A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.
Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.
A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.
A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent that is structurally related to NALIDIXIC ACID.
An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Tetanus toxoid is a purified and chemically inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus disease by stimulating the production of antibodies.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.

Induction of atherosclerosis in Brown Norway rats by immunization with ovalbumin. (1/301)

A study was carried out to establish an animal model that would be suitable for evaluating the role of the diet in immune cell-mediated atherogenesis. Brown Norway rats were initially treated with hypervitamin D2 for 4 days and then fed on an atherogenic diet for 3 months, during which period the rats were either immunized with ovalubumin plus Al(OH)3 (OVA group) or with Al(OH)3 alone (control group) every 3 weeks. Aortic lesions were mainly composed of foam cells, the lesions evaluated by the intimal thickness of the ascending aorta being more severe in the OVA group than in the control group. The OVA group, in comparison with the control group, showed prominently increased serum levels of OVA-specific IgG and rat chymase, an indicator of mast cell degranulation. The intimal thickness was positively correlated with the level of chymase. Immunization had no effect on the serum lipid levels. These results support the hypothesis that mast cells play a role in the early stage of atherosclerosis and suggest that this animal model could be useful for evaluating the role of the diet in immune-related atherogenesis.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of gatifloxacin and interaction with an antacid containing aluminum and magnesium. (2/301)

The pharmacokinetics of gatifloxacin (400 mg orally) and the influence of the antacid aluminum magnesium hydroxide (20 ml of Maalox 70) on the bioavailability of gatifloxacin in 24 healthy volunteers were assessed. In an open, randomized, six-period crossover study, the volunteers received either gatifloxacin alone (treatments A and D); aluminum magnesium hydroxide concomitant with gatifloxacin (treatment C); or aluminum magnesium hydroxide 2 h before (treatment B), 2 h after (treatment E), or 4 h after gatifloxacin administration (treatment F). Gatifloxacin concentrations were measured by a validated bioassay and high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetics of a single 400-mg dose of gatifloxacin alone were characterized as follows (mean +/- standard deviation): peak concentration (Cmax), 3.8 +/- 0. 5 (treatment A) and 3.4 +/- 0.9 (treatment D) microgram/ml; time to Cmax, 1.4 +/- 0.8 (treatment A) and 1.7 +/- 0.7 (treatment D) h; area under the curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity), 33. 5 +/- 5.9 (treatment A) and 31.4 +/- 3.4 (treatment D) microgram. h/ml; urine recovery, (83 +/- 6)% (treatment A) and (84 +/- 8)% (treatment D). Comparison of the results obtained by bioassay showed a good correlation. Aluminum magnesium hydroxide administration 2 h before (treatment B) or concomitant with (treatment C) gatifloxacin decreased the Cmax by 45% (2.1 +/- 1.2 microgram/ml) or even 68% (1.2 +/- 0.4 microgram/ml) highly significantly (P < 0.01). AUC0-infinity was significantly reduced from 33.5 +/- 5.9 to 19.4 +/- 6.9 microgram. h/ml (by 42%) or even to 11.9 +/- 3.3 microgram. h/ml (by 64%) (P < 0. 01). If aluminum magnesium hydroxide was given 2 h after gatifloxacin (treatment E), there was no significant reduction of concentration in serum but AUC0-infinity was significantly reduced from 31.4 +/- 3.4 to 25.9 +/- 5.3 microgram. h/ml (18%) (P < 0.01). Aluminum magnesium hydroxide given 4 h after gatifloxacin (treatment F) showed no influence on the gatifloxacin pharmacokinetics. Therefore, the optimal time between gatifloxacin application and the intake of an aluminum-containing antacid should be 4 h.  (+info)

Clinical and immune responses in resected colon cancer patients treated with anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody vaccine that mimics the carcinoembryonic antigen. (3/301)

PURPOSE: We generated an anti-idiotype antibody, designated CeaVac, that is an internal image of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). We previously demonstrated that the majority of patients with advanced colorectal cancer generate specific anti-CEA responses. The purpose of the current study was to treat patients with surgically resected colon cancer with CeaVac to determine the immune response and clinical outcome to treatment with vaccine. We also compared the immune responses between patients treated with fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy regimens plus vaccine versus vaccine alone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients with resected Dukes' B, C, and D, and incompletely resected Dukes' D disease were treated with 2 mg of CeaVac every other week for four injections and then monthly until tumor recurrence or progression. Fourteen patients were treated concurrently with 5-FU chemotherapy regimens. RESULTS: All 32 patients entered onto this trial generated high-titer immunoglobulin G and T-cell proliferative immune responses against CEA. The 5-FU regimens did not have a qualitative or quantitative effect on the immune response. Three of 15 patients with Dukes' B and C disease progressed at 19, 24, and 35 months. Seven of eight patients with completely resected Dukes' D disease remained on study from 12 to 33 months; one patient with resected Dukes' D disease relapsed at 9 months. One patient with incompletely resected Dukes' D disease remained on study at 14 months without evidence of progression; eight experienced disease progression at 6 to 31 months. CONCLUSION: CeaVac consistently generated a potent anti-CEA humoral and cellular immune response in all 32 patients entered onto this trial. A number of very high-risk patients continue on study. 5-FU regimens, which are the standard of care for patients with Dukes' C disease, did not affect the immune response. These data warrant a phase III trial for patients with resected colon cancer.  (+info)

Large subcutaneous calcification in systemic lupus erythematosus: treatment with oral aluminum hydroxide administration followed by surgical excision. (4/301)

A 32-year-old woman with a long-standing systemic lupus erythematosus had multiple subcutaneous nodules on her axillae, iliac crests and limbs. Three years ago, these nodules began to appear and slowly became larger. Some of them amassed to form a large, fungating, lobulated mass on her right iliac crest. Roentgenographic and histological examination showed that they were calcium deposits. She was initially treated with aluminum hydroxide administration for nine months, which resulted in moderate decrease in size and softening in consistency, but not complete resolution. Then, the mass on the right iliac crest was excised, with an excellent early result.  (+info)

Repeated antigen inhalations alter chemical mediators that cause asthmatic obstruction in guinea pigs. (5/301)

The contributions of histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) to the asthmatic responses and the magnitudes of blood and lung eosinophilia at acute and chronic stages of our asthmatic model were comparatively determined. Guinea pigs were alternately sensitized/challenged by inhalation with ovalbumin+Al(OH)3 and ovalbumin, once every 2 weeks. Effects of mepyramine, pranlukast (a CysLT antagonist) and seratrodast (a TXA2 antagonist) on the early (EAR) and/or the late asthmatic response (LAR) were assessed at the second and fourth antigen challenges. The second challenge caused EAR but not LAR. Although the EAR was decreased at the fourth challenge, a substantial LAR was seen. Both mepyramine and seratrodast inhibited the EAR at the second challenge by approximately 50%. However, at the fourth challenge, these drugs did not inhibit the EAR. The LAR at the fourth challenge was attenuated by pranlukast and seratrodast by 45% and 40%, respectively. Both the blood and lung eosinophilia were modestly and markedly induced 5 h after the second and fourth challenges, respectively. These results strongly suggest that repetition of antigen challenge induces quantitative alterations of chemical mediators participating in the asthmatic responses and a change of the body state under which eosinophils exhibit enhanced migratory activities.  (+info)

Aluminium hydroxide adjuvant initiates strong antigen-specific Th2 responses in the absence of IL-4- or IL-13-mediated signaling. (6/301)

Previous studies demonstrate that aluminium hydroxide adjuvant (alum) produces increased Th1 responses in IL-4-deficient mice compared with wild-type animals, although the continued production of IL-5 by spleen cells from these mice also indicates that Th2 responses are induced. In the present study, we demonstrate that alum can induce Th2-associated IL-4 and IL-5 production in the absence of IL-4 signaling in mice deficient in either IL-4Ralpha or Stat6. The Th2 responses observed could not be due to IL-13 as IL-13 responses are also impaired in IL-4Ralpha- and Stat6-deficient mice. We also detected higher levels of IL-4 in IL-4Ralpha gene-deficient, though not Stat6-deficient, mice compared with their wild-type counterparts. The increased levels of IL-4 could be explained by the IL-4R being unavailable to neutralize this cytokine in IL-4Ralpha-deficient mice. While levels of IL-5 production in IL-4Ralpha- or Stat6-deficient mice were similar to IL-4-deficient and wild-type mice, other type 2-associated responses, which are largely or wholly IL-4 dependent, such as the production of IgG1 or IgE Abs, were either reduced or absent. We conclude that alum adjuvants can induce IL-4 production and Th2 responses independently of IL-4 or IL-13, negating the requirement for an early source of IL-4 in the Th2 response induced by this adjuvant.  (+info)

Onset of action during on-demand treatment with maalox suspension or low-dose ranitidine for heartburn. (7/301)

AIM: To compare the onset of action of the local antacid Maalox and the systemic H2-antagonist ranitidine, during 'on demand' ambulant treatment of a single heartburn episode, using a randomized, parallel group, double-blind, double-dummy design. METHODS: Subjects with self-perceived heartburn without known gastrointestinal disease or interfering treatments were selected with questionnaires. The study was performed unsupervised, whenever heartburn required medication. An electronic patient diary gave instructions when to take study medication, and provided visual analogue scales and five-item relief ratings for heartburn, at frequent time intervals activated by an alarm-clock. RESULTS: After a study of the natural history of heartburn and the feasibility of the study procedures in 23 patients, 49 subjects took Maalox and 45 ranitidine. Half of these experienced meaningful heartburn relief within 19 min after Maalox, and within 70 min after ranitidine. One hour after intake, the average heartburn relief score was 3.43 in the Maalox group and 3.04 in the ranitidine group (3 means 'slight improvement' and 4 'strong improvement'). Heartburn was similar in both groups after 3 h. CONCLUSIONS: Maalox provides faster relief of heartburn than ranitidine. Heartburn can be assessed frequently and reliably under ambulant conditions using an electronic patient diary.  (+info)

A new, surface-antigen-adsorbed influenza virus vaccine. I. Studies on immunogenicity in hamsters. (8/301)

The ability of a new, surface-antigen-adsorbed influenza virus vaccine to induce serum antibody in hamsters, and to protect these hamsters against subsequent homologous virus challenge, is reported. In addition, similar studies in hamsters have also been carried out using the surface antigen material prior to adsorption to the aluminium hydroxide carrier. The new, adsorbed vaccine is at least as effective as inactivated saline influenza virus vaccine in inducing serum antibody and protection in hamsters; the unadsorbed surface antigen material, however, did not confer protection to hamsters challenged subsequently with homologous virus.  (+info)

Aluminum hydroxide is a medication that contains the active ingredient aluminum hydroxide, which is an inorganic compound. It is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn. Aluminum hydroxide works by reacting with the acid in the stomach to form a physical barrier that prevents the acid from backing up into the esophagus.

In addition to its use as an antacid, aluminum hydroxide is also used as a phosphate binder in patients with kidney disease. It works by binding to phosphate in the gut and preventing it from being absorbed into the bloodstream, which can help to control high phosphate levels in the body.

Aluminum hydroxide is available over-the-counter and by prescription in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid suspensions. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to talk to a healthcare provider if symptoms persist or worsen.

Calcium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is also known as slaked lime or hydrated lime. Calcium hydroxide is a white, odorless, tasteless, and alkaline powder that dissolves in water to form a caustic solution.

Medically, calcium hydroxide is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. It is also used as a topical agent to treat skin conditions such as poison ivy rash, sunburn, and minor burns. When applied to the skin, calcium hydroxide helps to reduce inflammation, neutralize irritants, and promote healing.

In dental applications, calcium hydroxide is used as a filling material for root canals and as a paste to treat tooth sensitivity. It has the ability to stimulate the formation of new dentin, which is the hard tissue that makes up the bulk of the tooth.

It's important to note that calcium hydroxide should be used with caution, as it can cause irritation and burns if it comes into contact with the eyes or mucous membranes. It should also be stored in a cool, dry place away from heat and open flames.

Hydroxides are inorganic compounds that contain the hydroxide ion (OH−). They are formed when a base, which is an electron pair donor, reacts with water. The hydroxide ion consists of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom, and it carries a negative charge. Hydroxides are basic in nature due to their ability to donate hydroxide ions in solution, which increases the pH and makes the solution more alkaline. Common examples of hydroxides include sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). They have various applications in industry, medicine, and research.

Aluminum compounds refer to chemical substances that are formed by the combination of aluminum with other elements. Aluminum is a naturally occurring metallic element, and it can combine with various non-metallic elements to form compounds with unique properties and uses. Some common aluminum compounds include:

1. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3): Also known as alumina, this compound is formed when aluminum combines with oxygen. It is a white, odorless powder that is highly resistant to heat and corrosion. Aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications, including ceramics, abrasives, and refractories.
2. Aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with sulfuric acid. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water. Aluminum sulfate is used as a flocculant in water treatment, as well as in the manufacture of paper and textiles.
3. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with chlorine. It is a white or yellowish-white solid that is highly deliquescent, meaning it readily absorbs moisture from the air. Aluminum chloride is used as a catalyst in chemical reactions, as well as in the production of various industrial chemicals.
4. Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with hydroxide ions. It is a white, powdery substance that is amphoteric, meaning it can react with both acids and bases. Aluminum hydroxide is used as an antacid and as a fire retardant.
5. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when zinc oxide is combined with aluminum hydroxide. It is a white, powdery substance that is used as a filler in rubber and plastics, as well as in the manufacture of paints and coatings.

It's important to note that some aluminum compounds have been linked to health concerns, particularly when they are inhaled or ingested in large quantities. For example, aluminum chloride has been shown to be toxic to animals at high doses, while aluminum hydroxide has been associated with neurological disorders in some studies. However, the risks associated with exposure to these compounds are generally low, and they are considered safe for most industrial and consumer uses when used as directed.

Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2. It is a white solid that is amphoteric, meaning it can react as both an acid and a base. Magnesium hydroxide is commonly used as an over-the-counter antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. It works by increasing the pH of the stomach, which can help to reduce the production of stomach acid.

Magnesium hydroxide is also used as a laxative to relieve constipation, as it has a softening effect on stools and stimulates bowel movements. In addition, magnesium hydroxide is sometimes used in medical procedures to neutralize or wash away stomach acid, for example during endoscopies or the treatment of poisoning.

It's important to note that while magnesium hydroxide is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal cramps. In addition, people with kidney disease or severe heart or lung conditions should use magnesium hydroxide with caution, as it can worsen these conditions in some cases.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Alum compounds are a type of double sulfate salt, typically consisting of aluminum sulfate and another metal sulfate. The most common variety is potassium alum, or potassium aluminum sulfate (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O). Alum compounds have a wide range of uses, including water purification, tanning leather, dyeing and printing textiles, and as a food additive for baking powder and pickling. They are also used in medicine as astringents to reduce bleeding and swelling, and to soothe skin irritations. Alum compounds have the ability to make proteins in living cells become more stable, which can be useful in medical treatments.

Sodium hydroxide, also known as caustic soda or lye, is a highly basic anhydrous metal hydroxide with the chemical formula NaOH. It is a white solid that is available in pellets, flakes, granules, or as a 50% saturated solution. Sodium hydroxide is produced in large quantities, primarily for the manufacture of pulp and paper, alcohols, textiles, soaps, detergents, and drain cleaners. It is used in many chemical reactions to neutralize acids and it is a strong bases that can cause severe burns and eye damage.

Antacids are a type of medication that is used to neutralize stomach acid and provide rapid relief from symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach discomfort. They work by chemically reacting with the stomach acid to reduce its acidity. Antacids may contain one or more active ingredients, including aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and sodium bicarbonate.

Antacids are available over-the-counter in various forms, such as tablets, chewable tablets, liquids, and powders. They can provide quick relief from acid reflux and related symptoms; however, they may not be effective for treating the underlying cause of these symptoms. Therefore, if you experience frequent or severe symptoms, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks and in the shells of many marine animals. As a mineral, it is known as calcite or aragonite.

In the medical field, calcium carbonate is often used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is also commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid reflux, and indigestion.

Calcium carbonate works by reacting with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form water, carbon dioxide, and calcium chloride. This reaction helps to raise the pH level in the stomach and neutralize excess acid.

It is important to note that excessive use of calcium carbonate can lead to hypercalcemia, a condition characterized by high levels of calcium in the blood, which can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, confusion, and muscle weakness. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

The chemical element aluminum (or aluminium in British English) is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. The atomic number of aluminum is 13 and its symbol on the periodic table is Al. It is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust and is found in a variety of minerals such as bauxite.

Aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide on its surface that protects it from further oxidation. It is lightweight, has good thermal and electrical conductivity, and can be easily formed and machined. These properties make aluminum a widely used metal in various industries such as construction, packaging, transportation, and electronics.

In the medical field, aluminum is used in some medications and medical devices. For example, aluminum hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and treat heartburn, while aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. However, excessive exposure to aluminum can be harmful and has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, although the exact relationship between aluminum and these conditions is not fully understood.

Ammonium hydroxide is a solution of ammonia (NH3) in water, and it is also known as aqua ammonia or ammonia water. It has the chemical formula NH4OH. This solution is composed of ammonium ions (NH4+) and hydroxide ions (OH-), making it a basic or alkaline substance with a pH level greater than 7.

Ammonium hydroxide is commonly used in various industrial, agricultural, and laboratory applications. It serves as a cleaning agent, a pharmaceutical aid, a laboratory reagent, and a component in fertilizers. In chemistry, it can be used to neutralize acids or act as a base in acid-base reactions.

Handling ammonium hydroxide requires caution due to its caustic nature. It can cause burns and eye damage upon contact, and inhalation of its vapors may lead to respiratory irritation. Proper safety measures, such as wearing protective clothing, gloves, and eyewear, should be taken when handling this substance.

An adjuvant in pharmaceutics is a substance that is added to a drug formulation to enhance the immune response to the drug or vaccine, increase its absorption and bioavailability, or improve its stability and shelf life. Adjuvants can stimulate the immune system, making vaccines more effective by increasing the production of antibodies and activating T-cells. Commonly used adjuvants include aluminum salts, oil-in-water emulsions, and bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides. The use of adjuvants in pharmaceutics is a complex and active area of research aimed at improving the efficacy and safety of vaccines and other drug formulations.

Dihydrotachysterol is a synthetic form of vitamin D that is used as a medication to treat hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium in the blood) in people with certain medical conditions, such as hypoparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency. It works by increasing the absorption of calcium from the gut and promoting the release of calcium from bones into the bloodstream.

Dihydrotachysterol is available in tablet form and is typically taken once or twice a day, with the dosage adjusted based on the individual's response to treatment and serum calcium levels. Common side effects of dihydrotachysterol include hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood), nausea, vomiting, and constipation. It is important to monitor serum calcium levels regularly while taking this medication to prevent toxicity.

Sucralfate is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called aluminum complexes. It's often used in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers, including duodenal and gastric ulcers, as well as in the prevention of stress-induced mucosal damage in critically ill patients.

Sucralfate works by forming a protective barrier over the ulcer site, which helps to prevent further damage from acid and digestive enzymes. It's not absorbed into the bloodstream, so it acts locally in the gastrointestinal tract. The medical definition of Sucralfate is:

A synthetic basic aluminum salt of sucrose octasulfate, which is used in the treatment of gastro duodenal ulcers and as a protectant against stress-induced mucosal damage in critically ill patients. It exerts its therapeutic effect by forming a complex, adhesive protective coating over ulcerated areas, thereby preventing further erosion from gastric acid and pepsin.

Propantheline is an anticholinergic drug, which means it blocks the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body. The specific action of propantheline is to inhibit the muscarinic receptors, leading to a decrease in glandular secretions and smooth muscle tone. It is primarily used as a treatment for peptic ulcers, as it reduces gastric acid secretion.

The medical definition of 'Propantheline' can be stated as:

A belladonna alkaloid with parasympatholytic effects, used as an antispasmodic and in the treatment of peptic ulcer to reduce gastric acid secretion. It inhibits the action of acetylcholine on muscarinic receptors, leading to decreased glandular secretions and smooth muscle tone. Common side effects include dry mouth, blurred vision, and constipation.

Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Al2O3. It is also known as alumina and it is a white solid that is widely used in various industries due to its unique properties. Aluminum oxide is highly resistant to corrosion, has a high melting point, and is an electrical insulator.

In the medical field, aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications such as:

1. Dental crowns and implants: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of dental crowns and implants due to its strength and durability.
2. Orthopedic implants: Aluminum oxide is used in some types of orthopedic implants, such as knee and hip replacements, because of its biocompatibility and resistance to wear.
3. Medical ceramics: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of medical ceramics, which are used in various medical devices such as pacemakers and hearing aids.
4. Pharmaceuticals: Aluminum oxide is used as an excipient in some pharmaceutical products, such as tablets and capsules, to improve their stability and shelf life.
5. Medical research: Aluminum oxide is used in medical research, for example, as a substrate material for growing cells or as a coating material for medical devices.

It's important to note that while aluminum oxide has many useful applications in the medical field, exposure to high levels of aluminum can be harmful to human health. Therefore, it is important to use aluminum oxide and other aluminum-containing materials safely and according to established guidelines.

Ovalbumin is the major protein found in egg white, making up about 54-60% of its total protein content. It is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of around 45 kDa and has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Ovalbumin is a single polypeptide chain consisting of 385 amino acids, including four disulfide bridges that contribute to its structure.

Ovalbumin is often used in research as a model antigen for studying immune responses and allergies. In its native form, ovalbumin is not allergenic; however, when it is denatured or degraded into smaller peptides through cooking or digestion, it can become an allergen for some individuals.

In addition to being a food allergen, ovalbumin has been used in various medical and research applications, such as vaccine development, immunological studies, and protein structure-function analysis.

Phosphates, in a medical context, refer to the salts or esters of phosphoric acid. Phosphates play crucial roles in various biological processes within the human body. They are essential components of bones and teeth, where they combine with calcium to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Phosphates also participate in energy transfer reactions as phosphate groups attached to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, they contribute to buffer systems that help maintain normal pH levels in the body.

Abnormal levels of phosphates in the blood can indicate certain medical conditions. High phosphate levels (hyperphosphatemia) may be associated with kidney dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, or excessive intake of phosphate-containing products. Low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia) might result from malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or certain diseases affecting the small intestine or kidneys. Both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have significant impacts on various organ systems and may require medical intervention.

Freund's adjuvant is not a medical condition but a substance used in laboratory research to enhance the body's immune response to an antigen or vaccine. It is named after its developer, Jules T. Freund.

There are two types of Freund's adjuvants: complete and incomplete. Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) contains killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, which causes a strong inflammatory response when injected into the body. This makes it an effective adjuvant for experimental vaccines, as it helps to stimulate the immune system and promote a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) is similar to FCA but does not contain Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is less potent than FCA but still useful for boosting the immune response to certain antigens.

It is important to note that Freund's adjuvants are not used in human vaccines due to their potential to cause adverse reactions, including granulomas and other inflammatory responses. They are primarily used in laboratory research with animals.

Anthrax vaccines are biological preparations designed to protect against anthrax, a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can affect both humans and animals, and it is primarily transmitted through contact with contaminated animal products or, less commonly, through inhalation of spores.

There are two types of anthrax vaccines currently available:

1. Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA): This vaccine is licensed for use in the United States and is approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis in high-risk individuals, such as military personnel and laboratory workers who handle the bacterium. AVA contains a cell-free filtrate of cultured B. anthracis cells that have been chemically treated to render them non-infectious. The vaccine works by stimulating the production of antibodies against protective antigens (PA) present in the bacterial culture.
2. Recombinant Anthrax Vaccine (rPA): This vaccine, also known as BioThrax, is a newer generation anthrax vaccine that was approved for use in the United States in 2015. It contains only the recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of B. anthracis, which is produced using genetic engineering techniques. The rPA vaccine has been shown to be as effective as AVA in generating an immune response and offers several advantages, including a more straightforward manufacturing process, fewer side effects, and a longer shelf life.

Both vaccines require multiple doses for initial immunization, followed by periodic booster shots to maintain protection. Anthrax vaccines are generally safe and effective at preventing anthrax infection; however, they may cause mild to moderate side effects, such as soreness at the injection site, fatigue, and muscle aches. Severe allergic reactions are rare but possible.

It is important to note that anthrax vaccines do not provide immediate protection against anthrax infection. They require several weeks to stimulate an immune response, so they should be administered before potential exposure to the bacterium. In cases of known or suspected exposure to anthrax, antibiotics are used as a primary means of preventing and treating the disease.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Enoxacin is an antibiotic that belongs to a class of drugs called fluoroquinolones. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is an essential enzyme involved in DNA replication and transcription. This leads to bacterial cell death and helps to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Enoxacin is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory, urinary tract, skin, and soft tissue infections.

The medical definition of Enoxacin can be stated as:

Enoxacin (INN, USAN, JAN) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections. It is an inhibitor of DNA gyrase and has been found to have good activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Enoxacin is available as a 200 mg tablet for oral administration, and its typical dosage ranges from 200 to 600 mg per day, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that like other fluoroquinolones, Enoxacin carries a risk of serious side effects, including tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, central nervous system effects, and exacerbation of myasthenia gravis. Therefore, it should be used with caution and only when other antibiotics are not appropriate or have failed.

Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis (PCA) is a type of localized or cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction that occurs when an individual who has been sensitized to a particular antigen is injected with the antigen along with a dye (usually Evans blue) and subsequently intravenously administered with a foreign protein, such as horse serum, that contains antibodies (IgG) against the antigen. The IgG antibodies passively transfer to the sensitized individual and bind to the antigen at the site of injection, forming immune complexes. These immune complexes then activate the complement system, leading to the release of mediators such as histamine, which causes localized vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and extravasation of the dye into the surrounding tissues. As a result, a blue-colored wheal or skin blanching appears at the injection site, indicating a positive PCA reaction. This test is used to detect the presence of IgG antibodies in an individual's serum and to study the mechanisms of immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reactions.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

Adsorption is a process in which atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid accumulate on the surface of a material. This occurs because the particles in the adsorbate (the substance being adsorbed) have forces that attract them to the surface of the adsorbent (the material that the adsorbate is adhering to).

In medical terms, adsorption can refer to the use of materials with adsorptive properties to remove harmful substances from the body. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the treatment of poisoning because it can adsorb a variety of toxic substances and prevent them from being absorbed into the bloodstream.

It's important to note that adsorption is different from absorption, which refers to the process by which a substance is taken up and distributed throughout a material or tissue.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Root canal irrigants are substances used during root canal treatment to clean, disinfect and rinse the root canal system. The main goal is to remove tissue remnants, dentinal debris, and microorganisms from the root canal space, thus reducing the risk of reinfection and promoting healing. Commonly used irrigants include sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), which is a potent antimicrobial agent, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), which is used to remove the smear layer and improve the penetration of other irrigants and root canal sealers. The choice of irrigant, concentration, and application technique may vary depending on the specific case and clinician's preference.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Tetanus toxoid is a purified and inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, which is derived from the bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus, a potentially fatal disease caused by this toxin. The toxoid is produced through a series of chemical treatments that modify the toxic properties of the tetanus toxin while preserving its antigenic qualities. This allows the immune system to recognize and develop protective antibodies against the toxin without causing illness. Tetanus toxoid is often combined with diphtheria and/or pertussis toxoids in vaccines such as DTaP, Tdap, and Td.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Subcutaneous injection is a route of administration where a medication or vaccine is delivered into the subcutaneous tissue, which lies between the skin and the muscle. This layer contains small blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissues that help to absorb the medication slowly and steadily over a period of time. Subcutaneous injections are typically administered using a short needle, at an angle of 45-90 degrees, and the dose is injected slowly to minimize discomfort and ensure proper absorption. Common sites for subcutaneous injections include the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm. Examples of medications that may be given via subcutaneous injection include insulin, heparin, and some vaccines.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

Malaria vaccines are biological preparations that induce immunity against malaria parasites, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of malaria disease. They typically contain antigens (proteins or other molecules derived from the parasite) that stimulate an immune response in the recipient, enabling their body to recognize and neutralize the pathogen upon exposure.

The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate is RTS,S/AS01 (Mosquirix), which targets the Plasmodium falciparum parasite's circumsporozoite protein (CSP). This vaccine has shown partial protection in clinical trials, reducing the risk of severe malaria and hospitalization in young children by about 30% over four years. However, it does not provide complete immunity, and additional research is ongoing to develop more effective vaccines against malaria.

A buffer in the context of physiology and medicine refers to a substance or system that helps to maintain stable or neutral conditions, particularly in relation to pH levels, within the body or biological fluids.

Buffers are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to minimize changes in the pH level. They do this by taking up excess hydrogen ions (H+) when acidity increases or releasing hydrogen ions when alkalinity increases, thereby maintaining a relatively constant pH.

In the human body, some of the key buffer systems include:

1. Bicarbonate buffer system: This is the major buffer in blood and extracellular fluids. It consists of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) and carbonic acid (H2CO3). When there is an increase in acidity, the bicarbonate ion accepts a hydrogen ion to form carbonic acid, which then dissociates into water and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide can be exhaled, helping to remove excess acid from the body.
2. Phosphate buffer system: This is primarily found within cells. It consists of dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4-) and monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42-) ions. When there is an increase in alkalinity, the dihydrogen phosphate ion donates a hydrogen ion to form monohydrogen phosphate, helping to neutralize the excess base.
3. Protein buffer system: Proteins, particularly histidine-rich proteins, can also act as buffers due to the presence of ionizable groups on their surfaces. These groups can bind or release hydrogen ions in response to changes in pH, thus maintaining a stable environment within cells and organelles.

Maintaining appropriate pH levels is crucial for various biological processes, including enzyme function, cell membrane stability, and overall homeostasis. Buffers play a vital role in preserving these balanced conditions despite internal or external challenges that might disrupt them.

Papich, Mark G. (2007). "Aluminum Hydroxide and Aluminum Carbonate". Saunders Handbook of Veterinary Drugs (2nd ed.). St. Louis ... This aluminium hydroxide can be converted to aluminium oxide or alumina by calcination. The residue or bauxite tailings, which ... Closely related are aluminium oxide hydroxide, AlO(OH), and aluminium oxide or alumina (Al2O3), the latter of which is also ... 1 November 2010). "Aluminum Hydroxide". Know Your Pet. Retrieved 30 June 2017. "About Brenntag Biosector - Brenntag". brenntag. ...
"Aluminum oxide hydroxide". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Hudson, L. Keith; Misra, Chanakya; Perrotta, Anthony J.; Wefers, Karl; ... The aluminium oxides, oxide hydroxides, and hydroxides can be summarized as follows: aluminium oxides corundum (Al2O3) ... Aluminium hydroxide oxide or aluminium oxyhydroxide, AlO(OH) is found as one of two well defined crystalline phases, which are ... aluminium oxide hydroxides diaspore (α-AlO(OH)) boehmite or böhmite (γ-AlO(OH)) akdalaite (5Al2O3·H2O) (once believed to be ...
"UVITE (Calcium Iron Magnesium Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide)". Galleries.com. Retrieved 2016-08-09. "Uvite Mineral Data". ...
Wefers, Karl; Misra, Chanakya (1987). Oxides and hydroxides of aluminum. Alcoa Research Laboratories. OCLC 894928306. N.N. ... Each octahedron is composed of an aluminium ion bonded to six hydroxide groups, and each hydroxide group is shared by two ... "An ab Initio Study of the Structure and Properties of Aluminum Hydroxide: Gibbsite and Bayerite". The Journal of Physical ... The result is a neutral sheet: with aluminium as a +3 ion and hydroxide a -1 ion, the net cationic charge of one aluminium per ...
"LABEL: EQUALINE ANTACID- aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, simethicone suspension". DailyMed. "Mylanta heartburn remedy ...
Their main product is a flavored liquid containing a suspension of aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide, which act to ... Liquid Maalox contains aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide and simethicone. Maalox Regular Strength chewable tablets ... to be a successful anti-diarrhea treatment due to the aluminum hydroxide content, which in normal situations has a tendency to ... The oxides and hydroxides react with the hydrochloric acid in the stomach, neutralizing it. Some may find certain Maalox ...
Aluminum hydroxide has been implicated in hemodialysis-associated pseudoporphyria. Aluminum hydroxide is found in dialysis ...
The aluminium hydroxide is calcined to produce alumina. The process was used in France at Salindres until 1923 and in Germany ... The alumina is converted in sodium aluminate. Iron oxide remains unchanged and silica forms a polysilicate. In the second stage ... It is based on the extraction of alumina with sodium carbonate. The first stage is the calcination of the bauxite at 1200 °C ... The amount of sodium hydroxide solution needed depends upon the amount of silica present in the raw material. The solution is ...
He, Peng; Zou, Yening; Hu, Zhongyu (2015-02-01). "Advances in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research and its mechanism". ... has been observed to play a significant role propagating immune response to aluminum in adjuvants. NLRP3 is involved in the ...
When levofloxacin is taken with anti-acids containing magnesium hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide, the two combine to form ... October 1993). "Mechanistic study of inhibition of levofloxacin absorption by aluminum hydroxide". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother ...
Shaw, CA; Petrik, MS (2009). "Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration". Journal of ... Shaw, Christopher (2018). "Aluminum as a CNS and immune system toxin across the lifespan". In Neurotoxicity of Aluminum. Qiao ... Shaw, C. A.; Seneff, S.; Kette, S. D.; Tomljenovic, L.; Oller Jr, J. W.; Davidson, R. M. (2014). "Aluminum-Induced Entropy in ... Petrik, M; Wong, MC; Tabata, RC; Garry, RF; Shaw, CA (February 2007). "Aluminum adjuvant linked to gulf war illness induces ...
Iron and aluminum are easily leached at low pH. As the pH increases, ferric hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide compounds ... Organic acids have the ability to dissolve soil minerals, and can destroy silicate minerals and iron and aluminum oxides, so ... Organic acids produced under acidic conditions can increase the solubility of metal elements such as iron and aluminum, thereby ...
Other secondary minerals include hydroxyaluminosilicates and aluminum hydroxide which are insoluble. They adsorb on mineral and ... This creates a toxic form of aluminum while also increasing the total amount of aluminum being weathered. Mining for aluminum ... For example, phosphates store aluminum that has been sedimented and aluminum is found in diatoms (made of silica). Aluminum has ... Aluminum is known to be an ecotoxicant and expected to be a health risk to people. Global primary production (GPP) of aluminum ...
Aluminum powder reacts with calcium hydroxide and water to form hydrogen. The hydrogen gas foams and doubles the volume of the ... Aluminum powder is used at a rate of 0.05%-0.08% by volume (depending on the pre-specified density). In some countries, like ... By using new formulations, containing only quartz sand, calcined gypsum, lime (mineral), cement, water and aluminum powder, ... quartz sand reacts with calcium hydroxide to form calcium silicate hydrate, which gives AAC its high strength and other unique ...
Aluminium chloride Aluminium hydroxide Deodorant Keggin structure "Aluminum chlorohydrate". go.drugbank.com. Retrieved 2021-01- ... A number of aluminium-containing raw materials can be used, including aluminium metal, alumina trihydrate, aluminium chloride, ... Rowsell J, Nazar LF (2000). "Speciation and Thermal Transformation in Alumina Sols: Structures of the Polyhydroxyoxoaluminum ... by reacting aluminium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. The ACH product is reacted with aluminium ingots at 100 °C using steam ...
Most industrially used magnesium hydroxide is produced synthetically. Like aluminum hydroxide, solid magnesium hydroxide has ... Magnesium hydroxide is also a component of antiperspirant. Magnesium hydroxide is useful against canker sores (aphthous ulcer) ... are formulated to minimize unwanted laxative effects through the inclusion of aluminum hydroxide, which inhibits the ... Magnesium Hydroxide". PubChem. Magnesium Hydroxide - Revolution Health Washington, Neena (2 August 1991). Antacids and Anti ...
Key products include alumina hydroxide, alumina, and high-purity alumina. SDK also produces fused alumina abrasive grains, ... Aluminum Showa Aluminum Can Corp. Showa Denko Aluminum Trading K.K. Showa Denko Packaging Co.,Ltd. Electronics, other Showa ... The solid aluminum capacitor business relies on conductive polymers, a combination of inorganic aluminum materials with organic ... The electronics sector also produces aluminum-based and glass-based hard disks as well as aluminum substrates for hard disks. ...
... aluminum trihydroxide, and magnesium hydroxide. Record of Decabromodiphenyl ether in the GESTIS Substance Database of the ... magnesium hydroxide, and other chemicals as alternatives to decaBDE that are "most likely to be used." A March 2007 report from ...
Aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide and calcium carbonate, when consumed, do not cross the placenta and are regarded as safe ... Common antacids include aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide (Maalox) and calcium carbonate (Tums). Histamine H2 blockers and ...
... determination of hydroxide and alumina in Bayer process solutions. Anal. Chem. 45 (13) 2248-2251, (1973 ... The alumina-tartrate complex is broken in favour of the formation of an aluminium fluoride complex and the concomitant release ... The thermometric titrimetric analysis of sodium aluminate liquor ("Bayer liquor") in the production of alumina from bauxite is ...
Effect of diverse anions on the pH of maximum precipitation of aluminum hydroxide." Journal of Colloid Science, 1, 221-34. Houk ... Thomas, A. W., & Whitehead, T. H. (1930). Effect of sulfate and chloride ion on solutions of aluminum salts. Journal of the ... Thomas, A. W., & Vartanian, R. D. (1935). The action of acids on hydrous alumina. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 57 ... Thomas, A. W., & Tai, A. P. (1932). The nature of "aluminum oxide" hydrosols. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 54, 841 ...
These materials are prepared by combining alumina, phosphoric acid, and sodium hydroxide. In addition to the usual hydrate, an ... "E541 : Sodium aluminum phosphate". Food-Info. Wageningen University. Retrieved 2011-03-06. (Articles without InChI source, ...
"Aluminum hydroxide and magnesium carbonate Uses, Side Effects & Warnings". Drugs.com. Retrieved 24 November 2020. U.S. ... "In vivo and in vitro evaluation of magnesium-aluminum hydroxide antacid tablets and liquid". Digestive Diseases and Sciences. ... Long-term use of antacids containing aluminum may increase the risk of developing osteoporosis. In vitro studies have found a ... Common salts available in tablet form include those of calcium, magnesium, aluminum, and sodium. Some common brand are Tums, ...
Typical procedures entail heating aqueous solutions of alumina and silica with sodium hydroxide. Equivalent reagents include ... The aluminum centers are negatively charged, which requires an accompanying cation. These cations are hydrated during the ... Like most aluminosilicates, the framework is formed by linking of aluminum and silicon atoms by oxides. This linking leads to a ... Since the principal raw materials used to manufacture zeolites are silica and alumina, which are among the most abundant ...
Every second aluminum tetrahedron is attached to a hydroxide ion and the structure is interrupted. The oxygen tetrahedra ... These oxygen and aluminum tetrahedra connect by their corners. It is a sorosilicate because two silicate tetrahedra connect at ... Partheite is different from most zeolites in that it contains the extra hydroxide ions, but is still considered a zeolite by ... The framework of the mineral is interrupted due to these hydroxyl groups attaching themselves to aluminum centered oxygen ...
It is an amorphous solid derived from aluminum hydroxide and oleic acid, non-uniformly composed. It was employed during World ... Aluminum oleate containing 10-11% Al2O3 provides the best overall gelling and handling properties. Due to the presence of ... Research continued on the development of this form of aluminum oleate, in order to find the best degree of substitution of ... The British army developed a specific form of aluminum stearate that required a specialized process to manufacture its ...
... and magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxide (Hydrotalcite)". Express Polymer Letters. 8 (6): 374-386. doi:10.3144/ ...
Aluminum is one of the few elements capable of making soil more acidic. This is achieved by aluminum taking hydroxide ions out ... Another consequence of aluminum in soils is aluminum toxicity, which inhibits root growth. Agriculture managements approaches ... James, Bruce R.; Riha, Susan J. (1989). "Aluminum leaching by mineral acids in forest soils: II. Role of the forest floor". ... Delhaize, Emmanuel (1995). "Aluminum Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants". Plant Physiology. 107 (2): 315-321. doi:10.1104/pp. ...
The material is sensitive to moisture, hydrolyzing to hydrated aluminum oxides/hydroxides. This can begin when the sulfide is ... "Synthese und Kristallstruktur einer Neuen hexagonalen Modifikation von Al2S3 mit fünffach koordiniertem Aluminum". Zeitschrift ...
Iron and aluminum hydroxide clays are able to exchange their hydroxide anions (OH−) for other anions. The order reflecting the ... Once the colloids are saturated with H3O+, the addition of any more hydronium ions or aluminum hydroxyl cations drives the pH ... Farina, Martin Patrick W.; Sumner, Malcolm E.; Plank, C. Owen; Letzsch, W. Stephen (1980). "Exchangeable aluminum and pH as ... iron and aluminum) it is able to attract and link, by weak bonds, cation and anion nutrients that can further be released into ...
Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Magnesium Hydroxide antacids,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide ... Magnesium Hydroxide antacids. Do not start any of these medications while taking Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide ... Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide. pronounced as (a loo mi num) (hye drox ide) (mag nee zhum) (hye drox ide) ...
Find treatment reviews for Aluminum hydroxide-magnesium carbonate from other patients. Learn from their experiences about ... How do members experience Aluminum hydroxide-magnesium carbonate?. Top 5 reported purposes & perceived effectiveness. Purpose. ...
AVAC is an international non-profit organization that leverages its independent voice and global partnerships to accelerate ethical development and equitable delivery of effective HIV prevention options, as part of a comprehensive and integrated pathway to global health equity. Find more at www.prepwatch.org and www.stiwatch.org.. ...
This topic contains 13 study abstracts on Aluminum Hydroxide indicating it may contribute to Vaccine-induced Toxicity, ... Diseases : Aluminum Toxicity , Febrile Seizures, Vaccine-induced Toxicity Problem Substances : Aluminum Hydroxide, Vaccine ... Diseases : Aluminum Toxicity , Macrophagic myofasciitis , Vaccine-induced Toxicity Problem Substances : Aluminum Hydroxide, ... Problem Substances : Aluminum, Aluminum Hydroxide, Vaccine Adjuvants. Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Bioaccumulator, ...
You should not use this medicine if you have had an allergic reaction to medicines that contain aluminum, magnesium, or ...
ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE (UNII: 5QB0T2IUN0) (ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE - UNII:5QB0T2IUN0) ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE. 400 mg in 5 mL. ... MAG-AL PLUS XS- aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and dimethicone suspension. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the ... aluminum hydroxide 80 MG/ML / magnesium hydroxide 80 MG/ML / simethicone 8 MG/ML Oral Suspension. SCD. ... aluminum hydroxide 400 MG / magnesium hydroxide 400 MG / simethicone 40 MG in 5 mL Oral Suspension. PSN. ...
Shop Aluminum hydroxide, 76.5% min, Thermo Scientific Chemicals at Fishersci.com ... calcined alumina, aluminum sulfate, polyaluminum chloride, zeolites, sodium aluminate, activated alumina and aluminum nitrate. ... As absorbent, in chromatography, manufacturing of glass, paper, inks, ceramics, lubricants, cosmeticsAluminum hydroxide is used ... It is an important starting material for the preparation of other aluminum compounds, ...
Aluminum hydroxide sulfate, pentahydrate , AlH11O10S-3 , CID 57347225 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical ...
A consumer goods manufacturer in Asia wants to diversify its supply of dried aluminum hydroxide gel (CAS: 21645-51-2) and has ...
Chemistry: KLi2Al(Al, Si)3O10(F, OH)2, Potassium lithium aluminum silicate hydroxide fluoride. *Class: Silicates *Subclass: ... Lepidolite, like other micas, has a layered structure of lithium aluminum silicate sheets weakly bonded together by layers of ...
Aluminum Hydroxide preparation information is provided by Wedgewood Pharmacy. ... Aluminum Hydroxide Oral Oil Suspension may be prescribed for Dogs and Cats. ... Aluminum Hydroxide > Aluminum Hydroxide: Oral Oil Suspension Aluminum Hydroxide: Oral Oil Suspension. Aluminum Hydroxide may be ... 24 strengths of Aluminum Hydroxide Oral Oil Suspension are available, ranging from 30 mg/ml to 250 mg/ml. What our customers ...
The most likely culprit appears to be Aluminum hydroxide.. The study, conducted by Canadian researchers from the Department of ... Aluminum hydroxide. The percentage of veterans of that conflict who ultimately suffered from GWS was astounding: More than one- ... Study: Vaccine Adjuvant Aluminum Hydroxide Causes Neurological Disease. February 10, 2014. by Infinite ... In 2009, a study published in the Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry posited that that the substance aluminum hydroxide could be ...
View images of aluminum hydroxide/aspirin/calcium carbonate/magnesium hydroxide and identify pills by imprint code, shape and ... Aluminum hydroxide/aspirin/calcium carbonate/magnesium hydroxide Pill Images. Note: Multiple pictures are displayed for those ...
Coordination of acetate to Al(III) in aqueous solution and at the water-aluminum hydroxide interface: A potentiometric and ... Also at the water-aluminum hydroxide interface, only one dominating surface complex is indicated. Zn contrast to the aqueous ... Also at the water-aluminum hydroxide interface, only one dominating surface complex is indicated. Zn contrast to the aqueous ... in homogeneous aqueous solution and at the water-aluminum hydroxide interface. The data collected in aqueous solution, at [Al]( ...
... global Aluminum Hydroxide prices exhibited fluctuating trends across regions. In Asia, prices were influenced by varying ... The Aluminum Hydroxide Price chart, including India Aluminum Hydroxide price, USA Aluminum Hydroxide price, pricing database, ... Industrial Uses Impacting the Aluminum Hydroxide Price Trend:. Aluminum hydroxide finds diverse industrial applications. In ... Aluminum hydroxide is a compound composed of aluminum, hydrogen, and oxygen ions. Its a white, amorphous powder with antacid ...
Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show a stronger vaccine adjuvant activity than traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles ... Aluminum hydroxide is used as a vaccine adjuvant in various human vaccines. Unfortunately, despite its favorable safety profile ... When dispersed in an aqueous solution, aluminum hydroxide forms particulates of 1-20m. There is increasing evidence that ... Finally, the local inflammation induced by aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles in the injection sites was milder than that induced ...
Aluminum Hydroxide (CM-ATH) can be used as a flame retardant, with good performance to reduce smoke and toxic gases. It is ...
An oral powder of Aluminum Hydroxide: an OTC antacid most commonly used to treat kidney dysfunction and high phosphate levels. ... An oral powder of Aluminum Hydroxide: an OTC antacid most commonly used to treat kidney dysfunction and high phosphate levels. ...
Ton År Chemical Technology Co, Ltd tillverkar huvudsakligen aluminiumhydroxid, hög vit aluminiumhydroxid fyllmedel, aluminiumsulfat, etc.
TS 303 Aluminum Hydroxide is a white fine powder, insoluble in water. It is the most common and readily available flame ... Aluminum hydroxide Anticorrosive pigments White pigments (titanium dioxide substitute) Modifying additives for polymersB and RF ... Aluminum hydroxide Anticorrosive pigments White pigments (titanium dioxide substitute) Modifying additives for polymersB and RF ...
الصفحة الرئيسية > new aluminum hydroxide quartz crusher in Ilorin Nigeria Africa. احصل على new aluminum hydroxide quartz ... new aluminum hydroxide quartz crusher in Ilorin Nigeria Africa المقدمة(. WhatsApp). * new calcium carbonate ball mill in Ibadan ... new aluminum hydroxide quartz crusher in Ilorin Nigeria Africa علاقة. *اقتباسات كسارة مخروطية في بنوني السعودية ... new aluminum hydroxidehammercrusherin Darkhan Mongolia. new aluminum hydroxidehammercrusherin Darkhan Mongolia East Asia. Syria ...
Find information on Magnesium Hydroxide/aluminum Hydroxide (Alamag, Maalox) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side ... hydroxide. Vallerand AHA, Sanoski CAC, Quiring CC. Magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide. Daviss Drug Guide. F.A. Davis ... hydroxide. Vallerand AHA, Sanoski CAC, Quiring CC. Magnesium Hydroxide/aluminum Hydroxide [Internet]. In: Daviss Drug Guide. F ... "Magnesium Hydroxide/aluminum Hydroxide." Daviss Drug Guide, 18th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2023. Medicine Central, im. ...
Using ultra-fine aluminum hydroxide filtration, the solid is the finished product of ultra-fine aluminum hydroxide; the slurry ... Ultrafine aluminum hydroxide is a white powder that is widely used in the production of various products, including flame ... Benefits of Filter Fabric in Ultrafine Aluminum Hydroxide. The filter cloth is elongated, the filter cloth has burrs, the ... Bolian tower press filter cloth is a type of filter cloth commonly used in the filtration of ultrafine aluminum hydroxide. ...
Aluminum hydroxide increases gastric pH to greater than 4 and inhibits the proteolytic activity of pepsin, reducing acid ... Magnesium hydroxide (Phillips Milk of Magnesia, Phillips Chewable). Magnesium hydroxide is used as an antacid to relieve ... Associated benefits include symptomatic alleviation of constipation (aluminum antacids, such as ALternaGEL and Amphojel) or ...
Layered aluminum double hydroxide chloride sorbents, LiCl∙Al 2 (OH) 6 .nH 2 O, Li-LDH, have shown promising application in ... N2 - Layered aluminum double hydroxide chloride sorbents, LiCl∙Al 2 (OH) 6 .nH 2 O, Li-LDH, have shown promising application in ... AB - Layered aluminum double hydroxide chloride sorbents, LiCl∙Al 2 (OH) 6 .nH 2 O, Li-LDH, have shown promising application in ... Lithium aluminum-layered double hydroxide chlorides (LDH): Formation enthalpies and energetics for lithium ion capture. Journal ...
More about Aluminum hydroxide and magnesium carbonate (Aluminum hydroxide and magnesium carbonate [ a-loo-mi-num-hye-drox-ide- ... Detailed Aluminum hydroxide / magnesium carbonate dosage information Aluminum hydroxide and magnesium carbonate Dosage ... Aluminum hydroxide and magnesium carbonate. https://themeditary.com/drug/aluminum-hydroxide-and-magnesium-carbonate-7690.html ... Generic name: aluminum hydroxide and magnesium carbonate [ a-loo-mi-num-hye-drox-ide-and-mag-nee-zee-um-kar-bo-nate ] ...
High-temperature resistant fine aluminum hydroxide that is researched, developed and manufactured by ZC-Tech focuses on solving ... lower initial heat decomposition temperature and narrow application scope of aluminum hydroxide. ... High-temperature Resistant Fine Aluminum Hydroxide-ZC-New Material Co. Ltd. - ... High Whiteness Fine Aluminum Hydroxide. ZC-Tech strictly controls growth of original crystal particle of aluminum hydroxide ...
Aluminum Hydroxide Nanoparticle,Aluminum Hydroxide Nanopowder,Aluminum Hydroxide Nanoparticle Supplier,Aluminum Hydroxide ... Aluminum Hydroxide Nanoparticle,Aluminum Hydroxide Nanopowder,Aluminum Hydroxide Nanoparticle Supplier,Aluminum Hydroxide ... Aluminum Hydroxide Nanoparticle,Aluminum Hydroxide Nanopowder,Aluminum Hydroxide Nanoparticle Supplier,Aluminum Hydroxide ... Aluminum Hydroxide Nanoparticle,Aluminum Hydroxide Nanopowder,Aluminum Hydroxide Nanoparticle Supplier,Aluminum Hydroxide ...
Disclaim: Information presented here is believed to be accurate and reliable but is not intended to meet any specification and does not imply any guarantee or warranty. All data listed here are reference values and subject to production tolerances. These values are only for the product description and no guarantee is placed on the properties. It remains the responsibility of the users to test the suitability of the product for their application. ...
The water solubility of aluminium chloride hydroxide sulphate (as aqueous solution) was investigated according to OECD/EC ... Solubility of aluminium chloride hydroxide sulphate is expected to vary with basicity ratio and pH. Moreover, aluminium ...
  • Aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and simethicone is a combination medicine used to treat heartburn, acid indigestion, upset stomach, bloating caused by gas, or stomach discomfort caused by eating or drinking too much. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and simethicone may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (uofmhealth.org)
  • You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, or simethicone. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Your pharmacist can provide more information about aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and simethicone. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Aluminum hydroxide (brand names: Alternagel®, Amphojel®) is an over-the-counter oral antacid and phosphate binder, most commonly used to treat high phosphate levels secondary to kidney dysfunction (abnormal or impaired function of the kidneys). (vcahospitals.com)
  • Aluminum Hydroxide is an oral antacid that is commonly used to relieve problems associated with stomach acids. (vetrxdirect.com)
  • In each 5 mL teaspoonful, Aluminum hydroxide 320 mg (antacid). (vetrxdirect.com)
  • Aluminum hydroxide, which is available in tablet or liquid form, is commonly used as an antacid. (medscape.com)
  • Under the generic name "algeldrate", aluminium hydroxide is used as an antacid in humans and animals (mainly cats and dogs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium hydroxide in water (also called milk of magnesia) is used as an antacid or laxative. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The use of fine-grade aluminum hydroxide as a flame retardant in various industries, including construction, automotive, and electronics, has been witnessing substantial growth. (qingdaopengfeng.com)
  • The influence of aluminum hydroxide particle size on the flame retardant performance of silicone rubber for composite insulators: when the particle size is small, aluminum hydroxide is difficult to distribute evenly in the silicone rubber system, resulting in poor flame retardancy, and when the particle size is too large, aluminum hydroxide and Silicone rubber organic system has poor compatibility, which can also lead to poor flame retardancy. (zibopengfeng.com)
  • Aluminum Hydroxide , Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. (nih.gov)
  • Aluminum hydroxide, on the other hand, increases the pH of not only the oesophagus, but also of the stomach, and for a longer time as compared to carbonates, which makes them more efficient antacids and heartburn relief agents . (healthyy.net)
  • is a reputed Manufacturer and Supplier of Aluminum Hydroxide Gel and Magnesium Hydroxide Paste that are used as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the manufacture of Antacids & Laxatives. (padarshpharmaceuticals.com)
  • However, it has been shown that Aluminum hydroxide changes the gastric environment, preventing the desensitization of the gastrin receptors which in turn stimulates more gastrin secretion. (healthyy.net)
  • The most widely used desiccants are silica gel, activated alumina and thealuminumrich zeolites (4A or 13X). (bhiproject.pl)
  • AP24 Whitening toothpaste uses hydrated silica and aluminum hydroxide as abrasives and has an RDA value of 103 which is considered moderate by whitening toothpaste standards and so, in theory, should not cause any concern to consumers who have a good level of dental health. (mouthpower.org)
  • Solid surface composites (SSCs) are a class of popular construction materials composed of aluminum trihydrate and acrylic polymers. (cdc.gov)
  • The market for fine-grade aluminum hydroxide is witnessing emerging trends, including the development of nano-sized aluminum hydroxide particles for enhanced properties and applications in advanced technologies. (qingdaopengfeng.com)
  • It was shown that predominant way to transfer contaminating elements in aluminium hydroxide particles is the occlusion of very fine particles coming from mineralogical phases of bauxite residue. (sfu-kras.ru)
  • Some such products are formulated to minimize such effects through the inclusion of equal concentrations of magnesium hydroxide or magnesium carbonate, which have counterbalancing laxative effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shivaramaiah, R & Navrotsky, A 2015, ' Energetics of order-disorder in layered magnesium aluminum double hydroxides with interlayer carbonate ', Inorganic chemistry , vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 3253-3259. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Aluminum hydroxide has a long history of use as an adjuvant in parenteral vaccines but the problem of inconsistent antibody production has been frequently noted. (pda.org)
  • Although the mechanism of adjuvant action is not fully understood, it is likely that the surface area, surface charge, and morphology of the aluminum hydroxide are of prime importance. (pda.org)
  • The purified inactivated SARS-CoV-2 antigen bulk is adsorbed with Aluminum Hydroxide as the adjuvant. (who.int)
  • In chemistry , a base is thought of as a substance which can accept protons or any chemical compound that yields hydroxide ions (OH - ) in solution. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In this study, complex nickel - aluminum hydroxides were prepared at different molar ratios (NA12, NA11, NA21, NA31, and NA41), and their adsorption capability on arsenic ions (As(III)) from aqueous media was assessed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to promote the healing of peptic ulcers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aluminum Hydroxide may be used to reduce symptoms of heartburn, stomach upset, acid indigestion, and gastric ulcers. (vetrxdirect.com)
  • Aluminum Hydroxide for Heartburn - Can it Help? (healthyy.net)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is a common over the counter drug available across the globe to treat heartburn and various other stomach and kidney disorders such as ulcers and gas. (healthyy.net)
  • Given below are some of the mechanisms by which Aluminum hydroxide acts to reduce heartburn. (healthyy.net)
  • Since aluminum hydroxide increases the pH, the gastric release is stimulated, promoting digestion and growth of the mucosal lining, which reduces heartburn overall, and the damages caused by it. (healthyy.net)
  • In such a case, a doctor should be consulted to make sure none of the other prescribed drugs react with Aluminum hydroxide being taken for heartburn. (healthyy.net)
  • The flash point of aluminium chloride hydroxide sulphate (as aqueous solution) was investigated according to EC/ISO guidelines, closed cup method. (europa.eu)
  • be aware that aluminum hydroxide may interfere with other medicines, making them less effective. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is considered safe during pregnancy as well provided there are no other medicines taken at that time. (healthyy.net)
  • Aluminium hydroxide is amphoteric, i.e., it has both basic and acidic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is an amphoteric hydroxide that has both acidic and basic properties. (pediaa.com)
  • Rarely, aluminum toxicity can occur with its long-term use, and may cause signs such as weakness, walking difficulty, or stumbling. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Your pet should be monitored for side effects of aluminum toxicity as described above. (vcahospitals.com)
  • A complete blood count may also be monitored for signs related to aluminum toxicity. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Aluminum toxicity is possible but extremely rare. (vetrxdirect.com)
  • Aluminum salts are effective binders but may induce aluminum toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Aluminum hydroxide has no known skin toxicity. (paulaschoice.co.uk)
  • The chemical formula of sodium hydroxide is NaOH . (pediaa.com)
  • There is one hydroxide anion per one sodium cation in sodium hydroxide. (pediaa.com)
  • There are three hydroxide anions per one aluminum cation in aluminum hydroxide. (pediaa.com)
  • The importance of morphology is illustrated by electronmicrographs of two forms of aluminum hydroxide which have the same particle size but different porosity and surface accessibility. (pda.org)
  • To offset this interaction, administer aluminum hydroxide two hours before or after administering any other medication. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is widely available in the drug stores as OTC medication. (healthyy.net)
  • The common name for sodium hydroxide is caustic soda . (pediaa.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to aluminum hydroxide or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not give Aluminum Hydroxide Gel with other drugs by mouth without checking with your veterinarian. (vetrxdirect.com)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is taken alone or in combination with different GERD drugs like H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitor etc. as it does not prevent acid production. (healthyy.net)
  • Aluminium hydroxide gels can be dehydrated (e.g. using water-miscible non-aqueous solvents like ethanol) to form an amorphous aluminium hydroxide powder, which is readily soluble in acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The melting point is 300 °C. Aluminum hydroxide appears as an amorphous white powder. (pediaa.com)
  • Closely related are aluminium oxide hydroxide, AlO(OH), and aluminium oxide or alumina (Al2O3), the latter of which is also amphoteric. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aluminium hydroxide is amphoteric. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is an amphoteric hydroxide having the chemical formula Al(OH) 3 . (pediaa.com)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is an amphoteric compound. (pediaa.com)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is an inorganic compound formed during the manufacturing process of aluminum. (resonac.com)
  • However, aluminum hydroxide as an inorganic filler and an organic polymer silicone rubber body are very different in physical shape and chemical structure, and the affinity of the two is poor, which limits the addition of aluminum hydroxide as a filler in silicone rubber. (zibopengfeng.com)
  • Potassium hydroxide, also called caustic potash, is used to make soft soap that dissolves in water with ease. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 2023. https://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51034/all/aluminum_hydroxide. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The molar mass of sodium hydroxide is 39.99 g/mol. (pediaa.com)
  • The molar mass of aluminum hydroxide is 78 g/mol. (pediaa.com)
  • Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is given by mouth in the form of a liquid gel or in powder form mixed with food. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Techniques are described for determining the surface area of aluminum hydroxide in the unaltered liquid state and the surface charge. (pda.org)
  • 4267. Adulteration and misbranding of ear drops and misbranding of Vita-Malt nose drops, aluminum hydroxide gel, pyrilamine maleate liquid, and pyrilamine maleate tablets. (nih.gov)
  • Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, both gibbsite and hydrargillite refer to the same polymorphism of aluminium hydroxide, with gibbsite used most commonly in the United States and hydrargillite used more often in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is found in nature as the mineral known as gibbsite . (pediaa.com)
  • Abstract) Nickel aluminum layered double hydroxide (NiAl LDH) with nitrate in its interlayer is investigated as a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). (radar-service.eu)
  • Sodium hydroxide does not react with bases. (pediaa.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide is an ionic compound made of sodium cations (Na + ) and hydroxide (OH - ) anions. (pediaa.com)
  • Both sodium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide are ionic compounds consist of metal cations and hydroxide anions. (pediaa.com)
  • When aluminum hydroxide is reacted with an acid, it acts as a Brønsted-Lowry base and accepts protons. (pediaa.com)
  • When aluminum hydroxide reacts with an acid, it acts as a Brønsted-Lowry base and accept protons. (pediaa.com)
  • abstract = "Laboratory synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDH) often results in materials replete with stacking faults. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Current understanding of the structure of aluminum hydroxide suggests that controlling the presence of anions which coordinate with aluminum during the precipitation reaction and precipitation at a constant pH will produce an aluminum hydroxide with consistent properties. (pda.org)
  • Adsorption Performance on As(III) from Aqueous Solution Using the Complex Nickel-Aluminum Hydroxides. (bvsalud.org)
  • Newer compounds containing iron or bile acid sequestrants are replacing calcium and aluminum binders. (medscape.com)
  • Aluminium hydroxide also finds use as a fire retardant filler for polymer applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Years of research have shown that adding aluminum hydroxide filler can improve the resistance to leakage marks, electric corrosion resistance, arc resistance, anti-flashover and other properties of silicone rubber. (zibopengfeng.com)
  • Heavy Metals as Impurities in the Bayer Production Cycle of the Aluminum Hydroxide from Sierra Leone Bauxite. (sfu-kras.ru)
  • This paper is reporting the data of a preliminary study on heavy metals distribution in the fluid and solid phases involved in dry and classified aluminium hydroxide production through Bayer process. (sfu-kras.ru)
  • Aluminum Hydroxide may also be used to lower phosphate levels for animals with certain kidney conditions. (vetrxdirect.com)
  • Fine aluminum hydroxide holds a significant position in various industries due to its unique properties and versatile applications. (qingdaopengfeng.com)
  • In the formula of silicone rubber, aluminum hydroxide has a great influence on the mechanical properties, electrical properties, hydrophobicity and flame retardancy of the product. (zibopengfeng.com)
  • The residue or bauxite tailings, which is mostly iron oxide, is highly caustic due to residual sodium hydroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • A method of hydrochemical beneficiation of high-ferriferous, high- carbonated bauxites by processing of raw bauxite with solution of complexon in the medium of hydroxide under pressure has been developed. (sfu-kras.ru)
  • Sodium hydroxide is a solid at room temperature and appears as white, waxy crystals which are opaque. (pediaa.com)
  • It lowers serum phosphate to near normal levels in hemodialysis patients as effectively as calcium acetate without inducing hypercalcemia or increased aluminum levels. (medscape.com)
  • Aluminum hydroxide effectively increases the pH of both stomach and oesophagus after ingestion. (healthyy.net)