Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A form of RHABDOMYOSARCOMA occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults, affecting muscles of the extremities, trunk, orbital region, etc. It is extremely malignant, metastasizing widely at an early stage. Few cures have been achieved and the prognosis is poor. "Alveolar" refers to its microscopic appearance simulating the cells of the respiratory alveolus. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2188)
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Epithelial cells that line the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Factors secreted by stimulated lymphocytes that prime macrophages to become nonspecifically cytotoxic to tumors. They also modulate the expression of macrophage cell surface Ia antigens. One MAF is INTERFERON-GAMMA. Other factors antigenically distinct from IFN-gamma have also been identified.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Sarcoidosis affecting predominantly the lungs, the site most frequently involved and most commonly causing morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by sharply circumscribed granulomas in the alveolar, bronchial, and vascular walls, composed of tightly packed cells derived from the mononuclear phagocyte system. The clinical symptoms when present are dyspnea upon exertion, nonproductive cough, and wheezing. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p431)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A variety of rare sarcoma having a reticulated fibrous stroma enclosing groups of sarcoma cells, which resemble epithelial cells and are enclosed in alveoli walled with connective tissue. It is a rare tumor, usually occurring between 15 and 35 years of age. It appears in the muscles of the extremities in adults and most commonly in the head and neck regions of children. Though slow-growing, it commonly metastasizes to the lungs, brain, bones, and lymph nodes. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1365)
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Relating to the size of solids.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A sialic acid binding lectin that was originally identified as an adhesion molecule for inflammatory MACROPHAGES and activated MONOCYTES. This protein is the largest known siglec subtype and contains 16 immunoglobulin C2-set domains. It plays a role in cell to cell interactions and interactions with BACTERIA.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
In an early study (Thorén 1992) toxicity against monolayers of alveolar macrophages of particles of MnO2, TiO2 and SiO2 (silica ... In one study (Bäckman 1990), the heat production rate of T-lymphoma cells cultured in suspension was measured. Changes in ... Charlebois, SJ; Daniels AU; Smith RA (2002). "Metabolic Heat Production as a Measure of Macrophage Response to Particles from ... A dose/effect study of alveolar macrophages exposed to particles". J Toxicol Environ Health. 36 (4): 307-18. doi:10.1080/ ...
... are attacked by the host immune defences-specifically phagocytes and alveolar macrophage resident in the small airways. It is ... A moderate amount of data for itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole suspension suggests this approach may be valuable in ... nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-independent resistance to Aspergillus fumigatus in alveolar macrophages". ... TLR10 and TREM1 by human macrophages in Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis, and novel associations of VEGFA, DENND1B and ...
Play media Two highly active alveolar macrophages can be seen ingesting conidia. Time lapse is 30s per frame over 2.5hr. ... "Differential response of macrophage subpopulations to soleus muscle reloading after rat hindlimb suspension". Journal of ... HIV and the Macrophage A book on the role of macrophages in AIDS pathogenesis The role of macrophages in HIV pathogenesis ... Macrophages News Macrophages News provided by insciences organisation The Macrophage Community Website. ...
Alveolar macrophages (dust cells). Pulmonary alveoli of lungs Tissue macrophages (histiocytes) leading to giant cells. ... "Differential response of macrophage subpopulations to soleus muscle reloading after rat hindlimb suspension". Journal of ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Macrophages.. *HIV and the Macrophage A book on the role of macrophages in AIDS ... Intestinal MacrophagesEdit. Though very similar in structure to tissue macrophages, intestinal macrophages have evolved ...
However, macrophages, especially alveolar macrophages, usually produce far lower levels of ROS than neutrophils, and may ... Forman HJ, Torres M (December 2002). "Reactive oxygen species and cell signaling: respiratory burst in macrophage signaling". ... Keppler LD (1989). "Active Oxygen Production During a Bacteria-Induced Hypersensitive Reaction in Tobacco Suspension Cells". ... Myeloid cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, are especially implicated in the respiratory burst. They are phagocytic, ...
This model furthered vascular disease modeling and isolated macrophage phenotype's effect on blood vessels. PEG is commonly ... Moore, Erika M.; Ying, Grace; West, Jennifer L. (March 2017). "Macrophages Influence Vessel Formation in 3D Bioactive Hydrogels ... Polyethylene oxide, or high-molecular weight polyethylene glycol, is synthesized by suspension polymerization. It is necessary ... "Bioprinting-Based PDLSC-ECM Screening for in Vivo Repair of Alveolar Bone Defect Using Cell-Laden, Injectable and ...
Single-cell analysis revealed that, in vivo, proliferating macrophages can derepress a macrophage-specific enhancer repertoire ... Ghaedi, M.; Mendez, J. J.; Bove, P. F.; Sivarapatna, A.; Raredon, M. S. B.; Niklason, L. E. (2014). "Alveolar epithelial ... They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can ... Differentiated macrophages can self-renew in tissues and expand long-term in culture. Under certain conditions, macrophages can ...
Macrophages. *Histiocytes. *Kupffer cells. *Alveolar macrophage. *Microglia. *Osteoclasts. *Epithelioid cells. *giant cells * ... Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension ...
Macrophages. *Histiocytes. *Kupffer cells. *Alveolar macrophage. *Microglia. *Osteoclasts. *Epithelioid cells. *giant cells * ... In suspension, human neutrophils have an average diameter of 8.85 µm.[12] ... Neutrophils will be removed after phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages. PECAM-1 and phosphatidylserine on the cell surface ... Neutrophils are much more numerous than the longer-lived monocyte/macrophage phagocytes. A pathogen (disease-causing ...
Alveolar macrophages and various subsets of dendritic cells have been implicated in innate immunity and induction of anti-viral ... In this report, we demonstrate that mice lacking alveolar macrophages succumb to infection with low dose influenza virus and ... 2008) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma regulates the expression of alveolar macrophage macrophage colony- ... Cells suspension preparations. Mice were sacrificed by an overdose of pentobarbital sodium i.p. BAL was isolated by ...
The suspensions were examined for organelle damage by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Alveolar macrophage suspensions ... Suspensions of alveolar macrophages prepared from guinea-pigs were incubated with quartz (14808607) or titanium-dioxide ( ... Ultrastructural and functional changes induced by mineral dusts in alveolar macrophages were studied in-vitro. ... The suspensions were examined for organelle damage by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Alveolar macrophage suspensions ...
Alveolar macrophages are known to derive from embryonic precursors although the regulation of this process is poorly understood ... Here the authors propose a key role for histone deacetylase 3 as an epigenetic regulator of lung alveolar macrophage ... Alveolar macrophages (AMs) derived from embryonic precursors seed the lung before birth and self-maintain locally throughout ... Single-cell suspensions were centrifuged at 450 × g for 7 min, resuspended in ice-cold staining buffer (1× PBS with 2% FBS), ...
The suspensions were examined for organelle damage by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Alveolar macrophage suspensions ... Suspensions of alveolar macrophages prepared from guinea-pigs were incubated with quartz (14808607) or titanium-dioxide ( ... Alveolar macrophage suspensions were incubated with quartz. Vitamin- E, superoxide-dismutase (SOD), P240, or piperaquine was ... The authors conclude that quartz is the most cytotoxic to alveolar macrophages. Asbestos has the most suppressive effect on ...
Single-cell suspensions of dispersed lungs contained interstitial macrophages (CD45+CD24-CD11b+CD11c+) that were IL-12p40 ... Macrophage- and P2Y6-dependent IL-12 drives an early IFN-γ signature that depends on NK cells. IFN-γ is a known effector ... recipient mice with +/+ macrophages (i.t.); ###P , 0.001 vs. P2ry6fl/fl/Cre/+ recipient with P2ry6fl/fl/Cre/+ macrophages (i.t ... P2Y6 signaling in alveolar macrophages prevents leukotriene-dependent type 2 allergic lung inflammation. Jun Nagai,1,2 Barbara ...
Coculture of alveolar macrophages and MSC reduced level of macrophage stimulation by LPS. The addition of MSC to LPS-stimulated ... The radioactivity in the resultant 1-ml suspension was recorded with a gamma scintillation counter (Packard Instrument). ... Alveolar macrophages and MSC were then coincubated in the presence of LPS (4 μM) for 4 h at 37°C in a standard 24-well plate ( ... Alveolar macrophages were used in these studies because they are the initial innate immune cell in the lung that is exposed to ...
... with the autofluorescence typically seen in alveolar macrophages adequately discriminated alveolar DCs from macrophages, as ... After influenza virus infection, there was a nonsignificant trend of increase in the alveolar macrophage number at 4 dpi (Fig. ... Single-cell suspensions of lung and spleen samples were prepared as described previously (24). Red blood cells were removed ... In the nearby alveolar lumen, CD11chi alveolar macrophages control the function of these interstitial DCs (21). pDCs are CD11b− ...
Diminished numbers of alveolar macrophages in BAL fluid of LPL−/− mice.Alveolar macrophages provide the first line of defense ... The trachea was surgically exposed, and 20 μl of the bacterial suspension (corresponding to approximately 3 × 104 CFU/animal) ... Even if alveolar macrophage function is otherwise normal in LPL−/− mice, the relative reduction of alveolar macrophage numbers ... Production of alveolar macrophages requires LPL. (A to D) Regeneration of alveolar macrophages is delayed when donor bone ...
Alveolar macrophage killing assays.Alveolar macrophages were counted with a hemocytometer using trypan blue to identify dead ... One hundred microliters of this suspension (10,000 cells) was plated into a 96-well plate. Macrophages were allowed to adhere ... Alveolar macrophages from wild-type and SP-D−/− mice were isolated from the BAL fluid and incubated with H99 and cap59Δ cells ... Oxygen radical generation of murine alveolar macrophages. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi 28:741-749. (In Japanese.). ...
The alveolar macrophage (AM) is a luminal sentinel for pathogens and pollutants in lungs (21, 22). AMs represent the vast ... Single-cell suspension was prepared from the PBS-perfused lungs by digestion with Liberase TL (300 μg/ml; Roche Life Science) ... Sessile alveolar macrophages communicate with alveolar epithelium to modulate immunity. Nature 506, 503-506 (2014).. ... Alveolar macrophages: Plasticity in a tissue-specific context. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 14, 81-93 (2014).. ...
Macrophages (MH-S murine alveolar macrophage cell line; LGC Promochem) were cultivated in nonadherent suspension culture with ... 3 D). To investigate whether SAA is the APP responsible for macrophage migration, we stimulated macrophages with the ... as well as CCR2 expression in mouse macrophages. Furthermore, we examined macrophage migration toward CCL2 after SAA ... The migratory potency of macrophages to CCL2 could be still increased by preincubation of macrophages with SAA compared with ...
... alveolar cells in monocultures or in co-cultures with THP-1 macrophages were exposed to aerosols in inserts or to suspensions ... different toxicity patterns and/or biological activation levels compared to classic submerged exposures to suspensions. Three ... The alveolar macrophage. Environ Health Perspect. 1984;55:327-41.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar. ... This model was chosen to represent the complex alveolar structure comprising macrophages, in close contact with alveolar cells ...
C at a macrophage-target ratio of 1:20. (B) Rat alveolar macrophages were incubated with increasing amounts of apoptotic ... The cell suspensions were enumerated using a hemocytometer, adhered in flat bottom 6-well plates (Becton Dickinson, Franklin ... Using alveolar (Figure 8A) and peritoneal (Figure 8B) macrophages obtained from 5-LO KO mice, we were able to confirm our ... Resident alveolar macrophages were obtained by lung lavage from rats and mice as previously described.14,18 Resident peritoneal ...
For each dose metric used (mass/alveolar surface or mass/macrophage), we observed that the most realistic in vitro exposure ... between in vivo and in vitro results when doses were normalized by the number of macrophages rather than by the alveolar ... For this purpose, rats or pneumocytes in co-culture with macrophages were exposed to the same poorly soluble and poorly toxic ... Indeed, monocultures of murine macrophages were also exposed to suspensions in their study [11]. When focusing on the alveolar ...
... of alveolar macrophages. (A‐C) TEM images of the 3 test materials (blue arrows) and cytoplasmic vacuoles in the macrophages ... Alveolar macrophage counts per cm2 of lung tissue. ### P , .001 vs vehicle (photoreactive anatase [a‐nTiO 2] and inert rutile [ ... Characterization of test materials in suspension. A, Scanning electronic microscope images and B, transmission electron ... Alveolar macrophages were significantly increased in all treatment groups at 6 hours and at 4 weeks. At week 4, a-nTiO2 and r- ...
The in vitro exposure models include C57BL/6 alveolar macrophages (AM) and transformed human THP-1 cells exposed to TNB for 24 ... In vitro C57BL/6 mouse alveolar macrophage (AM) particle exposures. As described in Methods, isolated mouse alveolar ... TEM of TNP taken up by C57BL/6 alveolar macrophages 1.5 h in vitro post-exposure (25 μg/mL). A) No particle control AM. B) TNB- ... TNB suspension. Suspensions of TNB were prepared in dispersion medium (DM; Ca2+ and Mg2+-free phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4 ...
2006) Respiratory Drug Delivery X, 1:57). Furthermore, in the airways, alveolar macrophages were shown to phagocytose IgGs and ... which have decreased binding to phagocytic receptors expressed on alveolar macrophage. Also included in the invention is a ... The pressurized nonaqueous suspension is then released from the delivery device into the air passage of the subject while ... This is characterized by increased numbers of alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and the release ...
macrophage (alveolar); infected with J2 virus Product Format frozen Morphology macrophage Culture Properties suspension; some ... The cells retain many characteristics of alveolar macrophages. They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they ... Tumoricidal alveolar macrophage and tumor infiltrating macrophage cell lines. Int. J. Cancer 49: 296-302, 1991. PubMed: 1879973 ... Tumoricidal alveolar macrophage and tumor infiltrating macrophage cell lines. Int. J. Cancer 49: 296-302, 1991. PubMed: 1879973 ...
Rabbit alveolar macrophages cultured in suspensions or on monolayers of latex particles internalized a maximum of 45 1-micron ... A particle burden "overload criterion" (i.e., producing macrophage immobilization) of ~600 micron3 per rat alveolar macrophage ... B.E. Lehnert, P.E. Morrow, "Association of 59iron oxide with alveolar macrophages during alveolar clearance," Exp. Lung Res. 9( ... just 0.05 µg of silica per 106 macrophages [19], or 0.002% of cell volume assuming 1166 micron3 per rat alveolar macrophage, is ...
Influenza protein was detected in both the alveolar epithelial cells and in alveolar macrophages throughout the lungs of mice ... S6A, blue box). In addition, we detected changes in alveolar macrophage phenotype in infected mice (SI Appendix, Fig. S6A, red ... S4B). The scRNA-seq of whole lung single-cell suspension revealed 22 distinct cell types belonging to epithelial, endothelial, ... 3 B and C). In contrast, virus staining was mostly confined to the alveolar macrophages of mice housed in 50% RH, with little ...
... highly bioavailable after lung administration since they are well retained in situ and weakly taken up by alveolar macrophages ... The very first nanomedicines were liposomes [1]. These consist of an aqueous suspension of vesicles, each comprising a bilayer ... followed by macrophage uptake and segregation in organs such as the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Their preferred accumulation ... Nanomedicines are usually prepared as colloidal suspensions in water or buffer solution. Stability can be assessed in different ...
were pulmonary alveolar macrophages, significantly more total cells than were found in the NOS1. , NOS3. , and C57BL/6 mouse ... Cells were classified as alveolar macrophage, neutrophil, eosinophil, lymphocyte, or other based upon morphological ... L aliquots of the remaining cell suspension processed onto slides using a cytocentrifuge at 1650 rpm for 15 minutes. Slides ... The normal lung lavage from a healthy mouse contains more than 90% alveolar macrophages, and our observations in this study ...
... or mouse lung single-cell suspensions (eosinophils and alveolar macrophages). ... alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were isolated from mouse lung single-cell suspension using Anti-Siglec-F MicroBeads, two ... T cell products B cell products NK cell products DCs, monocytes, macrophage products Granulocyte products Cancer products Stem ... or mouse lung single-cell suspensions (eosinophils and alveolar macrophages). ...
The concentration of nafithromycin in alveolar macrophages (NAFAM) was determined as follows: NAFAM = NAFpellet/VAM, where NAF ... A differential cell count of the BAL fluid was carried out, and the percentage of macrophages was determined. A mean macrophage ... of nafithromycin measured in the cell suspension and VAM is the volume of alveolar cells in the 1-ml cell suspension. ... The nafithromycin concentrations in the plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar macrophages (AM) of 37 healthy ...
The concentration of solithromycin in alveolar macrophages (ABXAM) was determined as ABXAM = ABXpellet/VAC, where ABXpellet and ... VAC are the measured concentration of drug and volume of alveolar cells in the cell suspension, respectively. A differential ... The ratios of ELF and alveolar macrophage (AM) concentrations to the simultaneous plasma concentrations were calculated for ... Individual concentrations of solithromycin in plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar macrophages (AM) at 3, 6, 9, ...
... we now show that both epinephrine and norepinephrine directly activate NFkappaB in macrophages, causing enhanced re ... and macrophages) are newly discovered sources of catecholamines, ... The purity of this neutrophil suspension was ,95%. Alveolar ... This study suggests that catecholamines activate macrophage NFκB with subsequent cytokine production in a dose dependent manner ... Macrophages were then resuspended in HBSS (with Ca2+/Mg2+). The obtained cell suspension was of high purity, as determined by ...
In an early study (Thorén 1992) toxicity against monolayers of alveolar macrophages of particles of MnO2, TiO2 and SiO2 (silica ... In one study (Bäckman 1990), the heat production rate of T-lymphoma cells cultured in suspension was measured. Changes in ... Charlebois, SJ; Daniels AU; Smith RA (2002). "Metabolic Heat Production as a Measure of Macrophage Response to Particles from ... A dose/effect study of alveolar macrophages exposed to particles". J Toxicol Environ Health. 36 (4): 307-18. doi:10.1080/ ...
... are attacked by the host immune defences-specifically phagocytes and alveolar macrophage resident in the small airways. It is ... A moderate amount of data for itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole suspension suggests this approach may be valuable in ... nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-independent resistance to Aspergillus fumigatus in alveolar macrophages". ... TLR10 and TREM1 by human macrophages in Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis, and novel associations of VEGFA, DENND1B and ...
  • Their importance for lung physiology becomes evident in a rare human syndrome termed "pulmonary alveolar proteinosis" (PAP), which is characterized by the accumulation of surfactant material and a varying degree of respiratory insufficiency [2] . (
  • Alveolar macrophages (AMs), the resident macrophages in lung alveoli, are important for the maintenance of homeostasis in the airways and are involved in the development of a variety of pulmonary diseases 1 . (
  • The increased susceptibility of LPL −/− mice to pulmonary pneumococcal challenge correlated with reduced numbers of alveolar macrophages, consistent with a critical role for this cell type in the immediate response to pneumococcal infection. (
  • Further analysis of LPL −/− mice will illuminate critical regulators of the generation of alveolar macrophages and, thus, effective pulmonary innate immunity. (
  • Initially, alveolar macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells respond to pulmonary pneumococcal invasion ( 2 , 3 ) by triggering the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). (
  • Based on our previous studies documenting that pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) protects C. neoformans cells against macrophage-mediated defense mechanisms in vitro (S. Geunes-Boyer et al. (
  • In this context, the aim of our study was to evaluate if exposing pulmonary cells at the air-liquid interface to aerosols of inhalable and poorly soluble nanomaterials generates different toxicity patterns and/or biological activation levels compared to classic submerged exposures to suspensions. (
  • Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, characterized by excessive accumulation of protein-rich edematous fluid and inflammatory cells in the alveolar spaces, results in hypoxemia in ARDS that requires aggressive clinical management including mechanical ventilation ( 1 ). (
  • The CHS treatment group exhibited reduced local immunity in the respiratory tract, including the number of pulmonary alveolar macrophages and lesions in the nasal mucosa, trachea, and lungs. (
  • To that end, the pulmonary expression and activity of the RNA editase ADAR1 were evaluated in a mouse model of endotoxin (15 mg/kg IP)-induced microvascular lung injury (n=5) as well as in cultured alveolar macrophages stimulated with endotoxin, live bacteria, or interferon. (
  • MMP-12 and Cathepsin E genes may be involved in the development of silicotic pulmonary fibrosis by degrading the basement membrane of alveolar wall and participating in the immune response. (
  • These results suggested that alveolar macrophage-containing granuloma reflected a characteristic of the histopathological transition period from the acute-phase to the subchronic-phase of inflammation, as well as pulmonary acute phase response persistence up to 90 or 180 days after intratracheal instillation in this experimental setting. (
  • Enhanced AM survival and subsequent macrophage-mediated inflammation may also contribute to the higher susceptibility of BALB/c mice to S. chartarum pulmonary effects. (
  • Our results demonstrated a significant higher expression, both at protein and mRNA levels, of TL1A and DR3 in pulmonary T cells and alveolar macrophages of patients with active sarcoidosis as compared to patients with the inactive form of the disease and to controls. (
  • 8 ] compared cytotoxic and inflammatory responses, between rats exposed in vivo by intratracheal instillation and alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages exposed in vitro in submerged conditions to silicium and ZnO NMs. (
  • Taken together, these data suggest that interactions between alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages contribute to the alcohol-mediated disruption of epithelial barrier function via the expression and activation of TGFβ1 at points of cell-cell contact. (
  • Also, infection of porcine macrophages with PRRSV impaired or abolished the IFN-α responses against transmissible gastroenteritis virus that is known to be a potent IFN-α inducer. (
  • In order to identify genes involved in phagocytosis resistance, we constructed a genomic library of the highly virulent reference strain Nagasaki and clones were selected by increased survival after incubation with porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM). (
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a highly restricted tropism for cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, including porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). (
  • Genetic recombination occurred between attenuated vaccine strains of PRRSV grown together in porcine alveolar macrophages and in simian MA-104 cell cultures. (
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic recombination occurs between attenuated vaccine viruses grown together in cell culture, either in simian MA-104 cells or porcine alveolar macrophages, or in animals. (
  • Because the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLP), in which HLA-DR-positive non-T cells stimulate the proliferation of autologous T lymphocytes, represents a good model to study macrophage-T cell interaction, we examined and compared the ability of human alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood-derived monocytes to induce T-cell proliferation in autologous MLR. (
  • To obtain insight into which innate immune pathways become activated within human alveolar macrophages upon exposure to LPS in vivo , we conducted a study in eight healthy humans, in which we instilled sterile saline into a lung segment by bronchoscope, followed by instillation of LPS into the contralateral lung. (
  • A reduction in the interaction of the two clones with the macrophages was detected by flow cytometry. (
  • Phagocytosis of fluorescently labelled polystyrene beads and Haemophillus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae by alveolar macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) was assessed by fluorimetry and flow cytometry. (
  • Here we evaluated the roles of Syk and LTB 4 in macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes versus IgG-coated erythrocytes. (
  • As LTB 4 is an important proinflammatory product of macrophages, we speculate that this divergence evolved to permit FcγR-mediated phagocytosis to proceed in an inflammatory milieu, while apoptotic cell clearance is noninflammatory. (
  • One reason for the increased incidence of bacterial infections in the respiratory tract of COPD patients might be failure of macrophages to clear pathogens because of reduced phagocytosis due to chronic activation 10 , 11 . (
  • We hypothesize that these findings reflect alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of inhaled cerium derived from cigarette flint lighters. (
  • The study found that treatment with MEKi reduced alveolar neutrophilic inflammation and led to faster recovery of weight compared to carrier-treated mice, without impairing bacterial clearance. (
  • In conclusion, our study demonstrated that TLR4 and related MyD88/TIRAP pathway was involved in silica-induced inflammation in U937-differentiated macrophages. (
  • We conclude that one of the possible mechanisms of the influence on silica granulomatous inflammation on the course of alloxan diabetes can be 1) a reduced LPO activity in liver cells at the lates stages of granulomagenesis process induced by a single dose of a suspension of silica microparticles and 2) a combined decrease in glucose production in the liver of alloxan diabetics rats. (
  • In immediate response to viral infection, innate defense mechanisms consist of high level production of type I IFNs by infected epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and natural IFN-producing cells (also known as preplasmacytoid DCs [pre-pDCs]), as well as the recruitment of conventional DCs (cDCs), neutrophils, and NK cells ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Finally, we know that neutrophils increase volume by ~15% when stimulated in suspension, but rabbit neutrophils that migrate into the abdominal wall (cell size ~150 micron 3 ) are +50% larger than those in the abdominal wall vasculature (~100 micron 3 ) and human neutrophils induced by FMLP to migrate into collagen gels (~290 micron 3 ) are 42% larger than those that did not migrate (~204 micron 3 ) [4]. (
  • The Anti-Siglec-F MicroBeads, mouse have been developed for the positive selection or depletion of cells expressing mouse Siglec-F antigen from mouse peripheral blood (eosinophils, minor fraction of neutrophils) or mouse lung single-cell suspensions (eosinophils and alveolar macrophages). (
  • It is expressed in a tissue dependent manner on most eosinophils, but also found on alveolar macrophages and some neutrophils. (
  • Following our recent report that phagocytic cells (neutrophils, PMNs, and macrophages) are newly discovered sources of catecholamines, we now show that both epinephrine and norepinephrine directly activate NFkappaB in macrophages, causing enhanced release of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6). (
  • Basally, lower numbers of monocytes and macrophages and higher numbers of neutrophils were found in the myometrium, placenta and blood of CCR2-/- vs. wt mice. (
  • The first of these pathways results in non-classical secretion of DEK by activated human being monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) in both a free form and in exosomes (28). (
  • Therefore, we compared the phagocytic responses of alveolar macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from COPD patients with cells from nonsmokers and smokers without lung obstruction. (
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effects of sonicated protein fractions of M. hyopneumoniae on inflammatory response and gene expression in the murine alveolar macrophage MH-S cell line. (
  • This effect was reversed by the administration of exogenous SP-D. Furthermore, we show that SP-D bound to the surface of the yeast cells and protected the pathogenic microbes against macrophage-mediated defense mechanisms and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo . (
  • For this purpose, rats or pneumocytes in co-culture with macrophages were exposed to the same poorly soluble and poorly toxic TiO 2 and CeO 2 nanomaterials, by the respiratory route in vivo or using more or less advanced methodologies in vitro. (
  • For each dose metric used (mass/alveolar surface or mass/macrophage), we observed that the most realistic in vitro exposure method, the air-liquid interface method, was the most predictive of in vivo effects regarding biological activation levels. (
  • We also noted less differences between in vivo and in vitro results when doses were normalized by the number of macrophages rather than by the alveolar surface. (
  • In parallel, chronic alcohol ingestion in vivo , or direct treatment with active TGFβ1 in vitro , increased the expression of αvβ6 integrin, which is known to activate TGFβ1, in alveolar epithelial cells. (
  • Alveolar macrophages isolated from MEKi-treated mice also had increased M2 gene and protein expression, supporting the concept that MEKi modulates in vivo macrophage inflammatory responses. (
  • Moreover, LPS activates alveolar macrophages in vivo , as reflected by enhanced expression of 10 different mRNAs encoding proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines ( 9 ). (
  • Ultrastructural and functional changes induced by mineral dusts in alveolar macrophages were studied in-vitro. (
  • abstract = "Alveolar macrophages act as accessory cells in lymphocyte response to mitogens or alloantigens. (
  • In this report, we demonstrate that mice lacking alveolar macrophages succumb to infection with low dose influenza virus and vaccinia virus infection due to respiratory failure. (
  • When lung CD11c hi DCs and macrophages or langerin + CD11b − CD11c hi DCs were depleted using either CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) or langerin-DTR mice, the development of virus-specific CD8 + T cells was severely delayed, which correlated with increased clinical severity and a delayed viral clearance. (
  • Clearance of pneumococci from the alveolar space in LPL −/− mice was defective compared to that in Rag1 −/− mice, which lack all B and T lymphocytes, indicating that innate immunity is defective in LPL −/− mice. (
  • The depletion of alveolar macrophages in mice using clodronate hindered pneumococcal clearance and diminished survival ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Preventing macrophages from expressing Zbtb7a ameliorated models of obliterative airway disease and prevented chronic rejection of lung transplants in mice. (
  • Expression of DSA-induced Zbtb7a was restricted to alveolar macrophages (AMs), and selective disruption of Zbtb7a in AMs resulted in less bronchiolar occlusion, low immune responses to lung-restricted self-antigens, and high protection from chronic rejection in mice. (
  • AMJ2-C8 ( ATCC CRL-2455 ) and AMJ2-C11 ( ATCC CRL-2456 ) are cloned, continuous, alveolar macrophage (AM) cell lines generated from C57BL6J mice by in vitro infection with the J2 retrovirus carrying the v-raf and v-myc oncogenes. (
  • Myometrial and placental monocytes and macrophages were generally lower in CCR2-/- mice, but this was less consistent in the circulation, lung and liver. (
  • To evaluate clearance, mice were intratracheally instilled with a suspension of radiolabeled S. chartarum spores or with unlabeled spores. (
  • To identify mechanisms responsible for mouse strain differences in spore clearance and previously described lung inflammatory responses, we exposed alveolar macrophages (AMs) lavaged from BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice to S. chartarum spores, S. chartarum spore toxin (SST), and satratoxin G (SG) in vitro . (
  • In order to recognize and discriminate between these particular targets, macrophages express a number of phagocytic cell surface receptors. (
  • They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. (
  • Alveolar macrophages contribute 90-95% of cells found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and are highly phagocytic, producing multiple inflammatory mediators 9 . (
  • The use of MDM examined whether reduced phagocytic response of alveolar macrophages in COPD was due to these cells becoming replete or whether differentiation in a specific, pro-inflammatory, lung environment was required to establish this defect. (
  • Alveolar macrophages (AM) are lung-resident macrophages important for the maintenance of surfactant homeostasis in the alveolar space [1] . (
  • Recent lineage-tracing studies have demonstrated that tissue-resident macrophages (TRMs) originate from embryonic yolk sac (YS) erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) and can self-renew in most adult tissues at steady state without contribution from bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) 2 , 3 , 4 . (
  • Ketoconazole inhibition of alveolar macrophage proinflammatory mediators may be of benefit in preventing ARDS by minimizing neutrophil infiltration and microvascular thrombosis. (
  • The suspensions were examined for organelle damage by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (
  • Interrupting macrophage presentation of donor antigens may be a solution to prevent generation of these destructive antibodies and the ensuing chronic rejection. (
  • Because HLA-DR antigens modulate monocyte-T cell interaction, we quantified the proportions of HLA-DR-positive cells in alveolar macrophage and blood monocyte suspensions and determined the inhibitory effects on T-cell proliferation of masking HLA-DR antigens on stimulator cells with monoclonal antibodies. (
  • These studies indicate that alveolar macrophages are less effective than blood monocytes are as stimulator cells in autologous MLR and that, although the masking of HLA-DR molecules results in inhibition of autologous MLR, T-cell proliferation is not dependent on the numbers of stimulator cells bearing HLA-DR antigens. (
  • Alveolar macrophages are the main resident leukocytes exposed to inhaled antigens. (
  • Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) suspensions were administered by single intratracheal instillation in rats. (
  • Alveolar macrophages and various subsets of dendritic cells have been implicated in innate immunity and induction of anti-viral T cell responses that contribute to host defense against influenza virus infection. (
  • So far human cases of H5N1 infection in worldwide have increased to 522, including 309 deaths ( ). (
  • Macrophages infected with are alternatively activated, but the role of macrophage activation during infection is unknown (3, 4, 37, 38). (
  • In African trypanosomiasis macrophages are activated classically early and alternatively late in infection, which leads to progression of the disease (4, 38). (
  • Given that there is a marked difference in virulence between the SM and MC variants and that persistent MC infection is associated with enhanced macrophage recruitment, the objective of this study was to further explore macrophage activation and function by examining infection with phenotypic switch variants. (
  • Alveolar macrophages also eliminate pathogens by engulfing and then killing pneumococci. (
  • Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar macrophages (AM) are considered important sites for lower respiratory tract infections caused by extracellular and intracellular pathogens, respectively ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Asbestos has the most suppressive effect on macrophage protein synthesis. (
  • TGFβ1 expression was increased in alveolar macrophages from alcohol-fed rats, and TGFβ1 protein was predominantly membrane-bound. (
  • Protein expression of TLR4, MyD88 and TIRAP was upregulated when the U937-differentiated macrophages were exposed to silica. (
  • Tumoricidal alveolar macrophage and tumor infiltrating macrophage cell lines. (
  • We performed a CyTOF analysis on cell suspensions derived from matched blood, tumor lesion, and non-involved lung tissue from an active smoker undergoing surgical resection for early stage lung adenocarcinoma. (
  • High dimensional immune cell mapping revealed that high levels of cerium were specifically associated with a phenotypically distinct subset of lung macrophages that were most prevalent in noninvolved lung tissue, whereas tumor associated macrophages showed relatively lower levels of cerium. (
  • This study investigated whether bacterial clearance by macrophages is defective in COPD. (
  • Histopathological findings of lungs stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed that fine granular substances, which were phagocytosed by persistent alveolar macrophages, were observed in the alveoli, alveolar wall and bronchioles in both SWCNT groups during the observation period (Table 1 and Figure 3). (
  • Persistence of macrophages laden with SWCNT aggregates as granular substances was observed in the alveolar walls and alveoli at three days post-instillation in both SWCNT groups (Figure 3B1 and C1), at seven days post-instillation in both SWCNTs groups (Figure 3B2 and C2) and at 30 days post-instillation in the L-SWCNT group (Figure 3B3). (
  • Persistence of macrophages laden with SWCNT aggregates as granular substances was observed in the alveolar walls and alveoli at 90 days post-instillation in the L-SWCNT group (Figure 3B4). (
  • COPD macrophage innate responses are suppressed and may lead to bacterial colonisation and increased exacerbation frequency. (
  • Ten-week-old male F344 rats were given 0.5 mL of 250 μg/mL suspensions of POT fibers, a-nTiO 2 , or r-nTiO 2 , 8 times (1 mg/rat) over a 15-day period by trans-tracheal intrapulmonary spraying (TIPS). (
  • Primary alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells were isolated from control- and alcohol-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. (
  • Alveolar epithelial cells were cultured on transwell supports in the presence of macrophage cell lysate from control- or alcohol-fed rats or in the presence of viable macrophages ± alcohol. (
  • Importantly, alveolar macrophage cellular lysate from alcohol-fed rats decreased TER and increased paracellular dextran flux in primary alveolar epithelial cell monolayers as compared to the lysates from control-fed rats. (
  • We have previously shown that chronic alcohol ingestion in rats increases oxidative stress [ 3 ] and transforming growth factor 1 (TGFβ1) expression in the lung [ 4 ], and inflammatory insults such as sepsis release activated TGFβ1 into the alveolar space, which can intensify lung injury by further disrupting alveolar barrier function. (
  • The influenza virus shifts the activation state of alveolar macrophages, which could contribute to increased postinfluenza susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia ( 6 ). (
  • Morphine and alcohol impair alveolar macrophages, which could explain the increased susceptibility of intravenous drug and alcohol users to pneumonia ( 4 , 7 ). (
  • Short asbestos fibers were absorbed and phagocytized in-situ by the macrophages. (
  • The proliferation of collagen fibers in the persistent alveolar macrophage-containing granuloma around the sites of SWCNT aggregates was observed at 90 days post-instillation in the H-SWCNT group (Figure 3C4). (
  • To study the effects of supernatant of alveolar macrophages (AM) exposed to SiO2 on the expression of type III collagen and type III procollagen in human lung fibroblasts (HELF) and the intervention effects of anti-TGF-beta1 antibody. (
  • Alveolar macrophages thus appear to be critical for early responses leading to good outcomes in pneumococcal pneumonia. (
  • In adrenalectomized animals, which have been used to further assess the role of catecholamines, there appears to be a compensatory increase in catecholamine generating enzymes and catecholamines in macrophages, resulting in amplification of the acute inflammatory response via engagement of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. (
  • The autologous MLR may represent a good model to study the functions of alveolar macrophages during their interaction with autologous T cells in health and disease. (
  • The interaction of macrophages with a pathogen such as leads to activation, which can be classified as either classical or alternative activation (16, 18). (
  • Alveolar macrophages can effectively clear small numbers of pneumococci and prevent pneumonia. (
  • Studies on the tumoricidal properties of these cell lines demonstrated differences in their response to a panel of known macrophage activators. (
  • Collectively, these data demonstrate that catecholamines are potent inflammatory activators of macrophages, upregulating NFkappaB and further downstream cytokine production of these cells. (
  • The lesion grows as the monocytes are transformed into macrophages (inflammatory cells) and engulf LDL molecules to form foam cells. (
  • The in vitro exposure models include C57BL/6 alveolar macrophages (AM) and transformed human THP-1 cells exposed to TNB for 24 hrs in culture. (
  • Our results showed that TLR4 and related MyD88/TIRAP pathway was associated with silica-exposure in U937-differentiated macrophages. (
  • This was not associated with alterations in cell surface receptor expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure, cluster of differentiation (CD)163, CD36 or mannose receptor. (
  • In this study, the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-related signal pathway was examined in silica-treated U937-differentiated macrophages. (
  • C. neoformans has been shown to be phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages (AMs), to proliferate intracellularly ( 15 ), and to undergo a phagosome extrusion event in which immune cells remain intact ( 3 , 39 ). (
  • Alveolar immune cells were collected by three serial bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with PBS + 5 mM EDTA. (
  • The nafithromycin concentrations in the plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar macrophages (AM) of 37 healthy adult subjects were measured following repeated dosing of oral nafithromycin at 800 mg once daily for 3 days. (
  • The steady-state concentrations of solithromycin in plasma were compared with concomitant concentrations in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained from intrapulmonary samples during bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in 30 healthy adult subjects. (
  • In vitro coculture studies of MSC with alveolar macrophages provided evidence that the anti-inflammatory effect was paracrine and was not cell contact dependent. (
  • alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were isolated from mouse lung single-cell suspension using Anti-Siglec-F MicroBeads, two MS Columns, and a MiniMACS Separator. (
  • The unusually lipid-rich (50 to 60%) cell walls of this pathogen constitute an impermeable barrier that helps the pathogen enter monocytes/macrophages and grow in them ( 4 , 9 , 16 , 18 ). (
  • E. coli strain DH5α was incubated on Luria Broth Base medium for 16 to 24 hours at 37°C on a rotary shaker (200 revolutions/mL), and the optical density of bacterial cell suspension was monitored with a spectrophotometer at 600 nm. (
  • In the present study, we focused on cell-cell interactions between alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells and the potential mechanisms by which TGFβ1 may become activated in the alveolar space of the alcoholic lung. (
  • Alveolar macrophage stimulation of T-cell proliferation in autologous mixed lymphocyte reactions. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Alveolar macrophage stimulation of T-cell proliferation in autologous mixed lymphocyte reactions. (
  • Macrophage ingestion of apoptotic thymocytes was not influenced by exogenous or endogenous LTB 4 nor associated with Syk activation (phosphorylation). (
  • Downstream NFκB p65 cascade was activated within 1 hour when the U937-differentiated macrophages were exposed to silica. (
  • Studies show that upon chronic and acute exposures to crystalline silica, these foreign mineral will be phagocytized by alveolar macrophages and trigger pro-inflammatory events such as cytokine modulation. (
  • Using mouse models and data from human patients, they identified expression of the transcription factor Zbtb7a in alveolar macrophages as a crucial mediator. (
  • Representative autoradiographs of RNase protection assays (RPAs) showing mediator expression by AM/HBEC co-cultures, AM mono-cultures and HBEC mono-cultures after 2 and 24 h incubation in medium alone (control) or a 100 μg/ml of PM 10 suspension (PM 10 ). (
  • Specifically, the expression and activity of the RNA editase ADAR1 was monitored in lungs from sham and endotoxin-infused animals as well as in cultured alveolar macrophages stimulated with endotoxin, live bacteria, or IFN. (
  • Chronic alcohol abuse causes oxidative stress and impairs alveolar epithelial barrier integrity, thereby rendering the lung susceptible to acute edematous injury. (
  • 4 , 5 Fadok and colleagues have recently described a specific macrophage receptor for PS, the PSR. (
  • Atherosclerotic aortas exhibited increased immunoreactive TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. (
  • Six hours later, a bilateral bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and whole-genome transcriptional profiling was done on purified alveolar macrophages, comparing cells exposed to saline or LPS from the same individuals. (
  • Alcohol-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction was prevented by anti-TGFβ1 antibody treatment, indicating the presence of bioactive TGFβ1 in the macrophage lysate. (
  • In addition, co-culturing macrophages and epithelial cells in the presence of alcohol decreased epithelial barrier function, which also was prevented by anti-TGFβ1 and anti-αvβ6 treatment. (
  • Alveolar macrophages (AM) are critical for defense against bacterial and fungal infections. (
  • The lung interstitium that is accessible by enzymatic digestion also contains CD11b + and CD11b − DCs that access the alveolar lumen and migrate to the mediastinal LNs (MLNs) ( 14 , 11 ). (
  • Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was shown to be essential for the perinatal differentiation of fetal monocytes into preAMs and for the full maturation of AMs postnatally 7 . (
  • We thus identify LPL as being key to alveolar macrophage development and essential to an effective antipneumococcal response. (
  • Alveolar macrophages were significantly increased in all treatment groups at 6 hours and at 4 weeks. (
  • We observed that TNF-α-activated macrophages significantly inhibited the conidia to yeast transition (p = 0.0043) and exerted an important fungicidal effect (p = 0.0044), killing 27 percent more fungal propagules in comparison with controls. (
  • Macrophages are called upon to ingest both IgG-coated targets and apoptotic cells. (
  • Alveolar macrophages from COPD patients phagocytose fewer apoptotic epithelial cells 12 and Escherichia coli 13 compared with nonsmokers and less H. influenzae compared with smokers without COPD 14 . (