasts for a few days to a week. Symptoms may include a productive cough (coughing up mucus or phlegm), chest discomfort, and fatigue. Acute bronchitis often resolves on its own without specific medical treatment, although rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications to manage symptoms may be helpful.

Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is characterized by a persistent cough with mucus production that lasts for at least three months out of the year for two consecutive years. Chronic bronchitis is typically caused by exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. It is often associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Treatment for chronic bronchitis may include medications to help open the airways, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, as well as lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and avoiding irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.

Chemotaxis, Leukocyte is the movement of leukocytes (white blood cells) towards a higher concentration of a particular chemical substance, known as a chemotactic factor. This process plays a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection and injury.

When there is an infection or tissue damage, certain cells release chemotactic factors, which are small molecules or proteins that can attract leukocytes to the site of inflammation. Leukocytes have receptors on their surface that can detect these chemotactic factors and move towards them through a process called chemotaxis.

Once they reach the site of inflammation, leukocytes can help eliminate pathogens or damaged cells by phagocytosis (engulfing and destroying) or releasing toxic substances that kill the invading microorganisms. Chemotaxis is an essential part of the immune system's defense mechanisms and helps to maintain tissue homeostasis and prevent the spread of infection.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Albumins are a type of protein found in various biological fluids, including blood plasma. The most well-known albumin is serum albumin, which is produced by the liver and is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. Serum albumin plays several important roles in the body, such as maintaining oncotic pressure (which helps to regulate fluid balance in the body), transporting various substances (such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs), and acting as an antioxidant.

Albumins are soluble in water and have a molecular weight ranging from 65,000 to 69,000 daltons. They are composed of a single polypeptide chain that contains approximately 585 amino acid residues. The structure of albumin is characterized by a high proportion of alpha-helices and beta-sheets, which give it a stable, folded conformation.

In addition to their role in human physiology, albumins are also used as diagnostic markers in medicine. For example, low serum albumin levels may indicate liver disease, malnutrition, or inflammation, while high levels may be seen in dehydration or certain types of kidney disease. Albumins may also be used as a replacement therapy in patients with severe protein loss, such as those with nephrotic syndrome or burn injuries.

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the body's immune response. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they can travel to different tissues and organs throughout the body. Eosinophils are characterized by their granules, which contain various proteins and enzymes that are toxic to parasites and can contribute to inflammation.

Eosinophils are typically associated with allergic reactions, asthma, and other inflammatory conditions. They can also be involved in the body's response to certain infections, particularly those caused by parasites such as worms. In some cases, elevated levels of eosinophils in the blood or tissues (a condition called eosinophilia) can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as a parasitic infection, autoimmune disorder, or cancer.

Eosinophils are named for their staining properties - they readily take up eosin dye, which is why they appear pink or red under the microscope. They make up only about 1-6% of circulating white blood cells in healthy individuals, but their numbers can increase significantly in response to certain triggers.

Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) is a medical term used to describe the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs in one second. It is often measured during pulmonary function testing to assess lung function and diagnose conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

FEV is typically expressed as a percentage of the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), which is the total volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking a deep breath in. The ratio of FEV to FVC is used to determine whether there is obstruction in the airways, with a lower ratio indicating more severe obstruction.

There are different types of FEV measurements, including FEV1 (the volume of air exhaled in one second), FEV25-75 (the average volume of air exhaled during the middle 50% of the FVC maneuver), and FEV0.5 (the volume of air exhaled in half a second). These measurements can provide additional information about lung function and help guide treatment decisions.

Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by the immune system's B cells in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. These Y-shaped proteins play a crucial role in identifying and neutralizing pathogens and other antigens, thereby protecting the body against infection and disease.

Immunoglobulins are composed of four polypeptide chains: two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of these chains form the antigen-binding sites, which recognize and bind to specific epitopes on antigens. Based on their heavy chain type, immunoglobulins are classified into five main isotypes or classes: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has distinct functions in the immune response, such as providing protection in different body fluids and tissues, mediating hypersensitivity reactions, and aiding in the development of immunological memory.

In medical settings, immunoglobulins can be administered therapeutically to provide passive immunity against certain diseases or to treat immune deficiencies, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions that may benefit from immunomodulation.

A death certificate is a formal legal document that records the date, location, and cause of a person's death. It is typically issued by a medical professional, such as a physician or medical examiner, and is used to establish the fact of death for legal purposes. The information on a death certificate may be used for a variety of purposes, including settling the deceased person's estate, assisting with insurance claims, and supporting public health surveillance and research.

In order to complete a death certificate, the medical professional must determine the cause of death and any significant contributing conditions. This may involve reviewing the deceased person's medical history, conducting a physical examination, and ordering laboratory tests or autopsy. The cause of death is typically described using standardized codes from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

It is important to note that the information on a death certificate is considered confidential and is protected by law. Only authorized individuals, such as the deceased person's next of kin or legal representative, are permitted to access the document.

A confidence interval (CI) is a range of values that is likely to contain the true value of a population parameter with a certain level of confidence. It is commonly used in statistical analysis to express the uncertainty associated with estimates derived from sample data.

For example, if we calculate a 95% confidence interval for the mean height of a population based on a sample of individuals, we can say that we are 95% confident that the true population mean height falls within the calculated range. The width of the confidence interval gives us an idea of how precise our estimate is - narrower intervals indicate more precise estimates, while wider intervals suggest greater uncertainty.

Confidence intervals are typically calculated using statistical formulas that take into account the sample size, standard deviation, and level of confidence desired. They can be used to compare different groups or to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in medical research.

Bleomycin is a type of chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma, testicular cancer, and lymphomas. It works by causing DNA damage in rapidly dividing cells, which can inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells.

Bleomycin is an antibiotic derived from Streptomyces verticillus and is often administered intravenously or intramuscularly. While it can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, it can also have serious side effects, including lung toxicity, which can lead to pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. Therefore, bleomycin should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional who is experienced in administering chemotherapy drugs.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

Diagnostic errors refer to inaccurate or delayed diagnoses of a patient's medical condition, which can lead to improper or unnecessary treatment and potentially serious harm to the patient. These errors can occur due to various factors such as lack of clinical knowledge, failure to consider all possible diagnoses, inadequate communication between healthcare providers and patients, and problems with testing or interpretation of test results. Diagnostic errors are a significant cause of preventable harm in medical care and have been identified as a priority area for quality improvement efforts.

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a type of cytokine, which is a small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. IL-8 is also known as neutrophil chemotactic factor or NCF because it attracts neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, to the site of infection or injury.

IL-8 is produced by various cells including macrophages, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells in response to bacterial or inflammatory stimuli. It acts by binding to specific receptors called CXCR1 and CXCR2 on the surface of neutrophils, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events leading to neutrophil activation, migration, and degranulation.

IL-8 plays an important role in the recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection or tissue damage, where they can phagocytose and destroy invading microorganisms. However, excessive or prolonged production of IL-8 has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.

Peptidyl-dipeptidase A is more commonly known as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). It is a key enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

ACE is a membrane-bound enzyme found primarily in the lungs, but also in other tissues such as the heart, kidneys, and blood vessels. It plays a crucial role in converting the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I into the potent vasoconstrictor octapeptide angiotensin II, which constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure.

ACE also degrades the peptide bradykinin, which is involved in the regulation of blood flow and vascular permeability. By breaking down bradykinin, ACE helps to counteract its vasodilatory effects, thereby maintaining blood pressure homeostasis.

Inhibitors of ACE are widely used as medications for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and diabetic kidney disease, among other conditions. These drugs work by blocking the action of ACE, leading to decreased levels of angiotensin II and increased levels of bradykinin, which results in vasodilation, reduced blood pressure, and improved cardiovascular function.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

It is classified as a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (also called extrinsic allergic alveolitis)-an inflammation of the alveoli ... Barrios R. (2008). "Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis)". Dail and Hammar's Pulmonary Pathology (3rd ...
"Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis) : OSH Answers". Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety ... Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, also known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) Acute Interstitial Pneumonitis Radiation ... Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (Extrinsic Allergenic Alveolitis) describes the inflammation of alveoli which occurs after ... bronchoalveolar allergic syndrome) Mercury exposure Smoking Overexposure to chlorine Bronchial obstruction (obstructive ...
Warren, C. P. (1977). "Extrinsic allergic alveolitis: a disease commoner in non-smokers". Thorax. 32 (5): 567-569. doi:10.1136/ ...
Earis JE, Marsh K, Pearson MG, Ogilvie CM (December 1982). "The inspiratory "squawk" in extrinsic allergic alveolitis and other ...
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) is also caused by Aspergillus clavatus with a Type 1 immune reaction. It is described as a ... Aspergillus clavatus is known as an agent of allergic aspergillosis and has been implicated in multiple pulmonary infections. ...
... rhinitis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Asthmatic patients have also shown elevated sensitization to M. racemosus. Mucor ... Koschel, D; Sennekamp, J; Schurz, C; Müller-Wening, D (September 2004). "[Misting-fountain-alveolitis]". Pneumologie (Stuttgart ... The role of imperfect fungi in etiopathogenesis of allergic rhinitis]". Otolaryngologia Polska. The Polish Otolaryngology. 52 ( ...
The inspiratory "squawk" in extrinsic allergic alveolitis and other pulmonary fibroses. Thorax 1979;37:923-926. Paciej R, ... In humans, squawks are also heard in a variety of conditions in which alveolitis is present. In one study they were found in 10 ...
... extrinsic allergic alveolitis) or "humidifier lung". This condition is characterized acutely by dyspnea, cough, fever, chest ...
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis has been associated with the presence of fungi and bacteria in the moist air of residential ... Some people are more allergic to mold, while others are highly sensitive to dust. Inadequate ventilation will exaggerate small ... Adult SBS symptoms were associated with a history of allergic rhinitis, eczema and asthma. A 2015 study concerning the ... and viruses are types of biological contaminants and can all cause allergic reactions or illness described as SBS. In addition ...
... (HP) or extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) is a syndrome caused by the repetitive inhalation of ...
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP; also called allergic alveolitis, bagpipe lung, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, EAA) is an ... Occupational asthma has a variety of causes, including sensitization to a specific substance, causing an allergic response; or ...
Malignancy Lymphoma Carcinoma Mediastinal tumors Inorganic dust disease Silicosis Berylliosis Extrinsic allergic alveolitis ... Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis Human immunodeficiency virus Extrinsic allergic alveolitis Adult-onset Still's ...
BREASTS: Beryllium Radiation Extrinsic allergic alveolitis Ankylosing spondylitis Sarcoidosis TB Siliconiosis LEMON Look ... Stridor Subglottic swelling Seal-bark cough A TEA SHOP ABPA TB Extrinsic allergic alveolitis Ankylosing spondylitis Sarcoidosis ...
... emboli Complex partial status epilepticus Cyclic neutropenia Drug fever Erdheim-Chester disease Extrinsic allergic alveolitis ...
... allergic bronchopulmonary MeSH C08.381.472.700 - pneumonia, pneumocystis MeSH C08.381.483.125 - alveolitis, extrinsic allergic ... allergic, perennial MeSH C08.460.799.633 - rhinitis, allergic, seasonal MeSH C08.460.799.649 - rhinitis, atrophic MeSH C08.460. ... allergic bronchopulmonary MeSH C08.730.435.700 - pneumonia, pneumocystis MeSH C08.730.450.314 - echinococcosis, pulmonary MeSH ...
Extrinsic asthma 493.1 Intrinsic asthma 493.2 Chronic obstructive asthma 494 Bronchiectasis 495 Extrinsic allergic alveolitis ... allergic, due to pollen 477.2 Rhinitis, allergic, due to animal dander 477.9 Rhinitis, allergic, cause unspec. 478 Other ... 475 Peritonsillar abscess 476 Chronic laryngitis and laryngotracheitis 476.0 Laryngitis, chronic 477 Allergic rhinitis 477.0 ... Postinflammatory pulmonary fibrosis 516 Other alveolar and parietoalveolar pneumonopathy 516.3 Idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis ...
... alveolitis, extrinsic allergic MeSH C20.543.480.680.075.125 - bird fancier's lung MeSH C20.543.480.680.075.365 - farmer's lung ... allergic, perennial MeSH C20.543.480.680.795 - rhinitis, allergic, seasonal MeSH C20.543.480.904 - urticaria MeSH C20.543. ... allergic cutaneous MeSH C20.673.430.500 - IgA deficiency MeSH C20.673.430.750 - IgG deficiency MeSH C20.673.480.040 - acquired ... allergic MeSH C20.543.480.343 - dermatitis, atopic MeSH C20.543.480.370 - food hypersensitivity MeSH C20.543.480.370.150 - egg ...
... extrinsic allergic Alves Dos Santos Castello syndrome Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease, early-onset Alzheimer's disease ... of childhood Aluminium lung Alveolar capillary dysplasia Alveolar echinococcosis Alveolar soft part sarcoma Alveolitis, ... McLeod syndrome Allergic angiitis Allergic autoimmune thyroiditis Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis Allergic ...
... as Eastern Athletic Association Essential amino acid Ethyl acetoacetate Excitatory amino acid Extrinsic allergic alveolitis ...
... extrinsic allergic alveolitis) Antibiotics (e.g., nitrofurantoin and sulfa drugs) Chemotherapeutic drugs Antiarrhythmic agents ...
... chronic extrinsic allergic alveolitis) Pleural effusions may occur with cancer, sarcoid, connective tissue diseases and ... cystic bronchiectasis Langerhans cell histiocytosis lymphangioleiomyomatosis Ground glass extrinsic allergic alveolitis ... asbestosis lymphangitis carcinomatosa PCP Nodular pattern sarcoidosis silicosis/pneumoconiosis extrinsic allergic alveolitis ... hamartoma sarcoidosis alveolitis auto-immune disease: e.g., granulomatosis with polyangiitis, rheumatoid arthritis inhalation ( ...
It is classified as a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (also called extrinsic allergic alveolitis)-an inflammation of the alveoli ... Barrios R. (2008). "Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis)". Dail and Hammars Pulmonary Pathology (3rd ...
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis *Farmers lung. *Bagassosis. *Bird-Fanciers lung. *Suberosis. *Malt workers lung ... Other specified allergic alveolitis and pneumonitis. *Unspecified allergic alveolitis and pneumonitis. 495 Hypersensitivity ...
Diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 7, 2017. ... Epidemiology and causes of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ... Treatment, prevention and prognosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis). http://www.uptodate.com/ ...
... also known as hypersensitivity pneumonia and extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a form of interstitial lung disease ... Histologic diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Am J Surg Pathol. 1988 Jul. 12(7):514-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, also known as hypersensitivity pneumonia and extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a form of ... It must be stressed that hypersensitivity pneumonitis is not a type I (allergic) hypersensitivity response. Therefore, despite ...
Extrinsic-allergic-alveolitis; Antigen-antibody-reactions; Immunology; Respiratory-irritants ...
Categories: Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Hemolytic anemia. Hepatic failure. Hepatic necrosis. Hepatitis. Pancytopenia. Seizure ... PRECAUTIONS: See also Warning section.Before taking moxifloxacin, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or ... However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/ ... Respiratory disorders: Allergic pneumonitis. Skin and tissue disorders: Photosensitivity/phototoxicity reaction, Stevens- ...
Risk assessments must deal with the risks of occupational asthma and extrinsic allergic alveolitis;. ◦Direct means of ... Dermal contact should be limited to prevent allergic and irritant skin reactions. ... are sensitizers which can cause some people exposed to them to develop an allergic reaction after repeated exposures to these ...
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a granulomatous interstitial lung disease (6 ... Allergic Diseases Associated With Airways Colonization Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a disease that can ... Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is typically noninvasive and occurs in allergic, immunocompetent patients (6,45,47--49): most ... Clinical conditions associated with allergies include allergic rhinitis and asthma (6,45,47,48,49). Allergic rhinitis is often ...
Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis: A Systematic Review Of Hla-Dr In Pigeon BreederS Disease, Dylan Thibaut, Ryan A. Witcher, ... Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis: A Systematic Review Of Hla-Dr In Pigeon BreederS Disease, Dylan Thibaut, Ryan A. Witcher, ...
A 51-year-old woman who had a medical history of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, and short ...
Although it has been reported that inhalation of carmine may give rise to occupational asthma and extrinsic allergic alveolitis ... As its use increases, the number of reports of allergic reactions to the insect proteins in cochineal are increasing, see ... However, there are rare but increasing reports of true allergic reactions - including urticaria, asthma, vomiting, diarrhoea ... Keywords: cochineal, carminic acid, allergy, allergic, colour, 120, E120, carmine, CI 75470 ...
062 Bronchiectasis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (494-495) 22300 063 Chronic airways obstruction, not elsewhere classified ...
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by pigeon breeding at a high altitude [2,240 meters]. Hemodynamic behavior of pulmonary ...
Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis). By Joyce Lee , MD, MAS, University of Colorado School of Medicine ... In these hypersensitivity reactions Overview of Allergic Reactions Allergic reactions (hypersensitivity reactions) are ... also called allergic reactions), the immune system Overview of the Immune System The immune system is designed to defend the ...
Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis) In the same way as some pet owners are allergic to their pets, e.g. cats, dogs or horses, some ... Simple precautions can help you enjoy your sport In the same way as some pet owners are allergic to their animals - cats, dogs ... The allergic reaction affects the small air exchanging sacs in the lung (alveoli) and causes […] ... horses, etc., some pigeon owners are allergic to their pigeons. This causes a condition called pigeon fanciers lung, and is ...
Allergic BronchopulmonaryRadiation PneumonitisAlveolitis, Extrinsic AllergicCholestasisLiver Cirrhosis, AlcoholicHypertension, ... Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic. A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI ... Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary. Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual ...
Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis 12% * 2020 Exposure of methacrylate from acrylic dust generated by removable orthodontic ...
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Hemolytic anemia. Hepatic failure. Hepatic necrosis. Hepatitis. Pancytopenia. Seizure ... Respiratory disorders: Allergic pneumonitis. Skin and tissue disorders: Photosensitivity/phototoxicity reaction, Stevens- ...
Allergic Alveolitis, Extrinsic Alveolitides, Extrinsic Allergic Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitides Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis ... Allergic Alveolitides, Extrinsic. Allergic Alveolitis, Extrinsic. Alveolitides, Extrinsic Allergic. Extrinsic Allergic ... Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic Entry term(s). Allergic Alveolitides, Extrinsic ... Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic - Preferred Concept UI. M0000840. Scope note. A common interstitial lung disease caused by ...
mh:Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic (1) Order by. Year (decreasing). Relevance. Year (increasing). ...
It results from repeated aspiration of several causative agents, and it is also commonly called extrinsic allergic alveolitis [ ...
... asbestos-related disease and extrinsic allergic alveolitis.. Some of the high-risk occupations and sectors include construction ...
Of the identified species the following have previously been suggested as causative agents of extrinsic allergic alveolitis: ...
... extrinsic allergic alveolitis) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; pulmonary fibrosis) Interstitial pulmonary disease (diffuse ... Acoustic neuroma Allergic rhinitis Bechets syndrome Cleft lip and palate Ear ache, child (otitis media) Ear, anatomy of ... Allergic rhinitis Altitude sickness (AMS, acute mountain sickness) Anal itching (pruritis ani) Angioedema Ankle sprain 537 143( ... allergic purpura; anaphylactic purpura) Adult Child Hives (urticaria; wheals, or bumps) Hyperhydrosis (excessive sweating) ...
... and radiological observations suggest that these subjects had a picture of acute extrinsic allergic bronchiolo-alveolitis due ... 17-18] indicate that there was an increase in cellularity in the lower respiratory tract (alveolitis) of the severely exposed ...
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also called extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a respiratory syndrome involving the lung ... The control of allergic rhinitis in real life: a multicenter cross-sectional Italian study Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is a high- ... This meta-analysis compared the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or allergic ... Selecting optimal second-generation antihistamines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria in Asia Allergic diseases are on the ...
  • It is classified as a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (also called extrinsic allergic alveolitis)-an inflammation of the alveoli within the lung caused by hypersensitivity to inhaled natural dusts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, also known as hypersensitivity pneumonia and extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a form of interstitial lung disease characterized by an immunologically mediated inflammatory response (hypersensitivity reaction) to inhaled organic antigens in susceptible individuals. (medscape.com)
  • A 51-year-old woman who had a medical history of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, and short telomere syndrome was admitted to a local hospital in Massachusetts, USA, for hypoxemic respiratory failure. (cdc.gov)
  • Overview of Allergic Reactions Allergic reactions (hypersensitivity reactions) are inappropriate responses of the immune system to a normally harmless substance. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, also known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an uncommon non-immunoglobulin E (IgE), T-helper cell type 1 (Th1)-mediated inflam- matory pulmonary disease with systemic symptoms resulting from repeated inhalation and subsequent sensitization to a large variety of aerosolized antigenic organic dust particles. (cdc.gov)
  • The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The exaggerated immune response to repeated inhalation of these particles leads to infiltration and proliferation of activated pulmonary macrophages and lymphocytes, resulting in lymphocytic alveolitis and bronchiolitis with noncaseating granulomas. (cdc.gov)
  • Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only disease-modifying treatment approved for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma and represents a suitable therapeutic option, especially in childhood, to modify the prog. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is a high-prevalence disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Ast. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, there are rare but increasing reports of true allergic reactions - including urticaria, asthma, vomiting, diarrhoea and anaphylaxis - to the proteins in the insects. (fedup.com.au)
  • Dermal contact should be limited to prevent allergic and irritant skin reactions. (cdc.gov)
  • As its use increases, the number of reports of allergic reactions to the insect proteins in cochineal are increasing, see reports in Scientific References below. (fedup.com.au)
  • It often causes incurable health problems including work-related asthma, COPD, lung cancer, pneumoconiosis, silicosis, asbestos-related disease and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. (bsfixings.uk)
  • Parasite infections stimulate total and specific IgE production that, in the case of Toxocara canis infection, corresponds to chronic allergic symptoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Advice from the British Pigeon Fanciers Medical Research Team on Pigeon Lung (Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis) In the same way as some pet owners are allergic to their pets, e.g. cats, dogs or horses, some pigeon owners are allergic to their pigeons. (rpra.org)
  • Here at BS Fixings, we provide disposable dust masks (EN 149:2001+A1:2009) to help provide a level of protection against some of the causes of work-related lung disease. (bsfixings.uk)
  • What antibodies take part in the development of this allergic reaction? (eneutron.info)
  • Simple precautions can help you enjoy your sport In the same way as some pet owners are allergic to their animals - cats, dogs, horses, etc., some pigeon owners are allergic to their pigeons. (rpra.org)
  • This disease is also called bird fancier's lung, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, farmer's lung, hot tub lung, or humidifier lung. (nih.gov)
  • Bird Fancier's Lung and Farmer's Lung are the two most common types of Extrinsic allergic pneumonia. (asthmahealthcenter.com)
  • in which repeated exposure to antigen in genetically susceptible people leads to acute neutrophilic and mononuclear alveolitis, followed by interstitial lymphocytic infiltration and granulomatous reaction. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Amongst the fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent cause of severe pulmonary allergic disease, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), known to be associated with chronic lung injury and deterioration in pulmonary function in people with chronic asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). (healthmatters.io)
  • Aspergillus fumigatus can also colonize in the bronchial tracts of asthmatics, causing severe asthma and low lung functions, sometimes leading to severe conditions called allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses (ABPM). (healthmatters.io)
  • Chronic Extrinsic Allergic Pneumonia symptoms include cough, Rales (crackling sound while breathing), fever, Cyanosis (blue skin appearance), progressive dyspnea, tachypnea, and possibly expectoration of blood 3. (asthmahealthcenter.com)
  • Mold sensitization is also a major risk factor for developing upper and lower respiratory diseases such as allergic rhinitis (aka hay fever) and allergic asthma. (healthmatters.io)
  • 18. Mucosal immunity in extrinsic allergic alveolitis: salivary immunoglobulins and antibody against inhaled avian antigens among pigeon breeders. (nih.gov)
  • Extrinsic allergic pneumonia is caused by the continuous inhalation of antigens such as dust, bacteria, chemicals, bird feathers or droppings, bioaerosol, and so on. (asthmahealthcenter.com)
  • Extrinsic allergic pneumonia is classified based on the antigens that cause the syndrome. (asthmahealthcenter.com)
  • Vandenplas O, Malo JL, Saetta M, Mapp CE, Fabbri LM: Occupational asthma and extrinsic alveolitis due to isocyanates: Current status and perspectives. (karger.com)
  • These symptoms, however, are less severe than those of Acute Extrinsic Allergic Pneumonia but last longer. (asthmahealthcenter.com)
  • The condition involves both an allergic and inflammatory response to mold, and symptoms may include severe wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, fever, weakness/malaise, and cough producing brown flecks or bloody mucus. (healthmatters.io)
  • A small percentage of asthmatics with inhaled mold allergy can also develop allergic urticaria (aka hives) when they eat or drink anything containing yeast or mold. (healthmatters.io)
  • Dermal contact should be limited to prevent allergic and irritant skin reactions. (cdc.gov)