Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Bird Fancier's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary: Sarcoidosis affecting predominantly the lungs, the site most frequently involved and most commonly causing morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by sharply circumscribed granulomas in the alveolar, bronchial, and vascular walls, composed of tightly packed cells derived from the mononuclear phagocyte system. The clinical symptoms when present are dyspnea upon exertion, nonproductive cough, and wheezing. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p431)Dry Socket: A condition sometimes occurring after tooth extraction, particularly after traumatic extraction, resulting in a dry appearance of the exposed bone in the socket, due to disintegration or loss of the blood clot. It is basically a focal osteomyelitis without suppuration and is accompanied by severe pain (alveolalgia) and foul odor. (Dorland, 28th ed)Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Sulfamethoxypyridazine: A sulfanilamide antibacterial agent.Precipitins: Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Micromonosporaceae: A family of gram-positive, saprophytic bacteria occurring in soil and aquatic environments.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Parakeets: Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Pantoea: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Gallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Saccharopolyspora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Berylliosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhaled rare metal BERYLLIUM or its soluble salts which are used in a wide variety of industry including alloys, ceramics, radiographic equipment, and vacuum tubes. Berylliosis is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction in the upper airway leading to BRONCHIOLITIS; PULMONARY EDEMA; and pneumonia.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Great BritainEpithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: experimental production in calves with antigens of Micropolyspora faeni. (1/291)

Pneumonitis was induced in calves by exposure to aerosols of Micropolyspora faeni with or without prior sensitization of the animals by subcutaneous injection of antigen. The pneumonitis primarily involved centrolobular areas and was characterized by alveolar septal thickening and loss of air space by cellular infiltration. Vasculitis and focal haemorrhage occurred in certain individuals and haemoproteinaceous exudate appeared within septa and alveolar lumina. The pneumonitis was compared with human farmer's lung, pneumonitis of housed cattle and other experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitides.  (+info)

Mushroom worker's lung resulting from indoor cultivation of Pleurotus osteatus. (2/291)

Indoor cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus osteatus lead to an outbreak of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in two workers. High titer of indirect fluorescent antibody and positive precipitins against basidiospores of P. osteatus were demonstrated in sera of the patients. Mushroom workers should protect themselves from the basidiospores, being aware of their pathogenicity.  (+info)

Compliance and stability of the bronchial wall in a model of allergen-induced lung inflammation. (3/291)

Airway wall remodeling in response to inflammation might alter load on airway smooth muscle and/or change airway wall stability. We therefore determined airway wall compliance and closing pressures in an animal model. Weanling pigs were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA; ip and sc, n = 6) and were subsequently challenged three times with OVA aerosol. Control pigs received 0.9% NaCl (n = 4) in place of OVA aerosol. Bronchoconstriction in vivo was assessed from lung resistance and dynamic compliance. Semistatic airway compliance was recorded ex vivo in isolated segments of bronchus, after the final OVA aerosol or 0.9% NaCl challenge. Internally or externally applied pressure needed to close bronchial segments was determined in the absence or presence of carbachol (1 microM). Sensitized pig lungs exhibited immediate bronchoconstriction to OVA aerosol and also peribronchial accumulations of monocytes and granulocytes. Compliance was reduced in sensitized bronchi in vitro (P < 0.01), and closing pressures were increased (P < 0.05). In the presence of carbachol, closing pressures of control and sensitized bronchi were not different. We conclude that sensitization and/or inflammation increases airway load and airway stability.  (+info)

Regulatory effects of endogenous protease inhibitors in acute lung inflammatory injury. (4/291)

Inflammatory lung injury is probably regulated by the balance between proteases and protease inhibitors together with oxidants and antioxidants, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Rat tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-2 (TIMP-2) and secreted leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) were cloned, expressed, and shown to be up-regulated at the levels of mRNA and protein during lung inflammation in rats induced by deposition of IgG immune complexes. Using immunoaffinity techniques, endogenous TIMP-2 in the inflamed lung was shown to exist as a complex with 72- and 92-kDa metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9). In inflamed lung both TIMP-2 and SLPI appeared to exist as enzyme inhibitor complexes. Lung expression of both TIMP-2 and SLPI appeared to involve endothelial and epithelial cells as well as macrophages. To assess how these endogenous inhibitors might affect the lung inflammatory response, animals were treated with polyclonal rabbit Abs to rat TIMP-2 or SLPI. This intervention resulted in significant intensification of lung injury (as revealed by extravascular leak of albumin) and substantially increased neutrophil accumulation, as determined by cell content in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. These events were correlated with increased levels of C5a-related chemotactic activity in BAL fluids, while BAL levels of TNF-alpha and chemokines were not affected by treatment with anti-TIMP-2 or anti-SLPI. The data suggest that endogenous TIMP-2 and SLPI dynamically regulate the intensity of lung inflammatory injury, doing so at least in part by affecting the generation of the inflammatory mediator, C5a.  (+info)

Mycobacterium sp. as a possible cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in machine workers. (5/291)

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in workers exposed to metal removal fluids (MRFs) is increasing. This study supports the hypothesis that aerosolized mycobacteria colonizing the MRFs likely cause the disease. Three case studies of HP outbreaks among metal workers showed potentially high exposures to a rare and newly proposed Mycobacterium species. Retrospective review of samples submitted to our laboratory showed an association between presence of mycobacteria and HP.  (+info)

Expression of mucosa-related integrin alphaEbeta7 on alveolar T cells in interstitial lung diseases. (6/291)

The expression of alphaEbeta7 integrin has been related to the selective retention of lymphocytes in mucosal tissues of gut, urogenital tract and lung. To identify potential disease-associated alphaEbeta7 expression patterns on cells accounting for lymphocytic alveolitis in interstitial lung disease (ILD), alphaE expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets was evaluated by dual-colour flow cytometry in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n = 18), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP; n = 20) and sarcoidosis (n = 44) in comparison with healthy controls (n = 15). In both healthy individuals and all patient groups the proportion of alphaE-bearing T cells in peripheral blood was < 2%, whereas the vast majority of alveolar CD8+ T cells consistently co-expressed alphaE. Absolute alveolar CD8+alphaE+ cell numbers/ml were up to 30-fold increased in HP patients. Proportions of alphaE-bearing CD4+ cells in BALF were significantly elevated in IPF (74.0 +/- 2.7%) and HP (70.0 +/- 2.4%) compared with normals (30.0 +/- 1.8%) (mean +/- s.e.m.; P < 0.01). In sarcoidosis, the alphaE expression on BALF CD4+ cells displayed subgroup dependency: proportions significantly lower than normal were noted in chest radiographic stage I (14.3 +/- 1.5%), but increased proportions in stages II (50.0 +/- 3.8%) and III (64.0 +/- 4.8%). Correlations between common markers of T cell activation or BALF transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta ) bioactivity and alphaE expression were not noted. We conclude that the vast majority of alveolar CD8+ T cells consistently express alphaEbeta7 and that distinct patterns of alphaEbeta7 expression on alveolar CD4+ lymphocytes in sarcoidosis are related to the diverse manifestations of the sarcoid inflammatory process in the lung.  (+info)

Viral infection modulates expression of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. (7/291)

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a granulomatous, inflammatory lung disease caused by inhalation of organic Ags, most commonly thermophilic actinomycetes that cause farmer's lung disease. The early response to Ag is an increase in neutrophils in the lung, whereas the late response is a typical Th1-type granulomatous disease. Many patients who develop disease report a recent viral respiratory infection. These studies were undertaken to determine whether viruses can augment the inflammatory responses in HP. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the thermophilic bacteria Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (SR) for 3 consecutive days per wk for 3 wk. Some mice were exposed to SR at 2 wk after infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), whereas others were exposed to SR after exposure to saline alone or to heat-inactivated RSV. SR-treated mice developed a typical, early neutrophil response and a late granulomatous inflammatory response. Up-regulation of IFN-gamma and IL-2 gene expression was also found during the late response. These responses were augmented by recent RSV infection but not by heat-inactivated RSV. Mice with a previous RSV infection also had a greater early neutrophil response to SR, with increased macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2, murine equivalent of IL-8) release in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These studies suggest that viral infection can augment both the early and late inflammatory responses in HP.  (+info)

Polarized type 1 cytokine profile in bronchoalveolar lavage T cells of patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. (8/291)

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is characterized by an inflammatory lymphocytic alveolitis comprised of both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Animal models suggest that HP is facilitated by overproduction of IFN-gamma, and that IL-10 ameliorates severity of the disease, indicating a Th1-type response. To determine whether a Th1 phenotype in HP also exists clinically, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood (PB) T cells were obtained from HP individuals and analyzed for Th1 vs Th2 cytokine profiles. It was determined that soluble OKT3-stimulated BAL T cells cocultured with alveolar macrophages produced more IFN-gamma and less IL-10 than PB T cells cocultured with monocytes, but no difference was observed in IL-4 production. The monocytic cells did not account for this difference, as CD80 and CD86 expressions were similar, and coculturing PB T cells with alveolar macrophages resulted in no difference in IFN-gamma production. Similarly, there was no difference in IL-12 production between stimulated BAL or PB T cells; however, addition of rIL-12 significantly increased production of IFN-gamma by BAL T cells, but not by PB T cells. This effect was due to a difference in IL-12R expression. High affinity IL-12R were only present in association with BAL T cells. These studies indicate that clinical HP is characterized by a predominance of IFN-gamma-producing T cells, perhaps resulting from a reduction in IL-10 production and an increase in high affinity IL-12R compared with blood T cells.  (+info)

  • HP is an allergic disease most often caused by the inhalation of a variety of organic particles, such as bacteria ( Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula ) causing farmers' lung, fungi ( Trichosporon cutaneum ) causing summer-type HP, mycobacteria ( Mycobacterium avium intracellulare ) causing hot-tub lung, proteins (altered pigeon serum, probably IgA) causing pigeon breeder's disease, and chemical products (e.g. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • For more information on this disorder, choose "Fibrosing Alveolitis" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database. (rarediseases.org)
  • In-hospital evaluation included a chest X-ray, which showed bilateral interstitial infiltrates, a high resolution computed tomography scan consistent with alveolitis, normal spirometry with a decreased diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and nonspecific transbronchial biopsy findings. (cdc.gov)