Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
A form of RHABDOMYOSARCOMA occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults, affecting muscles of the extremities, trunk, orbital region, etc. It is extremely malignant, metastasizing widely at an early stage. Few cures have been achieved and the prognosis is poor. "Alveolar" refers to its microscopic appearance simulating the cells of the respiratory alveolus. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2188)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Epithelial cells that line the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Factors secreted by stimulated lymphocytes that prime macrophages to become nonspecifically cytotoxic to tumors. They also modulate the expression of macrophage cell surface Ia antigens. One MAF is INTERFERON-GAMMA. Other factors antigenically distinct from IFN-gamma have also been identified.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.
The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Sarcoidosis affecting predominantly the lungs, the site most frequently involved and most commonly causing morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by sharply circumscribed granulomas in the alveolar, bronchial, and vascular walls, composed of tightly packed cells derived from the mononuclear phagocyte system. The clinical symptoms when present are dyspnea upon exertion, nonproductive cough, and wheezing. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p431)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
A variety of rare sarcoma having a reticulated fibrous stroma enclosing groups of sarcoma cells, which resemble epithelial cells and are enclosed in alveoli walled with connective tissue. It is a rare tumor, usually occurring between 15 and 35 years of age. It appears in the muscles of the extremities in adults and most commonly in the head and neck regions of children. Though slow-growing, it commonly metastasizes to the lungs, brain, bones, and lymph nodes. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1365)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A sialic acid binding lectin that was originally identified as an adhesion molecule for inflammatory MACROPHAGES and activated MONOCYTES. This protein is the largest known siglec subtype and contains 16 immunoglobulin C2-set domains. It plays a role in cell to cell interactions and interactions with BACTERIA.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.
Alveolar macrophages phagocytize and destroy conidia within their phagosomes.[11][13] Epithelial cells, specifically type II ... The ΔlaeA mutant showed increased susceptibility to macrophage phagocytosis and decreased ability to kill neutrophils ex vivo.[ ... interrupts the function of leukocytes by inhibiting migration and superoxide production and causes apoptosis in macrophages.[48 ...
"Cell size of alveolar macrophages: an interspecies comparison". Environ. Health Perspect. (Brogan & Partners) 105 Suppl 5: 1261 ... பெருவிழுங்கி (Macrophage). *கிளையி உயிரணுக்கள் (Dendritic cell). வகை. நுண்ணோக்கித் தோற்றம். வரைபடம். அண்ணளவான %. வயது ...
தூசிக் கலங்கள் (dust cells) / காற்றறை பெருவிழுங்கிகள் (alveolar macrophages. நுரையீரலில் உள்ள நுரையீரல் சிற்றறை (pulmonary ... Khazen, W., M'bika, J. P., Tomkiewicz, C., et al. (October 2005). "Expression of macrophage-selective markers in human and ... "Cell size of alveolar macrophages: an interspecies comparison". Environ. Health Perspect. 105 Suppl 5: 1261-3. doi:10.2307/ ... பெருவிழுங்கிகள் (Macrophages) எனப்படுபவை வெண்குருதியணுக்களில் ஒரு வகையான ஒற்றை உயிரணுக்களில் ஏற்படும் இழைய வேறுபாட்டின் மூலம் ...
... and transmembrane domains is induced in HL-60 by tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and is expressed in alveolar macrophages". Blood ... Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Milodistim. *Molgramostim. *Regramostim. *Sargramostim. *Antibodies: ...
Interactions between actin, myosin and an actin-binding protein from rabbit alveolar macrophages. Alveolar macrophage myosin ... Alveolar macrophages. J Clin Invest. 1972; 51:604-614. 9. Stossel TP, Mason RJ, Hartwig JH, Vaughan M. Quantitative studies of ... Isolation and properties of actin, myosin and a new actin- binding protein in rabbit alveolar macrophages. J Biol Chem. 1975; ... The effect of calcium on superoxide production by phagocytic vesicles from rabbit alveolar macrophages. J Clin Invest. 1981; 67 ...
... peripolesis of human alveolar macrophages". European Respiratory Journal. 5 (1): 59-66. PMID 1577151. van Maarsseveen, Ton C.; ... The lymphocytes could be seen moving around a macrophage while maintaining contact. Sharp, J. A.; Burwell, R. G. (1960-11-05 ... Peripolesis was also observed in lung alveoli, where the peripolesed macrophages were not injured, but the cell membrane did ... Lyons DJ, Gautam A, Clark J, Harries MG, Mitchell EB, Milledge JS, Balfour BM (Jan 1992). "Lymphocyte macrophage interactions: ...
January 1992). "Lymphocyte macrophage interactions: peripolesis of human alveolar macrophages". Eur. Respir. J. 5 (1): 59-66. ... Emperipolesis is unlike phagocytosis, in which the engulfed cell is killed by the lysosomal enzymes of the macrophage. Instead ...
When in the lungs, M. tuberculosis is phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages, but they are unable to kill and digest the ... "Infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes human alveolar macrophage apoptosis". Infection and Immunity. 65 (1): 298-304 ... Alveolar macrophages in pulmonary host defence the unrecognized role of apoptosis as a mechanism of intracellular bacterial ... A Macrophage Infection Model to Predict Drug Efficacy Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Assay Drug Dev Technol 14, 345-54, ...
Schagat, T L; J A Wofford; J R Wright (2001-02-15). "Surfactant protein A enhances alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of ... production by alveolar macrophages stimulated with peptidoglycan. SP-A and SP-D can modulate cytokine production. They modulate ... "Surfactant protein D interacts with Pneumocystis carinii and mediates organism adherence to alveolar macrophages". The Journal ... "Surfactant proteins A and D specifically stimulate directed actin-based responses in alveolar macrophages". The American ...
In an early study (Thorén 1992) toxicity against monolayers of alveolar macrophages of particles of MnO2, TiO2 and SiO2 (silica ... Charlebois, SJ; Daniels AU; Smith RA (2002). "Metabolic Heat Production as a Measure of Macrophage Response to Particles from ... A dose/effect study of alveolar macrophages exposed to particles". J Toxicol Environ Health. 36 (4): 307-18. doi:10.1080/ ... IMC has also been used to measure the metabolic response of cultured macrophages to surgical implant wear debris. IMC showed ...
Inhaled virulent strains of R. equi are phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages. During normal phagocytosis, bacteria are enclosed ... The macrophage produces bacteriocidal compounds (e.g., oxygen radicals) following the respiratory burst. However, like its ... However, the functionality of these genes or how the proteins encoded within PAI subvert the macrophage has not yet been ... Ren, J; Prescott, JF (1 July 2003). "Analysis of virulence plasmid gene expression of intra-macrophage and in vitro grown ...
Zhang J, Zhu J, Imrich A, Cushion M, Kinane TB, Koziel H (June 2004). "Pneumocystis activates human alveolar macrophage NF- ... The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane receptor that mediates the endocytosis of glycoproteins by macrophages. ... "Negative regulatory role of mannose receptors on human alveolar macrophage proinflammatory cytokine release in vitro". J. ... Le Cabec V, Emorine LJ, Toesca I, Cougoule C, Maridonneau-Parini I (June 2005). "The human macrophage mannose receptor is not a ...
In the lungs, C. neoformans cells are phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages. Macrophages produce oxidative and nitrosative ... One mechanism by which C. neoformans survives the hostile intracellular environment of the macrophage involves upregulation of ... Ma, H; Croudace, JE; Lammas, DA; May, RC (7 November 2006). "Expulsion of live pathogenic yeast by macrophages". Current ... However, some C. neoformans cells can survive intracellularly in macrophages. Intracellular survival appears to be the basis ...
Alveolar macrophages release an insulin-like growth factor I-type molecule. J Clin Invest 1988; 87:1685-1693. Zhang Y, Broser M ... evidence for genetic differences in HIV-1 between lung and blood macrophage populations. Molecular Medicine 1995; 1:744-757. ... Low copy number and limited variability of proviral DNA in alveolar macrophages from HIV-1 infected patients: ... He showed that TB mycobacteria induced alveolar macrophages to secrete cytokines that directed transcription factors to ...
"Cell size of alveolar macrophages: an interspecies comparison". Environ. Health Perspect. 105 Suppl 5: 1261-3. doi:10.2307/ ... Steps of a macrophage ingesting a pathogen:. a. Ingestion through phagocytosis, a phagosome is formed. b. The fusion of ... Macrophages[1] are white blood cells within tissues, produced by the differentiation of monocytes.[2] ... Human macrophages are about 21 micrometres in diameter.Krombach F, Münzing S, Allmeling AM, Gerlach JT, Behr J, Dörger M (1997 ...
... components of the alveolar epithelium to the interstitial compartment of the lung where they interact with macrophages and ... Warheit D. B.; Hill L. H.; George G.; Brody A. R. (1986). "Time Course of chemotactic factor generation and the macrophage ... beginning around terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts and extending into the alveolar walls) resulting from the inhalation ... Macrophages phagocytose (ingest) the fibers and stimulate fibroblasts to deposit connective tissue. Due to the asbestos fibers ...
Alveolar macrophages (dust cells). Pulmonary alveoli of lungs Tissue macrophages (histiocytes) leading to giant cells. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Macrophages.. *HIV and the Macrophage A book on the role of macrophages in AIDS ... Intestinal MacrophagesEdit. Though very similar in structure to tissue macrophages, intestinal macrophages have evolved ... M1 macrophages: as mentioned earlier (previously referred to as classically activated macrophages),[22] M1 "killer" macrophages ...
Macrophages. *Histiocytes. *Kupffer cells. *Alveolar macrophage. *Microglia. *Osteoclasts. *Epithelioid cells. *giant cells * ... Often these cells have specific names depending upon which tissue they settle in, such as fixed macrophages in the liver, which ... Monocytes migrate from the bloodstream to other tissues and differentiate into tissue resident macrophages, Kupffer cells in ... Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which remove dead cell debris as well as attack ...
Macrophages. *Histiocytes. *Kupffer cells. *Alveolar macrophage. *Microglia. *Osteoclasts. *Epithelioid cells. *giant cells * ... Macrophages[edit]. Main article: Macrophages. Macrophages, from the Greek, meaning "large eaters", are large phagocytic ... Macrophages are the most efficient phagocytes and can phagocytose substantial numbers of bacteria or other cells or microbes.[1 ... Similar to macrophages, neutrophils attack pathogens by activating a respiratory burst. The main products of the neutrophil ...
Macrophages. *Histiocytes. *Kupffer cells. *Alveolar macrophage. *Microglia. *Osteoclasts. *Epithelioid cells. *giant cells * ... Neutrophils can secrete products that stimulate monocytes and macrophages; these secretions increase phagocytosis and the ... "Neutrophil primary granule proteins HBP and HNP1-3 boost bacterial phagocytosis by human and murine macrophages". Journal of ... "Neutrophil secretion products regulate anti-bacterial activity in monocytes and macrophages". Clinical & Experimental ...
Macrophages. *Histiocytes. *Kupffer cells. *Alveolar macrophage. *Microglia. *Osteoclasts. *Epithelioid cells. *giant cells * ...
Macrophages. *Histiocytes. *Kupffer cells. *Alveolar macrophage. *Microglia. *Osteoclasts. *Epithelioid cells. *giant cells * ... Neutrophils will be removed after phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages. PECAM-1 and phosphatidylserine on the cell surface ... Neutrophils are much more numerous than the longer-lived monocyte/macrophage phagocytes. A pathogen (disease-causing ... and macrophages. Neutrophils express[24] and release cytokines, which in turn amplify inflammatory reactions by several other ...
Macrophages. *Histiocytes. *Kupffer cells. *Alveolar macrophage. *Microglia. *Osteoclasts. *Epithelioid cells. *giant cells * ...
Macrophages. *Histiocytes. *Kupffer cells. *Alveolar macrophage. *Microglia. *Osteoclasts. *Epithelioid cells. *giant cells * ... activates macrophages and activates cytotoxic response in T and B lymphocytes.[30] ...
Macrophages. *Histiocytes. *Kupffer cells. *Alveolar macrophage. *Microglia. *Osteoclasts. *Epithelioid cells. *giant cells * ... After years of controversy it is now clear that these cells develop from the self fusion of macrophages.[9] It was in the ... When osteoclast-inducing cytokines are used to convert macrophages to osteoclasts, very large cells that may reach 100 µm in ... Macrophage colony-stimulating factor). These membrane-bound proteins are produced by neighbouring stromal cells and osteoblasts ...
Alveoli consist of two types of alveolar cell and an alveolar macrophage. The two types of cell are known as type I and type II ... The alveolar macrophages have an important immunological role. They remove substances which deposit in the alveoli including ... The alveolar sacs contain the primitive alveoli that form at the end of the alveolar ducts,[38] and their appearance around the ... Specialised type I alveolar cells where gas exchange will take place, together with the type II alveolar cells that secrete ...
"Cell size of alveolar macrophages: an interspecies comparison". Environmental Health Perspectives. 105 Suppl 5 (Suppl 5): 1261- ... Khazen W, M'bika JP, Tomkiewicz C, Benelli C, Chany C, Achour A, Forest C (October 2005). "Expression of macrophage-selective ... Mills CD (2012). "M1 and M2 Macrophages: Oracles of Health and Disease". Critical Reviews in Immunology. 32 (6): 463-88. PMID ... Macrophages are present essentially in all tissues, beginning with embryonic development and, in addition to their role in host ...
... and alveolar macrophages possess relatively high levels of LTC4 synthase and accordingly form LTC4 rather than or to a far ... A novel monocyte/macrophage fatty acid epoxygenase in human atherosclerotic plaques". Basic Research in Cardiology. 108 (1): ...
Two highly active alveolar macrophages can be seen ingesting conidia. Time lapse is 30s per frame over 2.5hr. ... HIV and the Macrophage A book on the role of macrophages in AIDS pathogenesis ... ম্যাক্রোফেজ (ইংরেজি: Macrophage) (সংক্ষেপে Mφ, MΦ অথবা MP) (গ্রিক: বৃহৎ ভক্ষক, গ্রিক μακρός থেকে(makrós) = বৃহৎ, φαγεῖν ( ... "Cell size of alveolar macrophages: an interspecies comparison"। Environmental Health Perspectives। 105 Suppl 5 (Suppl 5): 1261- ...
"Cell size of alveolar macrophages: an interspecies comparison". Environ. Health Perspect. 105 Suppl 5: 1261-3. doi:10.2307/ ... Steps of a macrophage ingesting a pathogen:. a. Ingestion through phagocytosis, a phagosome is formed. b. The fusion of ... Macrophages[1] are white blood cells within tissues, produced by the differentiation of monocytes.[2] ... Monocytes and macrophages are phagocytes, acting in general immunity. They also trigger specific defense mechanisms (adaptive ...
p,As alveolar macrophages are attractive targets for the treatment of tuberculosis, effective methods for delivery to alveolar ... p,Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (APAP) is caused by macrophage dysfunction due to anti-granulocyte-macrophage ... Changes in expression of fibrosis-related factors in alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages by forced expression of p16 [in ... In PRV-infected murine alveolar macrophage cell (MH-S), fisetin potently inhibited the production of NO, iNOS, COX-2 and ...
In normal conditions, alveolar macrophages adhere closely to alveolar epithelial cells, thus inducing the expression of the ... The alveolar macrophage is the third cell type in the alveolus, the others are the type I and type II pneumocytes. Alveolar ... An alveolar macrophage (or dust cell) is a type of macrophage, a professional phagocyte, found in the pulmonary alveoli, near ... subsequently leading to the activation and detachment of alveolar macrophages from the alveolar epithelial cells [15]. Upon ...
Alveolar macrophages are known to derive from embryonic precursors although the regulation of this process is poorly understood ... Here the authors propose a key role for histone deacetylase 3 as an epigenetic regulator of lung alveolar macrophage ... Alveolar macrophages (AMs) derived from embryonic precursors seed the lung before birth and self-maintain locally throughout ... Alveolar macrophages (AMs), the resident macrophages in lung alveoli, are important for the maintenance of homeostasis in the ...
Lipid-laden alveolar macrophages have been reported in cases of vaping-associated pulmonary injury. The lipid-laden macrophage ... "ABCG1 is deficient in alveolar macrophages of GM-CSF knockout mice and patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis". Journal ... Lipid-laden alveolar macrophages, also known as pulmonary foam cells, are cells found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens ... Increased levels of lipid-laden alveolar macrophages are associated with various respiratory conditions, including chronic ...
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY. Because alveolar macrophages (AMs) are important in innate immunity, evidence was sought that AM ... Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytosis Is Impaired in Children With Poorly Controlled Asthma Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ... Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytosis Is Impaired in Children With Poorly Controlled Asthma. James R. Banks, Timothy Andrews ...
Further, ex vivo analysis of alveolar macrophages, but not bone marrow-derived macrophages or peritoneal macrophages, ... acute lung injury alveolar macrophage ARDS NADPH oxidase 2 Nox2 This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Gene expression of MIP-1α, MCP-1, and MIP-2 was upregulated in alveolar macrophages obtained from gp91phox-/y mice at baseline ... Depletion of alveolar macrophages by liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate. J Appl Physiol (1985) 74 (6): 2812- ...
... was studied in alveolar macrophages (AM) harvested from male Long- Evans-hooded-rats. Exposure to patulin for a 2 hour period ... of airborne silage or grain dust particulates contaminated with patulin could have harmful effects on normal macrophage ... The toxicity of patulin (149291), a polyketide lactone mycotoxin, was studied in alveolar macrophages (AM) harvested from male ... The authors indicate that this inhibition of critical cellular functions in cultured alveolar macrophages suggests that ...
... alveolar macrophages released low molecular weight (400-600) chemotactic factor(s) (alveolar macrophage-derived chemotactic ... Because alveolar macrophages are normal residents of alveoli, it is likely that by releasing this factor(s) macrophages play a ... Human Alveolar Macrophage-derived Chemotactic Factor for Neutrophils: STIMULI AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION. ... Human Alveolar Macrophage-derived Chemotactic Factor for Neutrophils: STIMULI AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION. ...
Alveolar macrophages incubated in alcohol (0.08%) for 3 h prior to infection showed significantly lower bacterial uptake at 2 ... The MH-S alveolar macrophage (AMs) cell line was used to characterize innate immune responses to infection in vitro. Our ... Effects of binge alcohol exposure on Burkholderia thailandensis-alveolar macrophage interaction Alcohol. 2017 Nov;64:55-63. doi ... E264 as a useful BSL-1 model system to study the effects of binge alcohol exposure on bacteria and alveolar macrophage ...
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) were recruited by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from human smokers before and one, three, and six ... Smoking Cessation Metabolic Activity Cell Concentration Alveolar Macrophage Bronchoalveolar Lavage This is a preview of ... Autofluorescence in alveolar macrophages from smokers; relation to cell surface markers and phagocytosis.Exp. Lung Res. 15:823- ... Alveolar macrophages (AMs) were recruited by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from human smokers before and one, three, and six ...
In the lung, there are two distinct macrophage populations: alveolar macrophages, which are in close contact with the type I ... which reside in the parenchyma between the microvascular endothelium and alveolar epithelium (2). Alveolar macrophages derive ... Alveolar macrophages are critical for tissue homeostasis, host defense, clearance of surfactant and cell debris, pathogen ... The functional phenotype of alveolar macrophages is modulated by the unique microenvironment of the lung that includes intimate ...
J. L. Colombo and T. K. Hallberg, "Recurrent aspiration in children: lipid-laden alveolar macrophage quantitation," Pediatric ... Lipid-Laden Alveolar Macrophages and pH Monitoring in Gastroesophageal Reflux-Related Respiratory Symptoms. R. Kitz, H. J. ... P. Ahrens, C. Noll, R. Kitz, P. Willigens, S. Zielen, and D. Hofmann, "Lipid-laden alveolar macrophages (LLAM): a useful marker ... E. Nussbaum, J. C. Maggi, R. Mathis, and S. P. Galant, "Association of lipid-laden alveolar macrophages and gastroesophageal ...
Macrophage- and P2Y6-dependent IL-12 drives an early IFN-γ signature that depends on NK cells. IFN-γ is a known effector ... recipient mice with +/+ macrophages (i.t.); ###P , 0.001 vs. P2ry6fl/fl/Cre/+ recipient with P2ry6fl/fl/Cre/+ macrophages (i.t ... P2Y6 signaling in alveolar macrophages prevents leukotriene-dependent type 2 allergic lung inflammation. Jun Nagai,1,2 Barbara ... Alveolar macrophages express UDP-specific P2Y6 receptors that can be blocked by off-target effects of CysLT1R antagonists. ...
... and white blood cell and alveolar macrophage counts approached normal. At this time and at later intervals the per cent of ... Alveolar macrophages were obtained by repeated lung washings with physiologic saline at 37°C. Cytotoxic tests were done on bone ... THE ORIGIN OF ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES IN MOUSE RADIATION CHIMERAS. John J. Godleski, Joseph D. Brain ... Similarly, after aerosol particulate exposure, the percentage of marrow cells and alveolar macrophages of donor origin were not ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of alveolar macrophage white blood cells (cream) in lung tissue. ... Alveolar macrophages. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of alveolar macrophage white blood cells (cream) in lung ... Alveolar macrophages are associated with lung alveoli (air sacs) and epithelium (lining tissue). Magnification: x3,000 when ... Macrophages are cells of the bodys immune system that are found in the tissues rather than in the circulating blood. They ...
1-6 The suggestion that amplification of this process during inflammatory diseases characterised by enhanced lung macrophage ... 1993) Regulation of T-cell function in lung tissue by pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Immunology 80:266-272, . ... The demonstration by Upham et al 1that human alveolar macrophages selectively inhibit proliferation of T cells by secretion of ... 1997) Selective inhibition of T cell proliferation but not expression of effector function by human alveolar macrophages. ...
... amount of particles in the alveolar region which may contribute to a more pronounced impairment of macrophage mediated alveolar ... Relevance of alveolar macrophages. Alveolar macrophages (AM) represent primary phagocytes of the innate immune system and are ... "M1 macrophages" and "alternatively activated "M2 macrophages". Classically activated macrophages (M1) are produced during cell- ... Marked species differences exist also in the cell size of alveolar macrophages with AMs from humans being significantly larger ...
Suppression of GILZ is mediated by mRNA destabilization, which might represent a regulatory mechanism in macrophage activation ... we investigated GILZ expression in human alveolar macrophages (AMs) following Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. Macrophages ... Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper is downregulated in human alveolar macrophages upon Toll-like receptor activation Eur J ... Taken together, our data show a MyD88- and TTP-dependent GILZ downreg-ulation in human macrophages upon TLR activation. ...
Note the macrophage has short filopodia that extend from the cell and aid in finding bacteria for phagocytosis. ... Alveolar tissue macrophage phagocytosis of E. coli, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). ... Alveolar (lung pleural cavity) macrophages are part of the reticuloendothelial system. Magnification: x800 when shortest axis ... Alveolar tissue macrophage phagocytosis of E. coli, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Note the macrophage has short ...
Alveolar macrophages are the key immune effector cells that first encounter M. bovis and how the macrophage epigenome responds ... bovis infection on the bovine alveolar macrophage (bAM) epigenome. We show that H3K4me3 is more prevalent, at a genome-wide ... bovis infection on the bovine alveolar macrophage (bAM) epigenome. We show that H3K4me3 is more prevalent, at a genome-wide ... M1/M2 macrophage polarisation). This pattern was also supported by the distribution of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) ChIP-seq ...
Each donors alveolar macrophages were inoculated with each strain (MOI- alveolar macrophage:bacteria=1:200). Supernatants were ... Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 ligand induction of human alveolar macrophage TNF-α. Alveolar macrophages, obtained from ... IL-8: To determine the role of alveolar macrophage TLR signalling in COPD exacerbations, alveolar macrophages of exacerbation- ... Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 ligand induction of human alveolar macrophage IL-8. Alveolar macrophages, obtained from ...
TNF-mediated alveolar macrophage necroptosis in RSV infection. *. Epidemiology of pleural empyema and impact of influenza ... Flow cytometric detection of cell-associated cytokines in alveolar macrophages. H Nakamura, S Fujishima, K Soejima, Y Waki, M ... Flow cytometric detection of cell-associated cytokines in alveolar macrophages. H Nakamura, S Fujishima, K Soejima, Y Waki, M ... Flow cytometric detection of cell-associated cytokines in alveolar macrophages. H Nakamura, S Fujishima, K Soejima, Y Waki, M ...
We found that resident alveolar macrophages are efficient in the clearance of both pneumococcal serotypes in the absence of ... alveolar macrophage. BALF. bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. FVD. Fixable Viability Dye. i.n.. intranasal(ly). Spn14. S. pneumoniae ... IL-1 Signaling Prevents Alveolar Macrophage Depletion during Influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae Coinfection. Shruti Bansal ... Mechanistically, we show that through preventing alveolar macrophage depletion, inflammatory cytokine IL-1 signaling is ...
Schlagwörter Mhc Class I Antigen Presentation ; Alveolar Macrophages ; Cigarette Smoke ; Immunoproteasome; Class-i; Macrophage ... Immunoproteasome and MHC I mRNA expression was reduced in BAL cells of COPD patients and in isolated alveolar macrophages of ... alteration of immunoproteasome activity and MHC I surface expression were analysed in human blood-derived macrophages. ... Activation; Antigen Presentation; Acute Exacerbations; Induced Emphysema; T-lymphocytes; Alveolar; Mice; Proteasome; ...
alveolar macrophages (AM). no. not evaluated. 2Base or background strain. Variants, mutants or otherwise genetically altered ... In conclusion, a rapid lung recruitment of IL-17A-producing T cells, mediated by macrophage-derived IL-23, is associated with ... Depletion of alveolar macrophages or neutralization of IL-23 reduced upregulation of IL-17A in the lung of silicotic mice. IL- ... In addition, γd T lymphocytes and CD4+ T cells, but not macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells or CD8 T cells, purified from the ...
Physical activities confirmed the interaction effect of Alveolar macrophage and SP-A while, Alveolar macrophage had a more ... Increment of Alveolar Macrophages and Pulmonary Surfactant of Young Male Rats after Six Weeks Interval Training نویسندگان [ ... Resident alveolar macrophages are replaced by recruited monocytes in response to endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. American ... This study aims to investigate changes of Alveolar macrophage and protein levels of pulmonary surfactant due to the six weeks ...
Alveolar macrophages were not collected.. *After day 16, ED3+ cells appeared in lymphoid tissues where they are not normally ... However, there was much more overlap in the repopulation kinetics of splenic macrophage subpopulations in the rat, when ... Macrophages in the liver (Kupffer cells) and red pulp macrophages in the spleen were the first cells to reappear, followed by ... Red pulp macrophages were the first cells and marginal zone macrophages were the last cells to repopulate the spleen in both ...
Macrophages, Alveolar. * MAP Kinase Kinase 4. * MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases. * Mice. * Mice, Inbred C57BL ... Signaling pathways required for macrophage scavenger receptor-mediated phagocytosis: analysis by scanning cytometry. Respir Res ... Signaling pathways required for macrophage scavenger receptor-mediated phagocytosis: analysis by scanning cytometry. ... Signaling pathways required for macrophage scavenger receptor-mediated phagocytosis: analysis by scanning cytometry. ...
The green circles are macrophages infected and completely filled with L. pneumophila. The infected macrophage will soon explode ... After inhalation of contaminated water droplets, Legionella infect and replicate inside alveolar macrophages. This phenotype is ... Human macrophages (grey circles) infected with green-fluorescent L. pneumophila. ... releasing hundreds of L. pneumophila that will then infect fresh macrophage. Source: Thangadurai Mani. ...
The many diseases in this group cause PAP by reducing alveolar macrophage numbers or functions, which leads to surfactant build ... Lung cells called alveolar macrophages need GM-CSF to prevent surfactant build up. ... Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is not a single disease. It is a syndrome (a pattern of symptoms and signs) that occurs in ... Pulmonary macrophage transplantation. In development for Hereditary PAP - results very promising in an animal model. ...
activity and nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages from. smokers of marijuana and cocaine. J Infect Dis 187(4):700-4 ... Marijuana smoke may damage alveolar macrophage function, further compromising the immunocompromised host(14). Invasive ... s ambient air but requires both compromised cell-mediated immunity and macrophage and neutrophil function(9),(12),(16). ...
Macrophages from different sites have distinctly different properties. Main types are peritoneal and alveolar macrophages, ... macrophage. NORMO_IL. EPAS1. GEO. Homo sapiens. GSE43109. Download (325) macrophage. HYPO. HIF1A. GEO. Homo sapiens. GSE43109. ... macrophage. NORMO_IL. HIF1A. GEO. Homo sapiens. GSE43109. Download (570) macrophage. IFNG. SPI1. GEO. Homo sapiens. GSE47188. ... macrophage. RXR. ENA. Homo sapiens. ERP008801. Download (23,629) macrophage. RXR. ENA. Homo sapiens. ERP009021. Download (2,210 ...
In alveolar macrophage cultures, oxalate accumulates iron and stimulates ferritin production and giant cell formation. In ... These exposures were accompanied by influx of alveolar macrophages, giant cell formation, and a granulomatous response in the ... METHODS: Using human tissues, isolated alveolar macrophages and respiratory epithelial cells, we measured the ability of ...
Clearance of surfactant by alveolar macrophages is regulated by granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). ... Conclusions:Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon but important differential diagnosis in patients with a subacute ... Background:Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a diffuse lung disease characterised by accumulation of surfactant. ... proteinaceous material confirming the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.There was no evidence of haematological ...
Macrophages Histiocytes Kupffer cells Alveolar macrophage Microglia Osteoclasts Epithelioid cells giant cells Langhans giant ... The plasmacytoid DC has the ability to produce huge amounts of type-1 IFNs , which recruit more activated macrophages to allow ... can turn into either dendritic cells or macrophages. In consequence, the disease has a poor overall prognosis and newer ...
Down modulation of IFN-gamma signaling in alveolar macrophages isolated from smokers. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009; 237:22-8 ... impairs pulmonary macrophage function21; and increases bronchial reactivity by stimulation of airway inflammation.22The ... Recovery of Intraoperative Microbicidal and Inflammatory Functions of Alveolar Immune Cells after a Tobacco Smoke-free Period ...
... and their mRNA expression have been reported after irradiation in mouse spleen macrophages and human alveolar macrophages [5 ... macrophage stimulation. Gallin et al have learn more reported that J774.1 macrophage cells show enzymatic and morphological ... "Macrophages, a key player in inflammatory responses, are radioresistant and their functions are not altered by a single ... and antigen expression of major histocompatibility complex class I in peritoneal macrophages and RAW264.7 cells, and these ...
... there is an activation of alveolar macrophages that causes a hyperinflammatory response in critically ill patients with SARS- ... Mycobacterium indicus pranii mediates macrophage activation through TLR2 and NOD2 in a MyD88 dependent manner. Vaccine 2012; 30 ... Mycobacterium indicus pranii supernatant induces apoptotic cell death in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. PLoS One 2011; ... Mw has been shown to induce apoptosis of activated macrophages by suppressing IL-β, thus subduing the hyperinflammatory ...
According to previous studies, alveolar macrophages are directly damaged by silica or coal dust particles, followed by diverse ... defense system acts against respiratory pathogens to prevent occurrence of lung infection and defense agents such as macrophage ...
ATP, nucleic acids and ASC oligomers, recognized by neighboring epithelial cells, endothelial cells and alveolar macrophages, ... The cytokine storm is induced by fast acting, residual IL-18 which is released by damaged lung tissue (macrophage activation). ... Initial clinical studies will target acute treatment for severely ill Covid-19 patients and / or patients with Macrophage ... Interferongamma (IFN-γ) Neutralization with Emapalumab and Time to Response in Patients with Macrophage Activation Syndrome ( ...
Isolation of lung protein exudates and alveolar macrophages Major alveolar macrophages and lung protein exudates had been ... and peptidy larginine deiminase, variety IV, which may perhaps play a position in granulocyte and macrophage improvement ... BAL macrophages from manage animals are regarded na ve, though macrophages isolated from lung tumor bearing mice are tumor ...
... acid in inhibiting proinflammatory mediator production and transcription from LPS-induced human asthmatic alveolar macrophage ... of EPA and DHA are dependent upon time and dose-response elements associated with LPS stimulation in THP-1-derived macrophages ...
Essential Role of mTORC1 in Self-Renewal of Murine Alveolar Macrophages. * Establishment of a Novel Histopathological ... Effect of modulating macrophage phenotype on peripheral nerve repair * Effect of molecular characteristics on cellular uptake, ... Type 2 alveolar cells are stem cells in adult lung. * Type I collagen synergistically enhances PDGF-induced smooth muscle cell ... Telomere dysfunction causes alveolar stem cell failure. * Temporal Dynamics of CD8+ T Cell Effector Responses during Primary ...
Alveolar macrophage activation and cytokine storm in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 ... Alveolitis in severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is driven by self-sustaining circuits between infected alveolar macrophages and T ... Human iPSC-derived alveolar and airway epithelial cells can be cultured at air-liquid interface and express SARS-CoV-2 host ... Broncho-alveolar inflammation in COVID-19 patients: a correlation with clinical outcome ...
Alveolar macrophage activation and cytokine storm in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 ... Alveolitis in severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is driven by self-sustaining circuits between infected alveolar macrophages and T ... Human iPSC-derived alveolar and airway epithelial cells can be cultured at air-liquid interface and express SARS-CoV-2 host ... Broncho-alveolar inflammation in COVID-19 patients: a correlation with clinical outcome ...
Alveolar macrophage activation and cytokine storm in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 ... Alveolitis in severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is driven by self-sustaining circuits between infected alveolar macrophages and T ... Human iPSC-derived alveolar and airway epithelial cells can be cultured at air-liquid interface and express SARS-CoV-2 host ... Broncho-alveolar inflammation in COVID-19 patients: a correlation with clinical outcome ...
Alveolar macrophage activation and cytokine storm in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 ... Alveolitis in severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is driven by self-sustaining circuits between infected alveolar macrophages and T ... Human iPSC-derived alveolar and airway epithelial cells can be cultured at air-liquid interface and express SARS-CoV-2 host ... Broncho-alveolar inflammation in COVID-19 patients: a correlation with clinical outcome ...
Alveolar macrophage activation and cytokine storm in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 ... Alveolitis in severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is driven by self-sustaining circuits between infected alveolar macrophages and T ... Human iPSC-derived alveolar and airway epithelial cells can be cultured at air-liquid interface and express SARS-CoV-2 host ... Broncho-alveolar inflammation in COVID-19 patients: a correlation with clinical outcome ...
Alveolar macrophage activation and cytokine storm in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 ... Alveolitis in severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is driven by self-sustaining circuits between infected alveolar macrophages and T ... Human iPSC-derived alveolar and airway epithelial cells can be cultured at air-liquid interface and express SARS-CoV-2 host ... Broncho-alveolar inflammation in COVID-19 patients: a correlation with clinical outcome ...
  • Because alveolar macrophages (AMs) are important in innate immunity, evidence was sought that AM phagocytosis might be impaired in poorly controlled asthma. (aappublications.org)
  • In comparison, M2 macrophages are induced by exposure to the Th2 cytokines to undergo oxidative metabolism that is associated with anti-inflammatory cytokine release, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) and collagen deposition that contribute to the resolution of inflammation and repair of damaged tissues ( 11 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Because surface macrophages participate primarily in innate immune responses like phagocytosis, differences in this subpopulation may be responsible for differences in clearance rates of particulates. (ecetoc.org)
  • Beside phagocytosis, macrophages are also one of the most active secretory cell types releasing a multitude of mediators. (ecetoc.org)
  • Alveolar tissue macrophage phagocytosis of E. coli, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Note the macrophage has short filopodia that extend from the cell and aid in finding bacteria for phagocytosis. (sciencephoto.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Faster relaxation and a soft cytoskeleton in patients with IPF indicate alterations in cytoskeleton dependent functions of alveolar macrophages, which may cause dysfunction's in the alveolar defense, like a slower migration, a retarded phagocytosis, a disturbed phagosome lysosome fusion and an impaired clearance. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1980. Modulation of phagocytosis by tumor promoters and epidermal growth factor in normal and transformed macrophages. (springer.com)
  • Phagocytosis and mechanisms of killing of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia by murine alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the main phagocytic cells of the innate immunity of the lung, were investigated. (asm.org)
  • Following inhalation of airborne A. fumigatus conidia, as with most airborne particles or microorganisms entering the respiratory tract, the normal host is protected by pulmonary innate immunity, including phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AM), the major resident phagocytic cells in the respiratory tract. (asm.org)
  • Sethi, "Impaired phagocytosis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by human alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease," The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and (iii) phagocytosis of particulates probably by a postmembrane event such as interiorization appears to be important for the up-regulation of alveolar Mf priming and IFN-g production. (uncg.edu)
  • Alveolar macrophages are also involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic and necrotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we examined the effect of meconium on two primary macrophage functions: phagocytosis and respiratory burst. (islandscholar.ca)
  • abstract = "The disposition of iron in the alveolar macrophage (AM) may be a critical factor in its reactivity to inhaled mineral dust. (elsevier.com)
  • 1992. Endocytosis of cigarette-smoke condensate by rabbit alveolar macrophages in vitro measured as fluorescence intensity. (springer.com)
  • To evaluate the potential role of alveolar macrophages in modulating the migration of neutrophils to the lung, normal human alveolar macrophages obtained from volunteers by bronchopulmonary lavage, were exposed for various periods of time in vitro to heat-killed microorganisms, and noninfectious particulates, immune complexes, and the macrophage supernates were evaluated for chemotactic activity. (jci.org)
  • The MH-S alveolar macrophage (AMs) cell line was used to characterize innate immune responses to infection in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Outcomes will include important new insights into macrophage responses (including species differences) based on in vitro and enhanced, in vivo evaluations which require fewer animals. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • 2015). In Vitro Multiparameter Assay Development Strategy toward Differentiating Macrophage Responses to Inhaled Medicines. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • An in vitro alveolar macrophage assay for predicting the short-term inhalation toxicity of nanomaterials. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This study addresses the applicability of an in vitro alveolar macrophage assay to distinguish biologically active from passive nanomaterials. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim of this work was to use in vitro cell culture models of rat and human alveolar macrophages to better characterise the biological response of these airway immune cells to particulate medicines. (open.ac.uk)
  • The cytolytic mechanism was determined to be apoptosis by the demonstration of a characteristic internucleosomal ladder of genomic DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis, by finding nuclear fragmentation and condensation by electron microscopy, and by in situ terminal transferase-mediated nick end labeling of fragmented DNA in alveolar macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Intravenous (i.v.) administration of phagocytosable chitin particles (1 to 10 mm) in C57BL/6 mice and SCID mice primed alveolar macrophages (Mf) within 3 days to yield up to a 50-fold increase in their oxidative burst when elicited in vitro with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). (uncg.edu)
  • We used an ex vivo model consisting of intravenous injection of LPS 20 hours prior to an in vitro stimulation of AM, peritoneal macrophages and monocytes with LPS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro have shown clear evidence that multiple macrophage polarization states exist. (jci.org)
  • Lipid-laden alveolar macrophages, also known as pulmonary foam cells, are cells found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens that consist of macrophages containing deposits of lipids (fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased levels of lipid-laden alveolar macrophages are associated with various respiratory conditions, including chronic smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, lipoid pneumonia, fat embolism, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and pulmonary aspiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid-laden alveolar macrophages have been reported in cases of vaping-associated pulmonary injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results suggest that the adaptation of SIVmac316 to efficient replication in alveolar macrophages results from its ability to infect these cells in a CD4-independent fashion or in a CD4-dependent fashion even at extremely low levels of surface CD4 expression. (asm.org)
  • Further, ex vivo analysis of alveolar macrophages, but not bone marrow-derived macrophages or peritoneal macrophages, demonstrated higher gene expression of MIP-1α and MIP-2. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we show through the combined use of conditional cell ablation and adoptive cell transfer that alveolar macrophages originate in vivo from blood monocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we extended these studies and investigated the in vivo origin of alveolar MΦ using a combination of conditional cell ablation and reconstitution. (jimmunol.org)
  • The induction of apoptosis in alveolar macrophages by M. tuberculosis may play a role in the macrophage-pathogen interaction of tuberculosis in vivo. (asm.org)
  • Further indicating that peroral arsenic has no overt effect on the local innate immune response of the airspace, alveolar macrophages harvested from arsenic-exposed and control mice after LPS inhalation generated equivalent TNF[alpha] ex vivo (Figure 4d). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We previously observed an absence of ET of alveolar macrophages (AM) to LPS in an ex vivo murine model of endotoxin tolerance [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In ex vivo wild-type alveolar macrophages, we observed that M-CSF itself is capable of inducing foam cell formation similar to that seen in PAP. (ecu.edu)
  • The functional phenotype of alveolar macrophages is modulated by the unique microenvironment of the lung that includes intimate contact with epithelial cells, high oxygen tension, and exposure to surfactant-rich fluid. (frontiersin.org)
  • Due to their remarkable plasticity, alveolar macrophages are highly specialized in reacting to environmental signals leading to rapid and reversible changes in their inflammatory phenotype ( 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It is anticipated that these markers may have the potential to identify the foamy macrophage phenotype in drug screening via longitudinal and less invasive animal studies and gain a better understanding of the safety of airway macrophage responses to inhaled particulates. (open.ac.uk)
  • a potent inducer of the M1 macrophage phenotype, in GM-CSF knockout BAL cells. (uncg.edu)
  • Cigarette smoke-induced changes to alveolar macrophage phenotype and function are improved by treatment with procysteine," American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 14 C]AA-labeled rabbit alveolar macrophages released AA following stimulation with either live or heat-killed C. albicans. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the effects and the signaling pathway of NO generation in porcine alveolar macrophages 3D4/21 during G. parasuis infection. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present study, we demonstrated that increased IL-8 expression during PCV2 infection depends on Toll-like receptor (TLR2), but not TLR4 or TLR9 signalling pathways in porcine alveolar macrophages. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus induces IL-1β production depending on TLR4/MyD88 pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome in primary porcine alveolar macrophages. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 1987. Surface morphology and function of human pulmonary alveolar macrophages from smokers and nonsmokers. (springer.com)
  • 1993 ) Regulation of T-cell function in lung tissue by pulmonary alveolar macrophages. (bmj.com)
  • Alveolar macrophages (AMs), the resident macrophages in lung alveoli, are important for the maintenance of homeostasis in the airways and are involved in the development of a variety of pulmonary diseases 1 . (nature.com)
  • Alveolar macrophages derive from yoke sac procurers of fetal monocytes, which populate the alveoli shortly after birth and persist over the lifespan via self-renewing embryo-derived populations independently of bone marrow contribution ( 3 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Because alveolar macrophages are normal residents of alveoli, it is likely that by releasing this factor(s) macrophages play a significant role in amplifying the inflammatory processes seen in many acute and chronic lung diseases. (jci.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages are associated with lung alveoli (air sacs) and epithelium (lining tissue). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play an outstanding role during inhalation exposure since they effectively clear the alveoli from particles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • a vigorously phagocytic macrophage on the epithelial surface of lung alveoli where it ingests inhaled particulate matter. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An alveolar macrophage (or dust cell) is a type of macrophage, a professional phagocyte, found in the pulmonary alveoli, near the pneumocytes, but separated from the wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2-4] The alveolar macrophage, situated at the air-tissue interface in the alveoli, is the first cell to encounter injurious stimuli and to release various chemical mediators in the early stages of the inflammatory response. (asahq.org)
  • We reported that alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages undergo cellular senescence in the lungs of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • knockout mice, phosphorylation of STAT6, a transcription factor which is activated downstream of interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13, in broncho- alveolar lavage fluids cells was diminished compared with wild-type mice (PLoS One, 2018). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Both genotypes demonstrated neutrophil sequestration in the lung during SIRS, but neutrophil migration into the alveolar space was only present in the gp91 phox-/y mice. (springer.com)
  • Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α gene expression and protein secretion were higher in whole-lung digest from uninjected gp91 phox-/y mice compared to the WT mice. (springer.com)
  • Gene expression of MIP-1α, MCP-1, and MIP-2 was upregulated in alveolar macrophages obtained from gp91 phox-/y mice at baseline compared with WT mice. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, isolated lung polymorphonuclear neutrophils migrate to BALf obtained from gp91 phox-/y mice, further providing evidence of a cell-specific anti-inflammatory role for Nox2 in alveolar macrophages. (springer.com)
  • In this report, we demonstrate that mice lacking alveolar macrophages succumb to infection with low dose influenza virus and vaccinia virus infection due to respiratory failure. (plos.org)
  • By exploring lung granulomatous responses to silica particles in IL-1-deficient mice, we found that the absence of IL-1α, but not IL-1β, was associated with reduced CD11bhigh phagocytic macrophage accumulation and fewer granulomas. (ovid.com)
  • Reconstitution of IL-1α−/− mice with recombinant IL-1α restored lung clearance functions and the pulmonary accumulation of CD11bhigh phagocytic macrophages. (ovid.com)
  • Preventing macrophages from expressing Zbtb7a ameliorated models of obliterative airway disease and prevented chronic rejection of lung transplants in mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Expression of DSA-induced Zbtb7a was restricted to alveolar macrophages (AMs), and selective disruption of Zbtb7a in AMs resulted in less bronchiolar occlusion, low immune responses to lung-restricted self-antigens, and high protection from chronic rejection in mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • as the primary upregulator of activin A in GM-CSF knockout mice which in addition, exhibit a unique mix of M1-M2 macrophage phenotypes. (uncg.edu)
  • C57BL/6 mice pretreated with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against mouse gamma interferon (IFN-g) or NK1.1 showed a markedly decreased level of alveolar Mf priming following injection of chitin particles. (uncg.edu)
  • Alveolar macrophages are critical for broadly-reactive antibody-mediated protection against influenza A virus in mice. (uchicago.edu)
  • Impaired clearance of influenza A virus in obese, leptin receptor deficient mice is independent of leptin signaling in the lung epithelium and macrophages. (uchicago.edu)
  • To investigate the role of PPARγ in alveolar macrophage homeostasis, we generated myeloidspecific PPARγ knockout mice using the Lys-Cre method to knock out the floxed PPARγ gene. (ecu.edu)
  • Similar to the GM-CSF-deficient mouse, absence of alveolar macrophage PPARγ resulted in development of lung pathology resembling PAP in 16-wk-old mice, along with excess M-CSF gene expression and secretion. (ecu.edu)
  • Healthy human alveolar macrophages (AMs) constitutively express activin A, but AMs of patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) are deficient in activin A. PAP is an autoimmune lung disease characterized by neutralizing autoantibodies to Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF). (uncg.edu)
  • The protean role of alveolar macrophage in the pathogenesis and resolution of lung inflammation is dependent on their ontogeny and the microenvironment associated with various noxious stimuli ( 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It is presently re-analyzed in terms of F-actin structure (assessed from 3D-reconstructions in fixed cells) and mechanical properties (asse ssed by Magnetic Twisting Cytometry experiments in living cells) of cortical and deep cytoskeleton structures for rigid plastic (Young Modulus: 3 MPa) or glass (70 MPa) substrates and a soft (~0.1 kPa) confluent monolayer of alveolar epithelial cells. (iospress.com)
  • Stiffness of both cortical and deep cytoskeleton is significantly decreased when soft confluent monolayer of alveolar epithelial cells replace the rigid plastic substrate while F-actin reconstructions reveal a consistent actin cytoskeleton remodeling observable on both cytoskeleton components. (iospress.com)
  • Under physiological conditions, alveolar macrophages produce low levels of inflammatory cytokines, maintain high phagocytic activity, and generally suppress inflammation and adaptive immunity ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • M1 macrophages respond to microbial factors and Th1 proinflammatory cytokines to exhibit glycolytic metabolism that is associated with inflammatory cytokine release, enhanced bacterial killing, and the recruitment of immune cells into the lung parenchyma and alveolus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although M1 macrophages are vital components of host defence, their activation must be tightly controlled because the produced cytokines and mediators can promote host-tissue damage. (ecetoc.org)
  • To elucidate the cytokine-producing capacity of alveolar macrophages (AMs), we have introduced a method of flow cytometry combined with saponin treatment to detect the cell-associated cytokines. (ersjournals.com)
  • In conclusion, the flow cytometric method can be applied to the semiquantitative detection of cell-associated cytokines in alveolar macrophages at the single cell level. (ersjournals.com)
  • Moreover, the porcine alveolar macrophage-derived NO exhibited prominent bacteriostatic effects against G. parasuis and positive host immunomodulation effects by inducing the production of cytokines and chemokines during infection. (mdpi.com)
  • We hypothesized that this singularity could be mediated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (known to be predominantly produced by type II pneumocytes) and interferon-gamma (INFγ), two cytokines known to prevent the occurrence of ET [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We studied the role of cyclooxygenase-2 in alveolar macrophages after acid aspiration, and by using a specific cyclooxygenase-2 blocker we investigated the interaction between cyclooxygenase-2 and various proinflammatory cytokines early in the inflammatory response. (asahq.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages (AM) represent primary phagocytes of the innate immune system and are of fundamental importance in mediating the removal of inhaled particles from the lung. (ecetoc.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages are a unique type of mononuclear phagocytes that populate the external surface of the lung cavity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Highlighting this state of permanent alert, the lung, which comprises parenchyma and alveolar space, is seeded with numerous mononuclear phagocytes, including dendritic cells (DC) 3 and macrophages (MΦ) ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages are phagocytes that play a critical role in homeostasis, host defense, and tissue remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soukup, "Cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, IL-6, and IL-8) production by respiratory syncytial virusinfected human alveolar macrophages ," Journal of Immunology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and interstitial macrophages, which reside in the parenchyma between the microvascular endothelium and alveolar epithelium ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages (AMss, are transiently attached by pseudopodia to the surface of alveolar epithelium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alveolar macrophages are critical for tissue homeostasis, host defense, clearance of surfactant and cell debris, pathogen recognition, initiation and resolution of lung inflammation, and repair of damaged tissue ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages (AM) are lung-resident macrophages important for the maintenance of surfactant homeostasis in the alveolar space [1] . (plos.org)
  • The extent to which different alveolar macrophage (AM) polarization states exist in homeostasis or in the setting of severe injury such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is largely unknown. (jci.org)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that M-CSF is an important mediator of alveolar macrophage homeostasis, and that transcriptional control of M-CSF production is regulated by NF-κB and PPARγ. (ecu.edu)
  • The authors indicate that this inhibition of critical cellular functions in cultured alveolar macrophages suggests that inhalation of airborne silage or grain dust particulates contaminated with patulin could have harmful effects on normal macrophage functions in workers. (cdc.gov)
  • RESULTS: One week after particle inhalation and later macrophage motility (relaxation) and cytoskeletal stiffness was not influenced by cigarette smoking, neither in healthy subjects, nor in the patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There are reported cell proliferations in the bronchi and bronchioles following nanoparticle inhalation [22, 23] and an accumulation of alveolar macrophages is also observed [4, 24]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Unsupervised CyTOF analysis of alveolar leukocytes from human subjects has potential to identify expected and potentially novel myeloid populations that may be linked with clinical outcomes. (jci.org)
  • Given this finding, we hypothesized that Nox2 in a resident cell in the lung, specifically the alveolar macrophage, has an essential anti-inflammatory role. (springer.com)
  • We speculate that Nox2 represses the development of inflammatory lung injury by modulating chemokine expression by the alveolar macrophage. (springer.com)
  • Following inflammatory insults, bone marrow-derived monocytes are recruited to the lung and differentiate into alveolar macrophages ( 6 - 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 1-6 The suggestion that amplification of this process during inflammatory diseases characterised by enhanced lung macrophage recruitment/activation may result in significant effects on the overall recirculating T cell compartment is thus worthy of more detailed investigation. (bmj.com)
  • In contrast to pro-inflammatory "M1" macrophages, alternatively activated "M2" macrophages exhibit strong anti-inflammatory activity. (ecetoc.org)
  • However, similar to classically activated pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages can also be detrimental to the host when dysregulated. (ecetoc.org)
  • Based on all the available experimental data it can be concluded that AMs respond to exposure against toxicants normally through a carefully balanced system consisting of "M1"macrophages which release pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic mediators important in host-defence and "M2" macrophages which are involved in down-regulating inflammatory processes and the initiation of wound-repair. (ecetoc.org)
  • The team, led by Prof Ben Forbes of KCL are focused in the development of novel technologies for assessing alveolar macrophage modulation and inflammatory responses during regulatory safety testing of new inhaled medicines. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Depleting alveolar macrophages or neutralizing IL-17 prevented the initiation of OVA-induced asthma-related inflammation by inhibiting the increase of inflammatory cells and inflammatory factors in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. (jimmunol.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages after trauma released significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor α, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 when they incorporated latex beads, but significantly lower levels of interleukin 1β and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α when they ingested apoptotic cells. (ovid.com)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of alveolar macrophage white blood cells (cream) in lung tissue. (sciencephoto.com)
  • 1989. Cathepsin D activity is increased in alveolar macrophages and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of smokers. (springer.com)
  • 1992. Smoking cessation rapidly reduces cell recovery in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, while alveolar macrophage fluorescence remains high. (springer.com)
  • Alveolar macrophages incubated in alcohol (0.08%) for 3 h prior to infection showed significantly lower bacterial uptake at 2 and 8 h post infection. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we have used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), RNA-seq and miRNA-seq to examine the effect of M. bovis infection on the bovine alveolar macrophage (bAM) epigenome. (frontiersin.org)
  • this was particularly evident at the transcriptional start sites of genes that determine programmed macrophage responses to mycobacterial infection (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • Its infection initiates with the invasion and colonization of the lower respiratory tracts of pigs, and develops as the bacteria survive host pulmonary defenses and clearance by alveolar macrophages. (mdpi.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first direct demonstration of NO production and its anti-infection effects in alveolar macrophages with G. parasuis infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Alveolar macrophages and various subsets of dendritic cells have been implicated in innate immunity and induction of anti-viral T cell responses that contribute to host defense against influenza virus infection. (plos.org)
  • SIVmac239 DNA was synthesized in these macrophage cultures during the initial 24 h after infection, but the levels did not increase subsequently. (asm.org)
  • Infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes human alveolar macrophage apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • The effect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection on the viability of healthy (control) human alveolar macrophages was evaluated by staining with ethidium homodimer and calcein to discriminate live from dead cells. (asm.org)
  • To characterize alveolar macrophage infection, IHC (A and B) and ISH (D and E) analyses were performed on alveolar macrophages. (asm.org)
  • Recent lineage-tracing studies have demonstrated that tissue-resident macrophages (TRMs) originate from embryonic yolk sac (YS) erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) and can self-renew in most adult tissues at steady state without contribution from bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) 2 , 3 , 4 . (nature.com)
  • Macrophages and macrophage-like cells are present in all mammalian organs with substantial heterogeneity and phenotypic specialization that is regulated in tissue-specific manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • Similarly, after aerosol particulate exposure, the percentage of marrow cells and alveolar macrophages of donor origin were not significantly different. (rupress.org)
  • Macrophages are cells of the body's immune system that are found in the tissues rather than in the circulating blood. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The demonstration by Upham et al 1 that human alveolar macrophages selectively inhibit proliferation of T cells by secretion of unidentified effector molecules raises the question as to whether pathological processes in the lung characterised by extensive macrophage recruitment or activation can have a systemic effect on T cell development. (bmj.com)
  • As inferred by Dr Grange, these T cells are subjected to the powerful downregulatory influence of lung macrophages during their transit through lung tissue, resulting in a variety of functional changes including loss of proliferation capacity. (bmj.com)
  • 1-1 1-3 1-5 While the precise mechanisms employed by the macrophages to modulate T cells are incompletely understood, it is clear that their overall efficiency in this regard is a reflection of their maturation/activation status. (bmj.com)
  • Rodent BAL cells consist of ≥95% macrophages, few lymphocytes and neutrophils whereas human BAL cells normally consist of ≥80% macrophages, about 18% lymphocytes and few neutrophils. (ecetoc.org)
  • To improve inhaled drug development, a better understanding is required of FM biology, the influence of different macrophage phenotypes on other lung cells and species differences. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Biomarkers and further insights into macrophage responses will be sought using (i) state-of-the-art (and beyond) mass spectroscopy imaging of single cells and tissue slices, (ii) targeted transcriptomics/toxicological pathway analysis, (iii) parallel evaluation of two non-invasive monitoring techniques for longitudinal studies: exhaled breath analysis and CT imaging. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • A tissue macrophage is a large, mature phagocyte that can ingest and destroy invading microbes, foreign particles, cancerous or diseased cells and cellular debris. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Alveolar macrophages are the key immune effector cells that first encounter M. bovis and how the macrophage epigenome responds to mycobacterial pathogens is currently not well understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Early studies have suggested that alveolar macrophages originate from tissue-resident, local precursors, whereas others reported their derivation from blood-borne cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In steady state, MΦ are the major cell type in the alveolar space, representing ∼90% of its hematopoietic cellular content ( 1 ) and playing a key role in its clearance from pulmonary pathogens and dying cells ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Alveolar MΦ are bone marrow (BM)-derived cells ( 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This delay in alveolar MΦ replacement by BM-derived cells is discussed as one of the critical causes for the sensitivity of BM transplantation patients to pulmonary infections ( 17 , 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Based on kinetic studies, Bowden and Adamson ( 23 ) suggested, for instance, a dual origin of alveolar MΦ: from blood-borne precursor and from proliferating cells in the lung parenchyma. (jimmunol.org)
  • Because alveolar MΦ are eventually replaced by BM-derived cells ( 11 ), the existence of circulating precursor was, however, not ruled out. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we report that macrophages rather than Th17 cells are the main producer of IL-17 in allergic inflammation related to asthma. (jimmunol.org)
  • After OVA challenge in a mouse model mimicking allergic asthma, the increased IL-17 + cells in the lung were mainly CD11b + F4/80 + macrophages, instead of T cells or others. (jimmunol.org)
  • The increase of IL-17 + AMs was not due to the influx of IL-17 + macrophages from circulation or other tissues, but ascribed to the activation of AMs by mediator(s) secreted by IgE/OVA-activated mast cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings suggest that IL-17 is mainly produced by macrophages but not Th17 cells in allergic inflammation related to asthma. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mechanistically, IL-1α induced the proliferation of CD11blow alveolar macrophages and differentiated these cells into CD11bhigh macrophages which perform critical phagocytic functions and organize granuloma. (ovid.com)
  • Immunological, cell signalling and headspace analysis revealed several potential markers of foamy macrophage induction that were raised in amiodarone treated cells in comparison with untreated controls. (open.ac.uk)
  • In contrast to the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239, which replicates poorly in rhesus monkey alveolar macrophages, a variant with nine amino acid changes in envelope (SIVmac239/316E) replicates efficiently and to high titer in these same cells. (asm.org)
  • Since SIVmac239/316E has previously been described as a virus capable of infecting cells in a relatively CD4-independent fashion, we examined the levels of CD4 expression on the surface of fresh and cultured alveolar macrophages from rhesus monkeys. (asm.org)
  • CCR5 + cells were profoundly depleted only from alveolar macrophage cultures infected with SIVmac239/316E. (asm.org)
  • The primate lentiviruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infect CD4 + T lymphocytes and macrophages as major target cells ( 4 , 8 , 21 , 23 , 31 , 32 , 36 , 39 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Blunt chest trauma is known to induce a pulmonary invasion of short-lived polymorphonuclear neutrophils and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial type 2 (AT2) cells. (ovid.com)
  • Apoptotic cells are removed by alveolar macrophages (AMΦ). (ovid.com)
  • The lower metabolic response one and three months after smoking cessation, and the increased response six months after, together with a rapid normalization of the cell concentration in the BAL fluid, may be explained by the persistence of tobacco-smoke particles in the alveolar space, which could influence cell activity. (springer.com)
  • Whereas the alveolar clearance rate in humans seems to be independent on the particle load, the clearance rate in rats depends on the amount of particles in the alveolar region which may contribute to a more pronounced impairment of macrophage mediated alveolar clearance and thus the higher susceptibility of rats to lung overload (Brown et al, 2005). (ecetoc.org)
  • 1993. Oxidized glutathione is increased in the alveolar fluid of patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. (springer.com)
  • The microorganisms, noninfectious particulates, and immune complexes were chosen as stimuli for alveolar macrophages because these stimuli are representative of a spectrum of pathogenic agents that cause neutrophil accumulation in the lower respiratory tract. (jci.org)
  • Their importance for lung physiology becomes evident in a rare human syndrome termed "pulmonary alveolar proteinosis" (PAP), which is characterized by the accumulation of surfactant material and a varying degree of respiratory insufficiency [2] . (plos.org)
  • Silica particles activate macrophages to release oxidants, which contribute to inflammation and injury in the lower respiratory tract. (omicsonline.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages are frequently seen to contain granules of exogenous material such as particulate carbon that they have picked up from respiratory surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the test is limited by poor reproducibility and low specificity for pulmonary aspiration, as lipid-laden macrophages occur in many respiratory conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a first line of defense in the lower respiratory tract against inhaled pathogens and particles such as meconium. (islandscholar.ca)
  • Two phenotypes of alveolar macrophages have been identified: classically activated macrophage (M1 macrophage) and alternatively activated macrophage (M2 macrophage). (frontiersin.org)
  • 1980. Neutral proteases activation of peritoneal macrophage prostaglandin synthesis. (springer.com)
  • In the lung, alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide the first line of immune cellular defense against inhaled materials. (dovepress.com)
  • In this paper, we report a drug targeting system which utilizes mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis to enhance cellular uptake of ONs in alveolar macrophages (AMs). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Since the cellular immune response in pulmonary TB requires lymphocyte-macrophage interaction, a model system was developed in which lymphocytes were added to AM. Contact between lymphocytes and AM reduced inhibitory C/EBPβ, activated NF-κB, and enhanced HIV-1 replication. (rupress.org)
  • Therefore, we proposed the use of non-pathogenic B. thailandensis E264 as a useful BSL-1 model system to study the effects of binge alcohol exposure on bacteria and alveolar macrophage interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against pollutants and pathogenic microbes that initiate an innate immune response in the lung. (frontiersin.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages (AM) are critical for defense against bacterial and fungal infections. (plos.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages are the first line of host defense in the lung and also perform various other functions, but their role in fighting off this pathogen remains to be fully defined. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, elucidating the macrophage-pathogen interaction will improve our knowledge of host defense against this pathogen, ultimately leading to new therapeutic targets. (biologists.org)
  • Classically activated macrophages (M1) are produced during cell-mediated immune responses and exhibit microbicidal and tumouricidal activity. (ecetoc.org)
  • Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was shown to be essential for the perinatal differentiation of fetal monocytes into preAMs and for the full maturation of AMs postnatally 7 . (nature.com)
  • 1987. Receptormediated and O 2 − release by alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes from smokers and nonsmokers. (springer.com)
  • After incubation with each of these stimuli, alveolar macrophages released low molecular weight (400-600) chemotactic factor(s) (alveolar macrophage-derived chemotactic factor[s] [AMCF]) with relatively more activity for neutrophils than monocytes or eosinophils. (jci.org)
  • However, the role of circulating monocytes as precursors of alveolar macrophages was never directly tested. (jimmunol.org)
  • Interestingly, this process requires an obligate intermediate stage, the differentiation of blood monocytes into parenchymal lung macrophages, which subsequently migrate into the alveolar space. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, the alveolar MΦ population was reported to remain unaffected by depletion of blood monocytes ( 25 ), leading to the conclusion that alveolar MΦ are not monocyte derived ( 26 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We show that grafted blood monocytes can give rise to alveolar MΦ. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, we provide evidence that alveolar MΦ do not originate directly from blood monocytes, but require a parenchymal lung MΦ intermediate. (jimmunol.org)
  • Circulating monocytes are generally viewed as central precursors of these tissue effector macrophages. (ovid.com)
  • Importantly, IL-17 + alveolar macrophages (AMs), but not IL-17 + interstitial macrophages, were significantly increased after allergen challenge. (jimmunol.org)
  • Macrophages play a central role in immune and tissue responses of granulomatous lung diseases induced by pathogens and foreign bodies. (ovid.com)
  • It is important to realize, however, that the effects of alcohol on alveolar macrophage innate immune function are just one facet of the complex pathophysiology of alcohol and the lung's immune system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Toxicity of the mycotoxin patulin for rat alveolar macrophages. (cdc.gov)
  • The toxicity of patulin (149291), a polyketide lactone mycotoxin, was studied in alveolar macrophages (AM) harvested from male Long- Evans-hooded-rats. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the difficulties in assessing inhaled drugs in toxicity studies is the alveolar macrophage response and its relevance to safe dosing in the clinic. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • One characteristic of inhaled dry powder toxicity studies is the appearance of foamy macrophages (FM), but it is unclear if this is due to general particulate overload or a pharmacologically-driven adverse event. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Alveolar macrophages (AMs) derived from embryonic precursors seed the lung before birth and self-maintain locally throughout adulthood, but are regenerated by bone marrow (BM) under stress conditions. (nature.com)
  • As for the origin of alveolar MΦ, although they clearly belong to the hemopoietic lineage, a direct connection to monocytic precursors remains to be shown ( 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A role for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the M. tuberculosis-induced cytolysis of alveolar macrophages was demonstrated by increased cytotoxicity following the addition of exogenous TNF-alpha to the cultures and by enhancement of macrophage survival when M. tuberculosis-infected alveolar macrophages were treated with pentoxifylline or anti-TNF-alpha antibody. (asm.org)
  • 1981. Enhancement of macrophage-induced cytotoxicity by phorbol ester tumor promoters. (springer.com)
  • Cytotoxicity of a short-fiber chrysotile asbestos for human alveolar macrophages: preliminary observations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Studies were performed to compare the cytotoxicity for human alveolar macrophages of a naturally occurring short-fiber chrysotile asbestos (RG 144) to that of a standard reference mixed-fiber (long and short) chrysotile asbestos (UICC chrysotile A. Rhodesian). (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have observed that it is elevated in human pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and in the GMCSF knockout mouse, a murine model for PAP. (ecu.edu)
  • 1981. Induction of chemotaxis in mouse peritoneal macrophages by phorbol ester tumor promoters. (springer.com)
  • 1977. Macrophage plasminogen activator: Induction by concanavalin A and phorbol myristate acetate. (springer.com)
  • 1997 ) Selective inhibition of T cell proliferation but not expression of effector function by human alveolar macrophages. (bmj.com)
  • J. L. Colombo, K. Timothy, T. K. Hallberg, and P. H. Sammut, "Time course of lipid-laden pulmonary macrophages with acute and recurrent milk aspiration in rabbits," Pediatric pulmonology , vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 95-98, 1992. (hindawi.com)
  • Foamy' macrophage (FM) responses are commonly observed during nonclinical development, but are difficult to interpret. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Research activities following a Drugns in the Lungs Network workshop on induced alveolar macrophage responses. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • We newly discovered here that IL-1α triggers lung responses requiring macrophage proliferation and maturation from tissue-resident macrophages. (ovid.com)
  • Despite considerable investment to develop new inhaled drugs, in recent years there has been limited success, in part due to the observation of foamy macrophage responses in rat studies which questions their safety for use in humans. (open.ac.uk)
  • Macrophages display varied responses to the tumor promoter, TPA. (springer.com)
  • Alveolar macrophages were obtained by repeated lung washings with physiologic saline at 37°C. Cytotoxic tests were done on bone marrow and alveolar macrophages using anti-31 mouse antibody, absorbed rabbit serum as complement, and trypan blue exclusion as a test for viability. (rupress.org)
  • We hypothesized that macrophages respond to C. albicans by releasing AA and generating AA metabolites as a consequence of interaction of mannose and β- glucan receptors with fungal cell wall components. (elsevier.com)
  • Alveolar macrophage-derived nitric oxide (NO) is recognized as an important mediator that exerts antimicrobial activity as well as immunomodulatory effects. (mdpi.com)
  • Alveolar macrophages regulate neutrophil recruitment in endotoxin-induced lung injury. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1978. The effect of phorbol myristate acetate on the metabolism and ultrastructure of human alveolar macrophages. (springer.com)
  • However, few studies have evaluated the effect of whole fungi on macrophage eicosanoid metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate that C. albicans stimulates macrophage AA metabolism and that these effects are partly mediated by α- mannan and β-glucan constituents of the fungus. (elsevier.com)
  • Marked species differences exist also in the cell size of alveolar macrophages with AMs from humans being significantly larger than those from rats, hamster or monkeys. (ecetoc.org)
  • Since resident macrophages in brains and lungs of humans also express little or no CD4, our findings predict the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 that is relatively CD4 independent in the lung and brain compartments of infected people. (asm.org)
  • 1980. Phorbol myristate acetate induces the secretion of elastase by populations of resident and elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages. (springer.com)
  • Alveolar macrophages (AMs) were recruited by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from human smokers before and one, three, and six months after smoking cessation. (springer.com)
  • U937 (human) and NR8383 (rat) macrophage models were dosed up to 24 h with 0.01 - 100 mg/ml of amiodarone, salbutamol or salmeterol in cell culture medium. (open.ac.uk)
  • Oligonucleotide targeting to alveolar macrophages by mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Prior work in our laboratory has shown that soluble α-mannan and β-glucan inhibit macrophage mannose and β-glucan receptors, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • In the experiment, human alveolar epithelial cell A549 and human monocytic leukemia cell THP1 differentiated into macrophage by phorbol ester treatment were used. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this study, a high-affinity receptor for phorbol ester is characterized in a viable alveolar macrophage population. (springer.com)
  • We also conducted morphological analysis, assessed macrophage expression level by staining (general staining and immunostaining), and employed spirometry. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The transgene expression was detected in alveolar macrophage -rich sites by observation using multi-color deep imaging. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Here, we investigated GILZ expression in human alveolar macrophages (AMs) following Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. (nih.gov)
  • Th2 cytokine IL-10 could down-regulate IL-17 expression in alveolar macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mast cell-released mediators up-regulate the expression of IL-17 by macrophages, whereas IL-10 down-regulates IL-17 expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • The levels of CD4 expression were extremely low, below the limit of detection by flow cytometry, on greater than 99% of the macrophages. (asm.org)
  • Using mouse models and data from human patients, they identified expression of the transcription factor Zbtb7a in alveolar macrophages as a crucial mediator. (sciencemag.org)
  • IFN-β expression by alveolar macrophages, as analyzed by RT-PCR. (asm.org)
  • We then used a κ-nearest neighbor density estimation algorithm to statistically identify distinct alveolar myeloid subtypes, and we discerned 3 AM subtypes defined by CD169 and PD-L1 surface expression. (jci.org)
  • Terminal differentiation and maturation of lung macrophages is dependent on granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and transduced by the transcription factors, Pu.1 ( 9 ). (frontiersin.org)