Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)
Infections with bacteria of the family BACTEROIDACEAE.
Maxillary diseases refer to various medical conditions primarily affecting the maxilla (upper jaw) bone, including inflammatory processes, tumors, cysts, or traumatic injuries, which may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or functional impairment.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.
A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to dental surfaces. It is associated with PERIODONTITIS; BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and ACTINOMYCOSIS.
An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption.
Chronic inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is associated with the amount of DENTAL PLAQUE or DENTAL CALCULUS present. Chronic periodontitis occurs mostly in adults and was called adult periodontitis, but this disease can appear in young people.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Conservative contouring of the alveolar process, in preparation for immediate or future denture construction. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Metabolic bone diseases are a group of disorders that affect the bones' structure and strength, caused by disturbances in the normal metabolic processes involved in bone formation, resorption, or mineralization, including conditions like osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget's disease, and renal osteodystrophy.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Surgical procedure to add bone to the ALVEOLAR RIDGE in children born with a CLEFT LIP and a CLEFT PALATE.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Diseases of BONES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.
'Mandibular diseases' refer to various medical conditions that primarily affect the structure, function, or health of the mandible (lower jawbone), including but not limited to infections, tumors, developmental disorders, and degenerative diseases.
Horizontal and, to a lesser degree, axial movement of a tooth in response to normal forces, as in occlusion. It refers also to the movability of a tooth resulting from loss of all or a portion of its attachment and supportive apparatus, as seen in periodontitis, occlusal trauma, and periodontosis. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p507 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p313)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.

Morphological changes in periodontal mechanoreceptors of mouse maxillary incisors after the experimental induction of anterior crossbite: a light and electron microscopic observation using immunohistochemistry for PGP 9.5. (1/419)

Ruffini nerve endings (mechanoreceptors) in the periodontal ligament (PDL) of mouse incisors were examined to elucidate whether experimentally-induced crossbites cause any changes or abnormalities in their morphology and distribution. Anterior guiding planes were attached to the mandibular incisors of 3-week-old C3H/HeSlc mice. At 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks post-attachment of the appliance, the mice were sacrificed by perfusion fixation. Frozen sagittal cryostat sections of the decalcified maxillary incisors were processed for immunohistochemistry of protein gene product 9.5, followed by histochemical determination of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity to reveal sites of alveolar bone resorption. Despite the absence of bone resorption within the lingual PDL of control mice, distinct resorption sites were seen in the respective regions of the experimental animals. Unlike the controls, many Ruffini endings showing vague and swollen contours, with unusually long and pedunculated micro-projections were observed in the affected lingual PDL of the incisors in the experimental animals with short-term anterior crossbite induction. Club-shaped nerve terminations with few, if any, micro-projections were observed in the lingual PDL of experimental animals with long-term induction, as well as in aged control mouse incisors. Differences in the distribution of Ruffini endings were also observed. These results indicate that changing the direction of the force applied to the PDL results in rapid and prolonged changes in the morphology of Ruffini-like mechanoreceptors.  (+info)

Histological and histochemical quantification of root resorption incident to the application of intrusive force to rat molars. (2/419)

This study was conducted to investigate the nature of root resorption resulting from intrusive forces applied to the rat lower molars, by means of histological and histochemical techniques with tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Thirty-eight 13-week-old Wistar strain male rats were used. Intrusive force was created by a fixed appliance which was adjusted to exert an initial force of 50 g for the duration of 1, 2, and 3 weeks. The degree of root resorption and distribution of TRAP positive cells were evaluated. On the root surface, the TRAP positive scores were low in the apical regions. Significant differences in the scores were found in the inter-radicular region of the roots between the experimental and control groups for the 2- and 3-week groups. More active resorption of bone occurred during the experimental period, as denoted by greater TRAP positive scores on the bone than on the root surface. Root resorption scores in the apical root region were larger in the 2- and 3-week groups than in the 1-week group. Significant differences in the root resorption scores were also found between the 1- and 3-week groups in the inter-radicular region, indicating that intrusive force application of a longer duration may lead to a higher frequency of root resorption. It is shown that, irrespective of the level of TRAP positive cells and root resorption scores, the degree of root resorption activity is higher in the apical root region than in the inter-radicular area. These results indicate that cellular cementum may be resorbed more easily because of its richer organic components and low mineralized structure.  (+info)

Host modulation as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of periodontal disease. (3/419)

Specific microorganisms initiate the immunoinflammatory processes that destroy tissue in periodontitis. Recent work has demonstrated, in addition to bacterial control, that modulation of the host immunoinflammatory response is also capable of controlling periodontitis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) destroy collagen and other matrix components, and the osteoclastic bone remodeling determines the periodontal bone response to a bacterial challenge. Other components of the biology, including cytokines and prostanoids, regulate MMPs and bone remodeling and are also involved in regulating the production of defensive elements, such as antibody. Agents directed at blocking MMPs or osteoclastic activity are effective in reducing periodontitis. Agents that inhibit prostaglandin E2 and selective blockage of specific cytokines have also been effective. Improved knowledge of bacterium-host interactions and of the processes leading to tissue destruction will help to identify targets for host modulation to reduce periodontitis in selected situations.  (+info)

CD4(+) T cells and the proinflammatory cytokines gamma interferon and interleukin-6 contribute to alveolar bone loss in mice. (4/419)

In this study, we used a mouse model to examine the role of the adaptive immune response in alveolar bone loss induced by oral infection with the human gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Severe combined immunodeficient mice, which lack B and T lymphocytes, exhibited considerably less bone loss than did immunocompetent mice after oral infection, suggesting that lymphocytes contribute to this process. Bone loss after oral infection was decreased in mice deficient in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-responsive CD4(+) T cells, but no change in bone loss was observed in mice deficient in MHC class I-responsive CD8(+) T cells or NK1(+) T cells. Mice lacking the cytokine gamma interferon or interleukin-6 also demonstrated decreased bone loss. These results suggest that the adaptive immune response, and in particular CD4(+) T cells and the proinflammatory cytokines that they secrete, are important effectors of bone loss consequent to P. gingivalis oral infection. The studies also reinforce the utility of the mouse oral infection model in dissecting the pathobiology of periodontal disease.  (+info)

C-telopeptide pyridinoline cross-links. Sensitive indicators of periodontal tissue destruction. (5/419)

C-telopeptides and related pyridinoline cross-links of bone Type I collagen are sensitive markers of bone resorption in osteolytic diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. We have studied the release of C-telopeptide pyridinoline crosslinks of Type I collagen as measures of bone destruction in periodontal disease. Studies in preclinical animal models and humans have demonstrated the relationship between radiographic bone loss and crevicular fluid C-telopeptide levels. We have recently found that C-telopeptide levels correlate strongly with microbial pathogens associated with periodontitis and around endosseous dental implants. Host-modulation of bone-related collagen breakdown has been shown by studies in humans demonstrating that MMP inhibition blocks tissue destruction and release of C-telopeptides in patients with active periodontal disease.  (+info)

Host responses to recombinant hemagglutinin B of Porphyromonas gingivalis in an experimental rat model. (6/419)

Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative, black-pigmented anaerobe, is among the microorganisms implicated in the etiology of adult periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses a number of factors, including hemagglutinins, of potential importance in virulence. Several hemagglutinin genes have been identified, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purpose of this study was to characterize host responses to purified recombinant hemagglutinin B (rHag B), using the conventional Fischer rat as the experimental animal model. The effectiveness of immunization with rHag B on protection against experimental periodontal bone loss following infection with P. gingivalis was also evaluated. Groups of rats were immunized by the subcutaneous route with rHag B in complete Freund's adjuvant, immunized with rHag B and orally infected with P. gingivalis, nonimmunized and noninfected, or orally infected with P. gingivalis only. Serum and saliva samples were collected throughout the experiment and evaluated for serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM and salivary IgA antibody activity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No salivary IgA anti-Hag B activity was detected in the various groups of rats. A slight serum IgM response similar to that seen in preimmune samples was observed. Serum IgG antibody activity to Hag B was detected only in samples from rats immunized with rHag B. This response was primarily of the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses, followed by IgG2b and low levels of IgG2c. Supernatants from rHag B-stimulated splenic lymphoid cell cultures from immunized rats contained high levels of gamma interferon, followed by interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10, and then IL-4. These results are consistent with the induction of T helper type 1 (Th1)- and Th2-like responses. Western blot analysis of sera derived from rHag B-immunized rats reacted with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitates of P. gingivalis 33277, 381, A7A1-28, and W50, revealing a 50-kDa band reflective of Hag B. However, sera derived from rats immunized with P. gingivalis whole cells or from rats infected with P. gingivalis only did not react with rHag B but did react with TCA precipitates of P. gingivalis strains. Finally, radiographic measurements of periodontal bone loss indicated that rats immunized with rHag B had less bone loss than those infected with P. gingivalis only. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of purified rHag B in inducing a protective immune response and support the potential usefulness of this component of P. gingivalis in the development of a vaccine against adult periodontitis.  (+info)

Requirement of B7 costimulation for Th1-mediated inflammatory bone resorption in experimental periodontal disease. (7/419)

The CD28 costimulation at TCR signaling plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the T cell response. To elucidate the role of T cells in periodontal disease, a system of cell transfer with TCR/CD28-dependent Th1 or Th2 clones was developed in rats. Gingival injection of specific Ag, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans 29-kDa outer membrane protein, and LPS could induce local bone resorption 10 days after the transfer of Ag-specific Th1 clone cells, but not after transfer of Th2 clone cells. Interestingly, the presence of LPS was required not only for the induction of bone resorption but also for Ag-specific IgG2a production. LPS injection elicited the induction of expression of both B7-1 and B7-2 expression on gingival macrophages, which otherwise expressed only MHC class II when animals were injected with Ag alone. The expression of B7 molecules was observed for up to 3 days, which corresponded to the duration of retention of T clone cells in gingival tissues. Either local or systemic administration of CTLA4Ig, a functional antagonist of CD28 binding to B7, could abrogate the bone resorption induced by Th1 clone cells combined with gingival challenge with both Ag and LPS. These results suggest that local Ag-specific activation of Th1-type T cells by B7 costimulation appeared to trigger inflammatory bone resorption, whereas inhibition of B7 expression by CTLA4Ig might be a therapeutic approach for intervention with inflammatory bone resorption.  (+info)

Long-term follow-up of maxillary incisors with severe apical root resorption. (8/419)

The purpose of the study was to analyse the mobility of teeth with severe orthodontically induced root resorption, at follow-up several years after active treatment, and to evaluate mobility in relation to root length and alveolar bone support. Seventy-three maxillary incisors were examined in 20 patients, 10-15 years after active treatment in 13 patients (age 24-32 years) and 5-10 years after active treatment in seven patients (age 20-25 years). All had worn fixed or removable retainers; seven still had bonded twistflex retainers. Total root length and intra-alveolar root length were measured on intra-oral radiographs. Tooth mobility was assessed clinically according to Miller's Index (0-4) and the Periotest method. Crestal alveolar bone level, periodontal pocket depth, gingival, and plaque indices, occlusal contacts during occlusion and function, and dental wear were recorded. There was a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between tooth mobility, and total root length and intra-alveolar root length. No correlation was found between tooth mobility and retention with twistflex retainers. None of the variables for assessment of periodontal status, occlusion and function were related to total root length or tooth mobility. It is concluded that there is a risk of tooth mobility in a maxillary incisor that undergoes severe root resorption during orthodontic treatment, if the remaining total root length is < or = 9 mm. The risk is less if the remaining root length is > 9 mm. Follow-up of teeth with severe orthodontically induced root resorption is indicated.  (+info)

Alveolar bone loss refers to the breakdown and resorption of the alveolar process of the jawbone, which is the part of the jaw that contains the sockets of the teeth. This type of bone loss is often caused by periodontal disease, a chronic inflammation of the gums and surrounding tissues that can lead to the destruction of the structures that support the teeth.

In advanced stages of periodontal disease, the alveolar bone can become severely damaged or destroyed, leading to tooth loss. Alveolar bone loss can also occur as a result of other conditions, such as osteoporosis, trauma, or tumors. Dental X-rays and other imaging techniques are often used to diagnose and monitor alveolar bone loss. Treatment may include deep cleaning of the teeth and gums, medications, surgery, or tooth extraction in severe cases.

The alveolar process is the curved part of the jawbone (mandible or maxilla) that contains sockets or hollow spaces (alveoli) for the teeth to be embedded. These processes are covered with a specialized mucous membrane called the gingiva, which forms a tight seal around the teeth to help protect the periodontal tissues and maintain oral health.

The alveolar process is composed of both compact and spongy bone tissue. The compact bone forms the outer layer, while the spongy bone is found inside the alveoli and provides support for the teeth. When a tooth is lost or extracted, the alveolar process begins to resorb over time due to the lack of mechanical stimulation from the tooth's chewing forces. This can lead to changes in the shape and size of the jawbone, which may require bone grafting procedures before dental implant placement.

Periodontitis is a severe form of gum disease that damages the soft tissue and destroys the bone supporting your teeth. If left untreated, it can lead to tooth loss. It is caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on our teeth. The body's immune system fights the bacterial infection, which causes an inflammatory response. If the inflammation continues for a long time, it can damage the tissues and bones that support the teeth.

The early stage of periodontitis is called gingivitis, which is characterized by red, swollen gums that bleed easily when brushed or flossed. When gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to periodontitis. In addition to plaque, other factors that increase the risk of developing periodontitis include smoking or using tobacco products, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, a weakened immune system, and genetic factors.

Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and using an antimicrobial mouth rinse, can help prevent periodontitis. Treatment for periodontitis may include deep cleaning procedures, medications, or surgery in severe cases.

The term "tooth cervix" is not commonly used in medical dentistry with a specific technical definition. However, if you are referring to the "cervical region of a tooth," it generally refers to the area where the crown (the visible part of the tooth) meets the root (the portion of the tooth that is below the gum line). This region is also sometimes referred to as the "cementoenamel junction" (CEJ), where the enamel covering of the crown meets the cementum covering of the root. Dental issues such as tooth decay, receding gums, or abrasion can affect this area and may require professional dental treatment.

Bacteroidaceae is a family of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Infections caused by Bacteroidaceae are relatively rare, but can occur in cases of severe trauma, surgery, or compromised immune systems. These infections may include bacteremia (bacteria in the blood), abscesses, and wound infections. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against anaerobic bacteria. It is important to note that proper identification of the specific species causing the infection is necessary for appropriate treatment, as different species within Bacteroidaceae may have different susceptibilities to various antibiotics.

Maxillary diseases refer to conditions that affect the maxilla, which is the upper bone of the jaw. This bone plays an essential role in functions such as biting, chewing, and speaking, and also forms the upper part of the oral cavity, houses the upper teeth, and supports the nose and the eyes.

Maxillary diseases can be caused by various factors, including infections, trauma, tumors, congenital abnormalities, or systemic conditions. Some common maxillary diseases include:

1. Maxillary sinusitis: Inflammation of the maxillary sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located within the maxilla, can cause symptoms such as nasal congestion, facial pain, and headaches.
2. Periodontal disease: Infection and inflammation of the tissues surrounding the teeth, including the gums and the alveolar bone (which is part of the maxilla), can lead to tooth loss and other complications.
3. Maxillary fractures: Trauma to the face can result in fractures of the maxilla, which can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty breathing or speaking.
4. Maxillary cysts and tumors: Abnormal growths in the maxilla can be benign or malignant and may require surgical intervention.
5. Oral cancer: Cancerous lesions in the oral cavity, including the maxilla, can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing or speaking.

Treatment for maxillary diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent many maxillary diseases.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

According to the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. These tissues include the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The primary cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky film that constantly forms on our teeth.

There are two major stages of periodontal disease:

1. Gingivitis: This is the milder form of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gums (gingiva) without loss of attachment to the teeth. The gums may appear red, swollen, and bleed easily during brushing or flossing. At this stage, the damage can be reversed with proper dental care and improved oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of periodontal disease. In periodontitis, the inflammation extends beyond the gums and affects the deeper periodontal tissues, leading to loss of bone support around the teeth. Pockets filled with infection-causing bacteria form between the teeth and gums, causing further damage and potential tooth loss if not treated promptly.

Risk factors for developing periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking or using smokeless tobacco, genetic predisposition, diabetes, hormonal changes (such as pregnancy or menopause), certain medications, and systemic diseases like AIDS or cancer. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices are crucial for preventing periodontal disease and maintaining overall oral health.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

"Porphyromonas gingivalis" is a gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontal disease. It is a major pathogen in chronic periodontitis, which is a severe form of gum disease that can lead to destruction of the tissues supporting the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone.

The bacterium produces several virulence factors, such as proteases and endotoxins, which contribute to its pathogenicity. It has been shown to evade the host's immune response and cause tissue destruction through various mechanisms, including inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases.

P. gingivalis has also been linked to several systemic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease, although the exact mechanisms of these associations are not fully understood. Effective oral hygiene practices, including regular brushing, flossing, and professional dental cleanings, can help prevent the overgrowth of P. gingivalis and reduce the risk of periodontal disease.

The periodontium is a complex structure in the oral cavity that surrounds and supports the teeth. It consists of four main components:
1. Gingiva (gums): The pink, soft tissue that covers the crown of the tooth and extends down to the neck of the tooth, where it meets the cementum.
2. Cementum: A specialized, calcified tissue that covers the root of the tooth and provides a surface for the periodontal ligament fibers to attach.
3. Periodontal ligament (PDL): A highly vascular and cell-rich connective tissue that attaches the cementum of the tooth root to the alveolar bone, allowing for tooth mobility and absorption of forces during chewing.
4. Alveolar bone: The portion of the jawbone that contains the sockets (alveoli) for the teeth. It is a spongy bone with a rich blood supply that responds to mechanical stresses from biting and chewing, undergoing remodeling throughout life.

Periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, affect the health and integrity of the periodontium, leading to inflammation, bleeding, pocket formation, bone loss, and ultimately tooth loss if left untreated.

The periodontal ligament, also known as the "PDL," is the soft tissue that connects the tooth root to the alveolar bone within the dental alveolus (socket). It consists of collagen fibers organized into groups called principal fibers and accessory fibers. These fibers are embedded into both the cementum of the tooth root and the alveolar bone, providing shock absorption during biting and chewing forces, allowing for slight tooth movement, and maintaining the tooth in its position within the socket.

The periodontal ligament plays a crucial role in the health and maintenance of the periodontium, which includes the gingiva (gums), cementum, alveolar bone, and the periodontal ligament itself. Inflammation or infection of the periodontal ligament can lead to periodontal disease, potentially causing tooth loss if not treated promptly and appropriately.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

Bitewing radiography is a type of dental x-ray examination that involves taking multiple images of the teeth while they are bite together. These x-rays primarily provide a detailed view of the crowns of the upper and lower teeth in a single view, allowing dentists to diagnose and monitor interdental decay (decay between teeth), dental caries, and any bone loss around fillings or near the gum line. Bitewing radiographs are essential for detecting dental problems at an early stage, which can help prevent further damage and costly treatments in the future. They are typically taken annually or biennially during routine dental checkups.

Dental photography is a type of clinical photography that focuses on documenting the condition and treatment of teeth and oral structures. It involves using specialized cameras, lenses, and lighting to capture high-quality images of the mouth and related areas. These images can be used for diagnostic purposes, patient education, treatment planning, communication with other dental professionals, and monitoring progress over time. Dental photography may include various types of shots, such as extraoral (outside the mouth) and intraoral (inside the mouth) views, close-ups of individual teeth or restorations, and full-face portraits. It requires a strong understanding of dental anatomy, lighting techniques, and image composition to produce accurate and informative images.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

A tooth socket, also known as an alveolus (plural: alveoli), refers to the hollow cavity or space in the jawbone where a tooth is anchored. The tooth socket is part of the alveolar process, which is the curved part of the maxilla or mandible that contains multiple tooth sockets for the upper and lower teeth, respectively.

Each tooth socket has a specialized tissue called the periodontal ligament, which attaches the root of the tooth to the surrounding bone. This ligament helps absorb forces generated during biting and chewing, allowing for comfortable and efficient mastication while also maintaining the tooth's position within the jawbone. The tooth socket is responsible for providing support, stability, and nourishment to the tooth through its blood vessels and nerves.

Actinobacillus infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Actinobacillus, which are gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, and non-motile rods. These bacteria can cause a variety of infections in humans and animals, including respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and septicemia.

The most common species that causes infection in humans is Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, which is associated with periodontal disease, endocarditis, and soft tissue infections. Other species such as A. suis, A. lignieresii, and A. equuli can cause infections in animals and occasionally in humans, particularly those who have close contact with animals.

Symptoms of Actinobacillus infections depend on the site of infection and may include fever, chills, swelling, redness, pain, and purulent discharge. Diagnosis is typically made through culture and identification of the bacteria from clinical samples such as blood, wound secretions, or respiratory specimens. Treatment usually involves antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria, such as aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or third-generation cephalosporins. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

'Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae. It is facultatively anaerobic, meaning it can grow in both the presence and absence of oxygen. This bacterium is commonly found as part of the oral microbiota in humans and is associated with periodontal diseases such as localized aggressive periodontitis. Additionally, it has been implicated in various extraoral infections, including endocarditis, meningitis, and septicemia, particularly in individuals with underlying medical conditions. The bacterium's virulence factors include leukotoxin, cytolethal distending toxin, and adhesins, which contribute to its pathogenicity.

A periodontal pocket is a pathological space or gap that develops between the tooth and the surrounding gum tissue (gingiva) as a result of periodontal disease. This condition is also known as a "periodontal depth" or "probing depth." It is measured in millimeters using a dental probe, and it indicates the level of attachment loss of the gingival tissue to the tooth.

In a healthy periodontium, the sulcus (the normal space between the tooth and gum) measures 1-3 mm in depth. However, when there is inflammation due to bacterial accumulation, the gums may become red, swollen, and bleed easily. As the disease progresses, the sulcus deepens, forming a periodontal pocket, which can extend deeper than 3 mm.

Periodontal pockets provide an environment that is conducive to the growth of harmful bacteria, leading to further tissue destruction and bone loss around the tooth. If left untreated, periodontal disease can result in loose teeth and eventually tooth loss. Regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings are essential for maintaining healthy gums and preventing periodontal pockets from developing or worsening.

Chronic periodontitis is a type of gum disease that is characterized by the inflammation and infection of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. It is a slow-progressing condition that can lead to the destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, which can result in loose teeth or tooth loss if left untreated.

Chronic periodontitis is caused by the buildup of dental plaque and calculus (tartar) on the teeth, which harbor bacteria that release toxins that irritate and inflame the gums. Over time, this chronic inflammation can lead to the destruction of the periodontal tissues, including the gingiva, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone.

The signs and symptoms of chronic periodontitis include:

* Red, swollen, or tender gums
* Bleeding gums during brushing or flossing
* Persistent bad breath (halitosis)
* Receding gums (exposure of the tooth root)
* Loose teeth or changes in bite alignment
* Deep periodontal pockets (spaces between the teeth and gums)

Risk factors for chronic periodontitis include poor oral hygiene, smoking, diabetes, genetics, and certain medications. Treatment typically involves a thorough dental cleaning to remove plaque and calculus, followed by additional procedures such as scaling and root planing or surgery to eliminate infection and promote healing of the periodontal tissues. Good oral hygiene practices, regular dental checkups, and quitting smoking are essential for preventing chronic periodontitis and maintaining good oral health.

The maxilla is a paired bone that forms the upper jaw in vertebrates. In humans, it is a major bone in the face and plays several important roles in the craniofacial complex. Each maxilla consists of a body and four processes: frontal process, zygomatic process, alveolar process, and palatine process.

The maxillae contribute to the formation of the eye sockets (orbits), nasal cavity, and the hard palate of the mouth. They also contain the upper teeth sockets (alveoli) and help form the lower part of the orbit and the cheekbones (zygomatic arches).

Here's a quick rundown of its key functions:

1. Supports the upper teeth and forms the upper jaw.
2. Contributes to the formation of the eye sockets, nasal cavity, and hard palate.
3. Helps shape the lower part of the orbit and cheekbones.
4. Partakes in the creation of important sinuses, such as the maxillary sinus, which is located within the body of the maxilla.

Alveolar macrophages are a type of macrophage (a large phagocytic cell) that are found in the alveoli of the lungs. They play a crucial role in the immune defense system of the lungs by engulfing and destroying any foreign particles, such as dust, microorganisms, and pathogens, that enter the lungs through the process of inhalation. Alveolar macrophages also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response. They are important for maintaining the health and function of the lungs by removing debris and preventing infection.

Alveoloplasty is a surgical procedure that involves the reshaping and smoothing of the alveolar ridge, which is the bony ridge in the jaw that contains the tooth sockets. This procedure is typically performed after the removal of teeth, such as during a dental extraction or after wisdom tooth removal, to create a more uniform and aesthetically pleasing shape to the jawbone.

Alveoloplasty may be recommended in cases where there are sharp or jagged bony edges that could irritate the gums or other tissues in the mouth, or where the alveolar ridge is uneven or irregular due to tooth loss or other factors. The procedure can help to improve the fit and comfort of dentures or other dental restorations, as well as enhance the overall appearance of the mouth and jaw.

During an alveoloplasty procedure, a dental surgeon will use specialized tools to carefully remove any excess bone tissue and smooth out the remaining bone. The surgical site may be numbed with local anesthesia or sedation may be used for more complex procedures. After the surgery, patients may experience some swelling, bruising, or discomfort, which can typically be managed with over-the-counter pain medications and cold compresses. It is important to follow all post-operative instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and avoid complications.

Gingiva is the medical term for the soft tissue that surrounds the teeth and forms the margin of the dental groove, also known as the gum. It extends from the mucogingival junction to the base of the cervical third of the tooth root. The gingiva plays a crucial role in protecting and supporting the teeth and maintaining oral health by providing a barrier against microbial invasion and mechanical injury.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

REceptor Activator of NF-kB (RANK) Ligand is a type of protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system and bone metabolism. It belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and is primarily produced by osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation.

RANK Ligand binds to its receptor RANK, which is found on the surface of osteoclasts, a type of cell involved in bone resorption or breakdown. The binding of RANK Ligand to RANK activates signaling pathways that promote the differentiation, activation, and survival of osteoclasts, thereby increasing bone resorption.

Abnormalities in the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway have been implicated in various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain types of cancer that metastasize to bones. Therefore, targeting this pathway with therapeutic agents has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of these conditions.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

"Random allocation," also known as "random assignment" or "randomization," is a process used in clinical trials and other research studies to distribute participants into different intervention groups (such as experimental group vs. control group) in a way that minimizes selection bias and ensures the groups are comparable at the start of the study.

In random allocation, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group, and the assignment is typically made using a computer-generated randomization schedule or other objective methods. This process helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are due to the intervention being tested rather than pre-existing differences in the participants' characteristics.

Bone regeneration is the biological process of new bone formation that occurs after an injury or removal of a portion of bone. This complex process involves several stages, including inflammation, migration and proliferation of cells, matrix deposition, and mineralization, leading to the restoration of the bone's structure and function.

The main cells involved in bone regeneration are osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which resorb damaged or old bone tissue. The process is tightly regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and signaling molecules that promote the recruitment, differentiation, and activity of these cells.

Bone regeneration can occur naturally in response to injury or surgical intervention, such as fracture repair or dental implant placement. However, in some cases, bone regeneration may be impaired due to factors such as age, disease, or trauma, leading to delayed healing or non-union of the bone. In these situations, various strategies and techniques, including the use of bone grafts, scaffolds, and growth factors, can be employed to enhance and support the bone regeneration process.

Pulmonary alveoli, also known as air sacs, are tiny clusters of air-filled pouches located at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. They play a crucial role in the process of gas exchange during respiration. The thin walls of the alveoli, called alveolar membranes, allow oxygen from inhaled air to pass into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to pass into the alveoli to be exhaled out of the body. This vital function enables the lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body and remove waste products like carbon dioxide.

Tooth movement, in a dental and orthodontic context, refers to the physical change in position or alignment of one or more teeth within the jaw bone as a result of controlled forces applied through various orthodontic appliances such as braces, aligners, or other orthodontic devices. The purposeful manipulation of these forces encourages the periodontal ligament (the tissue that connects the tooth to the bone) to remodel, allowing the tooth to move gradually over time into the desired position. This process is crucial in achieving proper bite alignment, correcting malocclusions, and enhancing overall oral function and aesthetics.

Osteonectin, also known as SPARC (Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine), is a non-collagenous protein found in the extracellular matrix of bone and other tissues. It plays a crucial role in bone mineralization, collagen fibrillogenesis, and tissue remodeling by interacting with various molecules such as collagens, growth factors, and integrins. Osteonectin is involved in regulating cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis during bone development, repair, and homeostasis.

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone architecture, leading to increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, wrist, and hip. It mainly affects older people, especially postmenopausal women, due to hormonal changes that reduce bone density. Osteoporosis can also be caused by certain medications, medical conditions, or lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and a lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. The diagnosis is often made using bone mineral density testing, and treatment may include medication to slow bone loss, promote bone formation, and prevent fractures.

Tooth eruption is the process by which a tooth emerges from the gums and becomes visible in the oral cavity. It is a normal part of dental development that occurs in a predictable sequence and timeframe. Primary or deciduous teeth, also known as baby teeth, begin to erupt around 6 months of age and continue to emerge until approximately 2-3 years of age. Permanent or adult teeth start to erupt around 6 years of age and can continue to emerge until the early twenties.

The process of tooth eruption involves several stages, including the formation of the tooth within the jawbone, the movement of the tooth through the bone and surrounding tissues, and the final emergence of the tooth into the mouth. Proper tooth eruption is essential for normal oral function, including chewing, speaking, and smiling. Any abnormalities in the tooth eruption process, such as delayed or premature eruption, can indicate underlying dental or medical conditions that require further evaluation and treatment.

In the context of dentistry, a molar is a type of tooth found in the back of the mouth. They are larger and wider than other types of teeth, such as incisors or canines, and have a flat biting surface with multiple cusps. Molars are primarily used for grinding and chewing food into smaller pieces that are easier to swallow. Humans typically have twelve molars in total, including the four wisdom teeth.

In medical terminology outside of dentistry, "molar" can also refer to a unit of mass in the apothecaries' system of measurement, which is equivalent to 4.08 grams. However, this usage is less common and not related to dental or medical anatomy.

Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are primarily responsible for bone resorption, a process in which they break down and dissolve the mineralized matrix of bones. They are derived from monocyte-macrophage precursor cells of hematopoietic origin and play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by balancing bone formation and bone resorption.

Osteoclasts adhere to the bone surface and create an isolated microenvironment, called the "resorption lacuna," between their cell membrane and the bone surface. Here, they release hydrogen ions into the lacuna through a process called proton pumping, which lowers the pH and dissolves the mineral component of the bone matrix. Additionally, osteoclasts secrete proteolytic enzymes, such as cathepsin K, that degrade the organic components, like collagen, in the bone matrix.

An imbalance in osteoclast activity can lead to various bone diseases, including osteoporosis and Paget's disease, where excessive bone resorption results in weakened and fragile bones.

Dental cementum is a type of hard connective tissue that covers the root of a tooth. It is primarily composed of calcium salts and collagen fibers, and it serves to attach the periodontal ligaments (the fibers that help secure the tooth in its socket) to the tooth's root. Cementum also helps protect the root of the tooth and contributes to the maintenance of tooth stability. It continues to grow and deposit new layers throughout an individual's life, which can be seen as incremental lines called "cementum annulations."

Metabolic bone diseases are a group of conditions that affect the bones and are caused by disorders in the body's metabolism. These disorders can result in changes to the bone structure, density, and strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures and other complications. Some common examples of metabolic bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are more likely to break, often as a result of age-related bone loss or hormonal changes.
2. Paget's disease of bone: a chronic disorder that causes abnormal bone growth and deformities, leading to fragile and enlarged bones.
3. Osteomalacia: a condition caused by a lack of vitamin D or problems with the body's ability to absorb it, resulting in weak and soft bones.
4. Hyperparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that causes too much parathyroid hormone to be produced, leading to bone loss and other complications.
5. Hypoparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that results in low levels of parathyroid hormone, causing weak and brittle bones.
6. Renal osteodystrophy: a group of bone disorders that occur as a result of chronic kidney disease, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and high turnover bone disease.

Treatment for metabolic bone diseases may include medications to improve bone density and strength, dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle modifications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct bone deformities or fractures.

Bone development, also known as ossification, is the process by which bone tissue is formed and grows. This complex process involves several different types of cells, including osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down and resorb existing bone tissue.

There are two main types of bone development: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Intramembranous ossification occurs when bone tissue forms directly from connective tissue, while endochondral ossification involves the formation of a cartilage model that is later replaced by bone.

During fetal development, most bones develop through endochondral ossification, starting as a cartilage template that is gradually replaced by bone tissue. However, some bones, such as those in the skull and clavicles, develop through intramembranous ossification.

Bone development continues after birth, with new bone tissue being laid down and existing tissue being remodeled throughout life. This ongoing process helps to maintain the strength and integrity of the skeleton, allowing it to adapt to changing mechanical forces and repair any damage that may occur.

X-ray microtomography, often referred to as micro-CT, is a non-destructive imaging technique used to visualize and analyze the internal structure of objects with high spatial resolution. It is based on the principles of computed tomography (CT), where multiple X-ray images are acquired at different angles and then reconstructed into cross-sectional slices using specialized software. These slices can be further processed to create 3D visualizations, allowing researchers and clinicians to examine the internal structure and composition of samples in great detail. Micro-CT is widely used in materials science, biology, medicine, and engineering for various applications such as material characterization, bone analysis, and defect inspection.

Bone matrix refers to the non-cellular component of bone that provides structural support and functions as a reservoir for minerals, such as calcium and phosphate. It is made up of organic and inorganic components. The organic component consists mainly of type I collagen fibers, which provide flexibility and tensile strength to the bone. The inorganic component is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals, which give bone its hardness and compressive strength. Bone matrix also contains other proteins, growth factors, and signaling molecules that regulate bone formation, remodeling, and repair.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

Alveolar bone grafting is a surgical procedure that involves transplanting bone tissue to the alveolar ridge, which is the part of the jawbone that contains tooth sockets. This procedure is often performed as a part of dental treatment plans for patients who have congenital defects or have experienced significant bone loss due to periodontal disease, trauma, or other factors.

The goal of alveolar bone grafting is to restore the structure and function of the jawbone, which can help support dental implants, improve chewing ability, and enhance facial aesthetics. The bone tissue used for the graft may come from various sources, including the patient's own body (autograft), a donor (allograft), or synthetic materials (alloplast).

During the procedure, the oral surgeon will make an incision in the gum tissue to expose the jawbone and prepare it for the graft. The bone tissue is then placed in the defective area and secured with screws or plates. The gum tissue is closed with sutures, and the patient is typically given antibiotics and pain medication to manage any discomfort during recovery.

It may take several months for the bone graft to fully integrate with the jawbone, after which dental implants can be placed if necessary. Proper oral hygiene and regular follow-up appointments with the oral surgeon are essential to ensure successful healing and optimal outcomes.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

Bone diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions that affect the bones. These conditions can be categorized into several groups, including:

1. Developmental and congenital bone diseases: These are conditions that affect bone growth and development before or at birth. Examples include osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysostosis.
2. Metabolic bone diseases: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to maintain healthy bones. They are often caused by hormonal imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, or problems with mineral metabolism. Examples include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease of bone.
3. Inflammatory bone diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the bones. They can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other medical conditions. Examples include osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
4. Degenerative bone diseases: These are conditions that cause the bones to break down over time. They can be caused by aging, injury, or disease. Examples include osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
5. Tumors and cancers of the bone: These are conditions that involve abnormal growths in the bones. They can be benign or malignant. Examples include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
6. Fractures and injuries: While not strictly a "disease," fractures and injuries are common conditions that affect the bones. They can result from trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. Examples include stress fractures, compound fractures, and dislocations.

Overall, bone diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pain, stiffness, deformity, and decreased mobility. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

Tooth extraction is a dental procedure in which a tooth that is damaged or poses a threat to oral health is removed from its socket in the jawbone. This may be necessary due to various reasons such as severe tooth decay, gum disease, fractured teeth, crowded teeth, or for orthodontic treatment purposes. The procedure is performed by a dentist or an oral surgeon, under local anesthesia to numb the area around the tooth, ensuring minimal discomfort during the extraction process.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Dental radiography is a specific type of imaging that uses radiation to produce detailed images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues surrounding them. It is a crucial tool in dental diagnostics and treatment planning. There are several types of dental radiographs, including:

1. Intraoral Radiographs: These are taken inside the mouth and provide detailed images of individual teeth or small groups of teeth. They can help detect cavities, assess periodontal health, plan for restorations, and monitor tooth development in children. Common types of intraoral radiographs include bitewing, periapical, and occlusal radiographs.
2. Extraoral Radiographs: These are taken outside the mouth and provide images of larger areas, such as the entire jaw or skull. They can help diagnose issues related to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), detect impacted teeth, assess bone health, and identify any abnormalities in the facial structure. Common types of extraoral radiographs include panoramic, cephalometric, and sialography radiographs.
3. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT): This is a specialized type of dental radiography that uses a cone-shaped X-ray beam to create detailed 3D images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues. It is particularly useful in planning complex treatments such as dental implants, orthodontic treatment, and oral surgery.

Dental radiographs are typically taken using a specialized machine that emits a low dose of radiation. Patients are provided with protective lead aprons to minimize exposure to radiation. The frequency of dental radiographs depends on the patient's individual needs and medical history. Dentists follow strict guidelines to ensure that dental radiography is safe and effective for their patients.

A tooth root is the part of a tooth that is embedded in the jawbone and cannot be seen when looking at a person's smile. It is the lower portion of a tooth that typically has a conical shape and anchors the tooth to the jawbone through a periodontal ligament. The tooth root is covered by cementum, a specialized bone-like tissue, and contains nerve endings and blood vessels within its pulp chamber.

The number of roots in a tooth can vary depending on the type of tooth. For example, incisors typically have one root, canines may have one or two roots, premolars usually have one or two roots, and molars often have two to four roots. The primary function of the tooth root is to provide stability and support for the crown of the tooth, allowing it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing.

Periodontal attachment loss (PAL) is a clinical measurement in dentistry that refers to the amount of connective tissue attachment between the tooth and its surrounding supportive structures (including the gingiva, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone) that has been lost due to periodontal disease. It is typically expressed in millimeters and represents the distance from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), which is the point where the tooth's crown meets the root, to the bottom of the periodontal pocket.

Periodontal pockets are formed when the gums detach from the tooth due to inflammation and infection caused by bacterial biofilms accumulating on the teeth. As the disease progresses, more and more of the supporting structures are destroyed, leading to increased pocket depths and attachment loss. This can eventually result in loose teeth and even tooth loss if left untreated.

Therefore, periodontal attachment loss is an important indicator of the severity and progression of periodontal disease, and its measurement helps dental professionals assess the effectiveness of treatment interventions and monitor disease status over time.

Mandibular diseases refer to conditions that affect the mandible, or lower jawbone. These diseases can be classified as congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developing after birth). They can also be categorized based on the tissues involved, such as bone, muscle, or cartilage. Some examples of mandibular diseases include:

1. Mandibular fractures: These are breaks in the lower jawbone that can result from trauma or injury.
2. Osteomyelitis: This is an infection of the bone and surrounding tissues, which can affect the mandible.
3. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders: These are conditions that affect the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull, causing pain and limited movement.
4. Mandibular tumors: These are abnormal growths that can be benign or malignant, and can develop in any of the tissues of the mandible.
5. Osteonecrosis: This is a condition where the bone tissue dies due to lack of blood supply, which can affect the mandible.
6. Cleft lip and palate: This is a congenital deformity that affects the development of the face and mouth, including the lower jawbone.
7. Mandibular hypoplasia: This is a condition where the lower jawbone does not develop properly, leading to a small or recessed chin.
8. Developmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the growth and development of the mandible, such as condylar hyperplasia or hemifacial microsomia.

Tooth mobility, also known as loose teeth, refers to the degree of movement or displacement of a tooth in its socket when lateral forces are applied. It is often described in terms of grades:

* Grade 1: Tooth can be moved slightly (up to 1 mm) with finger pressure.
* Grade 2: Tooth can be moved up to 2 mm with finger pressure.
* Grade 3: Tooth can be moved more than 2 mm or can be removed from its socket with manual pressure.

Increased tooth mobility can be a sign of periodontal disease, trauma, or other dental conditions and should be evaluated by a dentist. Treatment may include deep cleaning, splinting, or surgery to restore stability to the affected teeth.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Dental implants are artificial tooth roots that are surgically placed into the jawbone to replace missing or extracted teeth. They are typically made of titanium, a biocompatible material that can fuse with the bone over time in a process called osseointegration. Once the implant has integrated with the bone, a dental crown, bridge, or denture can be attached to it to restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Dental implants are a popular choice for tooth replacement because they offer several advantages over traditional options like dentures or bridges. They are more stable and comfortable, as they do not rely on adjacent teeth for support and do not slip or move around in the mouth. Additionally, dental implants can help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing.

The process of getting dental implants typically involves several appointments with a dental specialist called a prosthodontist or an oral surgeon. During the first appointment, the implant is placed into the jawbone, and the gum tissue is stitched closed. Over the next few months, the implant will fuse with the bone. Once this process is complete, a second surgery may be necessary to expose the implant and attach an abutment, which connects the implant to the dental restoration. Finally, the crown, bridge, or denture is attached to the implant, providing a natural-looking and functional replacement for the missing tooth.

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disorder characterized by the accumulation of surfactant, a lipoprotein complex that reduces surface tension within the alveoli, in the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. This accumulation can lead to difficulty breathing and reduced oxygen levels in the blood.

There are three types of PAP:

1. Congenital PAP: A very rare inherited form that affects infants and is caused by a genetic mutation that disrupts the production or function of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a protein important for the development and function of alveolar macrophages.

2. Secondary PAP: This form is associated with conditions that impair the clearance of surfactant by alveolar macrophages, such as hematologic disorders (e.g., leukemia), infections, exposure to inhaled irritants (e.g., silica dust), and certain medications.

3. Idiopathic PAP: The most common form, also known as autoimmune PAP, is caused by the development of autoantibodies against GM-CSF, which disrupts its function and leads to surfactant accumulation in the lungs.

Treatment for PAP may include whole lung lavage (WLL), a procedure where the affected lung is filled with saline solution and then drained to remove excess surfactant, as well as managing any underlying conditions. In some cases of idiopathic PAP, off-label use of inhaled GM-CSF has shown promise in improving symptoms and lung function.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

This results in a net loss of alveolar bone. Alveolar bone loss is closely associated with periodontal disease. Periodontal ... The alveolar process is also called the alveolar bone or alveolar ridge. The curved portion is referred to as the alveolar arch ... The supporting alveolar bone consists of both cortical (compact) bone and trabecular bone. The cortical bone consists of plates ... The loss of alveolar bone, coupled with attrition of the teeth, causes a loss of height of the lower third of the vertical ...
Zadik Y, Bechor R, Shochat Z, Galor S (April 2008). "[Ethnic origin and alveolar bone loss in Israeli adults]". Refu'at Ha-Peh ... Research has shown that smokers have more bone loss, attachment loss and tooth loss compared to non-smokers. This is likely due ... no evidence of bone loss over last five years Grade B: Moderate progression; < 2mm of bone loss over last five years Grade C: ... Amount and percentage bone loss radiographically Clinical attachment loss, probing depth Presence of furcation Vertical bony ...
... (also known as alveolar bone proper) is a histologic term for the portion of the bone of the alveolar process that ... Bundle bone is functionally dependent in that it resorbs following tooth extraction or loss. Bundle bone is very flexible and ... Bundle bone can be divided into two main parts: a thin layer of compact (radiodense) bone (the 'cortex' of alveolus) that lines ... It can also be referred to as alveolar bone proper. ... Bones of the head and neck, All stub articles, Dentistry stubs) ...
"Adipokine Chemerin Bridges Metabolic Dyslipidemia and Alveolar Bone Loss in Mice". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 32 (5 ... "A novel G protein-coupled receptor with homology to neuropeptide and chemoattractant receptors expressed during bone ...
ISBN 81-89093-10-X. Levin, Liran (June 2007). "Alveolar Bone Loss and Gingival Recession Due to Lip and Tongue Piercing". N Y ... In some cases, the alveolar tooth-bearing bone is also involved, jeopardizing the stability and durability of the teeth in ... Bone, Angie; Fortune Ncube; Tom Nichols; Norman D Noah (21 June 2008). "Body Piercing in England: a Survey of Piercing at Sites ... It was popular among the Aztecs, the Mayans and the tribes of New Guinea, who adorned their pierced noses with bones and ...
Evidence of alveolar bone loss is also required to differentiate between true bone loss and not attributions of gingival oedema ... The cumulative effects of alveolar bone loss, attachment loss and pocket formation is more apparent with an increase in age. ... Usually, a horizontal pattern of bone loss would be found however, vertical (infrabony) bone loss may also be present on ... However, usually when presenting complaints do arise the effects of mobility and alveolar bone loss have become severe. A full ...
Extension of the lesion into alveolar bone, periodontal ligament with significant bone loss Continued loss of collagen ... The disease consists of a chronic inflammation associated with loss of alveolar bone. Advanced disease features include pus and ... drifting and eventual loss Because bone loss makes its first appearance in the advanced lesion, it is equated with ... Features of the Established Lesion: Predominance of plasma cells without bone loss Presence of extravascular immunoglobulins in ...
... all of them exhibited mild to moderate alveolar bone loss resulting from periodontal disease (the wearing away of the bone ... three exhibited no pathologies of the alveolar bone. Measuring the distance between the alveolar bone and the cementoenamel ... Ripamonti, U. (1989). "The Hard Evidence of Alveolar Bone Loss in Early Hominids of Southern Africa". Journal of Periodontology ... the lower part of the upper arm bone), a proximal right ulna (upper part of a lower arm bone) and a distal phalanx bone of the ...
... seven exhibited mild to moderate alveolar bone loss resulting from periodontal disease (the wearing away of the bone which ... Ripamonti, U. (1989). "The Hard Evidence of Alveolar Bone Loss in Early Hominids of Southern Africa". Journal of Periodontology ... The trabecular bone at the hip joint is distinctly humanlike, which would be inconsistent with the great degrees of hip loading ... The leg bones clearly show that A. africanus habitually engaged in bipedal locomotion, though some aspects of the tibiae are ...
Untreated, these diseases can lead to alveolar bone loss and tooth loss. As of 2013[update], periodontal disease accounted for ... Radiographic bone loss and tooth loss. Complexity of management; Probing depth, pattern of bone loss, furcation lesions, number ... ongoing chronic stress are more likely to have clinical attachment loss and decreased levels of alveolar bone due to ... a spongy or trabecular-type bone which is less dense than compact bone. The anatomic landmarks of the alveolar process includes ...
This condition increases alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, tooth mobility, and finally tooth loss. It can cause other ... involvement in bone infections: a review". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 41 (6): 509-15. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Stage 2 (PD2) - early periodontal disease with less than 25% attachment loss of the tooth from the alveolar bone. The treatment ... The hallmark feature of periodontitis is attachment loss of the tooth from the alveolar bone. Periodontitis is an irreversible ... Stage 4 (PD4) - advanced periodontal disease with more than 50% attachment loss of the tooth from the alveolar bone. Extraction ... Stage 3 (PD3) - established periodontal disease with 25-50% attachment loss of the tooth from the alveolar bone. Treatment ...
They describe the development of lateral plates on the alveolar margins of tooth-bearing bones. These plates can be used to ... strip foliage, the eusauropod's "U-shaped" jaws create a wide bite, and their loss of "fleshy cheeks" increased the gape. The ... Unlike prosauropods and theropods, which have a snout with smooth, unprotruding alveolar and subnarial regions, eusauropods ...
They are also attached to the gingival (gum) tissue that covers the alveolar bone by an attachment apparatus; because this ... Teeth are attached to the surrounding and supporting alveolar bone by periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers; these fibers run from ... of the alveolar bone, it is termed the supracrestal attachment apparatus. The supracrestal attachment apparatus is composed of ... Connective tissue attachment loss refers to the pathological detachment of collagen fibers from cemental surface with the ...
This may further lead to furcal involvement through loss of clinical attachment and alveolar bone. A cursory clinical ... This is because neutrophils, which are rich sources of PGE2, are present when the majority of rapid bone loss occurs during the ... injured site and cause resorption of the periapical alveolar bone. It is possible that after conventional endodontic therapy ... Regeneration of the bone has been demonstrated to occur, on average, at a rate of 3.2 mm² per month, and studies suggest that ...
... the alveolar ridge has a mean loss of width of 3.8mm, and a height loss of 1.24mm within six months. This loss of bone volume, ... loss in bone volume in the first six months. Bone loss, can compromise the ability to place a dental implant (to replace the ... Socket preservation or alveolar ridge preservation is a procedure to reduce bone loss after tooth extraction. After tooth ... Socket preservation attempts to prevent bone loss by bone grafting the socket immediately after extraction. With the procedure ...
Julihn A, Barr Agholme M, Modeer T (June 2008). "Risk factors and risk indicators in relation to incipient alveolar bone loss ... If this is not treated, the inflammation will lead to the bone loss and will eventually lead to the affected teeth becoming ... In the group that was instructed to rinse with saline, the prevalence of alveolar osteitis was less than in the group that did ... Severe gum disease causes at least one-third of adult tooth loss. Since before recorded history, a variety of oral hygiene ...
Effect of dietary vitamin E supplement and rotational stress on alveolar bone loss in rice rats (subscription required). ... Effect of stannous fluoride and iodine on root caries and bone loss in rats. Ohio Journal of Science 88(3):99-100. Benson, D.E ... Vitamin E, fluoride, and iodide protect against bone loss associated with this disease in the rice rat and a high-sucrose diet ... The nasal and premaxillary bones extend back beyond the point where the lacrimal, frontal, and maxillary bones meet. In P. o. ...
Interproximal and horizontal alveolar bone loss in mouse models are seen in coinfections involving P. gingivalis and Treponema ... Vaccines made from P. gingivalis CPS apparently impair oral bone loss in murine models. These vaccines have been able to elicit ... In contrast, germ free mice inoculated with a P. gingivalis monoinfection incur no bone loss, indicating that P. gingivalis ... In these models, P. gingivalis inoculation causes significant bone loss, which is a significant characteristic of the disease. ...
Loss of teeth alters the form of the alveolar bone in 91% of cases. In addition to this resorption of bone in the vertical and ... The alveolar bone is unique in that it exists for the sake of the teeth that it retains; when the teeth are absent, the bone ... Bone loss with missing teeth, partials and complete dentures is progressive. According to Wolff's law, bone is stimulated, ... The alveolar ridges are columns of bone that surround and anchor the teeth and run the entire length, mesiodistally, of both ...
Some loss of connective tissue attachment and alveolar bone loss is normal during a two-year course of orthodontic treatment. ... Tooth loss implies in loss of several orofacial structures, such as bone tissues, nerves, receptors and muscles and ... Dental abscesses can cause resorption of bone and consequent loss of attachment. Depending on the type of abscess, this loss of ... Severe infection at the apex of a tooth can again result in bone loss and this in turn can cause mobility. Depending on the ...
Stippling only presents on the attached gingiva bound to underlying alveolar bone, not the freely moveable alveolar mucosa or ... unless it is smooth due to a loss of previously existing stippling. Stippling is a consequence of the microscopic elevations ...
The holotype had lost the crowns of several premolars, and two full teeth, with its alveolar bone density being strongly ... However, another specimen with similar injuries survived into old age, despite the loss of its premolars, as it shifted the ... Among the wrist bones, the left cuneiform is similar to that of raccoons, and the left pisiform possesses a large head, which ... The bone is distinctly swollen on the lingual and buccal sides of the groove, which is therefore flanked by two longitudinal ...
The alveolar bone typically overgrows, but root surfaces can be exposed to the oral environment increasing likelihood of dental ... The changes are most visible in the first year after the loss of the opposing tooth. A systematic review on the treatment need ... "Occlusal Changes Following Posterior Tooth Loss in Adults. Part 1: A Study of Clinical Parameters Associated with the Extent ...
If done successfully, it is able to ensure stable alveolar bone volume as there is continuous stimulation of the periodontal ... At present, it has been theorised that evolutionary change is working to decrease the human dentition by the loss of an incisor ... The primary molars present also functions as a space maintainer, prevent alveolar bone resorption and delays future ... However, bone grafting can be carried out to overcome this. Hypodontia is less common in the primary dentition, with reported ...
Alveolar crest fibers (I) run from the cervical part of the root to the alveolar bone crest Horizontal fibers (J) attach to the ... All of these can lead to loss of vitality of the PDL and depending on the duration of storage, this can affect the success of ... bone remodelling is initiated by the PDL in which forces are transmitted from the tooth to the alveolar bone. Fibroblasts of ... The PDL is a part of the periodontium that provides for the attachment of the teeth to the surrounding alveolar bone by way of ...
... gingival recession and loss of alveolar bone crest height. In these cases, crown lengthening surgery should be considered. ... Secondly, the biologic width, the mandatory distance (roughly 2 mm) to be left between the height of the alveolar bone and the ... potentially resulting in the loss of healthy, natural tooth structure for this purpose, the all-porcelain CAD/CAM crown can be ... sound tooth structure may need to be sacrificed in order to prevent further more substantial and uncontrolled loss of tooth ...
In cases where recession is not accompanied by periodontal bone loss, complete or near complete coverage of the recession area ... It may exist with or without concomitant decrease in crown-to-root ratio (recession of alveolar bone). Various classifications ... Gingival recession, also known as gum recession and receding gums, is the exposure in the roots of the teeth caused by a loss ... Depending on the shape of the gum recession and the levels of bone around the teeth, areas of gum recession can be regenerated ...
Patients often present with early-onset aggressive periodontitis associated with advanced alveolar bone loss and tooth mobility ... Bone marrow transplants appear to have been successful in several patients. Infections are treated with antibiotics and ... The diagnosis is confirmed by bone marrow smears that show "giant inclusion bodies" in the cells that develop into white blood ...
The shape of the alveolar bone in regions of bone loss varies depending on the buccal-lingual length (or cheek-to-tongue length ... In healthy situation, there should be no sign of bone loss other than potential bone remodelling at the alveolar crest ... There have been reports of bone loss without any accompanying sign of soft tissue inflammation. Without evidence of bone loss, ... of the bone. Where this length is greater than the extent of the peri-implantitis, the region of bone loss can take the shape ...
... J Clin ... Keywords: Porphyromonas gingivalis; cell-free protein synthesis; gingipain; immunization; minor fimbriae; oral bone loss. ... Importantly, immunization with the vaccine cocktail protected from P. gingivalis elicited oral bone loss. ... gingivalis have reported variable success in limiting facets of disease such as oral bone loss, it remains that a vaccine for ...
... alveolar bone loss. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or ... Alveolar bone loss. No results. We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the ...
The alveolar ridge of the jaw is the bone that surrounds the roots of teeth. When a tooth is removed an empty socket is left in ... This procedure helps recreate the natural contour of the gums and jaw that may have been lost due to bone loss from a tooth ... the alveolar ridge bone. Usually this empty socket will heal on its own, filling with bone and tissue. Sometimes when a tooth ... Dental implants require bone to support their structure and a ridge augmentation can help rebuild this bone to accommodate the ...
A decrease in the amount of alveolar bone around the root of a tooth. ... Automatic methods for alveolar bone loss degree measurement in periodontitis periapical radiographs. ... Cigarette smoking and the alveolar bone around teeth and dental implants.. Levin L, Kessler-Baruch O. N Y State Dent J 2013 Aug ... Cigarette smoking and the alveolar bone around teeth and dental implants.. Levin L, Kessler-Baruch O. N Y State Dent J 2013 Aug ...
... an empty socket is left in the alveolar ridge bone. Usually this empty socket will heal on its own, filling with bone and ... The alveolar ridge of the jaw is the bone that surrounds the roots of teeth. When a tooth is removed, ... Dental implants require bone to support their structure, and a ridge augmentation can help rebuild this bone to accommodate the ... Do You Need a Bone Grafting Procedure?. Dr. Goettisheim can utilize bone grafts to make your jawbone more suitable for the ...
Subantimicrobial dose doxycycline effects on alveolar bone loss in post-menopausal women. / Payne, Jeffrey B.; Stoner, Julie A ... Subantimicrobial dose doxycycline effects on alveolar bone loss in post-menopausal women. Journal of clinical periodontology. ... Subantimicrobial dose doxycycline effects on alveolar bone loss in post-menopausal women. In: Journal of clinical ... Dive into the research topics of Subantimicrobial dose doxycycline effects on alveolar bone loss in post-menopausal women. ...
This results in a net loss of alveolar bone. Alveolar bone loss is closely associated with periodontal disease. Periodontal ... The alveolar process is also called the alveolar bone or alveolar ridge. The curved portion is referred to as the alveolar arch ... The supporting alveolar bone consists of both cortical (compact) bone and trabecular bone. The cortical bone consists of plates ... The loss of alveolar bone, coupled with attrition of the teeth, causes a loss of height of the lower third of the vertical ...
alveolar bone loss. The results reveal that 80% of all examined sites had different. severity of bone loss. Mild bone loss was ... Alveolar Bone Loss in Adult Young Patient Seeking Periodontal Treatment (Radiographic Study) Authors. * Dr. Sanaa Jamal Al- ... Al-Qassab, D. S. J. (2018). Alveolar Bone Loss in Adult Young Patient Seeking Periodontal Treatment (Radiographic Study). ... horizontal more than vertical or angular bone loss. Interdental bone between central. and lateral incisors was the most ...
Basic Functions of Bone Bone is the basic unit of the human skeletal system and provides the framework for and bears the weight ... The osteoimmunology of alveolar bone loss. Connect Tissue Res. 2016. 57 (2):69-90. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Compact bone (dense bone, cortical bone) - This type of bone is ivorylike and dense in texture without cavities; it is the ... Sponge bone (trabecular bone, cancellous bone) - This type of bone is so named because it is spongelike with numerous cavities ...
Alveolar Bone Loss* / diagnostic imaging * Alveolar Bone Loss* / surgery * Dental Implantation, Endosseous ... and the crestal bone loss (median: 0.75 mm, IQR: 0 to 0.9 mm vs median: 0.22 mm, IQR: 0 to 0.4 mm) for the 10-mm and 4-mm ... Results: In 10 cases, the bone quality was type III, and in one case, type IV. Among 17 4-mm and 11 10-mm implants, the median ... 4-mm titanium-zirconium SLActive tissue-level dental implants were inserted into 11 patients with limited vertical bone ...
Cho, S. M., Choi, S. H., Sung, S. J., Yu, H. S., & Hwang, C. J. (2016). The effects of alveolar bone loss and miniscrew ... Cho, SM, Choi, SH, Sung, SJ, Yu, HS & Hwang, CJ 2016, The effects of alveolar bone loss and miniscrew position on initial ... The effects of alveolar bone loss and miniscrew position on initial tooth displacement during intrusion of the maxillary ... The effects of alveolar bone loss and miniscrew position on initial tooth displacement during intrusion of the maxillary ...
Alveolar bone loss during supportive periodontal therapy. In: IADR General Session. 2004, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. ...
Milk Kefir therapy reduces inflammation and alveolar bone loss on periodontitis in rats.Jun 30, 2021. ... Kefir has a protective effect against bone loss, deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture, and biomechanical dysfunction. ...
Blockade of RAGE suppresses periodontitis-associated alveolar bone loss in diabetic mice. J Clin Invest 2000. 105:1117-1124. ... Blockade of RAGE in a murine model of diabetic periodontal disease diminishes the loss of alveolar bone while blocking the ... as well as a loss of amyloid (28), suggesting that interactions with RAGE induce or maintain both the deposition of amyloid and ...
... xenograft bone alone (n = 8); Group 1 (G1)-xenogeneic bone block combined with BMAC (n = 8), and Group 2 (G2)-xenogeneic bone ... Conclusions: The use of bone block xenograft associated with BMAC resulted in a significant increase of bone neoformation when ... block combined with BMAC and hyperbaric oxygenation (n = 8). Bone biopsies were harvested 6 months after grafting. Vital ... The objective of this study was to evaluate bone reconstruction using xenograft alone and associated with bone marrow aspirate ...
... gums and supporting bone structure. ... Alveolar Bone Loss is accelerated by Nasal Obstruction. ...
Photostimulable-phosphor, posterior bitewing radiographs were taken to assess alveolar bone. Daily vitamin D and calcium ... All subjects had at least two interproximal sites with ,/=3 mm clinical attachment loss. For mandibular-posterior teeth, ... gingival index, plaque index, probing depth, attachment loss, bleeding on probing, calculus index, and furcation involvement ...
It was also found that the extent of alveolar bone loss was significantly greater among subjects with ACS. Seventy-seven ... The extent of bone loss was more severe in the ACS group than in the non-ACS group. ... 23, 2021 Blocking function of a blood-clotting protein, called fibrin, prevented bone loss from periodontal (gum) disease in ...
... periodontitis or peri-implantitis associated with bone loss, or to prevent, inhibit or treat osteoarthritis are provided. ... enhance bone regeneration, prevent, inhibit or treat peri-implantitis or periodontitis, e.g., ... Compositions and methods to prevent, inhibit or treat aveolar or periodontal bone loss, ... of periodontitis patients aged 30 years and older have been reported to have alveolar bone loss that may lead to tooth loss and ...
If the alveolar bone becomes involved, he said, the condition is termed periodontitis (an irreversible condition); if this ... condition sets in he recommended taking radiographs of the affected area to assess how much bone loss has occurred. ...
Gingival inflammation and alveolar bone damage. Studies from the United States report high rates of gingival recession in ... periodontal disease and bone loss. There appears to be an association between the quantity of smokeless tobacco used and the ... It can cause smokeless tobacco-induced keratosis, gingival inflammation, periodontal inflammation, alveolar bone damage, dental ... Intraoral leukoplakia, abrasion, periodontal breakdown, and tooth loss in a snuff dipper. J Am Dent Assoc. 1979 Apr. 98(4):584- ...
... and alveolar bone. The gingiva progressively loses its attachment to the teeth, bone loss begins, and periodontal pockets ... There is loss of alveolar bone, formation of deep gum pockets, and eventually loosening of teeth. ... With progressive bone loss, teeth may loosen, and gingiva recedes. Tooth migration is common in later stages, and tooth loss ... Dental x-rays reveal alveolar bone loss adjacent to the periodontal pockets. ...
... inflammatory condition that destroys periodontal ligament fibers and alveolar bone and can eventually cause tooth loss. ... Weight loss. * Blurred vision. * Thirst. * Excessive urination. * Enuresis. * Abdominal pain. * Nausea or vomiting. Results of ... Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to be a useful adjunct to weight loss and to have a beneficial effect on lipids, ... Deformed feet will not fit into ordinary shoes, although the patient, because of loss of sensation, may think they fit. The ...
... and tumors around wisdom teeth can also destroy alveolar bone. Extracting problematic wisdom teeth after significant bone loss ... Bone Loss. Impacted wisdom teeth may progressively damage the bone tissue around them. Attempted eruption can also cause ... Evidence that impacted wisdom teeth are damaging adjacent teeth or bone indicates extraction should be performed before losses ... Removing Obstructing Bone. More bone removal with a surgical drill may be necessary to fully visualize and access the wisdom ...
Periodontitis is a serious inflammatory disease that affects the tissues and the alveolar bone that support the teeth. While ... It can cause significant dental pain and can eventually lead to tooth loss. ...
... and absorption of the alveolar bone underneath the soft tissue (1). In recent decades, periodontal disease has been linked to ... Periodontitis is an inflammatory chronic gum disease characterized by the formation of periodontal pockets, loss of the ... People were classified as having periodontal disease if the measurements on their clinical attachment loss and periodontal ...
This process is very common and causes destruction of periodontal tissues, loss of alveolar bone and, finally, tooth loss. ... diabetes has been shown to significantly increase the risk of attachment loss and alveolar bone loss approximately threefold ... The net effect of these host defense alterations is an increase in periodontal inflammation, attachment loss, and bone loss. ... As the disease worsens, the pocket will get deeper carrying the dental plaque until it reaches the alveolar bone that will ...
Periodontitis is a serious and progressive disease that effects the tissues and the alveolar bone that support the teeth. It is ... It can cause significant dental pain, and can eventually lead to tooth loss. ...
Professor, Kinesiology (primary) Office: CRN422 905 688 5550 x5157 [email protected] the Nutrition, Bone and Oral Health ... The ovariectomized rat as a model for studying alveolar bone loss in postmenopausal women. BioMed Research International. 2015: ... EARLY DIET FOR PROGRAMMING BONE HEALTH *Wakefield CB, *Yumol JL, *Sacco SM, Sullivan PJ, Comelli EM, Ward WE. Bone structure is ... Bone Reports, 10:100191, 2019. *Yumol JL, *Wakefield CB, *Sacco SM, Sullivan PJ, Comelli EM, Ward WE. Bone development in ...
Flap design, bone harvest, growth factors, closure and follow up will be addressed. ... The patient with significant bone deficiencies can now be overcome with unique surgical approaches. This presentation will ... The loss of teeth causes inevitable resorption of the alveolar bone. In the anterior arches, the cur... ... Management of Curved Bone Defects in the Anterior Maxilla Using Bone Bending via a Kerfed Khoury Split Bone Block Technique ...
  • Three-dimensional Analysis of Alveolar Bone With and Without Periodontitis. (
  • Gum disease occurs when plaque builds up and causes gingivitis inflammation or periodontitis infection and erosion of bone and gum tissue supporting the teeth. (
  • Periodontitis is a serious inflammatory disease that affects the tissues and the alveolar bone that support the teeth. (
  • Periodontitis is an inflammatory chronic gum disease characterized by the formation of periodontal pockets, loss of the gingival attachment, and absorption of the alveolar bone underneath the soft tissue (1). (
  • Diabetes increases not only the prevalence and severity of periodontitis but also the progression of bone loss and attachment loss over time. (
  • The inflammatory reactions in periodontitis result in destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. (
  • Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with the gradual destruction of supporting tissues around the teeth, including gingiva, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and cementum. (
  • Recently, evidence has shown that the loss of masticatory function is another important factor of periodontitis to the incidence of ASCVD. (
  • Periodontitis, (inflammation around the teeth), is a serious gum infection that progressively damages the soft tissue and alveolar bone that supports the tooth. (
  • Untreated periodontitis eventually results in tooth loss, increasing the risk of stroke, heart attack, and other health problems. (
  • Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease initiated by specific bacteria that activate host mechanisms destroying the bone and connective tissues that support the teeth. (
  • Periodontitis is a more severe form of gum disease, where the inflammation affects not only the gums, but also involves the periodontal ligament and may cause destruction of the adjacent alveolar bone. (
  • Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis. (
  • The alveolar ridge of the jaw is the bone that surrounds the roots of teeth. (
  • Periodontal tissue breakdown beginning in the teens results in premature loss of teeth. (
  • Cigarette smoking and the alveolar bone around teeth and dental implants. (
  • The synonymous terms alveolar ridge and alveolar margin are also sometimes used more specifically to refer to the ridges on the inside of the mouth which can be felt with the tongue, either on roof of the mouth between the upper teeth and the hard palate or on the bottom of the mouth behind the lower teeth. (
  • The alveolar bone proper, also called bundle bone, directly surrounds the teeth. (
  • The term alveolar crest describes the extreme rim of the bone nearest to the crowns of the teeth. (
  • The portion of alveolar bone between two adjacent teeth is known as the interdental septum (or interdental bone). (
  • The connected, supporting area of the jaw (delineated by the apexes of the roots of the teeth) is known as the basal bone. (
  • The alveolar crest terminates uniformly at about the neck of the teeth (within about 1 to 2 mm in a healthy specimen). (
  • The alveolar process proper encases the tooth sockets, and contains a lining of compact bone around the roots of the teeth, called the lamina dura. (
  • The alveolar structure is a dynamic tissue which provides the jawbone with some degree of flexibility and resilience for the embedded teeth as they encounter numerous multi-directional forces. (
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the optimal loading conditions for pure intrusion of the six maxillary anterior teeth with miniscrews according to alveolar bone loss. (
  • Methods: A three-dimensional finite element model was created for a segment of the six anterior teeth, and the positions of the miniscrews and hooks were varied after setting the alveolar bone loss to 0, 2, or 4 mm. (
  • When the miniscrews were inserted distally to the canines and an intrusion force was applied distal to the lateral incisors, the degree of labial tilting and the amounts of displacement of the six anterior teeth were the lowest, and the maximum von Mises stress was distributed evenly across all the teeth, regardless of the bone loss. (
  • In this condition, the maximum von Mises stresses were relatively evenly distributed across all the teeth, regardless of the bone loss. (
  • It usually manifests as a worsening of gingivitis and then, if untreated, with loosening and loss of teeth. (
  • The gingiva progressively loses its attachment to the teeth, bone loss begins, and periodontal pockets deepen. (
  • With progressive bone loss, teeth may loosen, and gingiva recedes. (
  • These cysts develop in the jawbone tissue surrounding the impacted tooth and can damage neighboring teeth and bone. (
  • The loss of teeth causes inevitable resorption of the alveolar bone. (
  • In dentistry, surgical access to the alveolar bone is routinely conducted as part of different treatment approaches, including restoration, periodontal treatment, rehabilitation, endodontic treatment, and in the surgical removal of teeth and/or pathological processes. (
  • Some theorized that it is important to replace missing teeth with implants to ensure function by duplicating loading and ensuring bone density. (
  • The objective of this research was to establish whether individuals with clinical low bone mineral density (osteoporosis or osteopenia) would successfully retain dental implants, and whether dental implants, like natural teeth, are protective against alveolar bone resorption through stress-bearing and occlusal load factors, which stimulate continuous bony remodeling. (
  • Finding treatment before this impacts the teeth is vital because gum disease can result in tooth loss. (
  • A space may develop between the tooth and the gum, making the tooth feel loose and may lead to a loss of teeth. (
  • Application of force to the teeth will initiate tissue damage that subsequently leads to production of inflammatory processes in the periodontal tissue and caused deformation of the alveolar bone. (
  • Closure of the cleft in the upper alveolar bone (tooth bearing region of jaw) is required to provide a solid surface for the permanent teeth to erupt into. (
  • This keratoderma associates, as early as infancy, intense gingivitis with alveolar bone lysis and early loss of baby teeth. (
  • During childhood, this phenomenon of periodontal disease recurs with rapid loss of adult teeth. (
  • Unless treated, periodontosis results in severe gingivitis and loss of teeth by age 5 years. (
  • Elective extraction of involved teeth may prevent excess bone resorption. (
  • Periodontal diseases are inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium, causing progressive loss of the bone around the teeth. (
  • If left untreated, it can result in loose teeth and eventually teeth loss. (
  • Pharmacological Therapies for the Management of Inflammatory Bone Resorption in Periodontal Disease: A Review of Preclinical Studies. (
  • Bone is lost through the process of resorption which involves osteoclasts breaking down the hard tissue of bone. (
  • In patients with periodontal disease, inflammation lasts longer and during the repair phase, resorption may override any bone formation. (
  • One model states that inflammation is triggered by a periodontal pathogen which activates the acquired immune system to inhibit bone coupling by limiting new bone formation after resorption. (
  • Nevertheless, they lead to a variable degree of alveolar bone resorption. (
  • Objective: To evaluate the effect of raloxifene in preventing alveolar bone resorption after MFS using an experimental model of mouse mandibles. (
  • Conclusion: In this study, raloxifene did not inhibit alveolar bone resorption following MFS in male mice. (
  • Under normal circumstances, bone volume and mass are held constant by bone resorption and apposition processes 1 . (
  • Some implantologists 6 - 8 see evidence that implant placement may be protective against alveolar bone resorption by stimulating continuous bone remodeling, and thus may actually be protective against typical oral bone loss due to the aging process. (
  • Applying the correct amount of force is vital in orthodontics especially during bodily tooth movement as to prevent iatrogenic damage to the supporting tissue, root resorption (Chan and Darendeliler, 2005), anchorage loss or delayed tooth movement from occurring since these would hamper treatment progress if inappropriate force is given. (
  • During bodily tooth movement, bone modeling process must occur that involved bone resorption and deposition. (
  • Bone resorption occurs in the site where the tooth moves toward (in this instance the distal site) and bone deposition occurs in the site where the tooth moves away from (the mesial site) (Sandy et al . (
  • Thus, gingivitis is inflammation that is not associated with destruction (loss) of supporting tissue. (
  • They hypothesized that tooth loss would also be associated with higher levels of inflammation and stroke. (
  • The study reinforced the association between periodontal disease, as measured by tooth loss and inflammation, and supports an association between periodontal disease and stroke. (
  • In another study, the implant-abutment interface at the alveolar bone crest was associated with persistent peri-implant inflammation. (
  • 6]. The extent of plaque, scales, inflammation and bleeding of gingival, depth of periodontal pockets, and the extent of alveolar bone loss have also been examined in such studies [7]. (
  • Tooth migration is common in later stages, and tooth loss can occur. (
  • Tissue may be rapidly destroyed, risking tooth loss. (
  • This can ultimately lead to tooth loss. (
  • It can cause significant dental pain and can eventually lead to tooth loss. (
  • Dr. Doug Benting highlights the consequences of tooth loss and how dental patients should consider more viable treatment options to keep their natural. (
  • Wactawski-Wende 12 found osteoporosis related to alveolar crest height and tooth loss, but not clinical attachment level. (
  • Other studies report association between low bone mineral density and tooth loss in men 14 , 15 and postmenopausal women. (
  • Smoking has strong relationships to both tooth loss and heart disease," said Dr. Catherine Okoro, an epidemiologist at the CDC. (
  • Nonetheless, when we stratified by age group and smoking status, a significant association remained between tooth loss and heart disease among respondents aged 40 to 59 years who had never smoked. (
  • The researchers reported the results are consistent with previous studies that link periodontal disease and tooth loss to an increased risk of atherosclerosis and heart attack. (
  • Tooth loss is a marker for periodontal disease. (
  • A different study showed that tooth loss is correlated to swollen joints. (
  • Disease progression was defined using a combination of change in classification of disease severity based on alveolar bone loss and tooth loss during follow-up. (
  • In primary intention healing there is no loss of tissue and all tissues are replaced in the same anatomic position and with the same structure they had before injury, although this definition is usually referred to as healing which occurs when the lining tissues are closely approximated surgically to perfectly cover all underlying injured tissues. (
  • Mucositis is described as an inflammatory reaction of the soft tissues surrounding an implant, while peri-implantitis is characterized by inflammatory response associated with progressive loss of supporting bone around the implant in function. (
  • The main mechanism proposed for microgap-related crestal bone loss is the role of this space as a trap for bacteria and thus, as a putative etiological factor for inflammatory reaction in the peri- implant soft tissues. (
  • The dermis offers low resistance, as do almost all internal tissues except bone, which is a poor conductor of electricity. (
  • fi ndings in both patients were diffuse alveolar damage and Lung, trachea, liver, spleen, colon, and bone marrow positive staining for infl uenza A virus antigen in alveolar tissues were tested for viral RNA. (
  • Posterior vertical bite wings taken at baseline, 1 and 2 years for alveolar bone density (ABD), using radiographic absorptiometry (RA) and computer-assisted densitometric image analysis (CADIA), and alveolar bone height (ABH). (
  • Clinical parameters such as periodontal pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and radiographic evaluation was done before and after the surgical procedure. (
  • Usually this empty socket will heal on its own, filling with bone and tissue. (
  • One 10-mm and one/two extrashort 4-mm titanium-zirconium SLActive tissue-level dental implants were inserted into 11 patients with limited vertical bone availability due to an expanded maxillary sinus antrum. (
  • Secondary healing, on the other hand, occurs in areas which are not covered by normally epithelialized tissue due to intentional (extraction sockets, apically repositioned flaps) or accidental (wounds with full thickness loss of substance) exposure, or due to an insufficient amount of lining tissue to be used for coverage. (
  • Although oral surgical wounds heal in a very similar way, soft tissue healing is somewhat conditioned by that of the underlying bone tissue. (
  • Bone is a dynamic tissue with high remodeling capacity in response to the body's metabolic requirements. (
  • Osteoporosis is a common bone-resorptive, host-dependent, multifactorial, and systemic skeletal disease generally affecting older females, marked by reduced bone strength, decreased bone mineral density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in increased bone fragility and risk of bone fracture. (
  • 3 mm clinical attachment loss. (
  • In large epidemiologic studies, diabetes has been shown to significantly increase the risk of attachment loss and alveolar bone loss approximately threefold when compared to nondiabetic control subjects. (
  • Tezal 13 suggests systemic bone loss is related to alveolar bone loss, and to a lesser extent, clinical attachment loss in postmenopausal Caucasian women. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the periodontal pocket depth and clinical attachment loss after various trans alveolar extractions in different type of impactions and also to evaluate pre and post-surgical alveolar bone height using radio-graphs.12 eligible sujects between the age group of 20-50 years with mesial impaction, distal impaction, horizontal impac-tion and vertical impactions of the third molar were enrolled in the study. (
  • ABSTRACT To assess overall and abdominal obesity and their relation to periodontal disease among young adults, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured and clinical attachment loss (CAL), gingival index (GI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were estimated. (
  • Retinoids slow the alveolar bone lysis and attenuate the palmoplantar keratoderma. (
  • The supporting alveolar bone consists of both cortical (compact) bone and trabecular bone. (
  • The trabecular bone consists of cancellous bone that is located between the alveolar bone proper and the cortical plates. (
  • An epiphysis in a skeletally mature person consists of abundant trabecular bone and a thin shell of cortical bone (see the image below). (
  • The metaphysis contains abundant trabecular bone, but the cortical bone thins here relative to the diaphysis. (
  • Pregnancy and lactation in Sprague-Dawley rats result in permanent reductions of tibia trabecular bone mineral density and structure but consumption of red rooibos herbal tea supports the partial recovery. (
  • The effect of inter-implant distance on the height of inter-implant bone crest. (
  • During the dissection process, the periosteum is detached from the alveolar bone, leading to a resorptive phase due to the stimulation offered by osteoclastic activity and loss of bone crest 2-4 . (
  • Thus, the inflammatory cell accumulation below the original bone crest was significantly correlated with bone loss. (
  • The medians and IQRs of the probing depths (median: 2.8 mm, IQR: 2.3 to 3.1 mm vs median: 2.9 mm, IQR: 2.4 to 3.1 mm) and the crestal bone loss (median: 0.75 mm, IQR: 0 to 0.9 mm vs median: 0.22 mm, IQR: 0 to 0.4 mm) for the 10-mm and 4-mm implants, respectively, were similar. (
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the stages of the alveolar bone repair in type 2 diabetic rats evaluating the mechanism of mineralization and bone remodeling processes after dental extraction. (
  • The objective of this study was to assess the effects of oral ingestion of beta-glucans isolated from Saccharomyces cereviseae on the metabolic profile, expression of gingival inflammatory markers and amount of alveolar bone loss in diabetic rats with periodontal disease. (
  • It was also found that the extent of alveolar bone loss was significantly greater among subjects with ACS. (
  • The extent of bone loss was more severe in the ACS group than in the non-ACS group. (
  • However, whether play a major role in the pathogenesis of infl uenza (H5N1) and to what extent apoptosis contributes to the highly viru- virus in humans by destroying alveolar epithelial cells. (
  • Photostimulable-phosphor, posterior bitewing radiographs were taken to assess alveolar bone. (
  • One can judge alveolar bone level from bitewing radiographs and documenting mobility. (
  • The cortical bone consists of plates on the facial and lingual surfaces of the alveolar bone. (
  • Cortical bone is composed of haversian systems (osteons). (
  • Another model states that cytokinesis may inhibit the differentiation of osteoblasts from their precursors, therefore limiting bone formation. (
  • A ridge augmentation is accomplished by placing bone graft material in the tooth socket. (
  • Dr. Simoncic and Dr. Cross may choose to use a space-maintaining product over the top of the graft to facilitate new bone growth. (
  • Dr. Lawrence Goettisheim may choose to use a space-maintaining product over the top of the graft to help restore the height and width of the space created by the tooth and bone loss, and into which new bone should grow. (
  • Below, you can find the picture of a conventional titanium dental implant that had failed from the patient's mouth due to unknown reasons with bone graft particles still adhered to it. (
  • Rebuilding the original height and width of the alveolar ridge is not always medically necessary, but may be required for dental implant placement or for aesthetic purposes. (
  • Once the socket has healed, the alveolar ridge can be prepared for dental implant placement. (
  • He has together with his co-workers published groundbreaking research in the fields of ridge alterations following tooth extraction, ridge preservation, bone formation in extraction sockets and immediate implant placement. (
  • Dental implant supported prostheses were traditionally designed for mal-adaptive denture patients with significant alveolar bone loss in the mandibular. (
  • 16 , 17 Postmenopausal women 18 are at greater risk for mandibular bone mineral content loss than older men. (
  • For edentulous individuals, residual ridge height correlates with both total body calcium and mandibular bone mineral density. (
  • The scientific evidence presented in this study shows that T2D prolongs the local inflammatory process, which impairs the organization and maturation of collagen fibers, delaying bone formation and bone turnover. (
  • Repetitive ODE treatment, however, increased lymphocyte recruitment and alveolar compartment histopathologic inflammatory changes in older mice. (
  • Collectively, age impacts the airway injury and systemic inflammatory and bone loss response to inhalant ODE, suggesting an altered and enhanced immunologic response in younger as compared to older counterparts. (
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids, bone mineral density and fragility fracture: Findings from human studies. (
  • Twenty healthy females ages 50-80 with confirmed osteoporosis or osteopenia, and 10 age- and gender-matched subjects with normal bone density (controls) received dental implants. (
  • It is clinically necessary to understand the effects of skeletal low bone mineral density and treatment for osteoporosis with oral bisphosphonates on dental implant success. (
  • Although older mice displayed reduced bone measurements compared to younger mice, younger rodents demonstrated ODE-induced decrease in bone mineral density, bone volume, and bone microarchitecture quality as determined by computed tomography (CT) analysis. (
  • Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate bone reconstruction using xenograft alone and associated with bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. (
  • Yes, but predominantly when the patient is in full permanent dentition to monitor bone levels. (
  • Also probe cases where the child has isolated bone loss in localized areas in the permanent dentition. (
  • First intention bone healing occurs in correctly repositioned and perfectly stabilized fractures, while secondary intention healing occurs when a bone defect has to be spontaneously filled, as in extraction sockets or in other post-surgical residual bone cavities or gaps 3 . (
  • This incurs an additional surgery at the hip bone, increases blood loss and pain. (
  • With this, an additional surgery to harvest bone and subsequent scarring is prevented. (
  • When a tooth is removed an empty socket is left in the alveolar ridge bone. (
  • Dental implants require bone to support their structure and a ridge augmentation can help rebuild this bone to accommodate the implant. (
  • A ridge augmentation is a common dental procedure often performed following a tooth extraction to help recreate the natural contour of the gums and jaw that may have been lost due to bone loss as a result of a tooth extraction, or for another reason. (
  • The alveolar process (/ælˈviːələr, ˌælviˈoʊlər, ˈælviələr/) or alveolar bone is the thickened ridge of bone that contains the tooth sockets on the jaw bones (in humans, the maxilla and the mandible). (
  • The alveolar process is also called the alveolar bone or alveolar ridge. (
  • On the maxilla, the alveolar process is a ridge on the inferior surface, making up the thickest part of the bone. (
  • Since implants are standard sizes, periapical bone loss was measured from the first implant thread to the level of alveolar bone at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months via 1 periapical radiograph. (
  • The patient with significant bone deficiencies can now be overcome with unique surgical approaches. (
  • Nevertheless, some factors, including surgical bone exposure, may lead to some imbalance in these mechanisms. (
  • The developmental disturbance of anodontia (or hypodontia, if only one tooth), in which tooth germs are congenitally absent, may affect the development of the alveolar processes. (
  • This occurrence can prevent the alveolar processes of either the maxillae or the mandible from developing. (
  • Using advanced imaging, biomechanical strength testing and biochemical analyses the team investigates how calcium and vitamin D, as well as novel foods and food components including flaxseed and its omega-3 fatty acid, fish oil, flavonoids in tea and citrus, and soy and its isoflavones impact bone health using preclinical models. (
  • Background: Mucoperiosteal flap surgeries (MFS) are carried out to provide access to the alveolar bone and root surfaces in several clinical situations. (
  • A particular form of bone healing is that which occurs at the peri-implant surface level and can be defined as early or late stage healing. (
  • Although prior immunization approaches targeting P. gingivalis have reported variable success in limiting facets of disease such as oral bone loss, it remains that a vaccine for this disease may be attainable. (
  • To investigate cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) as a platform to produce vaccinable targets suitable for efficacy testing in a P. gingivalis-induced murine oral bone loss model. (
  • Importantly, immunization with the vaccine cocktail protected from P. gingivalis elicited oral bone loss. (
  • oral bone loss. (
  • Dr. Goettisheim can utilize bone grafts to make your jawbone more suitable for the placement of dental implants, as well as repair defects of the jaws. (
  • This procedure helps recreate the natural contour of the gums and jaw that may have been lost due to bone loss from a tooth extraction, or for another reason. (
  • The current presentation will describe a series of studies regarding the various ways to approach the post-extraction bone diminution. (
  • It will be demonstrated that several anatomic features of the alveolar process influence the amount of post-extraction bone loss. (
  • The animals were submitted to dental extraction to perform analyzes at different stages of the alveolar bone. (
  • The term alveolar (/ælˈviːələr/) ('hollow') refers to the cavities of the tooth sockets, known as dental alveoli. (
  • This results in a net loss of alveolar bone. (
  • Results: The degree of labial tilting increased with reduced alveolar bone height under the same load. (
  • rhBMP-2 now ensures superior results to the conventional alveolar bone grafting technique by allowing cleft closure at a more younger age of 3-4 years than waiting till 7-8 years. (
  • Use of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate (BMAC) Associated with Hyperbaric Oxygenation Therapy in Maxillary Appositional Bone Reconstruction. (
  • Do You Need a Bone Grafting Procedure? (
  • For the first time in India, since 2008, to avoid bone grafting from the hip, a recent and revolutionary invent, the miracle protein recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is used successfully at Balaji Dental and Craniofacial Hospital. (
  • The remaining alveolar bone (33%) is organic material, consisting of 28% collagen (mostly type I) and 5% non-collagenous protein. (
  • Dec. 23, 2021 Blocking function of a blood-clotting protein, called fibrin, prevented bone loss from periodontal (gum) disease in mice, according to new research. (
  • Serum levels of protein-specific antibody were measured by ELISA, and oral bone levels were defined by morphometrics. (
  • A decrease in the amount of alveolar bone around the root of a tooth. (
  • Studies recently demonstrated that inhaled agricultur al organic dust extract (ODE)-induced airway injury is associated with bone deterioration in an animal model. (
  • Different Stages of Alveolar Bone Repair Process A. (

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