The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.
A generic term for a variety of compounds that contain silicon, oxygen, and magnesium, and may contain hydrogen. Examples include TALC and some kinds of ASBESTOS.
A relatively hard, translucent, restorative material used primarily in anterior teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.
Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.
Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.
A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.
Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.
Synthetic organosiloxane gels that are formed from synthetic polymers of silicone oxide with organic sidechains (polydimethylsiloxane) by lengthening the polymer chains. Unlike silicone elastomers, they are not treated with amorphous silica. They are used as fillers in breast implants.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.

In situ atomic force microscopy study of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide on different substrates: new insights into mechanism of beta-sheet formation. (1/503)

We have applied in situ atomic force microscopy to directly observe the aggregation of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) in contact with two model solid surfaces: hydrophilic mica and hydrophobic graphite. The time course of aggregation was followed by continuous imaging of surfaces remaining in contact with 10-500 microM solutions of Abeta in PBS (pH 7.4). Visualization of fragile nanoscale aggregates of Abeta was made possible by the application of a tapping mode of imaging, which minimizes the lateral forces between the probe tip and the sample. The size and the shape of Abeta aggregates, as well as the kinetics of their formation, exhibited pronounced dependence on the physicochemical nature of the surface. On hydrophilic mica, Abeta formed particulate, pseudomicellar aggregates, which at higher Abeta concentration had the tendency to form linear assemblies, reminiscent of protofibrillar species described recently in the literature. In contrast, on hydrophobic graphite Abeta formed uniform, elongated sheets. The dimensions of those sheets were consistent with the dimensions of beta-sheets with extended peptide chains perpendicular to the long axis of the aggregate. The sheets of Abeta were oriented along three directions at 120 degrees to each other, resembling the crystallographic symmetry of a graphite surface. Such substrate-templated self-assembly may be the distinguishing feature of beta-sheets in comparison with alpha-helices. These studies show that in situ atomic force microscopy enables direct assessment of amyloid aggregation in physiological fluids and suggest that Abeta fibril formation may be driven by interactions at the interface of aqueous solutions and hydrophobic substrates, as occurs in membranes and lipoprotein particles in vivo.  (+info)

Ethanol-induced structural transitions of DNA on mica. (2/503)

The effect of ethanol on the structure of DNA confined to mica in the presence of Mg2+was examined by varying the ethanol concentration and imaging the DNA by atomic force microscopy. Contour length measurements of the DNA show a transition from all-B-form at 0% ethanol to all-A-form at >25% ethanol. At intermediate ethanol concentrations, contour lengths suggest that individual molecules of air-dried DNA are trapped with mixed compositions of A-form and B-form. The relative composition depends on the ethanol concentration. Fitting the length distributions at intermediate ethanol concentrations to a simple binomial model results in an upper bound estimate for the A-form and B-form domains of approximately 54 bp in the individual molecules. In addition to length changes, the apparent persistence length of DNA decreases with increasing ethanol concentration. At high concentrations of ethanol (>20%), DNA formed several higher order structures, including flower shaped condensates and toroids.  (+info)

Microstructure and homogeneity of dental porcelain frits. (3/503)

The microstructure and homogeneity of three commercial dentin and incisal unfired porcelain frits (one conventional and two ultra-low fusing types, fused-to metal were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microspectroscopy, and wavelength- and energy dispersive X-ray microspectroscopy. The average contents of tetragonal and cubic leucite for the conventional and one of the ultra-low fusing type frits were 20.1-22.6 wt% and 0-2.6 wt%, respectively, whereas those of another of the ultra-low fusing type frits were about 11.5-11.6 wt% and 2.9-4.6 wt%, respectively. The conventional type frits seemed to be admixtures of three kinds of glass frits. One of the ultra-low fusing type frits seemed to be an admixture of four kinds of glass frits. Another ultra-low fusing frits seemed to be only one kind of glass frit dispersed with small size, less than 1 micron, leucite crystals. There were no remarkable differences in microstructure and homogeneity between dentin and incisal porcelain frits in each brand.  (+info)

Phase imaging by atomic force microscopy: analysis of living homoiothermic vertebrate cells. (4/503)

Atomic force microscope-based phase imaging in air is capable of elucidating variations in material properties such as adhesion, friction, and viscoelasticity. However, the interpretation of phase images of specimens in a fluid environment requires clarification. In this report, we systematically analyzed atomic force microscope-derived phase images of mica, glass, and collagen under the same conditions as used for living cells at various tapping forces; the resulting data provide critical information for the interpretation of phase images of living cells. The peripheral regions of COS-1 cells consistently show a more negative phase shift than the glass substrate in phase images at set-point amplitude: free amplitude (Asp/A0) = 0.6-0.8. In addition, at all Asp/A0 values suitable for phase imaging, tapping frequency appears to be high enough to ensure that phase shifts are governed primarily by stiffness. Consequently, phase imaging is capable of high resolution studies of the cellular surface by detecting localized variations in stiffness. We demonstrate that phase imaging of a bifurcating fiber in COS-1 cell cytoplasm is readily capable of a lateral resolution of approximately 30 nm.  (+info)

Atomic force microscopy imaging of DNA covalently immobilized on a functionalized mica substrate. (5/503)

A procedure for covalent binding of DNA to a functionalized mica substrate is described. The approach is based on photochemical cross-linking of DNA to immobilized psoralen derivatives. A tetrafluorphenyl (TFP) ester of trimethyl psoralen (trioxalen) was synthesized, and the procedure to immobilize it onto a functionalized aminopropyl mica surface (AP-mica) was developed. DNA molecules were cross-linked to trioxalen moieties by UV irradiation of complexes. The steps of the sample preparation procedure were analyzed with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results from XPS show that an AP-mica surface can be formed by vapor phase deposition of silane and that this surface can be derivatized with trioxalen. The derivatized surface is capable of binding of DNA molecules such that, after UV cross-linking, they withstand a thorough rinsing with SDS. Observations with atomic force microscopy showed that derivatized surfaces remain smooth, so DNA molecules are easily visualized. Linear and circular DNA molecules were photochemically immobilized on the surface. The molecules are distributed over the surface uniformly, indicating rather even modification of AP-mica with trioxalen. Generally, the shapes of supercoiled molecules electrostatically immobilized on AP-mica and those photocross-linked on trioxalen-functionalized surfaces remain quite similar. This suggests that UV cross-linking does not induce formation of a noticeable number of single-stranded breaks in DNA molecules.  (+info)

Computer-assisted morphometry of cell-substratum contacts. (6/503)

AIM: Quantitative analysis of size and shape of the cell-substratum contacts in Dictyostelium and comparison of these parameters between wild-type cells and the cells bearing cytoskeletal protein mutations. METHODS: Reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) was used to image the areas of contact between aggregation-competent Dictyostelium cells and weakly adhesive mica surfaces. The cell-substratum contact areas were automatically identified in RICM micrographs by digital image processing. Information about the size and shape of the contact areas was obtained by using the shape descriptors based on two-dimensional geometrical moment invariants. RESULTS: Lack of either of the two actin-crosslinking proteins, a-actinin and 120 kDa gelation factor, similarly affects the cell-substratum interactions of Dictyostelium cells. The shape descriptors, elongation and dispersion, of the contact areas were reduced by 10% to 30% in mutant cells when compared to the wild type, but the size of the contacts was not affected. CONCLUSION: Video microscopy combined with digital image processing and quantitative image analysis is capable of revealing small phenotypic effects of cytoskeletal protein mutations on the level of single cells. Such automated microscopic methods are expected to gain importance and find a widespread use in biomedicine.  (+info)

Risks of respiratory disease in the heavy clay industry. (7/503)

OBJECTIVES: Little information is available on the quantitative risks of respiratory disease from quartz in airborne dust in the heavy clay industry. Available evidence suggested that these risks might be low, possibly because of the presence in the dust of other minerals, such as illite and kaolinite, which may reduce the harmful effects of quartz. The aims of the present cross sectional study were to determine among workers in the industry (a) their current and cumulative exposures to respirable mixed dust and quartz; (b) the frequencies of chest radiographic abnormalities and respiratory symptoms; (c) the relations between cumulative exposure to respirable dust and quartz, and risks of radiographic abnormality and respiratory symptoms. METHODS: Factories were chosen where the type of process had changed as little as possible during recent decades. 18 were selected in England and Scotland, ranging in size from 35 to 582 employees, representing all the main types of raw material, end product, kilns, and processes in the manufacture of bricks, pipes, and tiles but excluding refractory products. Weights of respirable dust and quartz in more than 1400 personal dust samples, and site histories, were used to derive occupational groups characterised by their levels of exposure to dust and quartz. Full size chest radiographs, respiratory symptoms, smoking, and occupational history questionnaires were administered to current workers at each factory. Exposure-response relations were examined for radiographic abnormalities (dust and quartz) and respiratory symptoms (dust only). RESULTS: Respirable dust and quartz concentrations ranged from means of 0.4 and 0.04 mg.m-3 for non-process workers to 10.0 and 0.62 mg.m-3 for kiln demolition workers respectively. Although 97% of all quartz concentrations were below the maximum exposure limit of 0.4 mg.m-3, 10% were greater than this among the groups of workers exposed to most dust. Cumulative exposure calculations for dust and quartz took account of changes of occupational group, factory, and kiln type at study and non-study sites. Because of the importance of changes of kiln type additional weighting factors were applied to concentrations of dust and quartz during previous employment at factories that used certain types of kiln. 85% (1934 employees) of the identified workforce attended the medical surveys. The frequency of small opacities in the chest radiograph, category > or = 1/0, was 1.4% (median reading) and seven of these 25 men had category > or = 2/1. Chronic bronchitis was reported by 14.2% of the workforce and breathlessness, when walking with someone of their own age, by 4.4%. Risks of having category > or = 0/1 small opacities differed by site and were also influenced by age, smoking, and lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable dust and quartz. Although exposures to dust and to quartz were highly correlated, the evidence suggested that radiological abnormality was associated with quartz rather than dust. A doubling of cumulative quartz exposure increased the risk of having category > or = 0/1 by a factor of 1.33. Both chronic bronchitis and breathlessness were significantly related to dust exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Although most quartz concentrations at the time of this study were currently below regulatory limits in the heavy clay industry, high exposures regularly occurred in specific processes and occasionally among most occupational groups. However, there are small risks of pneumoconiosis and respiratory symptoms in the industry, although frequency of pneumoconiosis is low in comparison to other quartz exposed workers.  (+info)

Polymer-cushioned bilayers. II. An investigation of interaction forces and fusion using the surface forces apparatus. (8/503)

We have created phospholipid bilayers supported on soft polymer "cushions" which act as deformable substrates (see accompanying paper, Wong, J. Y., J. Majewski, M. Seitz, C. K. Park, J. N. Israelachvili, and G. S. Smith. 1999. Biophys. J. 77:1445-1457). In contrast to "solid-supported" membranes, such "soft-supported" membranes can exhibit more natural (higher) fluidity. Our bilayer system was constructed by adsorption of small unilamellar dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles onto polyethylenimine (PEI)-supported Langmuir-Blodgett lipid monolayers on mica. We used the surface forces apparatus (SFA) to investigate the long-range forces, adhesion, and fusion of two DMPC bilayers both above and below their main transition temperature (T(m) approximately 24 degrees C). Above T(m), hemi-fusion activation pressures of apposing bilayers were considerably smaller than for solid-supported bilayers, e.g., directly supported on mica. After separation, the bilayers naturally re-formed after short healing times. Also, for the first time, complete fusion of two fluid (liquid crystalline) phospholipid bilayers was observed in the SFA. Below T(m) (gel state), very high pressures were needed for hemi-fusion and the healing process became very slow. The presence of the polymer cushion significantly alters the interaction potential, e.g., long-range forces as well as fusion pressures, when compared to solid-supported systems. These fluid model membranes should allow the future study of integral membrane proteins under more physiological conditions.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "silicates" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Silicates are a broad class of minerals that are composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in various arrangements. They are abundant in Earth's crust and are commonly found in sand, quartz, and many types of rocks.

While not directly related to human health, some silicate-based materials can have medical applications. For example, certain forms of magnesium silicate (talc) have been used as a component in some medications for their ability to absorb moisture and help reduce the risk of skin irritation. However, exposure to certain types of silica dust (like crystalline silica) has been linked to lung diseases such as silicosis, bronchitis, and lung cancer, especially in occupational settings like construction, sandblasting, and mining.

If you have any concerns about silicates or their potential impact on your health, I would recommend consulting a healthcare professional for personalized advice based on your specific situation.

Aluminum silicates are a type of mineral compound that consist of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen in their chemical structure. They are often found in nature and can be categorized into several groups, including kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and bentonite. These minerals have various industrial and commercial uses, including as fillers and extenders in products like paper, paint, and rubber. In the medical field, certain types of aluminum silicates (like bentonite) have been used in some medicinal and therapeutic applications, such as detoxification and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it's important to note that the use of these minerals in medical treatments is not widely accepted or supported by extensive scientific evidence.

Magnesium compounds refer to substances that contain magnesium (an essential mineral) combined with other elements. These compounds are formed when magnesium atoms chemically bond with atoms of other elements. Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal and it readily forms stable compounds with various elements due to its electron configuration.

Examples of magnesium compounds include:

1. Magnesium oxide (MgO): Also known as magnesia, it is formed by combining magnesium with oxygen. It has a high melting point and is used in various applications such as refractory materials, chemical production, and agricultural purposes.
2. Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2): Often called milk of magnesia, it is a common antacid and laxative. It is formed by combining magnesium with hydroxide ions.
3. Magnesium chloride (MgCl2): This compound is formed when magnesium reacts with chlorine gas. It has various uses, including as a de-icing agent, a component in fertilizers, and a mineral supplement.
4. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4): Also known as Epsom salts, it is formed by combining magnesium with sulfur and oxygen. It is used as a bath salt, a laxative, and a fertilizer.
5. Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3): This compound is formed when magnesium reacts with carbon dioxide. It has various uses, including as a fire retardant, a food additive, and a dietary supplement.

These are just a few examples of the many different magnesium compounds that exist. Each compound has its unique properties and applications based on the elements it is combined with.

Aluminum compounds refer to chemical substances that are formed by the combination of aluminum with other elements. Aluminum is a naturally occurring metallic element, and it can combine with various non-metallic elements to form compounds with unique properties and uses. Some common aluminum compounds include:

1. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3): Also known as alumina, this compound is formed when aluminum combines with oxygen. It is a white, odorless powder that is highly resistant to heat and corrosion. Aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications, including ceramics, abrasives, and refractories.
2. Aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with sulfuric acid. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water. Aluminum sulfate is used as a flocculant in water treatment, as well as in the manufacture of paper and textiles.
3. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with chlorine. It is a white or yellowish-white solid that is highly deliquescent, meaning it readily absorbs moisture from the air. Aluminum chloride is used as a catalyst in chemical reactions, as well as in the production of various industrial chemicals.
4. Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with hydroxide ions. It is a white, powdery substance that is amphoteric, meaning it can react with both acids and bases. Aluminum hydroxide is used as an antacid and as a fire retardant.
5. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when zinc oxide is combined with aluminum hydroxide. It is a white, powdery substance that is used as a filler in rubber and plastics, as well as in the manufacture of paints and coatings.

It's important to note that some aluminum compounds have been linked to health concerns, particularly when they are inhaled or ingested in large quantities. For example, aluminum chloride has been shown to be toxic to animals at high doses, while aluminum hydroxide has been associated with neurological disorders in some studies. However, the risks associated with exposure to these compounds are generally low, and they are considered safe for most industrial and consumer uses when used as directed.

Buccal administration refers to the route of delivering a medication or drug through the buccal mucosa, which is the lining of the inner cheek in the mouth. This route allows for the medication to be absorbed directly into the bloodstream, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract and liver metabolism, which can result in faster onset of action and potentially higher bioavailability.

Buccal administration can be achieved through various forms of dosage forms such as lozenges, tablets, films, or sprays that are placed in contact with the buccal mucosa for a certain period of time until they dissolve or disintegrate and release the active ingredient. This route is commonly used for medications that require a rapid onset of action, have poor oral bioavailability, or are irritating to the gastrointestinal tract.

It's important to note that buccal administration may not be appropriate for all medications, as some drugs may be inactivated by saliva or may cause local irritation or discomfort. Therefore, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using any medication through this route.

Magnesium silicates are a type of compound that consists of magnesium, silicon, and oxygen. They are often found in nature as minerals such as talc and serpentine. These compounds have a variety of uses, including as fillers in paper, paint, and rubber products, and as absorbents in cat litter.

In a medical context, magnesium silicates may be used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. They are also sometimes used as bulk-forming laxatives to treat constipation by absorbing water and swelling in the intestines, which helps to stimulate bowel movements.

It is important to note that some magnesium silicate compounds, such as talc, have been linked to health concerns when inhaled or ingested in large quantities. Therefore, they should be used as directed and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Silicate cement is not typically used as a medical definition, but rather in the field of construction materials and concrete technology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Silicate cement, also known as alkali-activated cement or soluble silicate cement, is a type of binding agent produced through the reaction of an alkali source (such as sodium hydroxide or sodium silicate) with silica-rich materials like fly ash, slag, or metakaolin. This process forms a complex network of silicate chains, which provide high strength, durability, and resistance to aggressive environments compared to traditional Portland cement. Although not directly used in medical applications, it can be found in some construction materials that may have indirect medical relevance, such as dental impressions, restorative materials, or construction of healthcare facilities.

Aluminum hydroxide is a medication that contains the active ingredient aluminum hydroxide, which is an inorganic compound. It is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn. Aluminum hydroxide works by reacting with the acid in the stomach to form a physical barrier that prevents the acid from backing up into the esophagus.

In addition to its use as an antacid, aluminum hydroxide is also used as a phosphate binder in patients with kidney disease. It works by binding to phosphate in the gut and preventing it from being absorbed into the bloodstream, which can help to control high phosphate levels in the body.

Aluminum hydroxide is available over-the-counter and by prescription in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid suspensions. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to talk to a healthcare provider if symptoms persist or worsen.

Calcium compounds are chemical substances that contain calcium ions (Ca2+) bonded to various anions. Calcium is an essential mineral for human health, and calcium compounds have numerous biological and industrial applications. Here are some examples of calcium compounds with their medical definitions:

1. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3): A common mineral found in rocks and sediments, calcium carbonate is also a major component of shells, pearls, and bones. It is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency and as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid.
2. Calcium citrate (C6H8CaO7): A calcium salt of citric acid, calcium citrate is often used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is more soluble in water and gastric juice than calcium carbonate, making it easier to absorb, especially for people with low stomach acid.
3. Calcium gluconate (C12H22CaO14): A calcium salt of gluconic acid, calcium gluconate is used as a medication to treat or prevent hypocalcemia (low blood calcium levels) and hyperkalemia (high blood potassium levels). It can be given intravenously, orally, or topically.
4. Calcium chloride (CaCl2): A white, deliquescent salt, calcium chloride is used as a de-icing agent, a food additive, and a desiccant. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hypocalcemia or hyperkalemia, or as an antidote for magnesium overdose.
5. Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6): A calcium salt of lactic acid, calcium lactate is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is less commonly used than calcium carbonate or calcium citrate but may be better tolerated by some people.
6. Calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2): A mineral found in rocks and bones, calcium phosphate is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It can also be used as a food additive or a pharmaceutical excipient.
7. Calcium sulfate (CaSO4): A white, insoluble powder, calcium sulfate is used as a desiccant, a plaster, and a fertilizer. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hypocalcemia or as an antidote for magnesium overdose.
8. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2): A white, alkaline powder, calcium hydroxide is used as a disinfectant, a flocculant, and a building material. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hyperkalemia or as an antidote for aluminum overdose.
9. Calcium acetate (Ca(C2H3O2)2): A white, crystalline powder, calcium acetate is used as a food additive and a medication. It can be used to treat hyperphosphatemia (high blood phosphate levels) in patients with kidney disease.
10. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3): A white, chalky powder, calcium carbonate is used as a dietary supplement, a food additive, and a pharmaceutical excipient. It can also be used as a building material and a mineral supplement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silicic Acid" is not a recognized medical term. Silicic acid, also known as orthosilicic acid, is a compound that contains silicon and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2 (Si(OH)4). It's commonly found in water, soil, and various plants.

In the context of health and medicine, silica or silicic acid supplements are sometimes used for their potential benefits to bone health, collagen production, and hair and nail growth. However, more research is needed to fully understand these effects and their optimal usage.

If you have any questions related to a specific medical condition or treatment, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional.

Cosmic dust, also known as extraterrestrial dust or space dust, refers to tiny particles of solid matter that are present in outer space. These particles are primarily made up of rock, metal, and organic material, and they can vary in size from a few nanometers to several hundred micrometers in diameter.

Cosmic dust is formed through various processes, including the cooling and condensation of gas in interstellar clouds, supernova explosions, collisions between asteroids and comets, and the erosion of larger bodies such as planets and moons. The dust is constantly being created and destroyed in space, and it plays a critical role in the formation and evolution of stars, planets, and other celestial objects.

In addition to its importance in astrophysics, cosmic dust also has implications for human health and technology. When cosmic dust enters Earth's atmosphere, it can interact with water vapor and other chemicals to form tiny particles that can serve as nuclei for cloud formation. These particles can have a significant impact on climate and weather patterns.

Furthermore, cosmic dust can pose a risk to spacecraft and astronauts in space. The tiny particles can damage sensitive equipment and pose a health hazard to astronauts who are exposed to them during spacewalks or other extravehicular activities. As a result, understanding the properties and behavior of cosmic dust is an important area of research for both astrophysicists and engineers working in the field of space exploration.

Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Al2O3. It is also known as alumina and it is a white solid that is widely used in various industries due to its unique properties. Aluminum oxide is highly resistant to corrosion, has a high melting point, and is an electrical insulator.

In the medical field, aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications such as:

1. Dental crowns and implants: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of dental crowns and implants due to its strength and durability.
2. Orthopedic implants: Aluminum oxide is used in some types of orthopedic implants, such as knee and hip replacements, because of its biocompatibility and resistance to wear.
3. Medical ceramics: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of medical ceramics, which are used in various medical devices such as pacemakers and hearing aids.
4. Pharmaceuticals: Aluminum oxide is used as an excipient in some pharmaceutical products, such as tablets and capsules, to improve their stability and shelf life.
5. Medical research: Aluminum oxide is used in medical research, for example, as a substrate material for growing cells or as a coating material for medical devices.

It's important to note that while aluminum oxide has many useful applications in the medical field, exposure to high levels of aluminum can be harmful to human health. Therefore, it is important to use aluminum oxide and other aluminum-containing materials safely and according to established guidelines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "meteoroids" is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a term from the field of astronomy. Meteoroids are small particles or bits of rock that are traveling in space. When they enter the Earth's atmosphere, they can become meteors (also known as "shooting stars") and can sometimes make it to the ground as meteorites.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silicon" does not have a specific medical definition. Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a metalloid, which means it has properties of both metals and nonmetals. In the human body, silicon is not considered an essential nutrient, although it is found in trace amounts in various tissues. Some research suggests that silicon might play a role in collagen synthesis and bone health, but more studies are needed to confirm these findings and establish recommended intake levels.

Chemical processes refer to the various interactions and transformations that occur at the molecular or atomic level among chemicals, substances, or compounds. These processes involve changes in the structure, composition, energy state, or properties of the involved materials. They can be either spontaneous or induced and are governed by the laws of chemistry.

Some common examples of chemical processes include:

1. Chemical reactions: The transformation of one or more substances into different substances through a series of chemical interactions. These reactions might involve the breaking and forming of chemical bonds, resulting in new compounds with distinct properties.
2. Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions: A specific type of chemical reaction where electrons are transferred between molecules or atoms, leading to changes in their oxidation states. These reactions often involve the transfer of oxygen or hydrogen atoms and play a crucial role in various biological and industrial processes.
3. Acid-base reactions: Chemical interactions between acids and bases, characterized by the transfer of a proton (H+) from an acid to a base. These reactions result in the formation of new compounds called salts and water.
4. Precipitation reactions: The formation of an insoluble solid (a precipitate) when two solutions are mixed together, often due to the creation of a new compound that cannot remain dissolved in the solvent.
5. Complexation: The formation of a complex between a central atom or ion and one or more ligands through coordinate covalent bonds. This process can lead to changes in the physical and chemical properties of both the central atom/ion and the ligand(s).
6. Electrolysis: A chemical process driven by an external electrical current, which induces chemical reactions at the electrodes immersed in a conducting solution (electrolyte). This process is used to produce various chemicals, such as hydrogen, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide.
7. Catalysis: The acceleration of a chemical reaction by a substance called a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. Catalysts work by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby increasing the rate of the process without being consumed in it.

Understanding chemical processes is essential for various fields, including chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science, and engineering, as they form the basis for numerous natural phenomena and technological applications.

Silicon dioxide is not a medical term, but a chemical compound with the formula SiO2. It's commonly known as quartz or sand and is not something that would typically have a medical definition. However, in some cases, silicon dioxide can be used in pharmaceutical preparations as an excipient (an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug) or as a food additive, often as an anti-caking agent.

In these contexts, it's important to note that silicon dioxide is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, exposure to very high levels of respirable silica dust, such as in certain industrial settings, can increase the risk of lung disease, including silicosis.

Astronomy is not a medical term, but rather it is a branch of science that deals with the study of celestial objects, phenomena, and processes outside the Earth's atmosphere. It involves observing stars, planets, galaxies, and other cosmic entities, and using physical laws to understand their properties and behavior.

Therefore, there is no medical definition for astronomy. However, it is worth noting that some areas of astronomy may have applications in medicine, such as the use of medical imaging techniques that were developed based on principles used in radio astronomy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Solar System" is not a medical term. It refers to the astronomical system that includes our star, the Sun, and the objects that orbit it, such as planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. The Solar System is located in the Milky Way galaxy. If you have any medical terms or concepts you would like me to define or explain, I'd be happy to help!

Astronomical phenomena are observable events that occur in the universe beyond our planet Earth. These can include a wide range of occurrences such as:

1. The movement and positions of celestial bodies like stars, planets, asteroids, comets, and galaxies.
2. Changes in the brightness or appearance of celestial objects, such as eclipses, transits, novae, and supernovae.
3. Phenomena related to the life cycles of stars, like stellar evolution, neutron star formation, black hole creation, etc.
4. Natural phenomena that occur in the interstellar medium or intergalactic space, such as nebulae, pulsars, quasars, and active galactic nuclei.
5. Gravitational effects on light, such as gravitational lensing and gravitational waves.
6. Phenomena related to the structure and evolution of the universe, like cosmic microwave background radiation and dark matter.

These phenomena are studied by astronomers using various observational techniques and instruments, including telescopes that detect different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, as well as space-based observatories and astrophysical experiments.

Iron compounds refer to chemical substances that contain iron (Fe) combined with other elements. Iron is an essential mineral for the human body, playing a crucial role in various bodily functions such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production.

There are several types of iron compounds, including:

1. Inorganic iron salts: These are commonly used in dietary supplements and fortified foods to treat or prevent iron deficiency anemia. Examples include ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate, and ferric iron.
2. Heme iron: This is the form of iron found in animal products such as meat, poultry, and fish. It is more easily absorbed by the body compared to non-heme iron from plant sources.
3. Non-heme iron: This is the form of iron found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. It is not as well-absorbed as heme iron but can be enhanced by consuming it with vitamin C or other organic acids.

It's important to note that excessive intake of iron compounds can lead to iron toxicity, which can cause serious health problems. Therefore, it's essential to follow recommended dosages and consult a healthcare professional before taking any iron supplements.

The term "extraterrestrial environment" is not typically used in a medical context, but rather in the fields of astronomy and astrobiology. It generally refers to any physical environment outside of Earth, including the surfaces and atmospheres of other planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and interstellar space.

In a broader sense, one might use the term "extraterrestrial environment" to refer to any physical conditions that are not found naturally on Earth, such as extreme temperatures, radiation levels, or atmospheric compositions. However, this is not a standard medical definition.

It's worth noting that there may be potential health implications for humans who travel to extraterrestrial environments, as they would be exposed to new and potentially hazardous conditions. As such, space medicine is a growing field of research that aims to understand and mitigate the health risks associated with space travel.

Planetary evolution is a field of study that focuses on the processes that have shaped the formation, development, and changes of planets and other celestial bodies over time. This encompasses various scientific disciplines, including astronomy, astrobiology, geology, and atmospheric science. The study of planetary evolution helps scientists understand how planets form, how they change over time, and the conditions that allow for the development of life.

The process of planetary evolution can be driven by a variety of factors, including:

1. Formation: Planets form from a protoplanetary disk, a rotating disk of gas and dust surrounding a young star. Over time, solid particles in the disk collide and stick together to form larger and larger bodies, eventually leading to the formation of planets.
2. Internal differentiation: As planets grow, their interiors differentiate into layers based on density, with heavier materials sinking towards the center and lighter materials rising towards the surface. This process can lead to the formation of a core, mantle, and crust.
3. Geological activity: Planetary evolution is also influenced by geological processes such as volcanism, tectonics, and erosion. These processes can shape the planet's surface, create mountain ranges, and carve out valleys and basins.
4. Atmospheric evolution: The evolution of a planet's atmosphere is closely tied to its geological activity and the presence of volatiles (gases that easily vaporize). Over time, the composition of a planet's atmosphere can change due to processes such as outgassing from the interior, chemical reactions, and interactions with the solar wind.
5. Climate evolution: The climate of a planet can also evolve over time due to changes in its orbit, axial tilt, and atmospheric composition. These factors can influence the amount of sunlight a planet receives and the greenhouse effect, which can lead to global warming or cooling.
6. Impact events: Collisions with other celestial bodies, such as asteroids and comets, can significantly impact a planet's evolution by causing large-scale changes to its surface and atmosphere.
7. Life: On planets where life emerges, biological processes can also play a role in shaping the planet's environment and influencing its evolution. For example, photosynthetic organisms can produce oxygen, which can alter the composition of a planet's atmosphere.

Understanding the various factors that contribute to a planet's evolution is crucial for understanding the formation and development of planetary systems and searching for potentially habitable exoplanets.

Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas, to mitigate climate change. It can occur naturally through processes such as photosynthesis in plants and absorption by oceans. Artificial or engineered carbon sequestration methods include:

1. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): This process captures CO2 emissions from large point sources, like power plants, before they are released into the atmosphere. The captured CO2 is then compressed and transported to suitable geological formations for long-term storage.

2. Ocean Sequestration: This method involves directly injecting CO2 into the deep ocean or enhancing natural processes that absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, such as growing more phytoplankton (microscopic marine plants) through nutrient enrichment.

3. Soil Carbon Sequestration: Practices like regenerative agriculture, agroforestry, and cover cropping can enhance soil organic carbon content by increasing the amount of carbon stored in soils. This not only helps mitigate climate change but also improves soil health and productivity.

4. Biochar Sequestration: Biochar is a type of charcoal produced through pyrolysis (heating biomass in the absence of oxygen). When added to soils, biochar can increase soil fertility and carbon sequestration capacity, as it has a high resistance to decomposition and can store carbon for hundreds to thousands of years.

5. Mineral Carbonation: This method involves reacting CO2 with naturally occurring minerals (like silicate or oxide minerals) to form stable mineral carbonates, effectively locking away the CO2 in solid form.

It is important to note that while carbon sequestration can help mitigate climate change, it should be considered as one of many strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and transition towards a low-carbon or carbon-neutral economy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spacecraft" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. It may be used to transport humans or cargo to and from space stations, conduct scientific research, or explore other celestial bodies such as the moon, planets, and asteroids. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Jupiter" is not a medical term. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system, known for its Great Red Spot, a storm that has been raging on the planet for at least 300 years. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to help answer those!

Dental waste refers to the byproducts and discarded materials generated from dental treatments and procedures. This can include:

1. Amalgam waste: This consists of a mixture of metals, including mercury, used to fill dental cavities.
2. Sharps waste: Includes needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp instruments used in dental procedures.
3. Infectious waste: Materials that have been contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids during dental treatments, such as gloves, gauze, and used dental bibs.
4. Pharmaceutical waste: Unused or expired medications, including analgesics, antibiotics, and anesthetics.
5. Chemical waste: Includes fixer and developer solutions used in developing X-rays, as well as disinfectants and other chemicals used in dental practices.
6. Radioactive waste: Dental X-ray film packets and lead foil from X-ray processing.

Proper management and disposal of dental waste is essential to protect public health and the environment. Regulations governing dental waste disposal vary by location, so it's important for dental practices to be aware of and comply with local requirements.

Diatomaceous earth is not a medical term, but a natural product derived from the fossilized remains of diatoms, a type of algae. It is composed of silica and other minerals. While it has various industrial and agricultural uses, it is not typically used as a medication or treatment. However, some people may use food-grade diatomaceous earth for various health purposes, such as detoxification or improving digestive health, but these uses are not supported by scientific evidence and its safety and effectiveness for these purposes have not been established. As with any substance used for medicinal purposes, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before using diatomaceous earth.

In the field of medicine, ceramics are commonly referred to as inorganic, non-metallic materials that are made up of compounds such as oxides, carbides, and nitrides. These materials are often used in medical applications due to their biocompatibility, resistance to corrosion, and ability to withstand high temperatures. Some examples of medical ceramics include:

1. Bioceramics: These are ceramic materials that are used in medical devices and implants, such as hip replacements, dental implants, and bone grafts. They are designed to be biocompatible, which means they can be safely implanted into the body without causing an adverse reaction.
2. Ceramic coatings: These are thin layers of ceramic material that are applied to medical devices and implants to improve their performance and durability. For example, ceramic coatings may be used on orthopedic implants to reduce wear and tear, or on cardiovascular implants to prevent blood clots from forming.
3. Ceramic membranes: These are porous ceramic materials that are used in medical filtration systems, such as hemodialysis machines. They are designed to selectively filter out impurities while allowing essential molecules to pass through.
4. Ceramic scaffolds: These are three-dimensional structures made of ceramic material that are used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. They provide a framework for cells to grow and multiply, helping to repair or replace damaged tissues.

Overall, medical ceramics play an important role in modern healthcare, providing safe and effective solutions for a wide range of medical applications.

Adsorption is a process in which atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid accumulate on the surface of a material. This occurs because the particles in the adsorbate (the substance being adsorbed) have forces that attract them to the surface of the adsorbent (the material that the adsorbate is adhering to).

In medical terms, adsorption can refer to the use of materials with adsorptive properties to remove harmful substances from the body. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the treatment of poisoning because it can adsorb a variety of toxic substances and prevent them from being absorbed into the bloodstream.

It's important to note that adsorption is different from absorption, which refers to the process by which a substance is taken up and distributed throughout a material or tissue.

Bentonite is not a medical term, but a geological one. It refers to a type of clay that is composed primarily of montmorillonite, a soft phyllosilicate mineral. Bentonite has a wide range of uses, including as a binding agent in the manufacture of medicines, as an absorbent in cat litter and personal care products, and as a component in drilling muds and cement mixtures.

In medical contexts, bentonite is sometimes used as a bulk-forming laxative to treat constipation or irregularity. It works by absorbing water and increasing the size and weight of stool, which stimulates bowel movements. However, it's important to note that bentonite should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can interfere with the absorption of certain medications and may cause side effects such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "planets" is not a medical term. It is a term used in astronomy to refer to celestial bodies that orbit the sun and meet certain criteria, such as having cleared their orbit of other debris. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to try to help!

Silicone gels are synthetic substances that are made from the polymerization of silicone, which is a combination of silicon, oxygen, and other elements such as carbon and hydrogen. In medical terms, silicone gels are often used in the manufacture of breast implants, where they are used to fill the implant shells. The gel has a soft, flexible texture that feels similar to natural breast tissue.

Silicone gels can also be used in other medical devices such as contact lenses, catheters, and wound dressings. They have a number of properties that make them useful for medical applications, including their ability to maintain their shape and flexibility, their resistance to heat and chemicals, and their low toxicity.

It is important to note that while silicone gels are generally considered safe for use in medical devices, there have been concerns raised about the potential health effects of breast implants filled with silicone gel. Some studies have suggested a link between silicone breast implants and certain health problems, such as connective tissue diseases and autoimmune disorders, but the evidence is not conclusive and more research is needed to fully understand the risks.

Electrolysis is a medical procedure that involves the use of electrical current to permanently remove hair growth. It works by passing a thin, solid metal electrode (called a probe) into the natural opening of the hair follicle and applying an electrical charge to destroy the hair root. This process can be used to remove hair from any part of the body, including the face, legs, arms, underarms, and bikini area.

During electrolysis, a trained professional called an electrologist inserts a small needle into the hair follicle and applies a mild electrical current. The current heats up and destroys the hair root, preventing future growth. Multiple treatments are usually necessary to achieve permanent hair removal, as only one or two hairs can be treated at a time.

Electrolysis is considered a safe and effective method for permanent hair removal, but it can cause some discomfort during and after treatment. Common side effects include redness, swelling, and tenderness in the treated area. These side effects typically resolve within a few hours to a few days after treatment.

It's important to note that electrolysis should only be performed by a licensed and trained electrologist. Improper technique can cause scarring, infection, or other complications. Before undergoing electrolysis, it's recommended to consult with a dermatologist or other healthcare provider to discuss the risks and benefits of the procedure.

In the context of nutrition and health, minerals are inorganic elements that are essential for various bodily functions, such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, and bone structure. They are required in small amounts compared to macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and are obtained from food and water.

Some of the major minerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride, while trace minerals or microminerals are required in even smaller amounts and include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, selenium, and fluoride.

It's worth noting that the term "minerals" can also refer to geological substances found in the earth, but in medical terminology, it specifically refers to the essential inorganic elements required for human health.

Breast implants are medical devices that are inserted into the breast to enhance their size, shape, or fullness. They can also be used for breast reconstruction after a mastectomy or other medical treatments. Breast implants typically consist of a silicone shell filled with either saline (sterile saltwater) or silicone gel.

There are two main types of breast implants:

1. Saline-filled implants: These implants have a silicone outer shell that is filled with sterile saline solution after the implant has been inserted into the breast. This allows for some adjustment in the size and shape of the implant after surgery.
2. Silicone gel-filled implants: These implants have a silicone outer shell that is pre-filled with a cohesive silicone gel. The gel is designed to feel more like natural breast tissue than saline implants.

Breast implants come in various sizes, shapes, and textures, and the choice of implant will depend on several factors, including the patient's body type, desired outcome, and personal preference. It is important for patients considering breast implants to discuss their options with a qualified plastic surgeon who can help them make an informed decision based on their individual needs and goals.

Alum compounds are a type of double sulfate salt, typically consisting of aluminum sulfate and another metal sulfate. The most common variety is potassium alum, or potassium aluminum sulfate (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O). Alum compounds have a wide range of uses, including water purification, tanning leather, dyeing and printing textiles, and as a food additive for baking powder and pickling. They are also used in medicine as astringents to reduce bleeding and swelling, and to soothe skin irritations. Alum compounds have the ability to make proteins in living cells become more stable, which can be useful in medical treatments.

The chemical element aluminum (or aluminium in British English) is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. The atomic number of aluminum is 13 and its symbol on the periodic table is Al. It is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust and is found in a variety of minerals such as bauxite.

Aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide on its surface that protects it from further oxidation. It is lightweight, has good thermal and electrical conductivity, and can be easily formed and machined. These properties make aluminum a widely used metal in various industries such as construction, packaging, transportation, and electronics.

In the medical field, aluminum is used in some medications and medical devices. For example, aluminum hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and treat heartburn, while aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. However, excessive exposure to aluminum can be harmful and has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, although the exact relationship between aluminum and these conditions is not fully understood.

Clays - Hydrous aluminum silicates. Most common is bentonite (85% mineral clay smectite). Can be used to obtain a cement of ... Distribution of silicate and aluminate phases. Reactivity of hydrating phases. Gypsum/hemihydrates ratio and total sulphate ...
Agriculture: rice, wheat, grapes, tea, fruits, and tobacco (lesser). Mining: iron, titanium, manganese, aluminum, calcite ... silicates, and amethyst. Kerch bridge, Taurida highway, Sevastopol GasTES plus solar FV plants, gas and petrol depots, and coal ...
It is red due to the presence of iron oxide; the clay also contains hydrous silicates of aluminum and possibly magnesium. ...
"UVITE (Calcium Iron Magnesium Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide)". Retrieved 2016-08-09. "Uvite Mineral Data". ...
American Mineralogist W. T. Schaller and A. C. Vlisidis (1958). "Ajoite, a new hydrous aluminum copper silicate" (PDF). ... Ajoite is a hydrated sodium potassium copper aluminium silicate hydroxide mineral. Ajoite has the chemical formula (Na,K) ... together with other known copper silicate minerals, but Berman died in a plane crash in 1944, aged 42, before this study was ... Messina Mines on the border between Zimbabwe and South Africa are well known for their inclusions of blue copper silicate ...
org Ohashi, H.; Ii, N. (1978). "Structure of calcium scandium aluminum silicate (CaScAlSiO6)-pyroxene". Journal of the Japanese ...
Magnesium aluminum silicates and alverine citrate drugs can be effective for IBS. Rifaximin may be useful as a treatment for ...
Barlett, Helen Blair (1932). "Occurrence and Properties of Crystalline Alumina in Silicate Melts*". Journal of the American ... Barnett would describe the occurrences and properties of crystalline alumina in silicate melts. It is said that Corundum, or ... Occurrence and Properties of Crystalline Alumina in Silicate Melts (July 1932) Effect of Organic Grinding Media on Water- ... Alumina insulator material allows plugs to handle high heat and voltage within the spark plug, enabling vehicles to operate in ...
andalusite One of several crystalline forms of aluminum silicate; a characteristic product of the contact metamorphism of ... Anorthites are usually silicates of calcium and aluminium occurring in some basic igneous rocks, typically those produced by ... albite The end member of the plagioclase group of minerals, ideally consisting of silicates of sodium and aluminium, but ... augite A complex aluminous silicate of calcium, iron and magnesium, crystallising in the monoclinic system, and occurring in ...
... consists primarily of hydrous aluminum silicates (clay minerals) of varying composition. Common components are ...
... is an aluminum silicate mineral, with the chemical formula Al2SiO5. It is typically patchy blue in color, though it can ... There is no direct linkage between the silica tetrahedra, making kyanite a member of the nesoilicate class of silicate minerals ...
... s are composed of calcium-iron-magnesium-manganese-aluminum silicate minerals. Skarn deposits are economically valuable as ... Skarnoids are calc-silicate rocks that are fine-grained and iron poor. Skarnoids tend to be found between hornfels and coarse- ... Skarn is an old Swedish mining term originally used to describe a type of silicate gangue, or waste rock, associated with iron- ... Skarns tend to be rich in calcium-magnesium-iron-manganese-aluminium silicate minerals, which are also referred to as calc- ...
Zeolites (microporous crystalline alumina-silicates) and silica gels are well suited for this purpose. In hot, humid ... Various eutectic metal mixtures, such as aluminum and silicon (AlSi 12) offer a high melting point suited to efficient steam ... Another medium that can store thermal energy is molten (recycled) aluminum. This technology was developed by the Swedish ... where the reaction rates can be increased by adding zinc or aluminum). The photochemical decomposition of nitrosyl chloride can ...
1961) had used daily additions of alumina (as AlCl3·6 H2O) and silica (in the form of ethyl silicate) during at least two ... Only now the actual role of what has been described as the "aging" (Alterung) of amorphous alumino-silicates (as for example ... Iler RK (1955). The colloid chemistry of silica and silicates. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. Caillère S, Hénin S ( ... 1994). "Effects of the Structure of Silica-Alumina Gel on the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Kaolinite". Clays and Clay Minerals. 42 ...
Vermiculite is a hydrated laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate that resembles mica. It can be used for many industrial ... Asbestos (/æsˈbɛstəs, æzˈ-, -tɒs/ ass-BEST-əs, az-, -⁠oss) is a naturally occurring fibrous silicate mineral. There are six ... Selected Silicate Minerals and Their Asbestiform Varieties by W. J. Campbell, et al. (Bureau of Mines Information Circular, I. ... it produces silicate glass. Microwave thermal treatment can be used in an industrial manufacturing process to transform ...
It is composed of clay colored by iron oxide, magnesium, aluminum silicate, or potassium. Large deposits were found in the ...
Later versions of the 404 used advanced materials, including aluminum silicate ceramic disc regenerators.: 79 The GM RTS-3T ...
Aluminium silicates are a mixture of alumina and silica, where commonly used mixtures have an alumina content from 42 to 72%; ... The binders used to hold the refractory material in place include: ethyl silicate (alcohol-based and chemically set), colloidal ... Materials: common refractory materials used to create the investments are: silica, zircon, various aluminium silicates, and ... at 72% alumina the compound is known as mullite. During the primary coat(s), zircon-based refractories are commonly used, ...
The circumstellar material is rich in dust, with alumina close to the star and silicates further out. The two types of dust ...
Many grasses, bagasse, bamboo and some tropical hardwoods contain much silicates that may cause sodium aluminum silicate scales ... Moderate amounts of silicates can be controlled with purging lime mud or lime kiln ash. Silicate removal from green liquor in a ... No commercial silicate removal system is available for the kraft process, but it can handle the small amounts of silicates from ...
Chemicals such as sulfites, aluminum silicate, and cigarette smoke can cause eosinophilic pneumonia when inhaled. A New York ...
Most clays consist of hydrous aluminum silicates, though there is a considerable amount of chemical variation among the clays. ...
Emerald is a green variety of beryl and is composed of silicate of alumina and glucina. Structurally, it is a hexagonal crystal ... The gem is an anhydrate quartz composed of silica, alumina, and iron and there are jaspers of nearly every colour. It is a ... Beryl is a stone composed of silica, alumina, and glucina with beryl and emerald being of the same species. The difference ... It is composed of silica, alumina, and alkali and is an opaque substance easily engraved. Debate still continues as to which ...
The reaction is an acid-base reaction between calcium-aluminum-silicate glass powder and polyacrylic acid. They come in a ... and by the use of pure alumina inserts, a core of alumina or alumina powder, as they act as crack stoppers and are highly ... Aluminum: failed because of its lack of malleability but has been added to some amalgams. Tin and iron: believed to have been a ... Calcium silicate-based liners have become alternatives to calcium hydroxide and are preferred by practitioners for their ...
... in front of the curtain wall and are carried on aluminum "combs". The rods are made of aluminum silicate, a ceramic chosen for ... The facade consists of a glass curtain wall, with ceramic rods mounted on aluminum frames in front of the curtain wall. The ... The logo itself is made of 959 custom aluminum sleeves measuring about 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter; these are wrapped around ...
... includes organic matter, silicate clay, and hydrous oxides of iron and aluminum. Illuvial deposits of clays, oxides, ...
Some soft sealants include Neoprene, Viton, Teflon tape), Lava sealant (magnesium aluminum silicate), and Grafoil (graphite ...
They do this by reacting with finely divided silica and alumina to produce calcium silicates and aluminates, which possess ...
By the 1950s, precipitated aluminum silicate, called Lloyd's reagent, was being used to remove protein from serum, further ...
... the consensus being that the major component is aluminum silicate hydroxide. This comes from the kaolin clay group, making ... In addition, its composition may also include: aluminum, persistent organic pollutants, silicon, alpha lindane, endrin, ...
EWGs Skin Deep® database gives you practical solutions to protect yourself and your family from everyday exposures to chemicals in personal care products.
Смотреть что такое "aluminum silicate" в других словарях:. *. aluminum silicate - Al2SiO5, the silicate salt of aluminum. It ... aluminum silicate - alu′minum sil′icate n. chem. any crystalline combination of silicate and aluminate … From formal English to ... Aluminium silicate - (or aluminum silicate) has the chemical formula Al2SiO5. It has a density of 2.8 to 2.9 g/cm³, a vitreous ... silicate - [[t]sɪ̱lɪkət[/t]] silicates N MASS A silicate is a compound of silica which does not dissolve. There are many ...
Leading Refractory Material Aluminum Silicate Fiber Blanket Manufacturers & Suppliers, find Refractory Material Aluminum ... China Refractory Material Aluminum Silicate Fiber Blanket with High-Quality, ... Find Refractory Aluminum Silicate Fiber Blanket, White Aluminum Silicate Fiber Blanket, Fire Prevention Aluminum Silicate Fiber ... Refractory Material Aluminum Silicate Fiber Blanket Refractory Material Aluminum Silicate Fiber Blanket ...
... with strict quality control aluminum based phosphate binders factories, producing high quality aluminum based phosphate binders ... High quality Potassium Silicate Hardener Condensed Aluminum Phosphate Alpo4 White Powder from China, Chinas leading al ... P PRODUCT NAME:Aluminum Phosphate,Aluminum Metaphosphate,Potassium Silicate Curing Agent ... Home /Aluminium Phosphate Binder/Potassium Silicate Hardener Condensed Aluminum Phosphate Alpo4 White Powder ...
Aluminum silicate is a versatile material with many industrial applications, from production of ceramics to fireproofing. This ... Examining the Role of Aluminum Silicate in Fireproofing. Examining the Role of Aluminum Silicate in Fireproofing. Aluminum ... Uses of Aluminum Silicate in Industrial and Manufacturing Processes. Aluminum silicate is a popular choice for industrial and ... The Safety Considerations of Working with Aluminum Silicate. The Safety Considerations of Working with Aluminum Silicate. When ...
Clays - Hydrous aluminum silicates. Most common is bentonite (85% mineral clay smectite). Can be used to obtain a cement of ... Distribution of silicate and aluminate phases. Reactivity of hydrating phases. Gypsum/hemihydrates ratio and total sulphate ...
Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum silicate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium sulfate Behenamide Butadiene-styrene copolymer. As the basic ... Sodium silicate Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate identified in § 172.846 of this chapter. Not to exceed 0.5 percent weight of ... Fatty acids derived from animal and vegetable fats and oils, and the following salts of such acids, single or mixed: Aluminum, ...
Hydrated aluminum silicate. 1332-58-7. GF1670500. Hydrated calcium sulfate. 13397-24-5. MG2360000. ...
... lithium aluminum silicate, LiAlSiO4, occurring in colorless to white hexagonal crystals. See examples of EUCRYPTITE used in a ... a mineral, lithium aluminum silicate, LiAlSiO 4 , occurring in colorless to white hexagonal crystals: used as a source of ...
Calcium magnesium aluminum silicate (CMAS) is one of the leading concerns for the gas turbine industry. The effects of CMAS ... Oxides based on Y4Zr3-xTaxO12+0.5x (x = =0, 0.7, 1.4) were mixed with various ternary and quinary silicate compositions ranging ... The effects of TaO2.5 additions to Y4Zr3O12 (YZO) on its interactions with calcium-magnesium alumino-silicate (CMAS) melts are ... 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Thermal barrier coating (TBC); Calcium-magnesium alumino-silicates (CMAS); Rare-earth oxide; Phase ...
6, magnesium aluminum silicate, orange flavor spray dry natural and artificial, polysorbate 60, purified water, sodium benzoate ... 6, magnesium aluminum silicate, orange flavor spray dry natural and artificial, polysorbate 60, purified water, sodium benzoate ... Calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide. Prevention or Management: Phenytoin and antacids should not be ...
Hydrated Aluminum Magnesium Silicate. HYDRO Film Dow Fast Dry EH 70388 White. HYDRO Film Opaque White EH-70458. HYDRO Flow Dow ... Aluminum Chips. Aluminum Chlorohydrate. Aluminum Oxide. Aluminum Starch Octenylsuccinate. AMCOR W16-000642. AMCOR W16-000643. ... Magnesium Aluminum Silicate. Magnesium Carbonate. Magnesium Chloride. Magnum 3415U Green Ink PIPG7424. Malachite Green Liquid. ... Sodium Silicate. Sodium Silicoaluminate. Sodium Stearate. Sodium Sulfamate. Sodium Sulfate. Sodium Sulfate (Active). Sodium ...
LR: 20151119; JID: 8610224; 0 (Acrylic Resins); 0 (Aluminum Silicates); 0 (Dental Alloys); 0 (Fuji Ortho LC); 0 (Glass Ionomer ... Acid Etching, Dental, Acrylic Resins/chemistry, Aluminum Silicates/chemistry, Ceramics/chemistry, Dental Alloys/chemistry, ...
A high alumina/boron low calcium frit for Cone 06-01. Alkaline, alumina borosilicate. Melting Range 1400-1500 . ... Calcium alumina borosilicate. A well-balanced formulated frit typically used in cone 06-03 glossy glazes. Compare to Ferro 3195 ... Sodium-calcium-borosilicate flux used in wall tiles glazes, with a melting point of 1450 F. Contains no alumina. Comparable ...
Aluminum Silicates; Hydraulic Fracturing; Fracking Sand Dust; Neurotoxicity; Occupational Hazards; Silica ... Aluminum compounds; Cellular effects; Cellular function; Oil industry; Gas industry; Natural gas; Author Keywords: ...
Silicates for aluminum protection. *Nitrites for liner cavitation protection. *Other inhibitors for copper and iron protection ... In order to save weight and add fuel economy, some manufacturers opted to use aluminum radiators and other aluminum components ... With aluminum components in the cooling system, there are two solutions to the corrosion problem. One is to have all of the ... The OEMs realized that unless the aluminum components were coated with a non-corrosive film such as metal oxide, the corrosion ...
Magnesium Aluminum Silicate; Petrolatum; Potassium Sorbate; Sodium Hydroxide; Steareth-2; Water ...
Magnesium aluminum silicate. 5. Cellulose. 5. Cellulose gum. 1. Caprylyl glycol. 1. ...
Ca3Al2(SiO4)3, Calcium Aluminum Silicate. COMMON CONDITIONS. Physical:. Arthritis, Bone Marrow, Detoxifying, Fertility, Immune ...
Sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate. Code:. 711. Series:. 2. Opacity:. Transparent. Permanence:. A - Permanent. ... The current range of Ceracolors is available in 50ml aluminum collapsible tubes, and mediums are available in 4- and 8-fluid- ...
They do this by reacting with finely divided silica and alumina to produce calcium silicates and aluminates, which possess ...
Aluminum silicate. *Bentonite. *Catalysts. *Kaolin. *Mineral powders. *Rare earths (magnetic raw materials) ...
Jadeite is a silicate of sodium and aluminum. It is generally shinier and slightly heavier and harder than nephrite but not as ... A silicate of sodium and aluminum, jadeite is classed as a pyroxene. Although in a class different from nephrite, jadeite ... Nephrite is a silicate of calcium and magnesium in the amphibole group of minerals. Jadeite is a silicate of sodium and ... Nephrite is a silicate of calcium and magnesium. What distinguishes nephrite from other rocks with the same chemical ...
... a light grey rock rich in calcium-aluminum silicate. The dark regions of the Moon are the maria - impact basins that were ... Stones (95 per cent of meteorite falls): these are silicate rocks (some resembling terrestrial volcanic rocks) derived from ... half-metal samples are formed on or within melted asteroids by the mixing of metal core material with silicate rocks. One class ...
... or beryllium aluminum silicate in chemical jargon, is a six-sided symmetrical crystal. Beryl contains beryllium, aluminum, ... Its chemical composition is a combination of beryllium aluminum silicate and it appears as a colorless crystal in its pure ... replacing some of the aluminum in the minerals structure. The stone can, however, lose its color when heated strongly.. The ...
Pure alumina silicate ceramic insulator, provides superior strength and better heat transfer. Copper core aids in heat removal ...
Tourmaline is a complex crystalline silicate containing aluminum, boron and other elements. Its name derives from the Sinhalese ...
  • The effects of TaO 2.5 additions to Y 4 Zr 3 O 12 (YZO) on its interactions with calcium-magnesium alumino-silicate (CMAS) melts are investigated herein. (
  • article{osti_1601623, title = {Interactions between zirconia-yttria-tantala thermal barrier oxides and silicate melts}, author = {Abdul-Jabbar, Najeb Mohammed and Fernandez, Abel N. and Jackson, Richard Wesley and Park, Daesung and Summers, William D. and Levi, Carlos G.}, abstractNote = {The effects of TaO2.5 additions to Y4Zr3O12 (YZO) on its interactions with calcium-magnesium alumino-silicate (CMAS) melts are investigated herein. (
  • Nephrite is a silicate of calcium and magnesium. (
  • According to the National Palace Museum, Taipei: Chemically speaking a silicate of calcium and magnesium, nephrite belongs to the amphibole group of minerals. (
  • One of the more widely abundant constituents of the chlorite group, clinochlore is a magnesium aluminum silicate hydroxide mineral. (
  • Vermiculite is a naturally occurring laminar aluminum-iron-magnesium silicate. (
  • Complexation of nicotine (NCT) and magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) has been formed in the dispersions that required multiple preparation steps. (
  • The second type of fireproofing is called endothermic fireproofing, which involves applying a mixture of alumina and silica to the material. (
  • The most commonly observed forms of aluminum, silicon and titanium in tobacco products are aluminum silicates (e.g., kaolin), silica and titanium(IV) oxide. (
  • It also used in the production of siliceous,high-aluminum,magnesian,siliconcarbide and oxides of concrete. (
  • Oxides based on Y 4 Zr 3-x Ta x O 12+0.5x ( x = =0, 0.7, 1.4) were mixed with various ternary and quinary silicate compositions ranging in Ca:Si ratio from 0.35 to 1.13 and equilibrated at 1300 °C. The results show that all combinations form the desired apatite phase except for the mixture of the higher Ta 5+ content with the lowest Ca:Si melt. (
  • It is composed primarily of hydrous aluminum silicates, trace amounts of metal OXIDES, and organic matter. (
  • Sodium silicate - E550 redirects here. (
  • Generally, it contains between 40 and 60 percent aluminum oxide, 40 and 60 percent silicon dioxide, and a small amount of other elements such as sodium, potassium, and calcium. (
  • Jadeite is a silicate of sodium and aluminum. (
  • Chemical Composition: of the Plagioclase Feldspar Group, a series of mixtures of sodium and calcium aluminum silicates. (
  • Tourmaline is a complex crystalline silicate containing aluminum, boron and other elements. (
  • The aluminum silicate is mixed with plastic kaolin, feldspar, and quartz to obtain final hard and glazed porcelain insulator material. (
  • silicate mineral - Any of a large group of silicon oxygen compounds that are widely distributed throughout much of the solar system. (
  • Aluminum silicate is an inorganic compound derived from aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide. (
  • Aluminum- and titanium-containing nanoparticles were observed in all cigarette and little cigar samples, with titanium(IV) oxide particle deliveries consistently fewer in number and smaller in diameter than the other two types of particles. (
  • Aluminum phosphate adhesive has excellent heat-resistance and weather-resistance, not only a widely used adhesive in refractories, it's also an importantingredient in inorganic coatings(such as powder coating). (
  • A relatively new technique, single particle triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to analyze aluminum-, silicon- and titanium-containing particle deliveries in cigarette and little cigar mainstream tobacco smoke, and to collect information on solid inorganic particles. (
  • In ceramic production, aluminum silicate is mixed with other ingredients to create a slurry that can be molded into desired shapes. (
  • Pure alumina silicate ceramic insulator, provides superior strength and better heat transfer. (
  • The number and range of particle sizes determined in mainstream smoke is consistent with pulmonary deposition of aluminum silicates described by other researchers as contributing to the 'smokers' inclusions' observed in pulmonary macrophages. (
  • The composition of aluminum silicate varies depending on the specific application. (
  • Aluminum silicate is a popular choice for industrial and manufacturing processes due to its versatility and abundance. (
  • The chemical structure of aluminum silicate consists of a three-dimensional network of oxygen atoms, with aluminum atoms located on the corners and silicon atoms located at the center of each unit cell. (
  • Aluminium silicate - (or aluminum silicate) has the chemical formula Al2SiO5. (
  • Find Refractory Aluminum Silicate Fiber Blanket, White Aluminum Silicate Fiber Blanket, Fire Prevention Aluminum Silicate Fiber Blanket on Industry Directory, Reliable Manufacturer/Supplier/Factory from China. (
  • Stony irons (1 per cent of falls): these half-stone, half-metal samples are formed on or within melted asteroids by the mixing of metal core material with silicate rocks. (
  • Aluminum silicate is a versatile material with many industrial uses, from production of ceramics to fireproofing solutions. (
  • Overall, aluminum silicate is an invaluable material with a wide range of uses and benefits. (
  • Aluminum silicate is also used in the production of insulation materials, such as fiberglass. (
  • There are two main types of fireproofing that utilize aluminum silicate. (
  • Chemically, it is a beryllium-aluminum silicate whose color is due to small quantities of chromium compounds. (
  • This gem - composed of the mineral beryllium aluminum silicate - is pale greenish blue in color. (
  • They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (
  • The most commonly observed forms of aluminum, silicon and titanium in tobacco products are aluminum silicates (e.g., kaolin), silica and titanium(IV) oxide. (
  • Four of the test formulations were monobasic/dibasic organic acid technology coolants and two were traditional technology coolants containing nitrate, phosphate, and silicate. (
  • An inhibitor package which is silicate-, nitrate-, borate- and phosphate-free has been developed as the basis for a world-wide automotive coolant formulation. (
  • Tissue mineralogic analyses showed variable amounts of sheets of aluminum and magnesium silicates, chrysotile asbestos, calcium phosphate, and calcium sulfate. (
  • The effect of small amounts of silicate on coolant performance has been studied. (
  • A relatively new technique, single particle triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to analyze aluminum-, silicon- and titanium-containing particle deliveries in cigarette and little cigar mainstream tobacco smoke, and to collect information on solid inorganic particles. (
  • Aluminum- and titanium-containing nanoparticles were observed in all cigarette and little cigar samples, with titanium(IV) oxide particle deliveries consistently fewer in number and smaller in diameter than the other two types of particles. (
  • The number and range of particle sizes determined in mainstream smoke is consistent with pulmonary deposition of aluminum silicates described by other researchers as contributing to the 'smokers' inclusions' observed in pulmonary macrophages. (
  • Mixtures of a novel corrosion inhibitor, based on the synergistic combination of aliphatic mono- and dibasic acids with a traditional coolant have been evaluated in: a stability test an electrochemical test the ASTM D 1384 Glassware Corrosion Test the ASTM D 4340 Aluminum Heat-Rejection Test a Dynamic Heat-Transfer Test. (
  • The organic acid based coolants provide improved high temperature aluminum corrosion protection and longer drain intervals when compared to traditional coolants. (
  • The test and analytical results acquired during 1974 are given, including descriptions of the material testing conducted magnesium-alumina-silicate (MAS) regenerator samples, analysis of core and rim designs, development of new regenerator core drive and support systems, and the results of over 18,000 hours of engine durability testing accumulated during 1974. (
  • Alumina coatings were deposited on 6061 aluminum alloy substrates in an alkaline silicate electrolyte using a unipolar pulsed DC current mode. (