Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Nasal Polyps: Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar: A form of RHABDOMYOSARCOMA occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults, affecting muscles of the extremities, trunk, orbital region, etc. It is extremely malignant, metastasizing widely at an early stage. Few cures have been achieved and the prognosis is poor. "Alveolar" refers to its microscopic appearance simulating the cells of the respiratory alveolus. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2188)Nasal Sprays: Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Nasal Cartilages: Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Turbinates: The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Pneumocytes: Epithelial cells that line the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Nasal Surgical Procedures: Surgical operations on the nose and nasal cavity.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Nasal Lavage: Irrigation of the nose with saline or irrigation solutions for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is used to remove irritants, allergens, or microorganisms from the nose.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Rhinomanometry: Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Rhinoplasty: A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft Part: A variety of rare sarcoma having a reticulated fibrous stroma enclosing groups of sarcoma cells, which resemble epithelial cells and are enclosed in alveoli walled with connective tissue. It is a rare tumor, usually occurring between 15 and 35 years of age. It appears in the muscles of the extremities in adults and most commonly in the head and neck regions of children. Though slow-growing, it commonly metastasizes to the lungs, brain, bones, and lymph nodes. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1365)Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins: Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Echinococcosis, Hepatic: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Nose Deformities, Acquired: Abnormalities of the nose acquired after birth from injury or disease.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Tooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Echinococcus multilocularis: A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein C: A pulmonary surfactant associated protein that plays a role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. It is a membrane-bound protein that constitutes 1-2% of the pulmonary surfactant mass. Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein C is one of the most hydrophobic peptides yet isolated and contains an alpha-helical domain with a central poly-valine segment that binds to phospholipid bilayers.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Epistaxis: Bleeding from the nose.Alveolar Ridge Augmentation: Preprosthetic surgery involving rib, cartilage, or iliac crest bone grafts, usually autologous, or synthetic implants for rebuilding the alveolar ridge.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Mice, Inbred C57BLInstillation, Drug: The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Echinococcosis, Pulmonary: Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.Alveoloplasty: Conservative contouring of the alveolar process, in preparation for immediate or future denture construction. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Trigeminal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal: A form of RHABDOMYOSARCOMA arising primarily in the head and neck, especially the orbit, of children below the age of 10. The cells are smaller than those of other rhabdomyosarcomas and are of two basic cell types: spindle cells and round cells. This cancer is highly sensitive to chemotherapy and has a high cure rate with multi-modality therapy. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2188)Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Mouth Breathing: Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Bronchioles: The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Maxillary Sinus: The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein B: A pulmonary surfactant associated-protein that plays an essential role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Inherited deficiency of pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B is one cause of RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Rats, Inbred F344Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Mice, Inbred BALB CDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Lithiasis: A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Rhabdomyosarcoma: A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxymetazoline: A direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1251)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell: An extranodal neoplasm, usually possessing an NK-cell phenotype and associated with EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS. These lymphomas exhibit a broad morphologic spectrum, frequent necrosis, angioinvasion, and most commonly present in the midfacial region, but also in other extranodal sites.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.SmokeMucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Clodronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pneumocystis carinii: The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Ethmoid Bone: A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.ZymosanCystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Uteroglobin: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Paranasal Sinus Diseases: Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Rhinitis, Atrophic: A chronic inflammation in which the NASAL MUCOSA gradually changes from a functional to a non-functional lining without mucociliary clearance. It is often accompanied by degradation of the bony TURBINATES, and the foul-smelling mucus which forms a greenish crust (ozena).Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Bodily Secretions: Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Periodontium: The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.ElastinAnesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Voiced denti-alveolar nasal; initial and medial (Capell, 1984). /ŋ/ - Voiced velar nasal, initial and medial (Capell, 1984). /f ... Voiceless alveolar sibilant, initial and medial (Capell, 1984). /ʃ/ - Voiceless palato-alveolar fricative with some lip- ... Voiced alveolar lateral, fricative, initial, medial (Capell, 1984). /r/ - Voiced lingual flapped alveolar consonant, sometimes ... Denti-alveolar devoiced unaspirated plosive, initial and medial (Capell, 1984). /k/ - Devoiced velar unaspirated plosive, front ...
Sonorants: retroflex nasal merged into alveolar nasal; /ɻ/, formerly palatal nasal in EMC, became /ɻ~ʐ/ or sometimes the ... An example is the series of retroflex stops in EMC, which developed from earlier alveolar stops followed by /r/, and which ... In Min, the corresponding words still have alveolar stops. This difference can be seen in the words for "tea" borrowed into ... The class of EMC palatals is lost, with palatal sibilants becoming retroflex sibilants and the palatal nasal becoming a new ...
The alveolar nasal /n/ is assimilated to following obstruents; it can be labiodental (e.g. αμφιβολία [aɱfivoˈlia] 'doubt'), ... t/'s exact place of articulation ranges from alveolar to denti-alveolar, to dental. It may be fricated [θ̠ ~ θ] in rapid speech ... is prototypically an alveolar tap [ɾ], often retracted ([ɾ̠]). It may be an alveolar approximant [ɹ] intervocalically, and is ... The nasal component-when present-does not increase the duration of the stop's closure; as such, prenasalised voiced stops would ...
A Dental nasal or alveolar nasal, depending on the word. B Alveolar tap. C The tip of the tongue almost touches the teeth ([l̪ ... Used rarely in scholarly texts to represent the alveolar nasal, as opposed to the dental nasal. In ordinary texts both are ... M Used rarely in scholarly texts to represent the voiceless alveolar plosive, as opposed to the voiceless dental plosive ... otherwise alveolar trill (apical) /ra/. Optionally, (1) may be transliterated as ṯṯa instead of ṟṟa, (2) as nṯa (not nḏa) ...
For example, banh is pronounced /baɪŋ/, as opposed to /baŋ/ (bang). In the southern dialect, it represents an alveolar nasal (n ... In Welsh, nh is a voiceless alveolar nasal, /n̥/. Jean-Pierre JUGE (2001) Petit précis - Chronologie occitane - Histoire & ... In Portuguese, nh represents a palatal [ɲ]. Due to allophony, it may represent the nasal approximant [ȷ̃] in most Brazilian, ... it's a velar nasal, [ŋ]. In Occitan, nh represents a palatal [ɲ]. For n·h, see Interpunct#Occitan. ...
The consonant that is nasal and dental-alveolar is n. F and v are fricative and labio-dental. The consonant that is fricative ... R is rolled and a dental-alveolar consonant. Lastly, w is a continuant and labial consonant (Capell, 1969). Sonsorolese has 5 ... T and d are dental-alveolar and plosive. The consonant c is palatal and plosive. K and g are velar and plosive consonants. ... and dental-alveolar is s. J is a fricative and palatal consonant. The consonants x and ɣ are fricative and velar. ...
Other consonants include labial and alveolar nasals; alveolar, velar and glottal fricatives; and alveolar and palatal ...
... from the palatalized alveolar nasal /nʲ/. In fact, some conservative Irish dialects have two palatalized alveolar nasals, ... Sometimes palatalized alveolars or dentals can be analyzed in this manner as well. Palatal consonants can be distinguished from ... The nasal [ɲ] is also common, occurring in around 35 percent of the world's languages, in most of which its equivalent ...
The resonant nasals are labial /m/ and alveolar /n/. The resonant glides are labio-velar /w/ and palatal /y/. Western Ojibwa ... Nasal assimilation: The nasals will assimilate to the following consonant of a cluster. So: /n/ → [m] / __p : /n/ is realized ... They also do not shift to /a/. Nasal vowels are becoming denasalized; however, vowels may be nasalized before a nasal followed ... as labial nasal [m] when it occurs before a labial stop /p/ /n/ → [ŋ] / __k : /n/ is realized as velar nasal [ŋ] when it occurs ...
The velar nasals have fallen together with the alveolar nasals. The dialects of Colorado River east of Chemehuevi have lost *h ... Shoshoni and Comanche have both lost the velar nasals, merging them with *n or turning them into velar nasal-stop clusters. In ... Proto-Western Numic changed the nasal-stop clusters of Proto-Numic into voiced geminate stops. In Mono and all dialects of ... Proto-Numic had the following consonant inventory: In addition to the above simple consonants, Proto-Numic also had nasal-stop/ ...
It is weakly rounded [w]. /n/ is a released apico-alveolar nasal [n̺]. The obstruents can be further subclassified into the ... The nasal vowels, /ɛ̃/ and /ɔ̃/, are transcribed with tremas on top: ⟨ë ö⟩. Depending on the phonetic environment, the nasal ... The nasal diphthongs are aë, aö, eö, and oë.[clarification needed] Stress is either strong, marked with an acute accent mark, ... s/ is a spirant with blade-alveolar groove articulation [s]. It is always voiceless, and is fortis [s˰][clarification needed] ...
... alveolar nasal consonant /n/, like the pronunciation of ⟨n⟩ in "nice" dental nasal consonant /n̪/, as above but with the tip of ... It commonly represents the alveolar nasal consonant /n/, like the pronunciation of ⟨n⟩ in "neat". The Cyrillic letter En was ... palatalized dental nasal consonant /n̪ʲ/, as above but with the tip of the tongue on the teeth palatal nasal consonant /ɲ/ The ... the tongue on the teeth palatalized alveolar nasal consonant /nʲ/, like the pronunciation of ⟨n⟩ in "onion" ...
Nari commonly represents the alveolar nasal consonant /n/, like the pronunciation of ⟨n⟩ in "nose". Latin letter N Machavariani ...
Standard Danish phonology contains nasal, aspirated voiceless and devoiced plosives (labial, alveolar, and velar). Four ... although it shows considerably more variability in the alveolars. The bilabials still have the approximant in one dialect, but ...
There is a phonological rule in Perak Malay that neutralizes the final nasals to alveolar nasal. The final nasals /-m/ and /-ŋ ... In other circumstances, the nasals are neutralized to [-n]. This neutralizing rule operates only if the final nasals are ...
In the proper context, all four are called "plain," as is the alveolar nasal stop [n]. Grassmann's law Spiritus asper Spiritus ... Also, the tenuis alveolar stop [t˭], the aspirated and the ejective stops [tʰ] and [tʼ] are unvoiced, and the voiced alveolar ...
Word-final nasals are velar (not alveolar like in Mexico or central Spain). The final /d/ is normally elided, but sometimes ... Yeísmo exists, the phoneme occurring as [ʝ] and [j] interchangeably, and as palato-alveolar [dʒ] in initial position by some ...
Features of palato-alveolar clicks: The basic articulation may be voiced, nasal, aspirated, glottalized, etc. The forward place ... Unicode uses the obsolete description "alveolar click" for the palatal-click letter ⟨ǂ⟩. The palatal or palato-alveolar clicks ... Clicks may be oral or nasal, which means that the airflow is either restricted to the mouth, or passes through the nose as well ... Voiced and nasal clicks have a simultaneous pulmonic egressive airstream. Palatal clicks only occur in the southern African ...
... does not tolerate clusters of the bilabial nasal /m/ and the alveolar trill /r/ in any environment. The voiced ... Two pharyngealized segments (a voiced alveolar stop ḍ /ðˤ/ and a voiced alveolar fricative ẓ /zˤ/) are found in a few Arabic ...
Alveolar nasal [w] Bilabial voiced fricative. Ij] Palatal approximant. [m] Bilabial nasal [q] Velar nasal. [l] Alveolar lateral ... dz] Alveolar unaspirated affricative [el Postal alveolar unaspirated affricative. [Q] Postal alveolar aspirated affricative [a ... dl Alveolar unaspirated plosive [t] Alveolar aspirated plosive. [g] Velar unaspirated plosive [GI Uvular unaspirated plosive [k ... s] Alveolar voiceless fricative [$I Retroflex unaspirated fricative. [GI Retroflex aspirated fricative [x] Velar voiceless ...
It distinguishes stops, fricatives, and nasals at the labial, alveolar, velar, and uvular points of articulation. The earlier ... The uvular nasal [ɴ] is not found in all dialects and there is dialectal variability regarding its status as a phoneme (Rischel ... The alveolar stop [t] is pronounced as an affricate [t͡s] before the high front vowel /i/. Often, Danish loanwords containing ⟨ ... All non-nasal consonants in a cluster are voiceless. Greenlandic prosody does not include stress as an autonomous category; ...
The alveolar stop /t/ has a voiced allophone [d] after a nasal. It occurs between vowels only in a handful of words, probably ... The alveolar rhotic /r/ is a tap [ɾ] between vowels, and a usually voiceless trill [r̥] finally. The palatal semivowel /j/ may ... The laterals-but perhaps uniquely not the nasals-are allophonically prestopped. The laminal stop /c/ has a voiced allophone [ɟ ... nasals, and semivowels. Words may end in a vowel, or one of /n r l ɲ ɳ ʎ ɭ/. Unlike most Australian languages, which exhibit ...
Malayalam has a three-way distinction between laminal dental, apical alveolar and true subapical retroflex in nasal and ... It spans the alveolar ridge to the teeth but is a little farther forward than other alveolar laminal consonants, which cover ... When one looks at a person pronouncing a laminal alveolar or denti-alveolar, the tip of the tongue can be seen touching the ... Thus, French coronals are alveolar and differ from English alveolars primarily in being laminal rather than apical (in French, ...
The nasal /n/ also exists but is quite alveolar and apical in articulation.[citation needed] To native speakers, the English ... In French, the contact that is farthest back is alveolar or sometimes slightly pre-alveolar. Dental/denti-alveolar consonants ... are laminal denti-alveolar, but /l/ and /n/ are prototypically alveolar but assimilate to the place of articulation of a ... become denti-alveolar before a following dental consonant. Although denti-alveolar consonants are often described as dental, it ...
... while the simple n stands for the common alveolar nasal /n/, an n with macron (n̄) represents the velar nasal /ŋ/; the vowel ē ... the same symbol r̄ encodes the alveolar trill /r/ - by contrast with r, which encodes the alveolar flap /ɾ/. In Bislama ( ... The letter ā is pronounced [æ~ɛ], the palatalized allophone of the phoneme /a/. The letter n̄ represents the velar nasal ... is a rounded labial-velar nasal /ŋ͡mʷ/; ... phoneme /ŋ/ and the labialized velar nasal phoneme /
Moreover, what was once pronounced and written as a retroflex nasal ণ [ɳɔ] is now pronounced as an alveolar [nɔ] when in ... Nasal. ম. mɔ. mô. ঞ ~ ণ ~ ন. nɔ. nô. ঙ. ŋɔ. ngô. ... indicating the velar nasal [ŋ] (as in বাংলা [baŋla] "Bengali") and the postposed bisôrgô (ঃ) indicating the voiceless glottal ... স retains the voiceless alveolar sibilant [sɔ] sound when used in certain consonant conjuncts as in স্খলন [skʰɔlɔn] "fall", ...
The (post)alveolar nasal click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa. The symbol in the ... Alveolar nasal clicks are found primarily in the various Khoisan language families of southern Africa and in some neighboring ... Voiced and nasal clicks have a simultaneous pulmonic egressive airstream. Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it ... It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition ...
The voiceless alveolar nasal is a type of consonant in some languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that ... The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is n_0. Features of the voiceless alveolar nasal: Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which ... Denti-alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, and the tip of the tongue ... It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition ...
Hayami, H., Mizutani, K., Shioda, M. et al. Use of high-flow nasal canulae: effect on alveolar pressure and its limitation. ... Use of high-flow nasal canulae: effect on alveolar pressure and its limitation. *H Hayami. 1. , ... but the effect on alveolar pressure is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effect of HFNC on alveolar pressure, by measuring ... High-flow nasal canulae (HFNC) deliver high-flow humidified gas at up to 60 l/minute. There are two types of respiratory ...
alveolar nasal. Lower-case N. 115. LATIN LETTER SMALL M. ɳ. retroflex nasal. Right-tail N. 115. LATIN LETTER SMALL N WITH ... Palatalised alveolar nasal and palatal nasal; palatalised velar fricative and palatal fricative; palatalised alveolar lateral ... bilabial nasal. Lower-case M. 114. LATIN LETTER SMALL M. ɱ. labiodental nasal. Left-tail M (at right). 115. LATIN LETTER SMALL ... But, then Ladefoged & Maddieson call them palatalized lamino-post-alveolar (vs. the domed apico/lamino-post-alveolar, i.e. ...
Management of the alveolar nasal fistula also provides the benefit of unscarred tissue to be used for later alveolar bone ... of the oral and nasal cavities during speech. Specifically, it is abnormal nasal resonance during the production of non-nasal ... What should be done when an alveolar nasal fistula is present?. Some cleft care providers do not advocate treatment of an ... The nasal mucosal incision is made, leaving a free edge in the nasal mucosa. The palatal aponeurosis is divided, exposing the ...
6.31.7 Interchange of voiced dental/alveolar nasals and liquids. As in English and also in Gaelic, there are sporadic ... 6.12 OF a before nasal combinations in OSc. 6.12.1 All environments. OF a was retracted in AN to [ɑ] before a following nasal, ... Further developments from Vowel 4 forms took place in the environment before alveolar nasal + affricate. There arose a new ... 6.12.2 Additional developments before alveolar nasal + affricate. 6.12.2.1 All preceding environments. ...
spirometry, plethysmography, exhaled nitric oxide fraction, maximal inspiratory nasal flow, lung age, alveolar-capillary ... "peak nasal inspiratory flow" OR "Lung age") AND ("Tunisia" OR "North Africa") AND ("reference equation" OR "reference value" OR ...
Effect of first premolar extraction on nasal airway dimension in adult bimaxillary dento-alveolar protrusion patients - a ... Aim: First premolar extraction is the treatment option usually for bimaxillarydento-alveolar protrusion patients. Tongue space ... The study material consisted of 31 patients with bimaxillarydento-alveolar protrusion and underwent fixed orthodontic treatment ... and post-orthodontic treatment records of adult patients who had bimaxillarydento-alveolar protrusion. ...
Nasal alveolar molding (NAM): Prior to surgery to repair a cleft lip, some children require orthodontic treatment in order to ... and offer specialized techniques you cant find in most other hospitals-like Nasal alveolar molding (NAM). We are involved in ...
A total of 324 clinical samples were tested: NPA, Nasopharyngeal aspirate; TS, throat swab; BAL, broncho alveolar lavage; NS, ... The samples consisted of nasopharyngeal aspirates (n = 231), throat swabs (n = 33), bronchoalveolar lavage (n = 17), nasal ... Clinical samples including nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA), throat and nasal swabs (TS, NS), bronochoalveolar lavage (BAL), ... nasal swab; ETT, endotracheal tip; LB; lung biopsy. The present invention is now described with reference to the following non- ...
A nasal alveolar molding (NAM) device *Palatal appliances to facilitate feeding. *Oral and nasal appliances to aid in ...
... nasal or endotracheal aspirates; bronchial alveolar lavage specimens; sputum; frozen and fixed respiratory tissue; and serum ... Pre- and/or postmortem specimens, including nasopharyngeal, nasal, or throat swabs; ...
Molding Therapy for the Treatment of Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Improves Nasal Symmetry and Maxillary Alveolar Dimensions ... Microbiological and Histopathological Effects of Nasal Packing Containing Probiotics on Nasal Mucosa. Gokdogan, Ozan; Kizil, ... Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma of the Nasal Tip Treated With Surgical Excision and Rotational Forehead Skin Flap. Kang, Min Seok ... Morphological Patterns and Variations of the Nasal Septum Components and Their Clinical Implications. Hur, Mi-Sun; Won, Hyung- ...
The alveolar bone bends laterally and the palatine bones inferiorly increasing nasal cavity. • Splaying of hamular processes of ... Pfaff, in 1929 described improved nasal function after maxillary expansion. • Haas, in 1960 reported increased nasal width,gain ... This screw as a source of force together with the acrylic segment of the plate effect the teeth and the alveolar process. • ...
Middle superior alveolar nerve explanation free. What is Middle superior alveolar nerve? Meaning of Middle superior alveolar ... Looking for online definition of Middle superior alveolar nerve in the Medical Dictionary? ... nasal nerve. Any of the medial, lateral, and external nasal nerves that are sensory branches of the nasociliary nerve. They ... nerve, middle superior alveolar,. n alveolar nerve that conveys impulses from the pulp tissue and periodontium of the gingiva ...
Management of chronic alveolar hypoventilation by nasal ventilation. Chest 1990;97:52-57. ... Normal pregnancy in primary alveolar hypoventilation treated with nocturnal nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. ... A nasal mask is usually preferable to a full face mask or a mouthpiece. Patients with chest wall disorders are no more prone to ... Efficacy of nocturnal nasal ventilation in patients with restrictive thoracic disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145:365-371. ...
Nasal alveolar cyst *Nasoalveolar cyst *Nasal wing cyst *Nasal vestibule cyst *Mucoid cyst of the nose Epidemiology. ... Suggests entrapped epithelial remnants along fusion line of medial nasal, lateral nasal and maxillary processes as an origin ... Usually asymptomatic, rarely nasal obstruction or reports of pain if infected *Most common patient concern is swelling *Mass ... papillae occurs within the soft tissue of the anterior hard palate only and shows no communication with the upper lip or nasal ...
Second pronunciation uses nasal alveolar flap. Oz 1. Gary Orsum. an·tee·faa. [ˈæ᷈ntiˌfɐː]. Long nasal vowel, secondary stress ... Nasal vowel at front, different at end. ... I use a nasal alveolar flap, hence [ˌæɾ᷈iˈfæʃɪst]. A shortened ...
1990) Management of chronic alveolar hypoventilation by nasal ventilation. Chest 97:52-57, . ... 1995) Nasal pressure support ventilation plus oxygen compared with oxygen therapy alone in hypercapnic COPD. Am J Respir Crit ... 1992) Efficacy of nocturnal nasal ventilation in patients with restrictive thoracic disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 145:365-371, . ... 1995) Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation: analysis of its withdrawal. Chest 107:382-388, . ...
Can be used, for example, to indicate the dental nature of the alveolar nasal consonant or the velarized alveolar lateral (i.e ... Can be used, for example, to indicate the retracted nature of the nasal consonants and pharyngealized alveolar laterals (i.e. ... nasal. Articulated by the total obstruction of airflow resulting from contact between the two articulators, with the soft ... Can be used, for example, to represent the velarized nature of the alveolar lateral in Catalan: ala [ˈaɫǝ], mal [maɫ]. ...
m: voiceless bilabial nasal ej: mask, amount, calm. n: voiced post alveolar nasal ej: pin, knob. ? : voiced lingua velar nasal ... t3: voiceless post alveolar affricative ej: job, badger, cage. Nasal: nasal refers to a consonat produced with complete closure ... S: voiceless lingua alveolar fricative. ej: soap, asume, mice. Z: voiced lingua alveolar fricative. ej: nose, zipper, buzzer. ... alveolar, plosive D: voiced, alveolar, plosive. K: voiceless, velar, plosive G: voiced, velar, plosive. Ej: deep; dangerous ...
This involves atrophy of the nasal spine, atrophy in recession of the alveolar ...
The V{sub max} in monkey alveolar subcompartment was 2% that in rat nasal olfactory epithelium. Rates of metabolism in nasal ... Title: Kinetics of naphthalene metabolism in target and non-target tissues of rodents and in nasal and airway microsomes from ... Journal Article: Kinetics of naphthalene metabolism in target and non-target tissues of rodents and in nasal and airway ... of microsomes from known susceptible tissues/subcompartments are 10 and 250 fold higher than in rat airway and monkey alveolar ...
  • Exposure to DBCP vapor was also associated with toxic tubular nephropathy in rats and mice of either sex and with proliferative changes in the nasal mucosa, lung, and forestomach in mice. (nih.gov)
  • On admission the patient was in good general condition, ruddy, hydrated, with moderate tachydyspnea, diffusely decreased breath sounds with crackles and bronchophony in the left hemithorax and receiving 2 L.min -1 of oxygen through a nasal cannula and cefuroxime (D1). (scielo.br)
  • 90% while on either nasal cannula or non-rebreather facemask oxygen. (emcrit.org)
  • Specifically, many centers have been using an early-intubation strategy which involves intubation of any patients who aren't saturating well in response to low-flow nasal cannula (a misguided strategy which the IBCC has been cautioning against beginning with our first chapter in early march ). (emcrit.org)
  • While these methods do not improve nasal shape directly, they help to narrow the cleft and makes for a less tense closure at the time of lip and nose repair. (medscape.com)
  • Unsurprisingly, nasal bone fractures occur when the nose impacts against a solid object (e.g. fist, forehead, dashboard, etc. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Three paired anatomic processes are involved with this phenomenon of migration and penetration: (1) the medial nasal process coalesces with the (2) maxillary process, followed by the coalescence of the (3) lateral nasal process with the medial nasal process (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Rates of metabolism in nasal compartments of the monkey were low. (osti.gov)
  • Analysis across nasal, bronchial and alveolar compartments revealed marked compositional differences throughout the respiratory tract in healthy individuals, with significant differences also observed with age, smoking status and the presence of established respiratory disease. (bl.uk)
  • Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is a form of fibrous dysplasia affecting the cranial base, involves two or more bones of the maxillofacial region and often includes the maxilla, zygoma , sphenoid, temporal bone, fronto-nasal bones and base of the skull (8,9). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It has been reported that HFNC provide higher FIO 2 compared with low-flow canulae, and also create mild positive pharyngeal airway pressure, but the effect on alveolar pressure is unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We aimed to investigate the effect of HFNC on alveolar pressure, by measuring intratracheal pressure in patients with a cricothyrotomy catheter (CTC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine whether early versus late treatment with porcine surfactant (Curosurf) reduces the requirement of mechanical ventilation in very preterm infants primarily supported by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nasal CPAP). (aappublications.org)
  • In a randomized, controlled study we have shown that a single dose of surfactant (Curosurf, Chiesi Farmateutici, Parma, Italy) given by short-lasting intubation reduces the need for mechanical ventilation and improves oxygenation in infants with moderate to severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) treated with early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nasal CPAP). (aappublications.org)
  • A 24-year-old male patient with a 2-month history of epistaxis, nasal stuffiness, frontal headache, and decrease of sensitivity in the right side of the face complained of a decrease in visual acuity and proptosis of the right eye. (nih.gov)
  • The blowhole of a sperm whale, a toothed whale, is located left of center in the frontal area of the snout, and is actually its left nostril, while the right nostril lacks an opening to the surface and its nasal passage is otherwise well developed. (marinebiology.org)
  • Tissue regeneration has become a promising treatment for craniomaxillofacial bone defects such as alveolar clefts. (hindawi.com)
  • Seventy-five percent of all cleft lip and palate variations are accompanied by alveolar bone defects [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the psychological benefits of secondary alveolar bone grafting, it is also necessary for maxillary arch integration, easier teeth eruption, alar base support, closure of oroantral communication, and increasing quality of life [ 5 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Nasal bone fractures are the most common type of facial fractures , accounting for ~45% of facial fractures, and are often missed when significant facial swelling is present. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Nasal bone fractures, when isolated, are most commonly a displaced fracture of one of the paired nasal bones. (radiopaedia.org)
  • It should be noted that cartilaginous injuries cannot be detected radiologically and that imaging of simple nasal bone fractures often add little to patient management. (radiopaedia.org)
  • A new approach to the treatment of nasal bone fracture: radiologic classification of nasal bone fractures and its clinical application. (radiopaedia.org)
  • 2. Atighechi S, Karimi G. Serial nasal bone reduction: a new approach to the management of nasal bone fracture. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Identification of Nasal Bone Fractures on Conventional Radiography and Facial CT: Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy in Different Imaging Modalities and Analysis of Interobserver Reliability. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The Effects of Maxillary Expansion on Late Alveolar Bone Grafting in Patients With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to answer the research question of whether maxillary expansion provides enough postgraft stimulation to decrease the volume loss of alveolar bone grafts in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) who missed the appropriate treatment time.This study was designed as a prospective controlled clinical trial. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The nasal tissues appear to be the most sensitive target of inhalation exposure, with onset of noticeable irritation occurring in seconds (0.3 ppm). (cdc.gov)
  • The catalytic efficiencies of microsomes from known susceptible tissues/subcompartments are 10 and 250 fold higher than in rat airway and monkey alveolar subcompartments, respectively. (osti.gov)
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has a predilection for the deep soft tissues of the extremities and mainly occurs in children. (nih.gov)
  • It can be concluded that (i) 13V091 is a highly pathogenic type 1 subtype 1 PRRSV strain that replicates better than 07V063 and 13V117 and has a strong tropism for sialoadhesin − cells and (ii) despite the close genetic relationship between 13V117 and 07V063, 13V117 has an increased nasal replication and shedding, but a decreased replication in lymphoid tissues compared to 07V063. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If the displacement is significant then if untreated they may result both in an unfavorable cosmetic result and in impaired function (i.e. difficulty in breathing through one or both nasal passages). (radiopaedia.org)
  • To study the cutoff of nasal FENO in the diagnosis of subjects with AR and AR-asthma compared to age-matched subjects without AR or asthma and its correlations with the clinical and functional characteristics. (dovepress.com)
  • Exhaled NO (nasal FENO, bronchial FENO, and alveolar concentration of NO) was measured by multiple flow electroluminescence device. (dovepress.com)
  • Nasal FENO measurement is a useful technique for the diagnosis of AR in subjects with and without asthma. (dovepress.com)
  • However, some of the surfactant-treated infants supported by nasal CPAP developed apnea despite good oxygenation and needed mechanical ventilation for that reason. (aappublications.org)
  • 30 weeks' gestation with RDS, requiring no other ventilatory support than supplemental oxygen and nasal CPAP, would do better when treated with surfactant at an early stage of the disease compared with treatment at a moderately advanced stage, which according to traditional criteria, would indicate treatment with surfactant. (aappublications.org)
  • Nasal changes after orthognathic surgery for patients with prognathism and Class III malocclusion: Analysis using three-dimensional photogrammetry. (3dmd.com)
  • Radon-induced nasal carcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, bronchio-alveolar carcinomas, and fibrosarcoma were observed in dogs of both sexes that had been administered, by inhalation, radon decay products, uranium-ore dust, and cigarette smoke. (radon.com)
  • Features of the (post)alveolar nasal click: The airstream mechanism is lingual ingressive (also known as velaric ingressive), which means a pocket of air trapped between two closures is rarefied by a "sucking" action of the tongue, rather than being moved by the glottis or the lungs/diaphragm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alveolar subtype RMS is an extremely aggressive neoplasm that rarely presents in the orbit or paranasal sinuses of adults but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors with this localization. (nih.gov)
  • Both anti-Piece and anti-IgA caused fluorescence of: 1) cells at the periphery of lymphoid follicles and lining the crypts of the pharyngeal and palatine tonsils, and 2) scattered interstitial and serous acinar cells of the compound alveolar glands in the nasal submucosa and in the submaxillary and parotid salivary glands. (jimmunol.org)
  • It is not necessary to postulate selective transport of 7 S serum IgA either from the interstitial fluid surrounding nasal and salivary glands or from the plasma to account for the high concentrations of 11 S IgA in external excretions. (jimmunol.org)
  • nCPAP is traditionally delivered with nasal prongs, nasal/facial mask. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • CORRELATION BETWEEN INTERORBITAL WIDTH/ FACIAL HEIGHT INDEX AND NASAL WIDTH/ FACIAL HEIGHT INDEX CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES, No. 32 The favorable correlation shown by the author(1) to exist between the nasal width and the interorbital width stimulated him to investigate the possible existence of a correlation between two cranial indices in which these two cranial dimensions participate. (docme.ru)
  • These indices are the interorbital width/facial height index, described in Craniometric Study no. 30, and another new cranial index recently described by him, namely, the nasal width/facial height index(2). (docme.ru)
  • As the nasal width/facial height index has only recently been devised by the author, its ranges of variation, standard deviations, and coefficients of variability have yet to be recorded in the case of the Hamann Museum white and negro crania. (docme.ru)
  • This was slightly greater than the range exhibited by the interorbital width/facial height index, but definitely less than the range shown by the nasal index in this racial group. (docme.ru)
  • However, it was decidedly less than the ranges for the nasal width/facial height index in the case of the Hamann Museum white and negro crania (table 1). (docme.ru)
  • He was therefore much interested to note that the same racial group possessed also the lowest average for the nasal width/facial height index, namely, 31.0 (k 0.3263). (docme.ru)
  • This racial group presented an average interorbital width/ facial height index of 38.2 (+0.3396), and a n average nasal 250 J O H N CAMEROX width/facial height index of 38.3 ( -L 0.3361). (docme.ru)
  • The study material consisted of 31 patients with bimaxillarydento-alveolar protrusion and underwent fixed orthodontic treatment with extraction of upper and lower first premolar teeth. (journalcra.com)