Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar: A form of RHABDOMYOSARCOMA occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults, affecting muscles of the extremities, trunk, orbital region, etc. It is extremely malignant, metastasizing widely at an early stage. Few cures have been achieved and the prognosis is poor. "Alveolar" refers to its microscopic appearance simulating the cells of the respiratory alveolus. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2188)Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Pneumocytes: Epithelial cells that line the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft Part: A variety of rare sarcoma having a reticulated fibrous stroma enclosing groups of sarcoma cells, which resemble epithelial cells and are enclosed in alveoli walled with connective tissue. It is a rare tumor, usually occurring between 15 and 35 years of age. It appears in the muscles of the extremities in adults and most commonly in the head and neck regions of children. Though slow-growing, it commonly metastasizes to the lungs, brain, bones, and lymph nodes. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1365)Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred C57BLCapillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins: Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Echinococcosis, Hepatic: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Tooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Echinococcus multilocularis: A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein C: A pulmonary surfactant associated protein that plays a role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. It is a membrane-bound protein that constitutes 1-2% of the pulmonary surfactant mass. Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein C is one of the most hydrophobic peptides yet isolated and contains an alpha-helical domain with a central poly-valine segment that binds to phospholipid bilayers.Alveolar Ridge Augmentation: Preprosthetic surgery involving rib, cartilage, or iliac crest bone grafts, usually autologous, or synthetic implants for rebuilding the alveolar ridge.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Lymphangiogenesis: The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Instillation, Drug: The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Echinococcosis, Pulmonary: Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Alveoloplasty: Conservative contouring of the alveolar process, in preparation for immediate or future denture construction. (Dorland, 28th ed)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Trigeminal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal: A form of RHABDOMYOSARCOMA arising primarily in the head and neck, especially the orbit, of children below the age of 10. The cells are smaller than those of other rhabdomyosarcomas and are of two basic cell types: spindle cells and round cells. This cancer is highly sensitive to chemotherapy and has a high cure rate with multi-modality therapy. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2188)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Pericytes: Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.ElastinCell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Bronchioles: The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein B: A pulmonary surfactant associated-protein that plays an essential role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Inherited deficiency of pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B is one cause of RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, Inbred BALB CFemoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Rats, Inbred F344Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Rhabdomyosarcoma: A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Clodronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Pneumocystis carinii: The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Lithiasis: A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3: A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.ZymosanCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Angiopoietin-1: The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
alveolar :22. Periodontal ligament :23. Alveolar bone 24. Vessels and nerves: :25. dental :26. periodontal :27. alveolar ... In anatomy the apical foramen is the opening at the apex of the root of a tooth, through which the nerve and blood vessels that ...
posterior superior alveolar. *infraorbital (anterior superior alveolar). *descending palatine (greater palatine, lesser ... vessels to semilunar ganglion. *superficial petrosal branch. *superior tympanic artery. *Orbital branches ...
Furthermore, alveolar capillaries become dilated (due to back-pressure). Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease can only be well ... The pathophysiology of veno-occlusive disease culminates in occlusion of the pulmonary blood vessels. This could be due to ...
Lingual and inferior alveolar nerve. Deep dissection. Anterolateral view This article incorporates text in the public domain ... Muscles of the pharynx, viewed from behind, together with the associated vessels and nerves. PTERYGOID MEDIAL MUSCLEDeep ...
The alveolar process may be tender to palpation over the roots. The tooth may be raised in the socket and feel more prominent ... Enamel is not a vital tissue, as it lacks blood vessels, nerves, and living cells. Consequently, pathologic processes involving ... Alveolar osteitis is a complication of tooth extraction (especially lower wisdom teeth) in which the blood clot is not formed ... The posterior, middle and anterior superior alveolar nerves are all closely associated with the lining of the sinus. The bone ...
It transmits the terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve and vessels (the mental artery). The mental foramen descends ... Soikkonen K, Wolf J, Ainamo A, Xie Q (November 1995). "Changes in the position of the mental foramen as a result of alveolar ...
The mental foramen allows the entrance of the mental nerve and blood vessels into the mandibular canal. The Inferior alveolar ... It contains the inferior alveolar vessels and nerve, from which branches are distributed to the teeth. Borders The lower border ... Sometimes with excessive alveolar process absorption, the mandibular canal disappears entirely and leaves the inferior alveolar ... for the entrance of the inferior alveolar vessels and nerve. The margin of this opening is irregular; it presents in front a ...
This leads to an increase in extra-alveolar vessel resistance. PVR is calculated as a sum of the alveolar and extra-alveolar ... This results primarily due to effects on the alveolar and extra-alveolar vessels. During inspiration, increased lung volumes ... thus increase alveolar vessel resistance. On the other hand, decreased lung volumes during expiration cause the extra-alveolar ... length of the vessel η = viscosity of blood r = radius of the blood vessel Vessel length is generally not subject to change in ...
This leads to an increase in extra-alveolar vessel resistance. PVR is calculated as a sum of the alveolar and extra-alveolar ... This results primarily due to effects on the alveolar and extra-alveolar vessels. During inspiration, increased lung volumes ... thus increase alveolar vessel resistance. On the other hand, decreased lung volumes during expiration cause the extra-alveolar ... resistances as these vessels lie in series with each other. Because the alveolar and extra-alveolar resistances are increased ...
posterior superior alveolar • infraorbital (anterior superior alveolar) • descending palatine (greater palatine, lesser ... vessels to semilunar ganglion. *superficial petrosal branch. *superior tympanic artery. *orbital branches ... anterior tympanic • deep auricular • middle meningeal (superior tympanic, petrosal) • accessory meningeal • inferior alveolar ( ...
... alveolar gas must return along the same path, and so the exhaled sample will be purely alveolar only after a 500 to 1,000 ml of ... to the red blood cells in lung blood vessels. It is part of a comprehensive series of pulmonary function tests to determine the ... and a tracer gas that is freely distributed throughout the alveolar space but which doesn't cross the alveolar-capillary ... Similarly, where F A C O O {\displaystyle F_{A_{CO_{O}}}} is the initial alveolar fractional CO concentration, as calculated by ...
In these circumstances, blood vessels can become completely collapsed by alveolar pressure (PA) and blood does not flow through ... extraalveolar blood vessels are those blood vessels outside alveoli). Intraalveolar blood vessels (pulmonary capillaries) are ... Consequently the vessels wall are more stretched so the caliber of the vessels increases causing an increase in flow due to ... They become alveolar dead space. Zone 2 is the part of the lungs about 3 cm above the heart. In this region blood flows in ...
Alveolar Bone[edit]. In periodontal health, the alveolar bone surrounds the teeth and forms the bony socket that supports each ... however it also houses blood vessels and nerves within loose connective tissue.[6] Mechanical loads that are placed on the ... Alveolar Mucosa[edit]. This area of tissue is non keratinized and is located beyond the mucogingival junction. It is less ... Untreated, these diseases can lead to alveolar bone loss and tooth loss. As of 2013[update], Periodontal disease accounted for ...
In the body alkalosis generally induces vasodilation (widening of the blood vessels) but in the brain alone it causes ... Decrease in partial pressure of alveolar CO2. Decrease in partial pressure of arterial CO2. Increase in blood pH, (respiratory ... These bodies then cause vasodilatation (dilation (widening) of the blood vessels) in the brain leading to insufficient blood to ... alkalosis). Vasoconstriction of blood vessels supplying brain. Pooling of the blood present in the brain at the time. Brain ...
The submental vessels also supply a territory of skin in the submental area. Surgeons can use the skin and vessels in ... and anastomoses with the sublingual artery and with the mylohyoid branch of the inferior alveolar artery; at the symphysis ... The submental artery is the largest of the cervical branches of the facial artery, given off just as that vessel leaves the ... and anastomoses with the inferior labial artery and the mental branch of the inferior alveolar artery. Superficial dissection ...
On the posterior wall are the alveolar canals, transmitting the posterior superior alveolar vessels and nerves to the molar ... Found in the body of the maxilla, this sinus has three recesses: an alveolar recess pointed inferiorly, bounded by the alveolar ... If the maxillary posterior teeth are lost, the maxillary sinus may expand even more, thinning the bony floor of the alveolar ... It is traversed by infraorbital nerves and vessels.[citation needed] Development :- It is present at birth as rudimentary air ...
Alveolar mucosa refers to the lining between the buccal and labial mucosae. It is a brighter red, smooth and shiny with many ... It consists of loose connective tissue within the connective tissue papillae, along with blood vessels and nerve tissue. The ... blood vessels, and is not connected to underlying tissue by rete pegs. Specialized mucosa, specifically in the regions of the ...
The side effects of inferior alveolar nerve block include feeling tense, clenching of the fists and moaning.[7] ... There is risk of accidental damage to local blood vessels during injection of the local anaesthetic solution. This is referred ... The density of tissues surrounding the injured vessels is an important factor for Haematoma. There is greatest chance of this ... Cardiac toxicity can result from improper injection of agent into a vessel. Even with proper administration, it is inevitable ...
The alveolar sacs contain the primitive alveoli that form at the end of the alveolar ducts,[38] and their appearance around the ... Both lungs have a central recession called the hilum at the root of the lung, where the blood vessels and airways pass into the ... Alveoli consist of two types of alveolar cell and an alveolar macrophage. The two types of cell are known as type I and type II ... Specialised type I alveolar cells where gas exchange will take place, together with the type II alveolar cells that secrete ...
The membrane between alveoli and capillaries is torn; damage to this capillary-alveolar membrane and small blood vessels causes ... The alveolar walls form such a gas-liquid interface with the air in the alveoli. The spalling effect occurs in areas with large ... Blast lung is severe pulmonary contusion, bleeding, or edema with damage to alveoli and blood vessels, or a combination of ... In the inertial effect, the lighter alveolar tissue is sheared from the heavier hilar structures, an effect similar to diffuse ...
... and alveolar, where a segment of alveolar bone down to the level of the inferior alveolar canal would sequestrate, including ... Pus accumulates in the medullary spaces of the bone, which increases the pressure and leads to collapse of the blood vessels, ... The inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle is compressed within the mandible, causing anesthesia or paresthesia in the ... Granulation tissue and new blood vessels form, and fragments of necrotic bone (sequestra) are separated from vital bone. Small ...
... injecting into a blood vessel). Another possible complication of an inferior alveolar nerve block occurs when the needle is ... The pterygomandibular space is the area where local anesthetic solution is deposited during an inferior alveolar nerve block, a ... improving the success of inferior alveolar nerve blocks". Australian dental journal. 56 (2): 112-21. doi:10.1111/j.1834- ... "The Incidence of Intravascular Needle Entrance during Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Injection". Journal of dental research, ...
Breast: Koebnerisin (S100A15) is expressed by alveolar and small duct luminal cells and by epithelial-derived myoepithelial ... cells around acini and by surrounding blood vessels. Koebnerisin (S100A15) functions as an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) reducing ...
The dilation of these blood vessels causes overperfusion relative to ventilation, leading to ventilation-perfusion mismatch and ... alveolar-arterial [A-a] gradient) while breathing room air. Additionally, late in cirrhosis, it is common to develop high ... broadening of the blood vessels) in the lungs of patients with liver disease. Dyspnea and hypoxemia are worse in the upright ...
Those canals were the spaces that were filled by blood vessels and nerves, which supplemented the growth of the tooth and gave ... Going more distally, the teeth seem to have periodontal ligaments connecting the teeth to the alveolar bone and then even more ... and the only connection that would have been facilitated would have been the cementum between the tooth and the alveolar bone, ... with the teeth more apically being inserted within the alveolar bone and the fully developed teeth show dental ankylosis. From ...
... alveolar - amebiasis - amino acids - anaphylactic shock - anemia - anergy - angiogenesis - angiomatosis - anorexia - antenatal ... lymphatic vessels - lymphocyte - lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) - lymphoid organs - lymphoid tissue - lymphokine- ...
Cavitary tumors or tumors invading or abutting large blood vessels.. *History of gastrointestinal perforation, abdominal ... Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Leiomyosarcoma Synovial Sarcoma Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Drug: AL 3818 Drug: Dacarbazine Phase 3 ... Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft Part. Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Muscle ... A Phase III Trial of Anlotinib in Metastatic or Advanced Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma, Leiomyosarcoma and Synovial Sarcoma ( ...
A blood vessel may be punctured accidentally and a hematoma or "blood blister" may occur that will heal over time.[6] ... Inferior alveolar nerve block (abbreviated to IANB, and also termed inferior alveolar nerve anesthesia or inferior dental block ... The inferior alveolar nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve, the third division of the trigeminal nerve. This procedure ... their mandibular teeth on one side (via inferior alveolar nerve block). *their lower lip and chin on one side (via mental nerve ...
N2 - Objective: To determine whether the alveolar dead space volume (V(D)alv), expressed as a percentage of the alveolar tidal ... AB - Objective: To determine whether the alveolar dead space volume (V(D)alv), expressed as a percentage of the alveolar tidal ... Objective: To determine whether the alveolar dead space volume (V(D)alv), expressed as a percentage of the alveolar tidal ... abstract = "Objective: To determine whether the alveolar dead space volume (V(D)alv), expressed as a percentage of the alveolar ...
Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis predominant in the transplanted lung in patients with idiopathic interstitial ... Autopsy revealed PAP findings predominant in the transplanted left lung, which also had dilated lymphatic vessels. In addition ... Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis predominant in the transplanted lung in patients with idiopathic interstitial ... Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis predominant in the transplanted lung in patients with idiopathic... ...
Alveolar soft-part sarcoma responding to interferon alpha-2b. Br J Cancer. 2003;89(2):243-5.View ArticlePubMedPubMed Central ... ASPS lines these new blood vessels with hemangiopericytes that prevent leakage of nutrients and oxygen out of the blood vessels ... Alveolar soft-part sarcoma: a review and update. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59(11):1127-32.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle ... Immunoprofiling in alveolar soft part sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 35, 2017 (suppl; abstr 11059). 2017.Google Scholar. ...
alveolar :22. Periodontal ligament :23. Alveolar bone 24. Vessels and nerves: :25. dental :26. periodontal :27. alveolar ... In anatomy the apical foramen is the opening at the apex of the root of a tooth, through which the nerve and blood vessels that ...
10.74 A researcher heats a sample of water in a closed vessel until it boils. (a) Does the entropy of the water.... Chemistry ... During acute alveolar hyperventilation, the blood 1. Pco2 increases 2. H2CO3 decreases 3. HCO3- increases 4. pH.... ...
... is a disorder affecting the development of the lungs and their blood vessels. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this ... Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) ... Alveolar capillary dysplasia: a logical approach to a fatal disease. J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Jul;40(7):1100-5. Citation on PubMed ... Alveolar capillary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Jul 15;184(2):172-9. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201010-1697CI. Epub 2011 ...
The poor vessel quality inherently produced by tumor angiogenesis also results in leaky vessels, which increase the ... Although new blood vessel formation occurs to support tumor growth, these vessels are generally very abnormal, with ... Metastases and the normalization of tumour blood vessels by ICRF 159: a new type of drug action. Br Med J 1972;1:597-601. ... IFN-β Restricts Tumor Growth and Sensitizes Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma to Ionizing Radiation. Thomas L. Sims, Mackenzie McGee, ...
as, alveolar space; bv, blood vessel; lc, lytic cell; m, macrophage; p, type I pneumocyte. Arrows denote mycobacteria. ... B4) Cell within the alveolar space with ingested wild-type bacillus is lysed, resulting in the release of the organism. This ... Table 2. Ultrastructural studies of the behaviour of the M. tuberculosis cfp-10 esat-6 mutant in alveolar epithelial cell ... 4B4). Furthermore, ultrastructural studies of the M. tuberculosis cfp-10 esat-6 mutant and wild-type-infected human alveolar ...
The inferior alveolar artery is a facial artery that branches from the maxillary artery. It begins close to the site where the ... The posterior scrotal artery is made up of a group of blood vessels found near the external genitalia of the male human body. ... Inferior alveolar artery. Inferior alveolar artery. Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network - Written by the ... The inferior alveolar nerve runs along the path of the inferior alveolar artery. This nerve is the primary site for dental ...
Contents Inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle.  Lingual & auriculotemporal nerves.  Mylohyoid nerve & vessels. * 21. ... Erosion of carotid vessels may occur. * 29. Retropharyngeal Space Posteromedial to lateral pharyngeal space and anterior to the ...
hyperplasia of alveolar lining cells, and. *thrombosis of small blood vessels.. Differential Diagnosis. The symptoms of acute ...
alveolar. *Periodontal ligament. *Alveolar bone. *Vessels and nerves:. *dental. *periodontal. *alveolar through alveolar canals ...
Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) secondary to anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a ... Hansell DM (2002) Small-vessel diseases of the lung: CT-pathologic correlates. Radiology 225(3):639-653CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Cordier J-F, Cottin V (2011) Alveolar hemorrhage in vasculitis: primary and secondary. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 32(3):310-321 ... Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) secondary to anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a ...
Complete resection was not possible due to the close proximity to the great vessels. Different surgical approaches to the ... We report a rare case of childhood alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the mediastinum with vascular invasion treated with ... Intraoperatively, the mass had invaded into the great vessels, precluding a complete resection. Debulking surgery was performed ... an anterior mediastinal mass compressing the trachea and other neurovascular structures and he was diagnosed to have alveolar ...
The bodys own circulating blood vessel.... PubMed Articles [10597 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]. ... pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP).. Description. PAP is a rare lung disease characterized by accumulation of surfactant ... More From BioPortfolio on "GM-CSF in Patients With Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis". *Related Companies*Related Events*Related ... Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (aPAP) is a rare parenchymal lung disease characterized by accumulation of surfactant ...
研究成果 , Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the anterior mediastinum with vessel invasion in a 4-month-old boy: A case report *主頁 ... Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the anterior mediastinum with vessel invasion in a 4-month-old boy: A case report ... 摘要Introduction: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas of the mediastinum in children are rarely reported. Multimodality therapy including ... Complete resection was not possible due to the close proximity to the great vessels. Different surgical approaches to the ...
Green, Cx3cr1+; red, Qdot655 blood vessels; blue, second harmonic generation collagen; yellow, autofluorescent alveolar ... Alveolar macrophages (AMs) were identified as CD15−HLA-DR+CD11b+CD169+CD206+. After gating out AMs, NCMs were identified as ... Monitoring of blood vessels and tissues by a population of monocytes with patrolling behavior. Science 317, 666-670 (2007).. ... The in situ NCMs resembled flow-sorted NCMs but not alveolar macrophages, CMs, or NK cells (Fig. 5B). Specifically, pulmonary ...
Alveolar hemorrhage. *Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV infection. *Any other infectious form of medium vessel vasculitis ... and medium-sized blood vessels in the body. In order to properly treat this disease, it is critical that the level of disease ...
Despite strong infiltration of neutrophils under cortisone acetate treatment, growth of the fungus in bronchiolar and alveolar ... A): Multifocal large inflammatory infiltrates centred on bronchioles but extending to alveoli and blood vessels (arrowheads). ( ... Neutrophil recruitment inhibits the conidial germination in alveolar macrophages-depleted mice one day after infection. (A): ... D, E): A small number of non-germinated conidia, located in the cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages were observed. A, B, C: HE ...
ITEM DESCRIPTION & CODES Counts HANES I Data Source 317 Cephalization of pulmonary vessels 1 - Present 32 8 - Blank, but ... alveolar fluid, and left atrial and left ventricular enlargement, should be reevaluated by a panel of cardiac experts to assess ... ITEM DESCRIPTION & CODES Counts HANES I Data Source 382 Cephalization of pulmonary vessels 1 - Present 24 8 - Blank, but ... ITEM DESCRIPTION & CODES Counts HANES I Data Source 447 Cephalization of pulmonary vessels 1 - Present 36 8 - Blank, but ...
W. pulp Alveolar Mucous Sperm Epithelial. R. pulp Vessel Muscle production. cell and. Normal Normal Normal physical. thyroxin. ... portal v. Normal blood vessel of. central v. vessels large/small. Normal Normal brain. Normal. 100 same as same as same as same ...
This review discusses the role of alveolar capillary ECs in the vascular niche during development, homeostasis and regeneration ... This review discusses the role of alveolar capillary ECs in the vascular niche during development, homeostasis and regeneration ... constitute small capillary blood vessels and contribute to delivery of nutrients, oxygen and cellular components to the local ... constitute small capillary blood vessels and contribute to delivery of nutrients, oxygen and cellular components to the local ...
This leads to an increase in extra-alveolar vessel resistance. PVR is calculated as a sum of the alveolar and extra-alveolar ... This results primarily due to effects on the alveolar and extra-alveolar vessels. During inspiration, increased lung volumes ... thus increase alveolar vessel resistance. On the other hand, decreased lung volumes during expiration cause the extra-alveolar ... resistances as these vessels lie in series with each other. Because the alveolar and extra-alveolar resistances are increased ...
  • After piercing the mandibular tissue on the medial border of the mandibular ramus within the pterygomandibular space and then contacting medial surface of the alveolar bone as well as being lateral to the pterygomandibular fold and the sphenomandibular ligament, the injection is given. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word is derived from the ancient Greek artēriā, a word originally applied to any of the vessels that emanated from the chest cavity, including arteries, veins, and the bronchial tubes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 8 However, OLV with reduced V T (V T = 5 ml/kg) has decreased the expression of alveolar proinflammatory mediators in a clinical setting 9 and has reduced the risk of postpneumonectomy respiratory failure. (asahq.org)
  • It is a mineralized structure and its function is to protect and reserve the blood and lymphatic vessels. (hubpages.com)
  • In either instance, the site - now called the alveolar socket - can change in size and shape if the tooth is missing. (colgate.com)
  • Kenner, Lott, & Flandermeyer, 271) Surfactant primary function is to neutralize the attraction to prevent alveolar collapse during deflation. (brightkite.com)
  • A more rational approach to avoid alveolar collapse and to improve oxygenation during OLV may include application of repetitive alveolar recruitment maneuvers (ARMs) 11,12 and reduced V T and positive end-expiratory airway pressure (PEEP) to minimize atelectasis and cyclic tidal recruitment. (asahq.org)
  • Recently, we have shown that continuous delivery of IFN-β affects tumor angiogenesis by "normalizing" the dysfunctional tumor vasculature, decreasing vessel permeability and interstitial fluid pressure, and improving intratumoral blood flow. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this report, we present a rare case of alveolar RMS of the anterior mediastinum with vascular invasion in a baby, and discuss the various considerations in the surgical approach for children with mediastinal tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review discusses the role of alveolar capillary ECs in the vascular niche during development, homeostasis and regeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • Its characteristic alveolar structure is constituted by tumor cell nests and an abundant vascular network that is responsible for metastatic activities at the initial stage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Complications related to IANB injection include transient facial paralysis, trismus , local anaesthetic injected into blood vessel, self-inflicted trauma, damage to sphenomandibular ligament and pterygomandibular space infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Numerous maneuvers that lead to elevated alveolar pressures may result in pneumomediastinum (see discussion of the Macklin effect in Pathophysiology). (medscape.com)
  • Background Fibred confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) is a novel technology that allows the in vivo assessment and quantification during bronchoscopy of the bronchial wall elastic fibre pattern, alveolar and vessel diameters and thickness of the elastic fibre in the alveolar wall. (bmj.com)
  • The introduction of benzimidazoles for alveolar echinococcosis treatment in 1976 has considerably improved the prognosis ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)