Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.
Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.
Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Agents that are put on the SKIN to reduce SWEATING or prevent excess sweating (HYPERHIDROSIS).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Citrates are salts derived from citric acid that are used in the medical field for various purposes, including as anticoagulants, phosphate binders, and chelating agents.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
A dye which inhibits protein biosynthesis at the initial stages. The ammonium salt (aluminon) is a reagent for the colorimetric estimation of aluminum in water, foods, and tissues.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.
Diseases of BONES.
Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
An island in Micronesia, east of the Philippines, the largest and southernmost of the Marianas. Its capital is Agana. It was discovered by Magellan in 1521 and occupied by Spain in 1565. They ceded it to the United States in 1898. It is an unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Department of the Interior since 1950. The derivation of the name Guam is in dispute. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p471)
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.
Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Malates are a group of organic compounds that play a role in energy metabolism and the regulation of pH in the body.
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.
Scandium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sc, atomic number 21, and atomic weight 45.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Long-term maintenance hemodialysis in the home.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
A plant genus of the family HYDRANGEACEAE. Members contain hydrangenol, thunberginols, hydramacrosides A and B, and secoiridoid glucosides.
Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of bluestem is also used for other plants in this family. Andropogon nardus has been reclassified as CYMBOPOGON nardus and Andropogon zizanioides to VETIVERIA zizanioides.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
A complex mixture of monomeric and aggregated porphyrins used in the photodynamic therapy of tumors (HEMATOPORPHYRIN PHOTORADIATION). A purified component of this mixture is known as DIHEMATOPORPHYRIN ETHER.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.
Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
Cooking and eating utensils are tools used in the preparation, cooking, and consumption of food, and are not typically used in the medical field.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining penicillin G with PROCAINE.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Inflammation of the bone.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.
A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
A method of chemical analysis based on the detection of characteristic radionuclides following a nuclear bombardment. It is also known as radioactivity analysis. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
Inflammation of the fascia. There are three major types: 1, Eosinophilic fasciitis, an inflammatory reaction with eosinophilia, producing hard thickened skin with an orange-peel configuration suggestive of scleroderma and considered by some a variant of scleroderma; 2, Necrotizing fasciitis (FASCIITIS, NECROTIZING), a serious fulminating infection (usually by a beta hemolytic streptococcus) causing extensive necrosis of superficial fascia; 3, Nodular/Pseudosarcomatous /Proliferative fasciitis, characterized by a rapid growth of fibroblasts with mononuclear inflammatory cells and proliferating capillaries in soft tissue, often the forearm; it is not malignant but is sometimes mistaken for fibrosarcoma.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Norway is a country in Northern Europe known for its high standard of living, strong economy, and universal healthcare system.
A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
Procedures performed to remove CAPSULE OPACIFICATION that develops on the POSTERIOR CAPSULE OF THE LENS following removal of a primary CATARACT.
A cone-shaped structure in plants made up of a mass of meristematic cells that covers and protects the tip of a growing root. It is the putative site of gravity sensing in plant roots.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Excision of the apical portion of a tooth through an opening made in the overlying labial, buccal, or palatal alveolar bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Tetanus Toxoid is a vaccine that provides immunity against tetanus, a potentially fatal disease caused by a bacterial toxin.
Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.
BALB/C is a commonly used strain of inbred mice in medical research, known for their genetic uniformity and susceptibility to various diseases.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
A group of TETRAHYDRONAPHTHALENES containing a keto oxygen.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.

A simple hydroponic culture method for the development of a highly viable root system in Arabidopsis thaliana. (1/1170)

In the studies of nutritional absorption and metal toxicity in the root, it is important to grow plants without technical damage. We established a simple hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis thaliana to obtain a healthy plant having a well-developed root system with many lateral roots. The phytotoxic effects of Cr, Cu, and Al ions were examined by FDA-PI staining using this culture system. The pattern of root inhibition varied with the ion, suggesting the usefulness of this culture system.  (+info)

Binding of the transition state analog MgADP-fluoroaluminate to F1-ATPase. (2/1170)

Escherichia coli F1-ATPase from mutant betaY331W was potently inhibited by fluoroaluminate plus MgADP but not by MgADP alone. beta-Trp-331 fluorescence was used to measure MgADP binding to catalytic sites. Fluoroaluminate induced a very large increase in MgADP binding affinity at catalytic site one, a smaller increase at site two, and no effect at site three. Mutation of either of the critical catalytic site residues beta-Lys-155 or beta-Glu-181 to Gln abolished the effects of fluoroaluminate on MgADP binding. The results indicate that the MgADP-fluoroaluminate complex is a transition state analog and independently demonstrate that residues beta-Lys-155 and (particularly) beta-Glu-181 are important for generation and stabilization of the catalytic transition state. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-inhibited enzyme, with 1% residual steady-state ATPase, showed normal transition state formation as judged by fluoroaluminate-induced MgADP binding affinity changes, consistent with a proposed mechanism by which dicyclohexylcarbodiimide prevents a conformational interaction between catalytic sites but does not affect the catalytic step per se. The fluorescence technique should prove valuable for future transition state studies of F1-ATPase.  (+info)

Fluorimetric determination of aluminum traces in hemodialysis solutions using Mordant Red 19. (3/1170)

A sensitive and accurate method for the spectrofluorimetric determination of trace levels of aluminum in hemodialysis solutions using Mordant Red 19 as the complexation reagent has been developed. The optimal experimental conditions for the concentration of fluorimetric reagent, pH, temperature, and the specific type of matrix are reported. The emission of the fluorescent metal chelate was measured at 555 nm, excitation at 478 nm. Linearity between emission intensity and aluminum concentration was found in the 2-20 ppb range in standard aluminum solutions. Limit of detection was 0.4 ppb. The aluminum amounts in some commercial hemodialysis solutions were determined by means of the extrapolation method. The proposed method proved to be suitable in terms of sensitivity and accuracy for the determination of aluminum in dialysis fluids.  (+info)

Aluminum is a weak agonist for the calcium-sensing receptor. (4/1170)

BACKGROUND: Aluminum (Al3+) has diverse biological effects mediated through activation of a putative extracellular cation-sensing receptor. A recently identified calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which has been identified in target tissues for Al3+, may transduce some of the biological effects of Al3+. METHODS: To test this possibility, we transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells with a cDNA encoding the rat CaSR and evaluated CaSR expression by Western blot analysis and function by measurement of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels and inositol monophosphate (IP1) generation following stimulation with Al3+ and a panel of CaSR agonists. RESULTS: The CaSR protein was detected by immunoblot analysis in cells transfected with the CaSR cDNA but not in nontransfected HEK 293 cells. In addition, [Ca2+]i levels and IP1 generation were enhanced in a dose-dependent fashion by additions of the CaSR agonists calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), gadolinium (Gd3+), and neomycin only in cells transfected with CaSR. To determine if Al3+ activated CaSR, we stimulated cells transfected with rat CaSR with 10 microM to 1 mM concentrations of Al3+. Concentrations of Al3+ in the range of 10 microM to 100 microM had no effect on [Ca2+]i levels or IP1 generation. In contrast, 1 mM Al3+ induced small but significant increases in both parameters. Whereas Gd3+ antagonized calcium-mediated activation of CaSR, pretreatment with Al3+ failed to block subsequent activation of rat CaSR by Ca2+, suggesting a distinct mechanism of Al3+ action. CONCLUSION: Al3+ is not a potent agonist for CaSR. Because Al3+ affects a variety of target tissues at micromolar concentrations, it seems unlikely that CaSR mediates these cellular actions of Al3+.  (+info)

High-resolution PET imaging for in vivo monitoring of tumor response after photodynamic therapy in mice. (5/1170)

The aim of this study was to investigate the use of [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) and a small-animal PET scanner to assess early tumor response after photodynamic therapy (PDT) in mice. PDT consists of intravenous administration of a photosensitizer that accumulates preferentially in tumor tissue, followed by local illumination of the tumor with red light. Two different photosensitizers were used: Photofrin (PII), which has been approved for clinical use, and disulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AIPcS), which is a second-generation drug. These drugs have been shown to induce tumor necrosis through different action mechanisms, i.e., mainly initial vascular stasis (PII) or direct tumor cell kill (AIPcS). FDG PET was used to follow both perfusion and metabolic activity in the tumor tissue. METHODS: The study was performed using a mouse model implanted with two contralateral murine mammary tumors (5 mm diameter x 2.5 mm thickness) on the back. Only one tumor was subjected to PDT, whereas the other tumor served as a control. A total of 13 mice were studied, 1 without illumination, 3 at 30 min and 3 at 2 h after PDT with both PII-PDT and AIPcS-PDT. Dynamic PET imaging of the mice, which were placed in pairs in a prostate position parallel to the transaxial planes of the Sherbrooke animal PET scanner, was performed after a bolus injection of 11 MBq (300 microCi) FDG. Blood samples were collected concurrently from 1 mouse during each study using an automated microvolumetric blood sampler. RESULTS: Analysis of the tumor time-activity curves showed that (a) scans during the first 3 min provided an estimate of tumor perfusion, as confirmed by the blood samples; (b) the tumor FDG uptake after 15 min was a direct measurement of tumor metabolism clearly demonstrating the relative efficacy of the two PDT drugs; and (c) the tumor tracer concentration in the interval 3-15 min after FDG injection is an appropriate indicator of the different mechanisms of tumor necrosis through indirect vascular stasis (PII) or direct cell kill (AIPcS). CONCLUSION: This pilot study confirmed the feasibility of using dynamic in vivo PET imaging for assessing early tumor response to PDT in mice.  (+info)

Evidence that cytosolic phospholipase A2 is down-regulated by protein kinase C in intact human platelets stimulated with fluoroaluminate. (6/1170)

We reported that protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors increase the release of arachidonic acid induced by fluoroaluminate (AlF4-), an unspecific G-protein activator, in intact human platelets. Now we demonstrate that this effect is independent of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration and that AlF4(-)-induced release of AA is abolished by BAPTA, an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, even in the presence of GF 109203X, a specific and potent PKC inhibitor. This compound also blocks the liberation of the secretory phospholipase A2 in the extracellular medium, indicating that this enzyme is not involved in the potentiation of arachidonic acid by PKC inhibitors. On the other hand, the latter effect is completely abolished by treatment of platelets with AACOCF3, a specific inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). These observations indicate that cPLA2 is responsible for the AlF4(-)-induced release of arachidonic acid by a mechanism that is down-regulated by PKC.  (+info)

A preliminary study of dietary aluminium intake and risk of Alzheimer's disease. (7/1170)

BACKGROUND: epidemiological studies of Alzheimer's disease and aluminium intake have focused on aluminium in drinking water. There have been no studies investigating the relation between the disease and the consumption of foods containing large amounts of aluminium additives. OBJECTIVES: to conduct a pilot study to determine whether dietary intake of aluminium additives differs in individuals with and without Alzheimer's disease. DESIGN: matched case-control study. Controls were matched to cases on age, gender and date of admission to the centre. SETTING: Syracuse, New York, USA. SUBJECTS: 46 participants comprising 23 matched sets. METHODS: residents of the Loretto Geriatric Center with and without newly-diagnosed Alzheimer's disease were selected. Next-of-kin were asked to complete information on the resident's medical history, lifestyle behaviour and dietary intake before admission to the centre. An expanded form of the Health Habits and History Questionnaire was used to determine dietary intake. Consumption of foods containing elevated levels of aluminium additives was compared between cases and controls. RESULTS: the crude odds ratio for daily intake of foods containing high levels of aluminium was 2.0 and, when adjusted for covariates, was 8.6 (P=0.19). Intake of pancakes, waffles, biscuits, muffins, cornbread and/or corn tortillas differed significantly (P=0.025) between cases and controls. Adjusted odds ratios were also elevated for grain product desserts, American cheese, chocolate pudding or beverages, salt and chewing gum. However, the odds ratio was not elevated for tea consumption. CONCLUSION: past consumption of foods containing large amounts of aluminium additives differed between people with Alzheimer's disease and controls, suggesting that dietary intake of aluminium may affect the risk of developing this disease. Larger studies are warranted to corroborate or refute these preliminary findings.  (+info)

Effects of aluminum potassium sulfate on learning, memory, and cholinergic system in mice. (8/1170)

AIM: To study the relationship between aluminum potassium sulfate (APS) and memory deficits of mice. METHODS: 30, 60, or 90 d after the mice were given daily APS i.g., the step-through latency (STL) was determined with a passive avoidance task. Aluminum (Al) contents in brain and blood were assayed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Acetylcholine (ACh) content in brain was determined with chemiluminescent method and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was measured radiochemically. RESULTS: APS 1 g.kg-1 increased blood-Al only after 30 d. After 60 d, STL, ACh content and ChAT activity decreased by 46.4%, 8.5%, and 22.6%, respectively. These parameters decreased by 50%, 11.1%, and 27.8%, respectively, with increased Al in blood and brain, after 90 d. APS 0.25 g.kg-1 had no effects on mice except blood-Al. In ethylcholine mustard aziridium chloride (AF64A) treated mice, APS 1 g.kg-1 only increased blood and brain-Al. CONCLUSION: The intake of APS 1 g.kg-1.d-1 for 60 d induced learning and memory deficits in mice.  (+info)

In the medical field, aluminum compounds refer to substances that contain aluminum as a component. Aluminum is a common element found in many minerals and is used in a variety of industrial and medical applications. In the context of medicine, aluminum compounds are often used as antacids to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn and indigestion. They may also be used as a component in certain medications, such as antiperspirants and certain types of antacids. However, excessive exposure to aluminum compounds can be harmful to human health. Aluminum has been linked to a number of health problems, including Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, and kidney damage. As a result, the use of aluminum compounds in certain medical applications is closely regulated to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

Aluminum hydroxide is a white, odorless, and tasteless powder that is commonly used in the medical field as an antacid and an adsorbent. It works by neutralizing stomach acid and reducing symptoms of heartburn, indigestion, and acid reflux. In addition to its use as an antacid, aluminum hydroxide is also used in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia, a condition characterized by high levels of phosphate in the blood. It works by binding to phosphate and preventing it from being absorbed by the body. Aluminum hydroxide is available over-the-counter as well as by prescription. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but long-term use at high doses may increase the risk of aluminum toxicity, which can lead to neurological and bone problems.

Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a desiccant, an agent that removes moisture from a substance. It is also used as a polishing agent for dental work and as a component in some types of dental fillings. In addition, aluminum oxide is used in the production of certain types of medical equipment, such as surgical instruments and implants. It is generally considered to be safe for medical use, but it can cause irritation or allergic reactions in some people.

In the medical field, "alum compounds" typically refer to compounds that contain aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) as a key ingredient. These compounds are often used as antacids to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn and indigestion. They may also be used as astringents to help reduce swelling and inflammation in the mouth and throat. Alum compounds are available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and powders. They are generally considered safe for short-term use, but long-term use or high doses may increase the risk of aluminum toxicity, which can lead to health problems such as bone loss, kidney damage, and neurological disorders. It is important to note that while alum compounds may be effective in treating certain conditions, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or advice from a healthcare professional. If you are experiencing symptoms of acid reflux or other digestive issues, it is important to speak with your doctor or a qualified healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for your individual needs.

Fluorides are compounds that contain the fluoride ion (F-). In the medical field, fluorides are commonly used to prevent tooth decay and improve oral health. They can be found in a variety of products, including toothpaste, mouthwashes, and fluoride supplements. Fluoride works by strengthening tooth enamel, making it more resistant to acid attacks from bacteria in the mouth. It can also help to remineralize tooth enamel that has already been damaged by acid. Fluoride is also used in water treatment to reduce the risk of tooth decay in communities. In addition, fluoride is sometimes used in dental procedures, such as fluoride varnishes and fluoride gels, to further strengthen teeth and prevent decay. While fluoride is generally considered safe and effective, excessive exposure to fluoride can lead to dental fluorosis, a condition that causes white or brown stains on the teeth. It is important to use fluoride products in moderation and to follow the instructions on the label.

Astringents are substances that cause contraction or tightening of the tissues, particularly the skin, mucous membranes, and muscles. In the medical field, astringents are often used to reduce inflammation, stop bleeding, and shrink swollen tissues. Astringents work by binding to proteins in the tissues and causing them to contract. This can help to reduce swelling and inflammation by constricting blood vessels and reducing the flow of blood to the affected area. Astringents can also help to stop bleeding by constricting blood vessels and reducing blood flow to the site of injury. Some common examples of astringents used in medicine include witch hazel, alum, and tannic acid. These substances are often used topically, applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes, or taken orally as a dietary supplement. However, it is important to note that astringents can have side effects, such as dryness, irritation, and allergic reactions, and should be used with caution.

Phosphines are a class of chemical compounds that contain a central phosphorus atom bonded to one or more hydrogen atoms and one or more other atoms or groups. They are not typically used in the medical field, as they are primarily used in industrial and laboratory settings for a variety of applications, such as in the production of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and electronic materials. However, there are some exceptions. For example, some phosphines have been studied for their potential use as drugs to treat certain medical conditions. These compounds are thought to work by binding to specific proteins or enzymes in the body, which can alter their activity and potentially have therapeutic effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential uses and safety of these compounds in the medical field.

Osteomalacia is a condition characterized by softening of the bones due to a deficiency of vitamin D or a lack of adequate calcium absorption. It is most commonly seen in adults and children who are unable to synthesize vitamin D from sunlight or who have a malabsorption disorder. The symptoms of osteomalacia include bone pain, muscle weakness, fatigue, and an increased risk of fractures. The condition can also lead to deformities of the spine and bones, particularly in the pelvis and legs. Osteomalacia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including blood tests to measure vitamin D levels and bone density scans. Treatment typically involves increasing vitamin D and calcium intake through diet or supplements, as well as addressing any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to the deficiency. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to correct bone deformities.

Citric acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is commonly found in citrus fruits such as lemons, oranges, and limes. In the medical field, citric acid is used in a variety of applications, including as a preservative, a flavoring agent, and a pH adjuster. One of the primary uses of citric acid in medicine is as an antacid. It is often used to treat heartburn, acid reflux, and other conditions that are caused by excess stomach acid. Citric acid works by neutralizing the acid in the stomach, which can help to reduce symptoms such as pain, burning, and discomfort. Citric acid is also used in some over-the-counter medications as a decongestant. It works by breaking up mucus in the respiratory tract, which can help to relieve congestion and other respiratory symptoms. In addition to its medicinal uses, citric acid is also used in a variety of other applications in the medical field. For example, it is used as a preservative in some medical devices and as a pH adjuster in certain laboratory procedures. It is also used as a food additive in some dietary supplements and as a flavoring agent in some oral care products.

Beryllium is a chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is a lightweight, strong, and highly reactive metal that has been used in various applications in the medical field. In the medical field, beryllium is primarily used in the diagnosis and treatment of beryllium disease, which is a chronic lung disorder caused by exposure to beryllium dust or fumes. Beryllium disease can cause inflammation and scarring of the lungs, which can lead to difficulty breathing and other respiratory problems. Beryllium is also used in the production of medical imaging equipment, such as X-ray machines and computed tomography (CT) scanners. Beryllium is used in the construction of the X-ray tube, which generates X-rays that are used to create images of the inside of the body. In addition, beryllium is used in the production of certain medical devices, such as pacemakers and defibrillators. Beryllium is used in the construction of the magnets that are used to generate the magnetic fields that are necessary for these devices to function properly. Overall, beryllium has a number of important applications in the medical field, but it is also a potent irritant and can cause serious health problems if not handled properly. As a result, medical professionals and researchers who work with beryllium must take appropriate precautions to protect themselves and others from exposure to this hazardous substance.

Antacids are a type of medication that is used to relieve symptoms of acid reflux, heartburn, and indigestion. They work by neutralizing stomach acid, which can help to reduce discomfort and inflammation in the esophagus and stomach. Antacids are available over-the-counter in a variety of forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and powders. They are generally considered safe and effective for short-term use, but long-term use may be associated with certain side effects, such as constipation and diarrhea. It is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions and to speak with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about taking antacids.

In the medical field, aluminum silicates are a type of mineral compound that is commonly used as an antacid and an adsorbent. They work by neutralizing stomach acid and binding to toxins and other substances in the digestive tract, which helps to prevent their absorption into the bloodstream. Aluminum silicates are often used to treat conditions such as heartburn, acid reflux, and indigestion. They are available in a variety of forms, including tablets, capsules, and powders, and can be taken orally or used topically. It is important to note that while aluminum silicates are generally considered safe for short-term use, long-term use or high doses may have potential side effects, such as constipation, nausea, and abdominal pain. As with any medication, it is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider and to report any adverse reactions.

Antiperspirants are substances that are applied to the skin to reduce sweating. They work by blocking the sweat glands, which are the small openings on the skin's surface that produce sweat. When antiperspirants are applied to the skin, they form a plug in the sweat gland duct, which prevents sweat from reaching the surface of the skin. This can help to reduce sweating and make the skin feel drier. Antiperspirants are commonly used to treat excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) and to keep the underarms, hands, and feet dry and odor-free. They are available in various forms, including sprays, roll-ons, and creams.

Adjuvants, immunologic are substances that are added to vaccines or other immunotherapeutic agents to enhance the body's immune response to the antigen being administered. They work by stimulating the immune system to produce a stronger and more durable immune response, which can help to improve the effectiveness of the vaccine or immunotherapeutic agent. There are several different types of adjuvants that are used in vaccines and other immunotherapeutic agents, including aluminum salts, oil-based emulsions, and certain types of bacteria or viruses. These adjuvants work by activating immune cells called dendritic cells, which then present the antigen to other immune cells and stimulate an immune response. Adjuvants are an important part of vaccine development and have been used for many years to improve the effectiveness of vaccines and reduce the amount of antigen that is needed to elicit a protective immune response. They are also being studied for their potential to be used in other types of immunotherapeutic agents, such as cancer vaccines.

Citrates are a group of compounds that contain the citric acid ion (C6H8O7^3-). In the medical field, citrates are commonly used as anticoagulants to prevent blood clots from forming. They are often used in patients who are undergoing dialysis or who have a condition called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), which makes it difficult to use heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant. Citrates are also used to treat certain types of kidney stones, as they can help to neutralize the acidic environment in the urinary tract that can contribute to the formation of stones. In addition, citrates are sometimes used as a source of calcium in patients who cannot tolerate other forms of calcium supplementation. Citrates can be administered orally or intravenously, and they are usually well-tolerated by most people. However, like all medications, they can cause side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking citrates, and to report any side effects that you experience.

In the medical field, organometallic compounds are compounds that contain a metal atom bonded to a carbon atom of an organic molecule. These compounds have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as drugs, diagnostic agents, and catalysts for various chemical reactions. One example of an organometallic compound used in medicine is cisplatin, which is a chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancer. Cisplatin contains a platinum atom bonded to two carbon atoms from organic molecules, and its mechanism of action involves binding to DNA and inhibiting its replication. Another example is ferrocene, which is an organometallic compound containing a ferrocene moiety. Ferrocene has been studied for its potential as a treatment for various diseases, including cancer and Alzheimer's disease, due to its ability to modulate cellular signaling pathways. Overall, organometallic compounds have a significant impact on the medical field, and ongoing research is exploring their potential for new therapeutic applications.

Renal osteodystrophy is a condition that occurs when the kidneys are not functioning properly and are unable to maintain the balance of minerals in the body. This can lead to a variety of bone problems, including bone loss, bone pain, and an increased risk of fractures. Renal osteodystrophy is a common complication of chronic kidney disease and is often treated with medications that help to regulate the levels of minerals in the body.

Magnesium compounds are a group of minerals that are essential for various bodily functions. In the medical field, magnesium compounds are often used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Muscle cramps: Magnesium is important for muscle function, and taking magnesium supplements can help prevent and treat muscle cramps. 2. Heart disease: Magnesium can help regulate blood pressure and prevent the formation of blood clots, which can lead to heart attacks and strokes. 3. Osteoporosis: Magnesium is important for bone health, and taking magnesium supplements can help prevent osteoporosis and reduce the risk of fractures. 4. Anxiety and depression: Magnesium has been shown to have a calming effect on the nervous system, and taking magnesium supplements may help reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression. 5. Diabetes: Magnesium can help regulate blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity, which can be beneficial for people with diabetes. Magnesium compounds are available in various forms, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, and magnesium chloride. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking magnesium supplements, as high doses can be harmful and interact with other medications.

Coal tar is a dark, viscous liquid that is produced as a byproduct of the distillation of coal. It has been used in the medical field for centuries to treat a variety of skin conditions, including psoriasis, eczema, and seborrheic dermatitis. Coal tar works by reducing inflammation, slowing down the growth of skin cells, and killing bacteria and fungi that can cause skin infections. It is typically applied topically to the affected area, either as a cream, ointment, or shampoo. While coal tar can be effective in treating skin conditions, it can also cause side effects such as skin irritation, dryness, and discoloration. It is important to follow the instructions for use carefully and to consult a healthcare provider if you experience any adverse reactions.

Calcium carbonate is a mineral that is commonly used in the medical field as a dietary supplement and as a medication. It is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, stomach ulcers, and kidney stones. Calcium carbonate is a source of calcium, which is an essential mineral that is important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, as well as for many other functions in the body. It is also used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn and indigestion. In the medical field, calcium carbonate is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and powders. It is usually taken by mouth, although it can also be given intravenously in certain cases. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the specific medical condition being treated and the individual patient's needs.

Sucralfate is a medication that is used to treat stomach ulcers, including those caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. It works by forming a protective layer over the ulcer, which helps to reduce stomach acid and protect the ulcer from further damage. Sucralfate is usually taken as a suspension or tablet, and it is usually taken with food or milk to help with absorption. It is not recommended for use in people with kidney disease or who are allergic to any of the ingredients in the medication.

Deferoxamine is a medication used to treat iron overload, a condition in which there is too much iron in the body. It works by binding to iron in the blood and removing it from the body through the kidneys. Deferoxamine is typically administered as an intravenous infusion and is used to treat conditions such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, and hemochromatosis. It may also be used to prevent iron overload in people who receive frequent blood transfusions. Deferoxamine can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and low blood pressure.

Aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) is a synthetic compound that has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions. It is a tricarboxylic acid with a gold complex attached to it, and it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties. In the medical field, ATA has been investigated for its potential use in treating a variety of conditions, including cancer, inflammatory diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Some studies have suggested that ATA may have anti-tumor effects by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, as well as by inducing apoptosis (cell death) in cancer cells. ATA has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and by inhibiting the activation of immune cells. Additionally, ATA has been found to have anti-oxidant properties by scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidative stress. While ATA has shown promise in preclinical studies, more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic effects and to determine the optimal dosing and administration for various medical conditions.

In the medical field, "Air Pollutants, Occupational" refers to harmful substances that are present in the air at workplaces and can cause adverse health effects on workers. These pollutants can be inhaled, absorbed through the skin, or ingested, and can include a wide range of chemicals, dusts, fumes, and gases. Examples of occupational air pollutants include asbestos, silica, lead, benzene, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. Exposure to these pollutants can cause a variety of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and heart disease. Occupational air pollution is a significant public health concern, as millions of workers worldwide are exposed to these pollutants on a daily basis. To protect workers' health, employers are required to comply with safety regulations and provide appropriate protective equipment and training.

In the medical field, "bone and bones" typically refers to the skeletal system, which is made up of bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues. The skeletal system provides support and structure to the body, protects vital organs, and allows for movement through the use of muscles. Bones are the main component of the skeletal system and are responsible for providing support and protection to the body. There are 206 bones in the human body, which are classified into four types: long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones. Long bones, such as the femur and humerus, are cylindrical in shape and are found in the arms and legs. Short bones, such as the carpals and tarsals, are cube-shaped and are found in the wrists and ankles. Flat bones, such as the skull and ribs, are thin and flat and provide protection to vital organs. Irregular bones, such as the vertebrae and pelvis, have complex shapes that allow for specific functions. Overall, the bone and bones of the skeletal system play a crucial role in maintaining the health and function of the human body.

In the medical field, silicon is a chemical element that is commonly used in the production of medical devices and implants. Silicon is a hard, brittle, and non-metallic element that is found in the Earth's crust and is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust after oxygen. Silicon is used in the production of a variety of medical devices, including orthopedic implants, dental implants, and prosthetic devices. It is also used in the production of medical-grade silicone, which is used in the manufacture of medical devices such as catheters, tubing, and other medical equipment. Silicon is also used in the production of certain types of medical implants, such as silicone breast implants and silicone gel-filled prosthetic devices. These implants are made from a silicone gel that is encased in a silicone shell. In addition to its use in medical devices and implants, silicon is also used in the production of certain types of medical equipment, such as syringes, catheters, and other medical devices. It is also used in the production of certain types of medical-grade silicone, which is used in the manufacture of medical devices such as catheters, tubing, and other medical equipment.

In the medical field, silicates refer to a group of minerals that contain silicon and oxygen. These minerals are commonly used in various medical applications, including as components of medications, as dietary supplements, and as ingredients in medical devices. One common use of silicates in medicine is as a component of antacids, which are used to treat acid reflux and heartburn. Silicates, such as magnesium aluminum silicate, work by neutralizing stomach acid and forming a protective layer on the lining of the esophagus. Silicates are also used in some dietary supplements, such as calcium silicate, which is a source of calcium and silicon. Calcium is important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, while silicon is thought to play a role in maintaining healthy skin and nails. In addition, silicates are used as ingredients in medical devices, such as wound dressings and dental fillings. For example, hydroxyapatite, a type of silicate mineral, is used as a biocompatible material in dental implants and orthopedic implants. Overall, silicates have a variety of medical applications and are an important component of many medical products.

Naphthaleneacetic acids are a class of organic compounds that are commonly used in the medical field as pharmaceuticals and as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. They are derivatives of naphthalene, a hydrocarbon with a fused benzene ring, and they contain an acetic acid group attached to the naphthalene ring. One example of a naphthaleneacetic acid that is used in medicine is naphthylacetic acid, which is used as a diuretic to increase urine production and help flush excess fluids from the body. It is also used to treat high blood pressure and edema (swelling caused by excess fluid in the body). Other naphthaleneacetic acids that are used in medicine include naphthylamineacetic acid, which is used as an antihistamine to treat allergies and other conditions that cause itching and sneezing, and naphthylpropionic acid, which is used as an anti-inflammatory to reduce swelling and pain. Naphthaleneacetic acids are generally considered to be safe and effective when used as directed, but they can cause side effects such as dizziness, nausea, and stomach upset. It is important to follow the instructions provided by your healthcare provider when taking naphthaleneacetic acids or any other medication.

In the medical field, minerals are essential nutrients that are required for the proper functioning of the body. They are typically obtained through the diet and are necessary for a wide range of bodily processes, including building and maintaining bones, muscles, and other tissues, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating fluid balance. There are many different minerals that are important for human health, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, iron, zinc, copper, selenium, and iodine. Each of these minerals has specific functions within the body and is required in different amounts depending on age, sex, and overall health. Deficiencies in certain minerals can lead to a range of health problems, including osteoporosis, anemia, and heart disease. On the other hand, excessive intake of certain minerals can also be harmful and can lead to toxicity or other health issues. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced diet that provides adequate amounts of all essential minerals.

Gallium is a chemical element with the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that is used in a variety of medical applications, including: 1. Radiopharmaceuticals: Gallium-67 is a radioactive isotope of gallium that is used in nuclear medicine to diagnose and treat various types of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and breast cancer. 2. Imaging agents: Gallium compounds are used as imaging agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans to detect and diagnose various medical conditions, including infections, tumors, and inflammatory diseases. 3. Cancer treatment: Gallium nitrate is a medication that is used to treat certain types of cancer, including multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. 4. Wound healing: Gallium nitrate has been shown to promote wound healing by reducing inflammation and increasing blood flow to the affected area. Overall, gallium has a variety of medical applications, and its unique properties make it a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions.

In the medical field, corrosion refers to the degradation or destruction of a material, such as a medical device or implant, due to chemical reactions with its environment. This can occur when the material comes into contact with bodily fluids, such as blood or saliva, or with other substances, such as disinfectants or cleaning agents. Corrosion can lead to a number of problems in medical devices and implants, including reduced effectiveness, increased risk of infection, and failure of the device or implant. For example, corrosion of a metal implant can cause it to weaken or fracture, leading to the need for surgical removal or replacement. To prevent corrosion in medical devices and implants, manufacturers often use corrosion-resistant materials, such as titanium or stainless steel, and apply coatings or other protective treatments to the surface of the device or implant. Additionally, healthcare providers may follow specific protocols for cleaning and maintaining medical devices to minimize the risk of corrosion.

Phosphates are a group of inorganic compounds that contain the phosphate ion (PO4^3-). In the medical field, phosphates are often used as a source of phosphorus, which is an essential nutrient for the body. Phosphorus is important for a variety of bodily functions, including bone health, energy production, and nerve function. Phosphates are commonly found in foods such as dairy products, meats, and grains, as well as in some dietary supplements. In the medical field, phosphates are also used as a medication to treat certain conditions, such as hypophosphatemia (low levels of phosphorus in the blood) and hyperphosphatemia (high levels of phosphorus in the blood). Phosphates can also be used as a component of intravenous fluids, as well as in certain types of dialysis solutions for people with kidney disease. In these cases, phosphates are used to help regulate the levels of phosphorus in the body. It is important to note that high levels of phosphorus in the blood can be harmful, and it is important for people with kidney disease to carefully manage their phosphorus intake. In some cases, medications such as phosphate binders may be prescribed to help prevent the absorption of excess phosphorus from the diet.

In the medical field, alloys are typically used in the manufacturing of medical devices and implants. Alloys are mixtures of two or more metals, or metals and non-metals, that have been combined to create a new material with unique properties that are not found in the individual metals. For example, stainless steel is an alloy that is commonly used in medical implants such as hip and knee replacements, dental crowns, and surgical instruments. The combination of iron, chromium, and nickel in stainless steel provides strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion, making it an ideal material for medical applications. Other alloys used in the medical field include titanium alloys, cobalt-chromium alloys, and nickel-titanium alloys. These alloys are often used in orthopedic implants, cardiovascular devices, and dental restorations due to their unique properties such as biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and high strength-to-weight ratio. Overall, the use of alloys in the medical field has revolutionized the way medical devices and implants are designed and manufactured, allowing for improved patient outcomes and quality of life.

Phosphorus is a chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15. It is an essential nutrient for living organisms and is found in all cells of the body. In the medical field, phosphorus is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure the levels of phosphorus in the blood, which can be an indicator of various medical conditions. High levels of phosphorus in the blood can be caused by kidney disease, certain medications, or excessive intake of phosphorus-rich foods. Low levels of phosphorus can be caused by malnutrition, certain medications, or excessive loss of phosphorus through the urine. Phosphorus is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, where it is used to help build strong bones. It is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, where it is used to help slow the growth of cancer cells. In addition to its use in medicine, phosphorus is also used in the production of fertilizers, detergents, and other industrial products.

Silicic acid is a naturally occurring compound that is found in many minerals, including quartz, feldspar, and mica. In the medical field, silicic acid is sometimes used as a dietary supplement or as a treatment for certain medical conditions. There is some evidence to suggest that silicic acid may have a number of potential health benefits. For example, some studies have found that it may help to improve bone density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis. It may also have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which could help to protect against a range of chronic diseases. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of silicic acid, and it is important to note that it is not a cure for any medical condition. If you are considering taking silicic acid as a supplement, it is important to talk to your doctor first to ensure that it is safe for you and will not interact with any other medications you may be taking.

Bone diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the structure, strength, and function of bones. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, hormonal imbalances, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, infections, and injuries. Some common bone diseases include osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget's disease, and bone cancer. Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are prone to fractures, especially in the spine, hip, and wrist. Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder that causes bones to be abnormally weak and brittle, leading to frequent fractures and deformities. Paget's disease is a chronic disorder that causes bones to become thickened and misshapen due to excessive bone remodeling. Bone cancer, also known as skeletal sarcoma, is a rare type of cancer that starts in the bone or bone marrow. Treatment for bone diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medications, lifestyle changes, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery. Early detection and treatment are important for preventing complications and improving outcomes.

Neodymium is a chemical element with the symbol Nd and atomic number 60. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that is used in a variety of applications, including in the medical field. In medicine, neodymium is used in a number of different ways. One of the most common uses is in the production of medical imaging equipment, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines. Neodymium is used to create the powerful magnets that are used in these machines to generate detailed images of the inside of the body. Neodymium is also used in the production of medical devices, such as surgical instruments and prosthetic devices. The high strength and magnetic properties of neodymium make it an ideal material for these applications. In addition, neodymium is used in the production of certain types of lasers, which are used in a variety of medical procedures, including eye surgery and skin resurfacing. Overall, neodymium plays an important role in the medical field, and its unique properties make it a valuable resource for a wide range of medical applications.

Chlorides are a type of anion that are commonly found in the human body. They are produced when chlorine combines with other elements, such as sodium or potassium, to form compounds. In the body, chlorides are primarily found in the fluid that surrounds cells, known as extracellular fluid, and in the fluid that fills the lungs and other cavities, known as intracellular fluid. Chlorides play an important role in maintaining the balance of fluids in the body and in regulating the pH of the blood. They also help to transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body. Chlorides are an essential component of many bodily functions, including the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which aids in the digestion of food. In the medical field, chlorides are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess the overall health of the body. Abnormal levels of chlorides in the blood can be a sign of a variety of medical conditions, including kidney disease, liver disease, and respiratory disorders.

In the medical field, "soil" typically refers to the microorganisms and other biological material that can be found in soil. These microorganisms can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and can be present in various forms, such as in soil particles or as free-living organisms. Soil can also refer to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, such as its texture, pH, nutrient content, and water-holding capacity. These properties can affect the growth and health of plants, and can also impact the spread of soil-borne diseases and infections. In some cases, soil can also be used as a medium for growing plants in a controlled environment, such as in a greenhouse or laboratory setting. In these cases, the soil may be specially formulated to provide the necessary nutrients and conditions for optimal plant growth.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic renal failure, is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to function properly over a long period of time. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and glomerulonephritis. Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed when the kidneys are functioning at less than 60% of their normal capacity, and the condition has been present for at least three months. As the kidneys become less functional, they are unable to filter waste products from the blood, leading to a buildup of toxins in the body. This can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, nausea, and difficulty concentrating. Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as managing symptoms and complications. This may include medications to control blood pressure and blood sugar levels, as well as dietary changes and other lifestyle modifications. In some cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary to help the body remove waste products and maintain proper fluid balance.

In the medical field, metals are materials that are commonly used in medical devices, implants, and other medical applications. These metals can include stainless steel, titanium, cobalt-chromium alloys, and other materials that are known for their strength, durability, and biocompatibility. Metals are often used in medical devices because they can withstand the rigors of the human body and provide long-lasting support and stability. For example, metal implants are commonly used in orthopedic surgery to replace damaged or diseased joints, while metal stents are used to keep blood vessels open and prevent blockages. However, metals can also have potential risks and complications. For example, some people may be allergic to certain metals, which can cause skin irritation, inflammation, or other adverse reactions. Additionally, metal implants can sometimes cause tissue damage or infection, which may require additional medical treatment. Overall, the use of metals in the medical field is a complex and multifaceted issue that requires careful consideration of the benefits and risks involved.

In the medical field, adsorption refers to the process by which a substance adheres or sticks to the surface of another substance. This can occur when a drug or other therapeutic agent is adsorbed onto a surface, such as a medical device or a patient's skin. Adsorption can also occur when a substance is adsorbed onto the surface of a cell or tissue, which can affect its ability to interact with the body's immune system or other cells. Adsorption can be an important factor in the development and delivery of medical treatments, as it can affect the effectiveness and safety of a drug or other therapeutic agent.

In the medical field, "iron" refers to a mineral that is essential for the production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body. Iron is also important for the proper functioning of the immune system, metabolism, and energy production. Iron deficiency is a common condition that can lead to anemia, a condition in which the body does not have enough red blood cells to carry oxygen to the body's tissues. Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and pale skin. Iron supplements are often prescribed to treat iron deficiency anemia, and dietary changes may also be recommended to increase iron intake. However, it is important to note that excessive iron intake can also be harmful, so it is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any iron supplements.

Zirconium is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. It is a lustrous, grey-white metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and has a high melting point. In the medical field, zirconium is commonly used in the production of dental implants, as it is biocompatible and has a similar density to human bone. It is also used in the production of orthopedic implants, such as hip and knee replacements, as well as in the fabrication of prosthetic devices. Additionally, zirconium is used in the production of certain types of medical equipment, such as MRI machines, due to its low magnetic susceptibility.

In the medical field, absorption refers to the process by which a substance is taken up into the bloodstream or lymphatic system from the site of administration, such as the digestive tract, lungs, or skin. Absorption can occur through various mechanisms, including passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis. The rate and extent of absorption depend on various factors, such as the chemical properties of the substance, the route of administration, the presence of other substances in the body, and the health status of the individual. Absorption is an important concept in pharmacology, as it determines the bioavailability of a drug, which is the proportion of the drug that reaches the systemic circulation and is available to exert its therapeutic effect. Poor absorption can result in reduced drug efficacy or increased toxicity, while excessive absorption can lead to adverse effects or overdose.

Malates are a group of organic compounds that are commonly found in plants and some microorganisms. In the medical field, malates are often used as a dietary supplement or as a component in certain medications. One of the most well-known uses of malates is in the treatment of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. Malates have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, which can help to regulate blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of complications associated with these conditions. Malates are also used in the treatment of liver disease, as they can help to protect liver cells from damage and promote liver function. In addition, malates have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, which may make them useful in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory conditions. Overall, malates are a versatile compound with a range of potential health benefits. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications.

Hydrofluoric acid is a highly corrosive chemical compound that is commonly used in various industries, including the medical field. In the medical field, hydrofluoric acid is used for a variety of purposes, including: 1. Dental applications: Hydrofluoric acid is used in dental procedures to etch the surface of teeth to improve bonding of dental fillings and crowns. 2. Wound debridement: Hydrofluoric acid is used to remove dead tissue and foreign objects from wounds, particularly in cases where traditional methods of debridement are not effective. 3. Research: Hydrofluoric acid is used in research to study the effects of acid on living cells and tissues. It is important to note that hydrofluoric acid is highly toxic and can cause serious injury or death if not handled properly. Medical professionals who work with hydrofluoric acid must follow strict safety protocols to prevent exposure and minimize the risk of injury.

Transferrin is a plasma protein that plays a crucial role in the transport of iron in the bloodstream. It is synthesized in the liver and transported to the bone marrow, where it helps to regulate the production of red blood cells. Transferrin also plays a role in the immune system by binding to and transporting iron to immune cells, where it is used to produce antibodies. In the medical field, low levels of transferrin can be a sign of iron deficiency anemia, while high levels may indicate an excess of iron in the body.

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is a naturally occurring compound that is commonly used in the medical field. It is a hard, white, crystalline solid that is composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. In the medical field, silicon dioxide is used in a variety of applications, including as a pharmaceutical excipient, a food additive, and a wound dressing material. It is often used as a carrier for other active ingredients in medications, as it can help to improve the stability and bioavailability of the drug. Silicon dioxide is also used in the production of various medical devices, such as implants and prosthetics, as well as in the manufacturing of dental materials and orthopedic implants. In addition to its use in medical applications, silicon dioxide is also used in a variety of other industries, including electronics, construction, and cosmetics.

Occupational diseases are illnesses or injuries that are caused by exposure to hazards or conditions in the workplace. These hazards or conditions can include chemicals, dusts, fumes, radiation, noise, vibration, and physical demands such as repetitive motions or awkward postures. Occupational diseases can affect various systems in the body, including the respiratory system, skin, eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. Examples of occupational diseases include asbestosis, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and hearing loss. Occupational diseases are preventable through proper safety measures and regulations in the workplace. Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy work environment for their employees, and workers have the right to report hazards and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms related to their work.

In the medical field, polycyclic compounds are organic compounds that consist of two or more fused aromatic rings. These compounds are often found in nature and are known for their complex structures and diverse biological activities. Polycyclic compounds can be classified into several categories based on their structure, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, and fused-ring systems. PAHs are compounds that contain multiple aromatic rings, typically with a carbon skeleton, and are known for their carcinogenic properties. Heterocyclic compounds contain at least one heteroatom (such as nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur) in addition to carbon, and are often used as pharmaceuticals or as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. Fused-ring systems are compounds that consist of two or more rings that are fused together, and are often used as dyes or pigments. Polycyclic compounds can have a wide range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial properties. They are also used in the development of new drugs and as research tools to study the mechanisms of various diseases. However, some polycyclic compounds can be toxic or carcinogenic, and their use must be carefully monitored to minimize potential risks.

In the medical field, dust refers to a mixture of small particles that are suspended in the air. These particles can come from a variety of sources, including soil, pollen, pet dander, and human skin cells. Dust can be inhaled and can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues such as asthma, bronchitis, and pneumonia. It can also cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and can exacerbate existing conditions such as allergies and eczema. In some cases, exposure to certain types of dust can be hazardous, such as asbestos or silica dust, which can cause serious health problems if inhaled in large quantities.

Silanes are a group of compounds that contain a silicon atom covalently bonded to one or more hydrogen atoms. They are not typically used in the medical field, as they are primarily used in the production of electronic and optical materials, as well as in the synthesis of other organic compounds. However, there are some silanes that have been studied for their potential medical applications. For example, certain silanes have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of diseases. Additionally, some silanes have been used as adhesives and sealants in medical devices, such as dental fillings and orthopedic implants. Overall, while silanes are not commonly used in the medical field, they have the potential to be useful in the development of new treatments and medical technologies.

Scandium is a chemical element with the symbol Sc and atomic number 21. It is a silvery-white, lustrous transition metal that is highly reactive and is never found in nature in its pure form. In the medical field, scandium is not commonly used for therapeutic purposes. However, it has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of certain types of cancer. Scandium has been shown to have anti-cancer properties and has been used in preclinical studies to treat various types of cancer, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer. Scandium has also been studied for its potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Scandium has been shown to increase bone density and reduce the risk of fractures in animal studies. In addition, scandium has been used in the development of medical imaging agents, such as those used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Scandium-based MRI contrast agents have been shown to improve the contrast between healthy and diseased tissue, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions.

In the medical field, ceramics refer to a group of inorganic, non-metallic materials that are used for various medical applications. These materials are typically strong, hard, and wear-resistant, making them ideal for use in implants, prosthetics, and other medical devices. Ceramics can be classified into several categories based on their composition and properties, including: 1. Oxide ceramics: These ceramics are composed of metal oxides and are commonly used in dental implants, orthopedic implants, and other medical devices. 2. Nitride ceramics: These ceramics are composed of metal nitrides and are known for their high strength and toughness. They are used in orthopedic implants, dental implants, and other medical devices. 3. Carbide ceramics: These ceramics are composed of metal carbides and are known for their high hardness and wear resistance. They are used in dental implants, orthopedic implants, and other medical devices. 4. Glass ceramics: These ceramics are composed of glass and ceramic materials and are known for their high strength and toughness. They are used in dental implants, orthopedic implants, and other medical devices. Ceramics are also used in various medical applications, such as: 1. Dental implants: Ceramic materials are commonly used in dental implants due to their biocompatibility and ability to mimic the natural tooth structure. 2. Orthopedic implants: Ceramic materials are used in orthopedic implants due to their high strength and wear resistance. 3. Prosthetics: Ceramic materials are used in prosthetics due to their ability to mimic the natural bone structure and their biocompatibility. 4. Surgical instruments: Ceramic materials are used in surgical instruments due to their high strength and wear resistance. Overall, ceramics play an important role in the medical field due to their unique properties and versatility in various medical applications.

Chelating agents are compounds that can bind to metal ions and form stable complexes, which can then be excreted from the body. In the medical field, chelating agents are often used to treat heavy metal poisoning, such as lead, mercury, or arsenic poisoning. They work by binding to the metal ions and forming complexes that are more soluble and easier to excrete through the kidneys. Chelating agents can also be used to treat certain types of cancer by targeting and binding to radioactive isotopes used in cancer treatment, allowing the radioactive isotopes to be safely eliminated from the body.

Yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that is highly reactive and is used in a variety of applications in the medical field. One of the main uses of yttrium in medicine is in the production of medical imaging agents. Yttrium-90 (90Y) is a radioactive isotope that is commonly used in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) to treat cancer. In TRT, a radioactive compound is attached to a molecule that specifically targets cancer cells, allowing the radiation to be delivered directly to the tumor while minimizing damage to healthy tissue. Yttrium is also used in the production of certain medical devices, such as dental implants and orthopedic implants. Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) is used as a ceramic material in the production of dental implants because of its high strength and biocompatibility. In addition, yttrium is used in the production of certain medical instruments, such as surgical lasers and dental drills. Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) is a crystal that is used in the production of high-power laser systems, which are used in a variety of medical procedures, including eye surgery and cancer treatment. Overall, yttrium plays an important role in the medical field due to its unique properties and versatility in a variety of applications.

Sodium fluoride is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a fluoride supplement to prevent tooth decay. It is also used in dental products such as toothpaste and mouthwash to help strengthen tooth enamel and prevent cavities. In the medical field, sodium fluoride is typically administered as a solution or tablet to patients who are at risk of developing tooth decay. It is also used in certain medical treatments, such as radiation therapy, to help prevent the development of new blood vessels in tumors. Sodium fluoride is generally considered safe when used as directed, but high doses or prolonged exposure can be harmful. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and use caution when administering sodium fluoride to patients, especially children.

Air abrasion, dental, is a minimally invasive dental procedure that uses a high-speed stream of abrasive particles to remove tooth decay or other dental damage. The particles are directed at the tooth surface using a hand-held device, and the pressure of the air stream helps to control the depth and precision of the removal. Air abrasion is often used as an alternative to traditional drilling, which can be more invasive and cause more discomfort for patients. It is a quick and painless procedure that can be used to treat a variety of dental problems, including cavities, tooth wear, and minor chips or cracks.

Uremia is a condition that occurs when there is a buildup of waste products in the blood that cannot be removed by the kidneys. This buildup of waste products, which includes urea, creatinine, and other toxins, can lead to a variety of symptoms and complications, including fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, confusion, and swelling in the legs and feet. Uremia is typically a sign that the kidneys are not functioning properly, and it is often associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In CKD, the kidneys gradually lose their ability to filter waste products from the blood, leading to a buildup of toxins in the body. Uremia can also occur as a result of acute kidney injury, which is a sudden and severe loss of kidney function. Treatment for uremia typically involves managing the underlying cause of the condition, such as treating a kidney infection or addressing a blockage in the urinary tract. In some cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary to help remove waste products from the blood and prevent further damage to the kidneys.

Indoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered aromatic ring with a nitrogen atom at one of the corners of the ring. They are commonly found in a variety of natural products, including some plants, bacteria, and fungi. In the medical field, indoles have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects, particularly in the treatment of cancer. Some indoles have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-bacterial properties, and are being investigated as potential drugs for the treatment of various diseases.

Vaccines are biological preparations that are used to stimulate the immune system to produce a protective response against specific infectious diseases. They contain weakened or inactivated forms of the pathogen or its components, such as proteins or sugars, that trigger an immune response without causing the disease. When a vaccine is administered, the immune system recognizes the foreign substance and produces antibodies to fight it off. This process primes the immune system to recognize and respond more quickly and effectively if the person is later exposed to the actual pathogen. This can prevent or reduce the severity of the disease and help to control its spread in the population. Vaccines are an important tool in public health and have been responsible for the eradication or control of many infectious diseases, such as smallpox, polio, and measles. They are typically given through injection or oral administration and are recommended for individuals of all ages, depending on the disease and the individual's risk factors.

In the medical field, the term "diamond" is not commonly used. However, there are a few medical terms that contain the word "diamond" in their name. Here are some examples: 1. Diamond-Blackfan Anemia: A rare genetic disorder that affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells. It is named after the Diamond-Blackfan family, who first described the condition in 1938. 2. Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, as well as other blood cells. It is a more severe form of Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. 3. Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Mutation: A genetic mutation that causes Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. The mutation affects the production of a protein called ribosomal protein S19, which is essential for the production of red blood cells. 4. Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Treatment: Treatment for Diamond-Blackfan Anemia typically involves regular blood transfusions and medications to stimulate the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary. It's important to note that these terms are not commonly used in everyday medical practice, and may only be encountered in specialized fields or by medical professionals with a specific interest in rare genetic disorders.

Adjuvants, pharmaceutic, are substances added to a vaccine or other pharmaceutical product to enhance its effectiveness or safety. They can help to stimulate the immune system, increase the stability of the product, or reduce side effects. Examples of adjuvants include aluminum salts, which are commonly used in vaccines to enhance the immune response, and oil-based emulsions, which can help to protect the vaccine from degradation. Adjuvants are an important part of vaccine development and are carefully chosen and tested to ensure that they are safe and effective.

Biological availability refers to the proportion of a drug or other substance that is able to enter the bloodstream and become available for therapeutic action after it has been administered to a patient. It is a measure of how much of a drug is able to reach the target site in the body and exert its intended effect. There are several factors that can affect the biological availability of a drug, including the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, intramuscular), the formulation of the drug (e.g., tablet, capsule, liquid), the presence of food in the stomach, and the patient's individual characteristics (e.g., age, weight, liver function). In general, drugs that are administered orally have lower biological availability than those that are administered intravenously, because some of the drug is absorbed by the stomach and liver before it reaches the bloodstream. Formulations that are designed to enhance the absorption of a drug, such as those that use sustained-release technology, can also affect the biological availability of the drug. Understanding the biological availability of a drug is important for optimizing its therapeutic effect and minimizing potential side effects. It is also important for ensuring that drugs are dosed appropriately and that patients receive the correct amount of the drug to achieve the desired therapeutic effect.

In the medical field, poisoning refers to the harmful effects that occur when a person is exposed to a toxic substance, either intentionally or unintentionally. Poisoning can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact with a toxic substance. The effects of poisoning can vary widely depending on the type and amount of the toxic substance, as well as the individual's age, health status, and other factors. Symptoms of poisoning can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, confusion, seizures, and even coma or death in severe cases. Treatment for poisoning depends on the type and severity of the exposure. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement, oxygen therapy, or medication to manage symptoms may be necessary. In more severe cases, hospitalization and specialized treatment may be required. Prevention of poisoning is the best approach, and this can involve measures such as proper storage and labeling of toxic substances, avoiding exposure to hazardous materials, and educating individuals about the risks associated with certain substances.

Neurologic Manifestations refer to the symptoms and signs that arise from problems with the nervous system. These can include changes in sensation, movement, cognition, and behavior. Examples of neurologic manifestations include headache, dizziness, weakness, numbness, tingling, seizures, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and changes in mood or behavior. These symptoms can be caused by a variety of conditions, including infections, injuries, degenerative diseases, and genetic disorders.

Andropogon is a genus of grasses that includes many species commonly known as sorghums. In the medical field, Andropogon is not typically used as a medical term. However, some species of Andropogon are used in traditional medicine for various purposes. For example, Andropogon glaucus, also known as blue joint grass, is used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including fever, diarrhea, and respiratory infections. It is also used as a diuretic and to treat kidney stones. It is important to note that the use of Andropogon in traditional medicine should be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare practitioner, as some species of Andropogon can cause side effects or interact with other medications.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands, which are four small glands located in the neck, near the thyroid gland. PTH plays a crucial role in regulating the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body. PTH acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestines to increase the levels of calcium in the blood. It stimulates the release of calcium from the bones into the bloodstream, increases the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys, and promotes the absorption of calcium from the intestines. PTH also plays a role in regulating the levels of phosphorus in the body. It stimulates the kidneys to excrete phosphorus in the urine, which helps to maintain the proper balance of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. Abnormal levels of PTH can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hyperparathyroidism (too much PTH), hypoparathyroidism (too little PTH), and parathyroid cancer. Hyperparathyroidism can cause osteoporosis, kidney stones, and other complications, while hypoparathyroidism can lead to muscle cramps, seizures, and other symptoms.

Anion exchange resins are a type of synthetic polymer that are used in various medical applications, including drug delivery, hemodialysis, and blood purification. These resins are designed to selectively bind and exchange anions (negatively charged ions) with other ions in solution. In drug delivery, anion exchange resins are used to modify the release rate of certain drugs from a delivery system. The drug is typically attached to the resin, and the release rate can be controlled by adjusting the pH or ionic strength of the surrounding solution. In hemodialysis and blood purification, anion exchange resins are used to remove excess ions, such as potassium and phosphate, from the blood. The resins selectively bind these ions and remove them from the blood, while allowing other important ions, such as sodium and chloride, to pass through. Overall, anion exchange resins are a valuable tool in the medical field for controlling the release of drugs and for removing excess ions from the body.

Hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) is a medication used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) to treat certain types of cancer, including skin cancer, lung cancer, and head and neck cancer. It is a type of porphyrin, a pigment that is naturally produced by the body and is involved in the production of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. In PDT, HPD is administered intravenously and then absorbed by cancer cells. The patient is then exposed to a specific wavelength of light, which causes the HPD to become activated and destroy the cancer cells. This treatment is often used in combination with other cancer treatments, such as surgery or radiation therapy. HPD can cause side effects, including skin irritation, nausea, and fatigue. It is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and to avoid exposure to sunlight or other sources of bright light while taking HPD, as this can increase the risk of side effects.

Titanium is a metal that is commonly used in the medical field due to its unique properties, such as its high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is often used in medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, dental implants, and spinal implants, due to its ability to integrate well with the body and its durability. Titanium is also used in surgical instruments and medical equipment, such as pacemakers and defibrillators, due to its resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand high temperatures. Additionally, titanium is sometimes used in the fabrication of prosthetic limbs and other medical devices.

In the medical field, oxalates are organic compounds that contain the oxalate ion (C2O4^2-). Oxalates are commonly found in many foods, including spinach, beets, and chocolate, as well as in some medications and industrial chemicals. In the body, oxalates can form crystals that can accumulate in various organs, leading to a condition called oxalosis. Oxalosis can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to kidney stones and other kidney problems. It can also cause damage to the bones, leading to a condition called osteomalacia. In some cases, high levels of oxalates in the blood can lead to a condition called primary hyperoxaluria, which is a rare genetic disorder that can cause kidney stones, kidney damage, and other health problems. Overall, oxalates are an important topic in the medical field, particularly in the context of kidney health and the prevention and treatment of kidney stones.

In the medical field, acids are substances that donate hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. They are classified as either strong or weak acids, depending on how completely they ionize in water. Acids can have various effects on the body, depending on their concentration and duration of exposure. For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid that is produced by the stomach to help break down food. However, if the stomach produces too much HCl, it can cause acid reflux, heartburn, and other digestive problems. Other acids that are commonly used in medicine include citric acid, which is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid, and salicylic acid, which is used as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of conditions such as acne and psoriasis. In some cases, acids can be used to treat medical conditions. For example, hydrofluoric acid is used to treat certain types of bone cancer, and lactic acid is used to treat metabolic acidosis, a condition in which the body produces too much acid. However, it is important to note that acids can also be harmful if they are not used properly. Exposure to high concentrations of acids can cause burns, corrosion of tissues, and other serious injuries. Therefore, it is important for medical professionals to use acids with caution and follow proper safety protocols.

Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.

Cladocera is a group of small crustaceans that are commonly found in freshwater environments. They are also known as water fleas and are important members of aquatic food webs. In the medical field, Cladocera are not typically studied or used for medical purposes. However, some species of Cladocera are used in research to study the effects of environmental pollutants on aquatic ecosystems. Additionally, some species of Cladocera are used in the production of biofuels and as a source of food for humans and other animals.

In the medical field, Lewis acids are a class of chemical compounds that can accept a pair of electrons from a donor molecule. They are named after Gilbert N. Lewis, an American chemist who first described the concept of acid-base chemistry in 1923. Lewis acids are often used in medicine as catalysts in various chemical reactions, such as the synthesis of drugs and other pharmaceuticals. They can also be used as imaging agents in diagnostic procedures, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Some examples of Lewis acids used in medicine include metal ions such as iron, copper, and zinc, as well as organic compounds such as boron trifluoride and aluminum chloride. These compounds can interact with biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, to modulate their function and activity. It is important to note that not all acids are Lewis acids, and the classification of an acid as a Lewis acid depends on its ability to accept electrons. In the medical field, the use of Lewis acids must be carefully controlled to avoid potential toxicity and adverse effects on the body.

Magnesium is a mineral that is essential for many bodily functions. It is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions in the body, including the production of energy, the synthesis of proteins and DNA, and the regulation of muscle and nerve function. In the medical field, magnesium is used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Hypomagnesemia: A deficiency of magnesium in the blood. This can cause symptoms such as muscle cramps, spasms, and seizures. 2. Cardiac arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be caused by low levels of magnesium. 3. Pre-eclampsia: A condition that can occur during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood pressure and protein in the urine. Magnesium supplementation may be used to treat this condition. 4. Chronic kidney disease: Magnesium is often lost in the urine of people with chronic kidney disease, and supplementation may be necessary to maintain adequate levels. 5. Alcohol withdrawal: Magnesium supplementation may be used to treat symptoms of alcohol withdrawal, such as tremors and seizures. 6. Muscle spasms: Magnesium can help to relax muscles and relieve spasms. 7. Anxiety and depression: Some studies have suggested that magnesium supplementation may help to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression. Magnesium is available in various forms, including oral tablets, capsules, and intravenous solutions. It is important to note that high levels of magnesium can also be toxic, so it is important to use magnesium supplements under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

In the medical field, "Metals, Heavy" typically refers to a group of elements that are dense, have high atomic numbers, and are toxic or harmful to human health when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Examples of heavy metals include lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic. Heavy metals can accumulate in the body over time and cause a range of health problems, including neurological disorders, kidney damage, and cancer. Exposure to heavy metals can occur through various sources, such as contaminated water, soil, air, and food. In medical settings, heavy metal exposure may be diagnosed through blood, urine, or hair tests, and treatment may involve chelation therapy to remove the metals from the body or other supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention of heavy metal exposure is also important, and may involve avoiding contaminated sources of food and water, using protective equipment in certain industries, and following safe handling and disposal practices for heavy metal-containing materials.

In the medical field, "waste water" typically refers to water that has been contaminated with various types of biological, chemical, and physical pollutants, including bacteria, viruses, pharmaceuticals, and other harmful substances. This type of water is often generated by hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, as well as by laboratories and research facilities that handle biological materials. Waste water from healthcare facilities can contain a wide range of contaminants, including blood, urine, feces, and other bodily fluids, as well as chemicals used in cleaning and disinfection. These contaminants can pose a significant risk to public health if they are not properly treated and disposed of. To prevent the spread of disease and protect public health, healthcare facilities are required to follow strict regulations for the collection, treatment, and disposal of waste water. This typically involves the use of specialized treatment systems, such as biological treatment systems, chemical treatment systems, or advanced oxidation processes, to remove or neutralize contaminants before the water is discharged into the environment.

In the medical field, "Cooking and Eating Utensils" typically refers to the tools and equipment used for preparing and consuming food. These utensils may include knives, cutting boards, pots, pans, plates, cups, and utensils such as forks, spoons, and chopsticks. In a healthcare setting, cooking and eating utensils may be used in a variety of ways. For example, they may be used in a hospital cafeteria to prepare and serve meals to patients and staff. They may also be used in a patient's room to provide them with a safe and hygienic way to eat their meals. To prevent the spread of infection, it is important to properly clean and sanitize cooking and eating utensils in a healthcare setting. This may involve using hot water and soap, or using a commercial disinfectant. In addition, utensils should be stored in a clean and dry place to prevent contamination. Overall, cooking and eating utensils play an important role in maintaining the health and safety of patients and staff in a healthcare setting.

Graphite is not typically used in the medical field. Graphite is a naturally occurring mineral that is composed of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice structure. It is commonly used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in the production of electrodes for electrochemical cells. In the medical field, graphite is not commonly used for any medical purposes.

Penicillin G Procaine is a medication that is used to treat bacterial infections. It is a combination of penicillin G, which is an antibiotic that fights bacteria, and procaine, which is a local anesthetic that helps to numb the injection site. Penicillin G Procaine is typically administered as a shot or injection into a muscle or a vein. It is used to treat a variety of infections, including pneumonia, strep throat, and skin infections. It is important to note that Penicillin G Procaine may not be effective against all types of bacteria, and it is important to take the full course of the medication as prescribed by a healthcare provider.

In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.

Phosphorus metabolism disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the body's ability to regulate the levels of phosphorus in the blood and tissues. Phosphorus is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including bone health, energy production, and nerve function. There are several types of phosphorus metabolism disorders, including: 1. Hypophosphatemia: This is a condition characterized by low levels of phosphorus in the blood. It can be caused by various factors, including malnutrition, kidney disease, and certain medications. 2. Hyperphosphatemia: This is a condition characterized by high levels of phosphorus in the blood. It can be caused by overeating phosphorus-rich foods, kidney disease, and certain medications. 3. Phosphorus wasting: This is a condition characterized by the body's inability to absorb or retain phosphorus, leading to low levels of phosphorus in the blood and tissues. 4. Phosphorus retention: This is a condition characterized by the body's inability to excrete phosphorus, leading to high levels of phosphorus in the blood and tissues. Phosphorus metabolism disorders can have serious consequences for overall health and wellbeing, including bone disease, muscle weakness, and nerve damage. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the disorder and managing symptoms through dietary changes, medications, and other interventions.

Dihydrotachysterol (DHT) is a naturally occurring vitamin D metabolite that plays a role in regulating calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the body. It is produced in the skin when ultraviolet light strikes 7-dehydrocholesterol, a precursor molecule found in the skin. In the medical field, DHT is used as a treatment for hypovitaminosis D, a condition characterized by low levels of vitamin D in the body. It is also used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism, a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone due to low levels of calcium in the blood. DHT is available as a prescription medication and is typically administered orally. It is generally well-tolerated, but like all medications, it can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is important to note that DHT should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can interact with other medications and may not be appropriate for everyone.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. It is the most common cause of dementia, a condition characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities severe enough to interfere with daily life. The disease is named after Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist who first described it in 1906. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein deposits in the brain, including amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. These deposits disrupt the normal functioning of brain cells, leading to their death and the progressive loss of cognitive abilities. Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease typically begin with mild memory loss and gradually worsen over time. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience difficulty with language, disorientation, and changes in personality and behavior. Eventually, they may become unable to care for themselves and require around-the-clock care. There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but treatments are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the disease. These treatments may include medications, lifestyle changes, and support from caregivers and healthcare professionals.

Boron is a chemical element that is not typically used in the medical field for therapeutic purposes. However, boron has been studied for its potential health benefits and its role in various biological processes. In some cases, boron supplements are marketed for their potential to support bone health, improve athletic performance, and reduce menopausal symptoms. However, the evidence for these claims is limited and more research is needed to confirm their effectiveness and safety. Boron is also used in certain medical treatments, such as neutron capture therapy, which involves using boron-10 to target and destroy cancer cells. In this treatment, boron-10 is selectively taken up by cancer cells and then bombarded with neutrons, which causes the boron-10 to capture the neutrons and release high-energy particles that destroy the cancer cells. Overall, while boron has some potential health benefits and is used in certain medical treatments, more research is needed to fully understand its role in the body and its potential therapeutic applications.

In the medical field, an antidote is a substance that is used to counteract or neutralize the effects of a toxic substance or poison. Antidotes are typically administered to individuals who have ingested, inhaled, or been exposed to a harmful substance in order to prevent or treat the harmful effects of the poison. Antidotes can be used to treat a wide range of toxic substances, including drugs, chemicals, and biological agents. For example, activated charcoal is often used as an antidote to treat poisoning from certain drugs, while atropine is used to counteract the effects of nerve gas poisoning. It is important to note that not all toxic substances have an antidote, and in some cases, the best course of treatment may be supportive care rather than the administration of an antidote. Additionally, some antidotes can themselves be harmful if administered in the wrong dosage or to the wrong individual, so it is important for healthcare professionals to be trained in the proper use of antidotes.

In the medical field, tannins are a type of polyphenol compound found in many plants, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Tannins are known for their astringent taste and their ability to bind to proteins and other molecules, which can give them a range of potential health benefits. Tannins have been studied for their potential to reduce inflammation, lower blood pressure, and improve cholesterol levels. They may also have antioxidant properties, which can help protect the body against damage from free radicals. In some cases, tannins may interact with medications or other substances in the body, so it's important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking any supplements or consuming large amounts of tannin-rich foods.

Silicosis is a lung disease caused by the inhalation of crystalline silica dust. It is characterized by the formation of scar tissue in the lungs, which can lead to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain. The disease is most commonly associated with the mining and processing of minerals such as quartz, sandstone, and granite, as well as with the manufacture of glass and ceramics. Silicosis can be acute, subacute, or chronic, depending on the duration and intensity of exposure to silica dust. It is a preventable disease, and steps can be taken to reduce exposure to silica dust in the workplace.

Cation exchange resins are a type of synthetic polymer that are used in various medical applications. They are typically composed of a network of cross-linked polymer chains that have positively charged functional groups, known as cations, on their surface. In the medical field, cation exchange resins are often used as ion-exchange agents to remove certain ions, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium, from the body. This can be useful in treating conditions such as hyperkalemia (high potassium levels in the blood), hypernatremia (high sodium levels in the blood), and hypercalcemia (high calcium levels in the blood). Cation exchange resins are also used in hemodialysis, a medical treatment for people with kidney failure, to remove waste products and excess fluids from the blood. They are often used in combination with other dialysis techniques, such as reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, to achieve the desired level of dialysis. In addition to their use in medical treatments, cation exchange resins are also used in a variety of other applications, including water treatment, wastewater treatment, and the purification of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

Osteitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of bone tissue. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, injury, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Symptoms of osteitis may include pain, swelling, redness, and warmth around the affected bone. In some cases, osteitis can lead to the destruction of bone tissue and the development of bone deformities. Treatment for osteitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, physical therapy, and surgery.

Densitometry is a medical imaging technique used to measure the density of tissues in the body. It is commonly used in radiology to assess bone density, which is an important factor in determining a person's risk of developing osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. There are several types of densitometry, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) densitometry. DXA is the most commonly used type of densitometry and is performed by exposing the patient to low-dose X-rays while lying on a table. The X-rays are then analyzed to determine the density of the bones in the body. Densitometry is also used to measure the density of other tissues, such as breast tissue, lung tissue, and soft tissue masses. It can be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including cancer, emphysema, and heart disease.

In the medical field, plastics refer to a wide range of synthetic materials that are used to make medical devices, implants, and other equipment. These materials are typically lightweight, durable, and resistant to corrosion, making them ideal for use in medical applications. Plastics are used in a variety of medical devices, including catheters, syringes, surgical instruments, and prosthetic devices. They are also used to make medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, dental implants, and pacemakers. Plastics can be made from a variety of materials, including polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyurethane. These materials are chosen based on their specific properties, such as their strength, flexibility, and biocompatibility. It is important to note that not all plastics are safe for medical use, and some may even be toxic or cause adverse reactions in the body. Therefore, medical devices made from plastics must be carefully tested and regulated to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Succinic anhydride is a chemical compound that is used in the production of various pharmaceuticals and other chemicals. It is a white, crystalline solid that is soluble in organic solvents but not in water. In the medical field, succinic anhydride is used as a starting material for the synthesis of a number of drugs, including antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and analgesics. It is also used as a solvent and a chemical intermediate in the production of other chemicals.

Anthrax vaccines are vaccines used to prevent anthrax, a serious bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can occur in both animals and humans and can cause skin infections, lung infections, and gastrointestinal infections. Anthrax vaccines are typically given as a series of injections and work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against the bacterium. There are several different types of anthrax vaccines, including live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, and subunit vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines contain a weakened form of the bacterium that is still able to cause an immune response but is not able to cause disease. Inactivated vaccines contain killed or inactivated forms of the bacterium that cannot cause disease. Subunit vaccines contain specific parts of the bacterium that can stimulate an immune response without causing disease. Anthrax vaccines are typically given to people who are at high risk of exposure to the bacterium, such as laboratory workers, veterinarians, and military personnel.

GTP-binding proteins, also known as G proteins, are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in signal transduction in cells. They are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. G proteins are composed of three subunits: an alpha subunit, a beta subunit, and a gamma subunit. The alpha subunit is the one that binds to guanosine triphosphate (GTP), a molecule that is involved in regulating the activity of the protein. When GTP binds to the alpha subunit, it causes a conformational change in the protein, which in turn activates or inhibits downstream signaling pathways. G proteins are activated by a variety of extracellular signals, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. Once activated, they can interact with other proteins in the cell, such as enzymes or ion channels, to transmit the signal and initiate a cellular response. G proteins are found in all eukaryotic cells and play a critical role in many physiological processes. They are also involved in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Activation analysis is a nuclear analytical technique used in the medical field to determine the elemental composition of a sample. It involves bombarding a sample with high-energy particles, such as neutrons or protons, which cause the atoms in the sample to become radioactive. The resulting radioactive isotopes emit gamma rays, which can be detected and analyzed to determine the elemental composition of the sample. In the medical field, activation analysis is used to study the elemental composition of biological samples, such as blood, urine, and tissue, to diagnose and monitor various diseases. For example, it can be used to determine the levels of trace elements in the body, such as zinc, copper, and selenium, which are essential for maintaining good health. It can also be used to detect and monitor the presence of toxic elements, such as lead and mercury, in the body, which can cause serious health problems if left untreated. Overall, activation analysis is a powerful tool in the medical field that allows researchers to gain valuable insights into the elemental composition of biological samples and how it relates to health and disease.

Zinc is a chemical element that is essential for human health. In the medical field, zinc is used in a variety of ways, including as a supplement to treat and prevent certain health conditions. Zinc is involved in many important bodily functions, including immune system function, wound healing, and DNA synthesis. It is also important for the proper functioning of the senses of taste and smell. Zinc deficiency can lead to a range of health problems, including impaired immune function, delayed wound healing, and impaired growth and development in children. Zinc supplements are often recommended for people who are at risk of zinc deficiency, such as pregnant and breastfeeding women, people with certain medical conditions, and people who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet. In addition to its use as a supplement, zinc is also used in some medications, such as those used to treat acne and the common cold. It is also used in some over-the-counter products, such as antacids and nasal sprays. Overall, zinc is an important nutrient that plays a vital role in maintaining good health.

In the medical field, copper is a trace element that is essential for various bodily functions. It plays a crucial role in the formation of red blood cells, the maintenance of healthy bones, and the proper functioning of the immune system. Copper is also involved in the metabolism of iron and the production of energy in the body. Copper deficiency can lead to a range of health problems, including anemia, osteoporosis, and impaired immune function. On the other hand, excessive copper intake can be toxic and can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and other organs. In some medical treatments, copper is used as a component of certain medications, such as antibiotics and antifungal drugs. Copper is also used in medical devices, such as catheters and implants, due to its antimicrobial properties. Overall, copper is an important nutrient in the medical field, and its proper balance is crucial for maintaining good health.

In the medical field, "tin" typically refers to a type of metal that is used in the production of certain medical devices and implants. Tin is a soft, silvery-white metal that is often alloyed with other metals, such as copper or zinc, to improve its strength and durability. One common use of tin in medicine is in the production of orthopedic implants, such as hip and knee replacements. Tin can be alloyed with other metals to create a strong, corrosion-resistant material that is suitable for use in the body. Tin is also used in the production of certain types of medical equipment, such as X-ray machines and MRI machines. In these applications, tin is used to shield the equipment from external radiation and to protect patients from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Overall, tin is an important material in the medical field due to its strength, durability, and ability to be alloyed with other metals to create a wide range of medical devices and implants.

Chromium is a chemical element that is essential for human health. It is a trace mineral that is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Chromium is also important for maintaining healthy blood sugar levels and for regulating insulin sensitivity. In the medical field, chromium is used to treat type 2 diabetes and to improve insulin sensitivity. It is often used in combination with other medications to help control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Chromium supplements are also sometimes used to help with weight loss and to improve athletic performance. It is important to note that while chromium is an essential nutrient, excessive intake of chromium supplements can be harmful. The recommended daily intake of chromium for adults is 55 micrograms per day. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before taking any supplements.

Fasciitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the fascia, which is the connective tissue that surrounds and supports muscles, tendons, and other structures in the body. There are several types of fasciitis, including: 1. Plantar fasciitis: This is the most common type of fasciitis, affecting the bottom of the foot. It is caused by repetitive strain on the plantar fascia, which can lead to inflammation and pain. 2. Achilles tendinitis: This is a type of fasciitis that affects the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. It is caused by overuse or injury to the tendon. 3. Patellar tendinitis: This is a type of fasciitis that affects the patellar tendon, which connects the kneecap to the shinbone. It is caused by overuse or injury to the tendon. 4. Peroneal tendinitis: This is a type of fasciitis that affects the peroneal tendons, which run along the sides of the foot and ankle. It is caused by overuse or injury to the tendons. Fasciitis can cause pain, stiffness, and swelling in the affected area. Treatment typically involves rest, ice, physical therapy, and pain medication. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary.

Pica is a disorder characterized by the persistent consumption of non-food substances, such as dirt, clay, paper, glue, or metal. It is typically seen in children and can persist into adulthood. Pica can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as iron deficiency anemia, or it can occur without a clear cause. In some cases, pica may be associated with anxiety, depression, or other mental health disorders. Treatment for pica may involve addressing the underlying cause, as well as providing education and support to help the individual stop consuming non-food substances.

Streptococcal vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against infections caused by Streptococcus bacteria. Streptococcus bacteria are a group of Gram-positive bacteria that can cause a variety of infections, including strep throat, scarlet fever, and pneumonia. There are several different types of streptococcal vaccines that have been developed, including vaccines that target specific types of Streptococcus bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. These vaccines are typically given to people who are at high risk of developing streptococcal infections, such as young children, older adults, and people with certain medical conditions. Streptococcal vaccines work by stimulating the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can recognize and fight off Streptococcus bacteria. This can help to prevent the bacteria from causing infections, or can help to reduce the severity and duration of infections if they do occur. It is important to note that streptococcal vaccines are not a cure for streptococcal infections, and they may not be effective in everyone. However, they can be an important tool in preventing and controlling the spread of these infections.

Oxalic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is found in many plants and animals. It is also produced industrially as a chemical intermediate in the production of various chemicals and dyes. In the medical field, oxalic acid is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to help identify certain medical conditions. For example, high levels of oxalic acid in the urine can be a sign of kidney disease or other medical conditions that affect the kidneys. Oxalic acid is also used in some medical treatments, such as the treatment of certain types of kidney stones. In this case, oxalic acid is used to dissolve the stones and help them pass through the urinary tract. However, it is important to note that oxalic acid can also be toxic in high doses and can cause serious health problems if ingested or inhaled. As such, it is important to use oxalic acid with caution and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

In the medical field, "Chemistry Techniques, Analytical" refers to the methods and procedures used to analyze and measure the chemical composition of biological samples, such as blood, urine, and tissue. These techniques are used to diagnose diseases, monitor treatment progress, and evaluate the effectiveness of drugs and other therapeutic agents. Some common analytical chemistry techniques used in the medical field include: 1. Spectroscopy: This technique uses electromagnetic radiation to analyze the chemical composition of a sample. It can be used to identify specific molecules and measure their concentrations. 2. Chromatography: This technique separates different components of a mixture based on their chemical properties. It can be used to identify and quantify specific compounds in a sample. 3. Mass spectrometry: This technique measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions in a sample. It can be used to identify and quantify specific molecules in a sample. 4. Immunoassays: This technique uses antibodies to detect and measure specific molecules in a sample. It is commonly used to measure the levels of hormones, proteins, and other biomarkers in blood and other biological fluids. 5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs): This technique uses antibodies to detect and measure specific molecules in a sample. It is commonly used to measure the levels of hormones, proteins, and other biomarkers in blood and other biological fluids. These analytical chemistry techniques are essential tools in the medical field, allowing healthcare professionals to diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases and conditions.

Calbindin 1 is a calcium-binding protein that is primarily expressed in the parathyroid gland, where it plays a role in regulating calcium homeostasis. It is also found in other tissues, including the brain, pancreas, and bone. In the brain, calbindin 1 is expressed in several regions, including the cerebellum, hippocampus, and neocortex. It is thought to play a role in regulating calcium signaling and neurotransmitter release, and has been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. In the pancreas, calbindin 1 is expressed in the beta cells, where it may play a role in regulating insulin secretion. In the bone, calbindin 1 is expressed in osteoblasts, where it may play a role in regulating bone mineralization. Overall, calbindin 1 is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in regulating calcium homeostasis and neurotransmitter release in various tissues throughout the body.

In the medical field, "Carbon Compounds, Inorganic" refers to compounds that contain carbon but do not contain hydrogen. These compounds are typically formed by the reaction of carbon with other elements, such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, or halogens. Examples of inorganic carbon compounds include carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and calcium carbonate (CaCO3). These compounds can play important roles in various physiological processes, such as respiration, metabolism, and bone formation. In some cases, inorganic carbon compounds can also be toxic or harmful to the body if they are present in high concentrations or if they are not properly metabolized.

In the medical field, composite resins are a type of dental filling material that is used to restore teeth that have been damaged by decay or trauma. They are made up of a mixture of glass particles and a resin binder, and are often used to fill small to medium-sized cavities. Composite resins are popular among dentists because they are tooth-colored, which means they can be matched to the natural color of the patient's teeth. This makes them an attractive option for patients who want to restore their teeth without the use of metal fillings. In addition, composite resins are relatively easy to use and can be shaped and polished to blend in with the surrounding teeth. While composite resins are generally considered safe and effective, they may not be suitable for all patients. For example, they may not be a good choice for patients who grind their teeth or who have a high risk of developing cavities. In these cases, other types of dental fillings, such as amalgam or gold, may be a better option.

Apicoectomy is a surgical procedure performed by a dentist or oral surgeon to remove the tip of the tooth root, also known as the apical portion, when it becomes infected or damaged. This procedure is typically performed to treat a condition called apical periodontitis, which is an infection that occurs at the tip of the tooth root. During an apicoectomy, the dentist or oral surgeon will make an incision in the gum tissue to access the affected tooth. They will then remove the infected or damaged tissue around the tooth root, including the tip of the root. The dentist or oral surgeon may also use a laser or other specialized tools to remove any remaining infected tissue. After the procedure, the dentist or oral surgeon will pack the area with a medicated dressing to promote healing. The patient may need to take pain medication and follow a strict oral hygiene routine to prevent infection and promote healing. In some cases, a dental implant or other type of restoration may be necessary to replace the missing tooth.

Tetanus Toxoid is a vaccine that contains a weakened form of the tetanus toxin, which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The vaccine is used to prevent tetanus, a serious and potentially fatal disease that affects the nervous system. Tetanus is caused by the entry of the tetanus toxin into the body, usually through a deep puncture wound or cut that is contaminated with the bacterium. The vaccine works by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can neutralize the tetanus toxin if it enters the body. Tetanus Toxoid is typically given as a series of injections, with the first dose usually given in the early childhood and booster doses given at regular intervals to maintain immunity.

The chemical industry in the medical field refers to the production and use of chemicals and chemical compounds in the development, manufacturing, and distribution of pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and other medical products. This includes the synthesis and purification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), the formulation of drugs and medical devices, and the testing and quality control of these products. The chemical industry in the medical field also involves the development of new chemical compounds and technologies for use in medical research and drug discovery. This includes the use of advanced analytical techniques, such as mass spectrometry and chromatography, to identify and characterize new compounds, as well as the development of new synthetic methods for producing these compounds in large quantities. Overall, the chemical industry plays a critical role in the development and production of medical products, and its advancements have led to significant improvements in healthcare and patient outcomes.

Propantheline is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called anticholinergics. It is primarily used to treat conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), peptic ulcers, and overactive bladder. Propantheline works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that helps to regulate muscle contractions in the digestive tract and bladder. By blocking this action, propantheline can help to reduce muscle spasms and improve symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and urgency. Propantheline is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and suppositories. It is usually taken orally, although it can also be administered intravenously in certain cases. Side effects of propantheline may include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and dizziness. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to report any side effects to them.

In the medical field, "Vaccines, Synthetic" refers to vaccines that are made using synthetic or man-made methods, rather than being derived from natural sources such as live or attenuated viruses or bacteria. These vaccines are typically made using recombinant DNA technology, which involves inserting a small piece of genetic material from the pathogen into a harmless host cell, such as a yeast or bacteria, that is then grown in large quantities. The resulting protein is then purified and used to make the vaccine. Synthetic vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines, including the ability to produce vaccines quickly and efficiently, the ability to produce vaccines for diseases that are difficult to grow in the laboratory, and the ability to produce vaccines that are safe and effective for people with weakened immune systems or other health conditions. Some examples of synthetic vaccines include the hepatitis B vaccine, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, and the influenza vaccine.

Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is a highly reactive, non-metallic gas that is commonly used in various medical applications. In the medical field, fluorine is used in the production of a wide range of compounds, including fluoride toothpaste, which helps to prevent tooth decay by strengthening tooth enamel. Fluoride is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, by increasing bone density. Fluorine is also used in the production of certain medications, such as fluoroquinolones, which are antibiotics used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. Additionally, fluorine is used in the production of certain imaging agents, such as fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which is used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to detect cancer and other diseases. However, it is important to note that fluorine is a highly toxic element and can cause serious health problems if not handled properly. Therefore, its use in medical applications is closely regulated and monitored to ensure safety.

Tetralones are a class of organic compounds that contain a four-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. They are also known as 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines. In the medical field, tetralones have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some tetralones have been found to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, making them potential candidates for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Other tetralones have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, it is important to note that the use of tetralones in medicine is still in the experimental stage, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential therapeutic effects and potential side effects.

In the medical field, hydroxides are compounds that contain the hydroxide ion (OH-) as a part of their chemical structure. Hydroxides are commonly found in various minerals and salts, and they can also be produced in the body as a result of metabolic processes. One example of a hydroxide in the medical field is calcium hydroxide, which is commonly used as a dental cement to fill cavities and as a root canal treatment. Another example is magnesium hydroxide, which is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve heartburn and indigestion. Hydroxides can also be used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, sodium hydroxide is used in the treatment of acidosis, a condition in which the body's pH level becomes too acidic. Hydroxides can also be used in the production of certain medications, such as antibiotics and anticoagulants. Overall, hydroxides play an important role in the medical field, both as components of various compounds and as treatments for various medical conditions.

Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond dental restorations, such as fillings, crowns, and bridges, to the teeth. They are also used to bond dental implants to the jawbone. Dental cements are typically composed of a powder and a liquid, which are mixed together to form a paste that can be applied to the tooth or implant surface. The paste then hardens, forming a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth or implant. There are several different types of dental cements, each with its own unique properties and intended use. Some common types of dental cements include zinc phosphate cement, glass ionomer cement, and resin cement.

Freund's Adjuvant is a substance used in medical research and vaccine development to enhance the body's immune response to a vaccine. It is a mixture of heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis and aluminum hydroxide, which is injected into the body along with the vaccine. The adjuvant stimulates the immune system to produce a stronger and more long-lasting immune response to the vaccine, which can help to protect against infection or disease. Freund's Adjuvant is named after its discoverer, Paul Ehrlich's student, Paul Freund.

In the medical field, "body burden" refers to the amount of a particular substance or chemical that has accumulated in the body over time. This can include substances that have been ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Body burden can be measured in terms of the amount of a substance present in the body, as well as its distribution within the body. For example, some substances may accumulate in certain organs or tissues more than others, which can have implications for their potential health effects. Body burden can be influenced by a variety of factors, including the amount and frequency of exposure to a substance, the duration of exposure, and individual differences in metabolism and elimination. It is important to monitor body burden for certain substances, particularly those that are known to be toxic or carcinogenic, in order to assess potential health risks and develop appropriate prevention and treatment strategies.

Organic anion transporters (OATs) are a group of membrane proteins that play a crucial role in the transport of organic anions across cell membranes. These transporters are found in various tissues and organs throughout the body, including the liver, kidney, and brain. OATs are responsible for the uptake and elimination of a wide range of organic anions, including drugs, toxins, and endogenous compounds such as bile acids and neurotransmitters. They are also involved in the regulation of electrolyte balance and the maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. There are several subtypes of OATs, including OAT1, OAT2, OAT3, and OAT4. Each subtype has a distinct tissue distribution and substrate specificity, and they can interact with a variety of drugs and other compounds. In the medical field, OATs are of particular interest because they play a critical role in the disposition of many drugs. Understanding the function and regulation of OATs can help to predict drug-drug interactions, optimize drug dosing, and develop new drugs with improved pharmacokinetic properties. Additionally, OATs have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases, including liver and kidney disease, and may be potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

Ovalbumin is a protein found in egg whites. It is a major allergen and can cause allergic reactions in some people. In the medical field, ovalbumin is often used as a model antigen for studying allergic reactions and for developing allergy vaccines. It is also used in research to study the structure and function of proteins, as well as in the production of various medical products, such as diagnostic reagents and pharmaceuticals.

Fluorocarbon polymers are a class of synthetic polymers that contain carbon-fluorine bonds. They are known for their unique properties, such as high chemical stability, low surface energy, and non-reactivity with most chemicals. In the medical field, fluorocarbon polymers are used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Medical implants: Fluorocarbon polymers are used to make medical implants, such as heart valves, because of their biocompatibility and durability. 2. Drug delivery: Fluorocarbon polymers can be used to encapsulate drugs and deliver them to specific areas of the body, such as the lungs or the eye. 3. Wound healing: Fluorocarbon polymers can be used to create dressings that promote wound healing by creating a moist environment and preventing bacterial infection. 4. Dental materials: Fluorocarbon polymers are used in dental materials, such as fillings and sealants, because of their ability to bond to tooth enamel and resist wear and tear. Overall, fluorocarbon polymers have a wide range of potential applications in the medical field due to their unique properties and versatility.

Magnesium oxide is a white, odorless powder that is commonly used in the medical field as a dietary supplement and as an antacid. It is also used in some medications to treat certain digestive disorders, such as heartburn and acid reflux. In the body, magnesium oxide is used to help regulate muscle and nerve function, and to support healthy bone density. It is also thought to have a calming effect on the nervous system and may help to reduce anxiety and stress. Magnesium oxide is available over-the-counter at most drugstores and health food stores. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of a tablet or powder. It is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions on the label or as directed by a healthcare provider.

In the medical field, the brain is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. It is responsible for controlling and coordinating all bodily functions, including movement, sensation, thought, emotion, and memory. The brain is located in the skull and is protected by the skull bones and cerebrospinal fluid. The brain is composed of billions of nerve cells, or neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical and chemical signals. These neurons are organized into different regions of the brain, each with its own specific functions. The brain is also divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, which are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Damage to the brain can result in a wide range of neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Treatment for brain disorders often involves medications, surgery, and rehabilitation therapies to help restore function and improve quality of life.

Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant species that is widely used as a model organism in the field of plant biology. It is a member of the mustard family and is native to Europe and Asia. Arabidopsis is known for its rapid growth and short life cycle, which makes it an ideal model organism for studying plant development, genetics, and molecular biology. In the medical field, Arabidopsis is used to study a variety of biological processes, including plant growth and development, gene expression, and signaling pathways. Researchers use Arabidopsis to study the genetic basis of plant diseases, such as viral infections and bacterial blight, and to develop new strategies for crop improvement. Additionally, Arabidopsis is used to study the effects of environmental factors, such as light and temperature, on plant growth and development. Overall, Arabidopsis is a valuable tool for advancing our understanding of plant biology and has important implications for agriculture and medicine.

"Sweating, Gustatory" is a medical condition characterized by excessive sweating in response to the taste of certain foods or drinks. This condition is also known as gustatory sweating or gustatory hyperhidrosis. Gustatory sweating is a rare condition that affects only a small percentage of the population. It is caused by an overactive response of the sweat glands to the taste of certain foods or drinks, such as spicy or sour foods, alcohol, or coffee. Symptoms of gustatory sweating include excessive sweating on the face, neck, and upper chest, which can be embarrassing and socially debilitating for affected individuals. The sweating can also cause skin irritation and infections. Treatment for gustatory sweating may include medications to reduce sweating, such as anticholinergics, or botulinum toxin injections to temporarily paralyze the sweat glands. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected sweat glands.

In the medical field, Dalbergia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family (Fabaceae) that includes many species commonly known as rosewoods. These trees are native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Some species of Dalbergia are used in traditional medicine for a variety of purposes, including as a treatment for fever, inflammation, and pain. In some cultures, the wood of certain Dalbergia species is also used for carving or making furniture, musical instruments, and other decorative objects. However, it is important to note that some species of Dalbergia are threatened by overharvesting for their wood, which can have negative impacts on local ecosystems and the livelihoods of people who depend on these trees. As a result, many species of Dalbergia are now protected under international conservation agreements.

Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

In the medical field, adhesives are substances that are used to bond or attach two or more surfaces together. They are commonly used in surgical procedures to hold tissues, organs, or prosthetic devices in place. Adhesives used in medicine are typically designed to be biocompatible, meaning they do not cause adverse reactions or toxicity in the body. There are several types of adhesives used in medicine, including: 1. Cyanoacrylate: This type of adhesive is commonly used in wound care to close small cuts and lacerations. It forms a strong bond with skin and other tissues and is known for its quick-drying properties. 2. Glues: Glues are used to bond tissues together during surgical procedures. They are typically made from natural or synthetic materials and are designed to be biocompatible. 3. Tissue adhesives: Tissue adhesives are used to bond tissues together during surgical procedures. They are typically made from natural or synthetic materials and are designed to be biocompatible. 4. Surgical tapes: Surgical tapes are used to hold surgical dressings in place and to secure surgical instruments during procedures. They are typically made from non-woven materials and are designed to be biocompatible. Overall, adhesives play an important role in the medical field by providing a means to hold tissues and organs in place during surgical procedures and to help with wound care.

Antibody formation, also known as immunoglobulin production, is a process in the immune system where specialized cells called B cells produce antibodies in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, or toxins, in the body. When a foreign substance enters the body, it is recognized by the immune system as foreign and triggers an immune response. B cells are activated and begin to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which are specialized cells that produce antibodies. These antibodies are proteins that are designed to recognize and bind to specific antigens, which are molecules found on the surface of foreign substances. Once the antibodies bind to the antigens, they can neutralize the foreign substance, mark it for destruction by other immune cells, or activate the complement system, which is a group of proteins that work together to destroy the foreign substance. Antibody formation is a crucial part of the immune system's defense against infections and diseases. It is also an important aspect of the development of vaccines, which stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against specific pathogens before the person is exposed to the actual pathogen.

Hematoporphyrins are a group of pigments that are synthesized in the liver and are precursors to heme, a component of hemoglobin, which is responsible for carrying oxygen in red blood cells. Hematoporphyrins are also used in medical treatments, such as photodynamic therapy, which involves the use of a photosensitizing agent, such as hematoporphyrin, to target and destroy cancer cells. In this therapy, the hematoporphyrin is administered to the patient and then activated by a specific wavelength of light, causing the cancer cells to die. Hematoporphyrins are also used in diagnostic tests to detect certain types of cancer, such as liver cancer.

Bacterial vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against bacterial infections. They work by stimulating the immune system to recognize and fight off specific bacteria that cause disease. Bacterial vaccines can be made from live, attenuated bacteria (bacteria that have been weakened so they cannot cause disease), inactivated bacteria (bacteria that have been killed), or pieces of bacteria (such as proteins or polysaccharides) that are recognized by the immune system. Bacterial vaccines are used to prevent a wide range of bacterial infections, including diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. They are typically given by injection, but some can also be given by mouth. Bacterial vaccines are an important tool in preventing the spread of bacterial infections and reducing the burden of disease in the population.

In the medical field, "buffers" typically refer to substances that help regulate the pH of bodily fluids, such as blood and urine. Buffers work by neutralizing excess acid or base in the body, helping to maintain a stable pH level. This is important because many enzymes and other biological processes in the body require a specific pH range in order to function properly. There are several different types of buffers that can be used in the medical field, including bicarbonate buffers, phosphate buffers, and protein buffers. Bicarbonate buffers are the most common type of buffer used in the body, and they are primarily found in the blood and extracellular fluid. Phosphate buffers are also commonly used in the body, and they are found in the blood, urine, and other bodily fluids. Protein buffers are less common, but they can be used in certain medical situations where bicarbonate or phosphate buffers are not effective. In addition to regulating pH, buffers can also be used to treat certain medical conditions, such as acidosis (a condition in which the blood is too acidic) or alkalosis (a condition in which the blood is too alkaline). Buffers may be administered intravenously or orally, depending on the specific condition being treated and the needs of the patient.

Neurotoxicity syndromes are a group of disorders that result from exposure to toxic substances that affect the nervous system. These substances can include heavy metals, pesticides, solvents, and other chemicals. Symptoms of neurotoxicity syndromes can vary widely depending on the specific substance and the level of exposure, but may include headaches, dizziness, memory loss, difficulty concentrating, tremors, seizures, and even coma or death in severe cases. Treatment for neurotoxicity syndromes typically involves removing the toxic substance from the body and providing supportive care to manage symptoms. In some cases, medications may be used to help reduce inflammation or prevent further damage to the nervous system.

In the medical field, "administration, buccal" refers to the delivery of medication or other substances through the buccal cavity, which is the space between the cheek and gum. This method of administration involves placing the medication or substance on the inside of the cheek, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the mucous membranes of the mouth. Buccal administration can be an alternative to other methods of medication delivery, such as oral administration (swallowing pills or tablets) or injection. It can be particularly useful for medications that are not absorbed well through the digestive system or for patients who have difficulty swallowing. Buccal administration can be performed using a variety of devices, such as buccal tablets, lozenges, or patches. These devices are designed to be placed on the inside of the cheek and to release the medication slowly over time. Some medications may also be administered using a buccal spray, which is sprayed directly into the mouth. It is important to note that buccal administration may not be appropriate for all medications or patients. Some medications may be too irritating to the mouth or may not be absorbed well through the buccal cavity. Additionally, patients with certain medical conditions, such as mouth sores or gum disease, may not be suitable for buccal administration. It is always important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new medication regimen.

In the medical field, "lead" can refer to several different things, including: 1. Lead poisoning: A condition caused by exposure to high levels of lead, which can damage the brain, kidneys, and other organs. Lead poisoning can occur through ingestion of lead-contaminated food or water, inhalation of lead dust or fumes, or absorption through the skin. 2. Lead shield: A protective covering made of lead or lead alloy used to shield patients and medical personnel from ionizing radiation during medical imaging procedures such as X-rays or CT scans. 3. Lead apron: A protective garment worn by medical personnel during procedures involving ionizing radiation to shield the body from exposure to harmful levels of radiation. 4. Lead acetate: A medication used to treat lead poisoning by binding to lead ions in the body and preventing them from being absorbed into the bloodstream. 5. Lead poisoning test: A medical test used to diagnose lead poisoning by measuring the level of lead in the blood or urine.

In the medical field, "Physical Chemistry" refers to the study of the chemical processes and properties that occur at the molecular and atomic level, and how they relate to the behavior of biological systems. Physical chemists in medicine may study topics such as drug design, drug delivery, and the interactions between drugs and biological molecules. They may also study the physical properties of biological materials, such as the structure and function of proteins, and the behavior of cells and tissues. Overall, the goal of physical chemistry in medicine is to understand the underlying chemical and physical mechanisms that govern biological processes, and to use this knowledge to develop new treatments and therapies for diseases.

Maleic anhydride is a chemical compound that is not commonly used in the medical field. It is a white, crystalline solid that is used primarily as a chemical intermediate in the production of other chemicals, such as polymers and dyes. It is not used as a medication or for any medical purpose.

In the medical field, the term "cattle" refers to large domesticated animals that are raised for their meat, milk, or other products. Cattle are a common source of food and are also used for labor in agriculture, such as plowing fields or pulling carts. In veterinary medicine, cattle are often referred to as "livestock" and may be treated for a variety of medical conditions, including diseases, injuries, and parasites. Some common medical issues that may affect cattle include respiratory infections, digestive problems, and musculoskeletal disorders. Cattle may also be used in medical research, particularly in the fields of genetics and agriculture. For example, scientists may study the genetics of cattle to develop new breeds with desirable traits, such as increased milk production or resistance to disease.

Hyperhidrosis is a medical condition characterized by excessive sweating beyond what is necessary for regulating body temperature. It can affect any part of the body, but is most commonly seen in the underarms, hands, feet, and face. Hyperhidrosis can be primary, meaning it occurs without any underlying medical condition, or secondary, meaning it is caused by an underlying medical condition such as thyroid disease, menopause, or certain medications. Treatment options for hyperhidrosis include antiperspirants, iontophoresis, botox injections, and surgery.

Diphtheria toxoid is a vaccine preparation that contains an inactivated form of the diphtheria toxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The toxoid is used to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the diphtheria toxin, which protects against the disease diphtheria. Diphtheria is a highly contagious bacterial infection that can cause severe respiratory and cardiovascular complications, and in severe cases, can be fatal. The diphtheria vaccine is an important part of routine childhood immunization schedules and is also recommended for adults who have not been previously vaccinated or who have not received a booster dose in the past 10 years. The diphtheria toxoid is usually administered as a component of combination vaccines, such as the tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine or the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. These vaccines are given as a series of injections to provide long-lasting protection against diphtheria and other diseases.

Chemical precipitation is a process used in the medical field to remove unwanted substances from a solution or mixture. It involves adding a chemical reagent to the solution, which causes the unwanted substances to form solid particles that can be easily separated from the solution. In the medical field, chemical precipitation is commonly used to purify and concentrate biological samples, such as blood or urine. For example, protein precipitation is a common technique used to remove proteins from a solution, leaving behind other components such as hormones or enzymes. This can be useful in diagnostic testing, where specific proteins need to be isolated for analysis. Chemical precipitation can also be used to remove contaminants from water or other liquids. For example, lead or other heavy metals can be removed from drinking water by adding a chemical reagent that causes the metal ions to form insoluble solids that can be filtered out. Overall, chemical precipitation is a useful technique in the medical field for purifying and concentrating biological samples, as well as removing contaminants from liquids.

Hexuronic acids are a type of carbohydrate that are found in the cell walls of plants and some bacteria. They are also known as hexoses or hexoses acids. Hexuronic acids are composed of six carbon atoms and are classified as aldohexoses. They are important components of the plant cell wall and play a role in the structure and function of the cell wall. Hexuronic acids are also used in the production of certain types of food and beverages, such as jams, jellies, and fruit juices. In the medical field, hexuronic acids are not commonly used for treatment or diagnosis of diseases.

Berylliosis is a lung disease caused by exposure to beryllium, a heavy metal that is used in a variety of industrial applications, including the production of semiconductors, nuclear weapons, and aerospace components. The disease is characterized by inflammation and scarring of the lung tissue, which can lead to shortness of breath, coughing, and fatigue. In severe cases, berylliosis can cause respiratory failure and death. The symptoms of berylliosis may not appear until many years after exposure to beryllium, and the disease can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to those of other lung diseases. Treatment for berylliosis typically involves the use of medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the lungs. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged lung tissue.

Glucuronic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is produced by the liver as a byproduct of the metabolism of carbohydrates. It is a key component of the glycoprotein molecule hyaluronic acid, which is found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue throughout the body. In the medical field, glucuronic acid is often used as a precursor in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as bile acids and some hormones. It is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid in the blood), where it is used to convert excess uric acid into a more water-soluble form that can be excreted from the body. In addition, glucuronic acid is used in the production of certain drugs and dietary supplements, and it has been shown to have potential anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects in laboratory studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential of glucuronic acid in the treatment of human diseases.

In the medical field, cations are positively charged ions that are found in the body fluids, such as blood and extracellular fluid. They are important for maintaining the proper balance of electrolytes in the body and for regulating various physiological processes, such as nerve function, muscle contraction, and fluid balance. Cations are classified based on their charge and chemical properties. The most common cations in the body include sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and hydrogen (H+). These ions play important roles in various bodily functions, and imbalances in their levels can lead to a range of health problems, such as muscle cramps, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. In medical testing, cations are often measured in blood or urine samples using various analytical techniques, such as ion-selective electrodes or atomic absorption spectroscopy. Monitoring cation levels is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as kidney disease, acid-base disorders, and electrolyte imbalances.

In the medical field, ferric compounds refer to compounds that contain the ferric ion (Fe3+), which is a form of iron. Ferric compounds are commonly used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia, a condition in which the body does not have enough iron to produce healthy red blood cells. There are several types of ferric compounds that are used in medical treatment, including ferrous sulfate (also known as iron sulfate), ferrous fumarate, ferrous gluconate, and ferric carboxymaltose. These compounds are typically administered orally or intravenously, and they work by providing the body with the iron it needs to produce red blood cells. Ferric compounds can also be used to treat other conditions, such as iron overload disorders, where the body has too much iron. In these cases, ferric compounds may be used to remove excess iron from the body through a process called chelation therapy. It is important to note that ferric compounds can have side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and dark stools. It is also important to follow the recommended dosage and to speak with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about taking ferric compounds.

Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that can cause a range of health problems when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. In the medical field, cadmium is primarily associated with its use in industrial processes and its potential to contaminate the environment. Cadmium exposure has been linked to a variety of health effects, including kidney damage, bone loss, and cancer. In the lungs, cadmium exposure can cause inflammation, scarring, and an increased risk of lung cancer. Long-term exposure to cadmium has also been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in men. In the medical field, cadmium is often measured in blood, urine, and hair samples to assess exposure levels and potential health risks. Treatment for cadmium poisoning typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further exposure. In some cases, chelation therapy may be used to remove cadmium from the body.

Alginates are a type of polysaccharide that are extracted from brown seaweed. They are commonly used in the medical field as a dressing for wounds, as well as in the production of various medical devices and implants. Alginates have properties that make them useful for wound healing, including their ability to absorb and retain moisture, promote cell growth, and prevent bacterial infection. They are also biocompatible, meaning they are well-tolerated by the body and do not cause an immune response. In addition to their use in wound care, alginate-based materials are also used in the production of dental impressions, drug delivery systems, and other medical applications.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, such as nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules, across cell membranes and through the body's various transport systems. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, which is the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment. There are several mechanisms of biological transport, including passive transport, active transport, facilitated diffusion, and endocytosis. Passive transport occurs when molecules move down a concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Active transport, on the other hand, requires energy to move molecules against a concentration gradient. Facilitated diffusion involves the use of transport proteins to move molecules across the cell membrane. Endocytosis is a process by which cells take in molecules from the extracellular environment by engulfing them in vesicles. In the medical field, understanding the mechanisms of biological transport is important for understanding how drugs and other therapeutic agents are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the body. This knowledge can be used to design drugs that are more effective and have fewer side effects. It is also important for understanding how diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, affect the body's transport systems and how this can be targeted for treatment.

Vaccines, Subunit are a type of vaccine that contains only a specific part or subunit of a pathogen, such as a protein or sugar molecule, rather than the whole pathogen. These subunits are enough to stimulate an immune response in the body, but they are not capable of causing disease. Subunit vaccines are often used in combination with other vaccine components, such as adjuvants or carriers, to enhance the immune response and improve the effectiveness of the vaccine. Subunit vaccines are generally considered to be safe and effective, and they have been used to prevent a variety of diseases, including hepatitis B, human papillomavirus (HPV), and influenza.

Radioisotopes are isotopes of an element that emit radiation, such as alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays. In the medical field, radioisotopes are used in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In diagnostic imaging, radioisotopes are used to create images of the body's internal structures. For example, a radioisotope such as technetium-99m can be injected into the bloodstream and then detected by a gamma camera to create an image of the heart, lungs, or other organs. This type of imaging is commonly used to diagnose conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and bone disorders. Radioisotopes are also used in therapeutic applications, such as radiation therapy for cancer. In this treatment, a radioisotope is introduced into the body, usually by injection or inhalation, and then targeted to a specific area of the body where it emits radiation that destroys cancer cells. Radioisotopes are also used in targeted radionuclide therapy, where a radioisotope is attached to a molecule that specifically targets cancer cells, allowing for more precise delivery of radiation. Overall, radioisotopes play a critical role in medical imaging and therapy, allowing for the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of conditions.

In the medical field, "Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic" refers to a group of organic compounds that are composed of multiple fused aromatic rings of carbon atoms. These compounds are commonly found in a variety of environmental sources, including tobacco smoke, diesel exhaust, and certain types of industrial emissions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be toxic and carcinogenic, meaning they have the potential to cause cancer in humans. They can also cause a range of other health problems, including respiratory issues, skin irritation, and damage to the liver and kidneys. In the medical field, PAHs are often studied as potential environmental pollutants and as potential risk factors for certain types of cancer, such as lung cancer and bladder cancer. They may also be used as markers of exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies.

In the medical field, lactates refer to the byproducts of anaerobic metabolism in the body. Specifically, lactate is a type of organic acid that is produced when the body breaks down glucose in the absence of oxygen. This process, known as anaerobic glycolysis, occurs in muscle cells and other tissues when oxygen levels are low. Lactate levels in the blood can be measured using a blood test, and elevated levels of lactate can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including hypoxia (low oxygen levels in the body), sepsis (infection), and certain types of cancer. In addition, lactate is often used as a marker of exercise intensity, as it increases during physical activity. Overall, lactates play an important role in the body's metabolism and can provide valuable information to healthcare providers in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions.

Calcium compounds are chemical compounds that contain calcium ions. Calcium is an essential mineral for the human body, and it plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including bone health, muscle function, and nerve transmission. Calcium compounds are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes, including the treatment of osteoporosis, hypocalcemia, and hyperparathyroidism. Some common examples of calcium compounds used in medicine include calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, and calcium lactate. These compounds are often administered orally or intravenously, depending on the specific condition being treated.

Resin cements are dental materials that are used to bond dental restorations, such as fillings, crowns, and bridges, to the tooth structure. They are made from a combination of resin monomers, polymers, and other ingredients that are cured with light or heat to form a strong, durable bond. Resin cements are preferred over traditional dental cements because they have a number of advantages, including: 1. Improved adhesion: Resin cements bond to both tooth structure and dental restorations, providing a stronger and more durable bond than traditional cements. 2. Better esthetics: Resin cements can be matched to the color of the tooth, providing a more natural-looking restoration. 3. Increased strength: Resin cements are stronger than traditional cements, which can reduce the risk of fractures and other types of damage to the tooth. 4. Faster curing: Resin cements can be cured in just a few seconds, which can reduce the time required for dental procedures. Overall, resin cements are a popular choice for dental restorations because of their improved adhesion, esthetics, strength, and curing time.

Ferritins are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in the storage and regulation of iron in the body. They are found in almost all living organisms and are responsible for protecting iron from oxidation and preventing the formation of toxic free radicals. In the medical field, ferritins are often measured as a marker of iron status in the body. Low levels of ferritin can indicate iron deficiency, while high levels can indicate iron overload or other medical conditions such as inflammation or liver disease. Ferritins are also being studied for their potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

Dental bonding is a cosmetic dental procedure that involves applying a tooth-colored resin material to a tooth surface to improve its appearance. The resin is then hardened with a special light, creating a strong and natural-looking bond with the tooth. Dental bonding can be used to repair chips, cracks, gaps, and stains on teeth, as well as to close spaces between teeth and to improve the shape and size of teeth. It is a quick and relatively painless procedure that can be completed in a single visit to the dentist.

Artificial lens implant migration refers to the movement of an intraocular lens (IOL) that has been surgically implanted in the eye to correct vision problems such as cataracts. The IOL is typically made of a flexible material and is designed to remain stable within the eye, but in some cases, it may move or shift from its intended position. This can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical complications, eye trauma, or changes in the shape or size of the eye. When an IOL migrates, it can cause visual symptoms such as blurred vision, double vision, or sensitivity to light. In severe cases, it may even lead to retinal detachment or other serious complications. Treatment for IOL migration typically involves surgical intervention to reposition or remove the lens. The specific approach will depend on the cause and severity of the migration, as well as the patient's overall health and visual needs.

Bone diseases, metabolic, refer to a group of disorders that affect the normal metabolism of bone tissue, leading to changes in bone structure and strength. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and certain medications. Some common examples of metabolic bone diseases include: 1. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by low bone density and increased risk of fractures. 2. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A genetic disorder that causes bones to be weak and brittle, leading to frequent fractures. 3. Hyperparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone, leading to increased bone resorption and decreased bone density. 4. Hypoparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too little parathyroid hormone, leading to decreased bone resorption and increased bone density. 5. Rickets: A condition that primarily affects children and is characterized by soft, weak bones due to a lack of vitamin D or calcium. 6. Osteomalacia: A condition that primarily affects adults and is characterized by soft, weak bones due to a lack of vitamin D or calcium. Treatment for metabolic bone diseases typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the disorder, such as correcting vitamin or mineral deficiencies, treating hormonal imbalances, or surgically removing or replacing affected bones. In some cases, medications may also be prescribed to help prevent or slow the progression of bone loss.

Pneumoconiosis is a group of lung diseases caused by the inhalation of dust particles that are small enough to be breathed deep into the lungs. These dust particles can be made up of a variety of materials, including coal, silica, asbestos, and other minerals. Over time, the dust particles can accumulate in the lungs and cause inflammation, scarring, and other damage to the lung tissue. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain. Pneumoconiosis can be a serious and potentially life-threatening condition, and it is important for people who work in industries that involve exposure to dust particles to take steps to protect themselves from the risk of developing this disease.

Aziridines are a class of organic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with three nitrogen atoms and two carbon atoms. They are often used as intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds and have a variety of applications in the medical field. One of the main uses of aziridines in medicine is as a starting material for the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals. For example, aziridines can be used to synthesize drugs that target specific enzymes or receptors in the body, such as those involved in the treatment of cancer, infections, or neurological disorders. Aziridines are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds that have potential medical applications. For example, they can be used to synthesize compounds that have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, or anti-viral properties. In addition to their use in drug synthesis, aziridines have also been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some aziridines have been shown to have anti-tumor activity in preclinical studies, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for various types of cancer. Overall, aziridines are an important class of organic compounds with a wide range of applications in the medical field, including drug synthesis and the development of new therapeutic agents.

Calcium chloride is a salt that is commonly used in the medical field as a medication and a dietary supplement. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water and is used to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood and to treat certain medical conditions. In the medical field, calcium chloride is used to treat hypocalcemia, which is a condition in which the blood calcium level is too low. It is also used to treat eclampsia, which is a serious complication of pregnancy that can cause seizures and other symptoms. Calcium chloride is also used to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation. Calcium chloride is available as a dietary supplement and can be taken by mouth to increase the body's calcium levels. It is also used as a food additive and is used to preserve food and to enhance the flavor of certain foods. However, it is important to note that calcium chloride should only be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

In the medical field, "Adaptation, Physiological" refers to the ability of an organism to adjust to changes in its environment or to changes in its internal state in order to maintain homeostasis. This can involve a wide range of physiological processes, such as changes in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and hormone levels. For example, when a person is exposed to high temperatures, their body may undergo physiological adaptations to help them stay cool. This might include sweating to release heat from the skin, or dilating blood vessels to increase blood flow to the skin and help dissipate heat. Physiological adaptations can also occur in response to changes in an individual's internal state, such as during exercise or when the body is under stress. For example, during exercise, the body may increase its production of oxygen and glucose to meet the increased energy demands of the muscles. Overall, physiological adaptations are a fundamental aspect of how organisms are able to survive and thrive in a changing environment.

In the medical field, industrial waste refers to any waste materials generated during the production, processing, or distribution of medical products or services. This can include a wide range of materials, such as packaging materials, contaminated equipment, used needles and syringes, biological waste, and chemical waste. Medical industrial waste is considered hazardous because it can contain infectious agents, toxins, and other harmful substances that can pose a risk to human health and the environment if not properly managed. As a result, medical facilities are required to follow strict regulations and guidelines for the collection, storage, transportation, and disposal of medical industrial waste to ensure that it is handled safely and responsibly.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of protein that is produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. It is the most abundant type of immunoglobulin in the blood and is responsible for the majority of the body's defense against infections. IgG is produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. When a B cell encounters a foreign substance, it produces IgG antibodies that can recognize and bind to the substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. IgG antibodies can also be transferred from mother to child through the placenta during pregnancy, providing the baby with some protection against infections during the first few months of life. In addition, some vaccines contain IgG antibodies to help stimulate the immune system and provide protection against specific diseases. Overall, IgG is an important component of the immune system and plays a critical role in protecting the body against infections and diseases.

Lanthanum is a chemical element with the symbol La and atomic number 57. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that is used in a variety of applications in the medical field. One of the main uses of lanthanum in medicine is as a phosphate binder to treat hyperphosphatemia, a condition characterized by high levels of phosphate in the blood. Hyperphosphatemia can occur in people with chronic kidney disease, and can lead to the formation of kidney stones and other complications. Lanthanum works by binding to phosphate in the digestive tract, preventing it from being absorbed into the bloodstream. Lanthanum is also used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It is used in combination with other medications to lower blood sugar levels and improve glycemic control. Lanthanum works by reducing the absorption of glucose in the intestines, which helps to lower blood sugar levels. In addition to its use as a phosphate binder and in the treatment of diabetes, lanthanum has also been studied for its potential use in the treatment of other conditions, including obesity, high cholesterol, and inflammatory bowel disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of lanthanum in these applications.

Acrylic resins are a type of polymer that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. They are typically made from acrylic acid or methacrylic acid, which are then polymerized to form a solid, durable material. One common use of acrylic resins in medicine is in the production of dental prosthetics, such as dentures and dental bridges. Acrylic resins are used to create the artificial teeth and gums that are used to replace missing teeth or to improve the appearance of the smile. Acrylic resins are also used in the production of medical devices, such as catheters and surgical instruments. They are often used because of their durability, flexibility, and ability to be molded into a variety of shapes and sizes. In addition, acrylic resins are sometimes used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, they may be used to create implants for the treatment of joint disorders or to reinforce weakened bones. Overall, acrylic resins are a versatile and widely used material in the medical field, with a range of applications in dentistry, medical devices, and other areas.

In the medical field, calibration refers to the process of verifying and adjusting the accuracy and precision of medical equipment or instruments. Calibration is important to ensure that medical equipment is functioning properly and providing accurate results, which is critical for making informed medical decisions and providing appropriate patient care. Calibration typically involves comparing the performance of the medical equipment to known standards or references. This can be done using specialized equipment or by sending the equipment to a calibration laboratory for testing. The calibration process may involve adjusting the equipment's settings or replacing worn or damaged components to restore its accuracy and precision. Calibration is typically performed on a regular basis, depending on the type of equipment and the frequency of use. For example, some medical equipment may need to be calibrated daily, while others may only require calibration every six months or so. Failure to properly calibrate medical equipment can lead to inaccurate results, which can have serious consequences for patient safety and outcomes.

In the medical field, glucans refer to a group of polysaccharides that are composed of glucose molecules linked together by glycosidic bonds. Glucans are found in various organisms, including plants, fungi, and bacteria, and they play important roles in their biology and physiology. In humans, glucans have been studied for their potential health benefits, particularly in the context of immune function. Some types of glucans, such as beta-glucans, have been shown to stimulate the immune system and enhance the body's ability to fight off infections and diseases. Glucans have also been used in the development of dietary supplements and functional foods, as well as in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as cancer and HIV/AIDS. Overall, glucans are an important class of biomolecules that have a wide range of biological and medical applications.

Manganese is a chemical element with the symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is a trace element that is essential for human health, but only in small amounts. In the medical field, manganese is primarily used to treat manganese toxicity, which is a condition that occurs when the body is exposed to high levels of manganese. Symptoms of manganese toxicity can include tremors, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment. Treatment typically involves removing the source of exposure and providing supportive care to manage symptoms. Manganese is also used in some medical treatments, such as in the treatment of osteoporosis and in the production of certain medications.

Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that is not commonly used in the medical field. However, indium compounds have been studied for their potential medical applications. One potential use of indium compounds in medicine is as imaging agents for diagnostic imaging. Indium-111, a radioactive isotope of indium, has been used in nuclear medicine to image tumors, infections, and other abnormalities in the body. It is often used in conjunction with a radiolabeled antibody or other targeting molecule to specifically target and image certain cells or tissues. Indium compounds have also been studied for their potential use in treating cancer. For example, indium-111-labeled monoclonal antibodies have been used in clinical trials to treat certain types of cancer, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer. In addition, indium compounds have been studied for their potential use in treating other medical conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using indium compounds in medicine.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to compare the means of three or more groups. In the medical field, ANOVA can be used to compare the effectiveness of different treatments, interventions, or medications on a particular outcome or variable of interest. For example, a researcher may want to compare the effectiveness of three different medications for treating a particular disease. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean response (e.g., improvement in symptoms) between the three groups of patients who received each medication. If the results show a significant difference between the groups, it would suggest that one medication is more effective than the others. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different groups of patients based on a categorical variable, such as age, gender, or race. For example, a researcher may want to compare the mean blood pressure of patients in different age groups. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean blood pressure between the different age groups and determine if there are significant differences. Overall, ANOVA is a powerful statistical tool that can be used to compare the means of different groups in the medical field, helping researchers to identify which treatments or interventions are most effective and to better understand the factors that influence health outcomes.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune system's response to allergens and parasites. It is produced by B cells in response to specific antigens, such as those found in pollen, dust mites, or certain foods. When an allergen enters the body, it triggers the production of IgE antibodies by B cells. These antibodies then bind to mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells that are involved in the inflammatory response. When the same allergen enters the body again, the IgE antibodies on the mast cells and basophils bind to the allergen and cause the release of histamine and other inflammatory chemicals. This leads to symptoms such as itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. IgE is also involved in the immune response to parasites, such as worms. In this case, the IgE antibodies help to trap and kill the parasites by binding to them and marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Overall, IgE is an important part of the immune system's defense against allergens and parasites, but it can also contribute to allergic reactions and other inflammatory conditions when it binds to inappropriate antigens.

Silicones are a group of synthetic polymers that are widely used in various medical applications due to their unique properties, such as biocompatibility, chemical stability, and thermal stability. They are typically composed of silicon, oxygen, and carbon atoms, and can be further modified to include other elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and fluorine. In the medical field, silicones are used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Implants: Silicones are commonly used in medical implants such as breast implants, artificial joints, and heart valves due to their biocompatibility and durability. 2. Wound dressings: Silicones are used in wound dressings due to their ability to prevent bacterial growth and promote healing. 3. Drug delivery systems: Silicones are used in drug delivery systems such as microspheres and nanoparticles to improve the delivery of drugs to specific areas of the body. 4. Medical devices: Silicones are used in medical devices such as catheters, syringes, and endoscopes due to their non-stick properties and ability to reduce friction. 5. Cosmetics: Silicones are used in cosmetics such as lotions, creams, and shampoos due to their ability to provide a smooth and silky texture. Overall, silicones are a versatile and important material in the medical field due to their unique properties and wide range of applications.

Stainless steel is a type of steel that is resistant to corrosion and rust due to the presence of chromium in its composition. In the medical field, stainless steel is commonly used in the manufacturing of medical devices and implants due to its durability, biocompatibility, and resistance to corrosion. Stainless steel is used in a variety of medical applications, including surgical instruments, dental equipment, orthopedic implants, and cardiovascular devices. It is also used in the construction of medical facilities, such as hospital beds, surgical tables, and examination tables. One of the key benefits of using stainless steel in the medical field is its biocompatibility. Stainless steel is generally considered to be non-toxic and non-reactive with human tissue, making it a safe material for use in medical devices and implants. Additionally, stainless steel is easy to clean and sterilize, which is important in preventing the spread of infection in healthcare settings. Overall, stainless steel is a versatile and reliable material that is widely used in the medical field due to its durability, biocompatibility, and resistance to corrosion.

Hyperphosphatemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high level of phosphate ions (PO43-) in the blood. The normal range of serum phosphate levels in adults is typically between 2.5 and 4.5 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Hyperphosphatemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including kidney disease, excessive intake of phosphorus-rich foods or supplements, certain medications, and genetic disorders. It can also be a complication of other medical conditions, such as hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, and bone disorders. Symptoms of hyperphosphatemia may include muscle weakness, bone pain, and kidney problems. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as kidney failure, bone disease, and heart problems. Treatment for hyperphosphatemia depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, medications to lower phosphate levels, and in severe cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation.

In the medical field, organic chemicals refer to compounds that are composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms, and may also contain other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens. These compounds are often used in the development of drugs, medical devices, and other medical products. Organic chemicals can be further classified into various categories based on their chemical structure and properties. For example, some organic chemicals are used as antioxidants, while others are used as anti-inflammatory agents, analgesics, or antibiotics. Some organic chemicals are also used as solvents, plasticizers, or dyes. In the medical field, organic chemicals are often synthesized in the laboratory and tested for their efficacy and safety before being used in medical products. They may also be extracted from natural sources, such as plants or animals, and used in their natural form or modified to enhance their therapeutic properties. It is important to note that not all organic chemicals are safe or effective for medical use, and some may even be toxic or carcinogenic. Therefore, the use of organic chemicals in the medical field is closely regulated by government agencies and requires careful evaluation and testing to ensure their safety and efficacy.

Transducin is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in the process of vision. It is activated by the binding of light-sensitive molecules called rhodopsin to a photoreceptor cell in the retina of the eye. When rhodopsin is activated, it causes a conformational change in transducin, which in turn activates a second messenger system that ultimately leads to the opening of ion channels in the cell membrane. This allows ions to flow into the cell, which generates an electrical signal that is transmitted to the brain and interpreted as visual information.

Polysorbates are a class of nonionic surfactants that are commonly used in the medical field as emulsifiers, solubilizers, and stabilizers. They are composed of a mixture of sorbitan esters and polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, and are typically derived from vegetable oils such as coconut or palm kernel oil. Polysorbates are used in a variety of medical applications, including as ingredients in parenteral drugs, ophthalmic solutions, and topical creams and lotions. They are also used in the production of medical devices, such as intravenous catheters and implants. One of the key benefits of polysorbates is their ability to improve the solubility and stability of drugs and other active ingredients, making them more effective and easier to use. They are also generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated by patients, although some people may experience skin irritation or other adverse reactions when using products containing polysorbates. Overall, polysorbates play an important role in the development and production of many medical products, and are widely used in the healthcare industry.

Arabidopsis Proteins refer to proteins that are encoded by genes in the genome of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant that is widely used as a model organism in plant biology research due to its small size, short life cycle, and ease of genetic manipulation. Arabidopsis proteins have been extensively studied in the medical field due to their potential applications in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and treatment. For example, some Arabidopsis proteins have been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties, making them potential candidates for the development of new drugs. In addition, Arabidopsis proteins have been used as tools for studying human diseases. For instance, researchers have used Arabidopsis to study the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Overall, Arabidopsis proteins have become an important resource for medical research due to their potential applications in drug discovery and disease research.

Nervous system diseases refer to a broad range of medical conditions that affect the nervous system, which is responsible for transmitting signals between different parts of the body. These diseases can affect any part of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. Some examples of nervous system diseases include: 1. Neurodegenerative diseases: These are conditions that cause the progressive loss of nerve cells and their functions, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. 2. Neuromuscular diseases: These are conditions that affect the muscles and nerves that control movement, such as muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis. 3. Neurological disorders: These are conditions that affect the brain and nervous system, such as epilepsy, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. 4. Neuropsychiatric disorders: These are conditions that affect the brain and behavior, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. 5. Infections of the nervous system: These are conditions caused by infections, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and neurocysticercosis. Treatment for nervous system diseases depends on the specific condition and can include medications, surgery, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for improving outcomes and managing symptoms.

In the medical field, "administration, oral" refers to the process of delivering medication or other substances to a patient through the mouth. This can include tablets, capsules, liquids, powders, or other forms of medication that are designed to be taken orally. Oral administration is one of the most common methods of medication delivery, as it is convenient and generally well-tolerated by patients. However, it is important to note that not all medications are suitable for oral administration, and some may require alternative routes of delivery, such as injection or inhalation. Additionally, the effectiveness of oral medication can be affected by factors such as the patient's age, health status, and the specific medication being used.

In the medical field, air pollutants refer to any substances that are present in the air and can have harmful effects on human health. These pollutants can be natural or man-made and can include gases, particles, and other substances that are released into the air through various sources such as industrial processes, transportation, and natural phenomena like wildfires. Some common air pollutants that are of concern in the medical field include: 1. Particulate matter (PM): These are tiny particles that are suspended in the air and can be inhaled into the lungs. PM can come from a variety of sources, including vehicle exhaust, industrial emissions, and wildfires. 2. Ozone (O3): Ozone is a gas that is formed when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds react in the presence of sunlight. It can cause respiratory problems and exacerbate existing conditions like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 3. Sulfur dioxide (SO2): SO2 is a gas that is produced by burning fossil fuels and can cause respiratory problems, particularly in people with pre-existing conditions like asthma. 4. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2): NO2 is a gas that is produced by vehicle exhaust and can cause respiratory problems and contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. 5. Carbon monoxide (CO): CO is a gas that is produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and can interfere with the body's ability to use oxygen, leading to symptoms like headaches, dizziness, and nausea. 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs): VOCs are a group of chemicals that can evaporate easily and can cause respiratory problems and other health issues when inhaled. Overall, exposure to air pollutants can have a range of negative effects on human health, including respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Therefore, it is important to monitor and control air pollution levels to protect public health.

In the medical field, "cheek" refers to the fleshy part of the face that lies between the nose and the ear. It is composed of two bones called the maxilla and the mandible, which are covered by a layer of skin, muscle, and fat. The cheeks contain several important structures, including the parotid glands, which produce saliva, and the buccal fat pad, which helps to cushion the face and provide a. In some cases, the term "cheek" may also refer to the cheekbones, which are the prominent bony projections that form the sides of the face.

Strontium is a chemical element with the symbol Sr and atomic number 38. It is a soft, silvery-white alkaline earth metal that is commonly found in minerals such as celestite and strontianite. In the medical field, strontium is used in the treatment of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Strontium ranelate, a medication containing strontium, is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women and men with osteoporosis who are at high risk of fractures. Strontium is also used in the production of certain medical devices, such as bone cement used in orthopedic surgery, and as a component in some types of dental fillings. However, it is important to note that strontium is also a radioactive element, and exposure to high levels of strontium can be harmful to human health. Therefore, its use in medical applications is carefully regulated and monitored to ensure safety.

... Plant is a former Ford Motor Company metal casting plant in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. It opened in 1981, and ... "Two Ford Plants Sold to Nemak". Retrieved 2012-10-17.[permanent dead link] "Essex Aluminum Plant to close". Windsor Star. ... List of Ford factories "Essex Aluminum Plant". Retrieved 2012-10-17. "2002 Media Guide" (PDF). Ford Motor Company. Archived ... produced aluminum cylinder heads and pistons for various Ford engine plants. In 2001, the plant was sold to Nemak, a joint ...
"Century Aluminum threatens to close Mt Holly smelter if no new power deal", Reuters, 22 Oct. 2015. Dan Hason, "Century Aluminum ... Century Aluminum Company (Nasdaq: CENX) is a US-based producer of primary aluminium, with aluminum plants in Kentucky, South ... New York Times, Century Aluminum Company, accessed 1 Mar. 2016. "Century Aluminum moving HQ from California to One South Wacker ... Aluminium industry in the United States Century Aluminum website (Aluminum companies of the United States, Manufacturing ...
... , Inc., based in Cleveland, Ohio, was a major producer of aluminum and brass materials in the early 20th ... In 1922, this was "...one of the largest shops in Detroit for making aluminum and brass castings...." In 1920, it was noted ... The company was incorporated in November 1919, absorbing The Aluminum Castings Company, a Detroit, Michigan company which had ... that the company was controlled by the Aluminum Company of America (later known as Alcoa). In 1921, the company was noted as an ...
... s can be made with recycled aluminum. In 2017, 3.8 million tons of aluminum were generated in the US of which 0.62 ... Aluminum can of meat Aluminum drinks can with stay-tab easy-opening. Note the can is narrowed at the top to allow for a smaller ... The aluminum industry pays nearly 800 million dollars a year for recycled aluminum since it is so versatile. Because of the ... An Aluminum can (British English: Aluminium can) is a single-use container for packaging made primarily of aluminum. It is ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aluminum Overcast (aircraft). EAA's B-17 Aluminum Overcast site Flight in Aluminum ... Its paint scheme was redone in 1988 and now features a flat aluminum metallic flake paint. Aluminum Overcast is based at EAA's ... Aluminum Overcast carries the colors of the 398th Bomb Group of World War II, which flew hundreds of missions over Nazi-held ... Aluminum Overcast, B-17G-105-VE, s/n 44-85740, civil registration N5017N, as of November 2022, is one of only nine presently ...
... Corporation is an American aluminum producer. It is a spinoff from Kaiser Aluminum and Chemicals Corporation, ... "Kaiser Aluminum Revenue 2006-2021 , KALU". "Kaiser Aluminum Net Income 2006-2021 , KALU". "Kaiser Aluminum Total Assets 2006- ... "Aluminum Wire By the Mile". Steel. Vol. 134, no. 26. June 28, 1954. p. 103. "Kaiser Aluminum Plant in Chalmette Louisiana in ... "Kaiser Aluminum Corporation Reports Second Quarter and First Half 2021 Financial Results , Kaiser Aluminum". Archived from the ...
Aluminum was the second album from New York City band Gods Child. Produced by Tim Palmer (who has worked with such acts as ... It is littered with damaged guitars, distressed mellotron, and raw vocals.[citation needed] Aluminum was critically acclaimed, ... assistant engineer Aluminum at AllMusic (Articles needing additional references from August 2011, All articles needing ...
Most recordings on bare aluminum are believed to have perished in the scrap metal drives held during World War II. Aluminum was ... aluminum disc may refer to the aluminum core discs used for the "platters" in hard disk drives, or to discs used in various ... A bare aluminum disc can remain unchanged indefinitely if carefully stored, while the coating on a lacquer disc is subject to ... In the field of audio recording, an aluminum disc (aluminium in the UK and elsewhere) is a phonograph (gramophone in the UK) ...
This creates a toxic form of aluminum while also increasing the total amount of aluminum being weathered. Mining for aluminum ... For example, phosphates store aluminum that has been sedimented and aluminum is found in diatoms (made of silica). Aluminum has ... Aluminum is known to be an ecotoxicant and expected to be a health risk to people. Global primary production (GPP) of aluminum ... Aluminum enters the biosphere through water and food as soluble aluminum, Al3+ or AlF2+. It is then cycled through the food ...
... at AllMusic Sherburne, Philip (6 October 2018). "Stereolab: Aluminum Tunes". Pitchfork. Retrieved 18 July 2019 ... "Aluminum Tunes: Switched On, Vol. 3". Stereolab. All Media Guide/All Music. Retrieved 4 May 2007. "aluminum tunes". Stereolab ... Aluminum Tunes is a double album collection of EPs and rarities from Stereolab, released in 1998. It is the third compilation ... "Aluminum Tune" from the 1998 The In Sound single) "Ulan Bator" - 3:14 (from the 1994 Mars Audiac Quintet bonus disc) "One Small ...
... may refer to: Aluminum baseball bat Aluminium cricket bat This disambiguation page lists articles associated with ... the title Aluminum bat. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended ...
The Aluminum Bowl was a one-time postseason college football bowl game held in 1956 as the National Association of ...
... is the largest aluminum extrusion group in Asia, with an annual designed capacity of 350,000 metric tons. It ... Asia Aluminum did not have sufficient funds to repay these debts. Consequently, as at 28 February 2009, Asia Aluminum was ... including Asia Aluminum. Furthermore, Asia Aluminum incurred a considerable drain on its cash resources due to the construction ... the management of Asia Aluminum performed a leveraged buyout of the outstanding issued share capital in Asia Aluminum, financed ...
Aluminum fence materials are often in the form of rigid rails or posts, but flexible forms are also used. Aluminum fences are ... Aluminum fencing is used for both commercial and residential use. Aluminum fence is generally available preformed, in a wide ... Aluminum fences are made in a wide range of sizes and shapes. They come in many different colors, which are applied using a ... An aluminum fence is a fence constructed primarily out of the element aluminium. Due to the metal's low density and ability to ...
... (also referred to as ACT) is a housing development located in New Kensington, near Pittsburgh. Walter ... He did, however, renege on a promise by the previous mayor to finance a new road to make accessing Aluminum City Terrace easier ... Alcoa, New Kensington's primary employer, expressed skepticism over FWA plans for Aluminum City Terrace due to fears the ... Szylvian, Kristin (1994). "Bauhaus on trial: Aluminum City Terrace and Federal Defence Housing Policy during World War II". ...
... , also referred to as photo anodized aluminum or photo metal, utilizes the porous nature of ... Type 1 photosensitive anodized aluminum is anodized aluminum that has been impregnated with a silver compound which, when ... Type 1 photosensitive anodized aluminum is then sealed in boiling water similarly to common anodized aluminum. Sealing hydrates ... Photosensitive anodized aluminum was qualified to Federal Specification GG-P-455 in 1965, a document that outlines the ...
Washington Post: Aluminum tubes Congress: Iraq Nuclear Program the aluminum tube section begins on page 5 Colin Powell UN ... In 2000, Iraq ordered, via a company in Jordan, 60,000 high-strength aluminum tubes manufactured from 7075-T6 aluminum with an ... became aware that Iraq was attempting to procure 60,000 high-strength aluminum tubes manufactured from 7075-T6 aluminum, with ... Seven-thousand series aluminum alloy is extremely hard and strong and when formed into a tube of more than 75 mm in diameter, ...
The 1974 aluminum cent was a one-cent coin proposed by the United States Mint in 1973. It was composed of an alloy of aluminum ... 66 aluminum cents made in 1975 as trial strikings. At least 1 example of an aluminum Lincoln Wheat cent struck in 1942 to test ... As a result, the Mint tested alternate metals, including aluminum and bronze-clad steel. A composition of 96% aluminum (with ... including 10 examples of a 1974-D aluminum cent, produced at the Denver Mint. Unlike the Philadelphia aluminum cent, these were ...
"Eames Aluminum Group Lounge Chair - Herman Miller". store.hermanmiller.com. Retrieved 2023-01-21. "Eames Aluminum Group Ottoman ... "Eames Aluminum Group 680 Chair Prototype 1". www.eamesinstitute.org. Retrieved 2023-01-21. "Eames Aluminum Group Chair, ... The original design featured a woven suspension back and seat stretched between aluminum ribs. The aluminum elements are ... The Eames Aluminum Group series is a line of furniture designed by the office of Charles and Ray Eames for Herman Miller in ...
Aluminum Group Shows its Mastery of Curveball", The Virginian-Pilot, January 20, 2000, p. E12 "The Aluminum Group Pedals", SPIN ... by the Aluminum Group". "Incoming", SPIN, October 1998, p. 46, retrieved 2012-01-08 Hermann, Andy (2003) "The Aluminum Group: ... "The Aluminum Group MoreHappyness", Billboard, February 7, 2004, p. 38, retrieved 2012-01-09 Tangari, Joe (2008) "The Aluminum ... The Aluminum Group is an American pop band from Chicago, Illinois centered on brothers John and Frank Navin. The band has ...
An aluminum polymer composite (APC) material combines aluminum with a polymer to create materials with interesting ... Spherical aluminum foam pieces bonded by polymers produced foams that were 80-95% metal. Such foams were test=manufactured on ... Aluminum foam Aluminium composite panels Rathi, Akshat (2014-02-03). "New laser-printed material is lighter than water, as ... When coated with a 50-100 nanometer layer of aluminum oxide, the material was able to withstand loads of as much as 280 ...
"What aluminum is and how Mirro Aluminum cooking utensils are made". Wisconsin Historical Society. Mirro Aluminum Company. ... The Mirro Aluminum Company was an aluminum cookware company that existed in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, from 1909 to 2003. It was ... Groupe SEB Skana Aluminum corporate website 60th Anniversary "Mixing Bowl" publication from the Mirro Aluminum Company in 1955 ... At its peak, Mirro was the world's largest manufacturer of aluminum cooking utensils, and over time it had as many as eight ...
Established in 1962, it produces aluminum, aluminum alloy mill products and fabricated products. Mitsubishi Materials ... Mitsubishi Aluminum Co., Ltd. (三菱アルミニウム株式会社, Mitsubishi Aruminiumu Kabushiki-gaisha) is a Japanese manufacturer of aluminium ...
Hydrosal Gel contains 15% Aluminum chloride,aluminum chloride hexahydrate, an ingredient often used in strong antiperspirants, ... Aluminum chloride hexahydrate, sold under the brand name Hydrosal Gel among others, is a first-line treatment for excessive ... Flanagan, Katherine H.; Dee Anna Glaser (May 2009). "An open-label trial of the efficacy of 15% aluminum chloride in 2% ... Clinical studies support the efficacy and low incidence of irritation of the 15% aluminum chloride and 2% salicylic acid gel ...
... unalloyed aluminum, and aluminum hardeners (aluminum alloy materials and grain refiners). The Aluminum Association's ... Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys, which is an ANSI accredited standards committee. Aluminum Association (AA) standards are ... The Aluminum Association today carries out its role in promoting aluminum via a diverse set of activities: developing technical ... The Aluminum Association is a trade association for the aluminum production, fabrication and recycling industries, and their ...
... , known as VALCO, is an aluminium company based in Tema, Greater Accra Region founded by Kaiser Aluminum ... VALCO was a joint venture with Kaiser Aluminum and ALCOA, major aluminum conglomerates both based in the United States, in the ... VALCO imported alumina to produce aluminum. The smelter has a capacity of 200,000 metric tons per year of ingots but was shut ... VALCO smelts alumina to produce aluminium ingots at its smelter at Tema. Locally, a major Ghanaian customer of VALCO is ...
After the first Ford aluminum promotional model was offered, aluminum was abandoned. Different colors of plastic could now be ... Aluminum Model Toys bought SMP in 1961, adopting SMP's 3-in-1 kit idea and the SMP logo, which at the time was a diamond shape ... Aluminum Model Toys (AMT) is a toy manufacturing brand founded in Troy, Michigan, in 1948 by West Gallogly Sr. AMT became known ... Gallogly's first model was a 1947-1948 Ford Fordor sedan made of cast aluminum and painted with official Ford paint. After ...
... s consisted of aluminum branches attached to a wooden or aluminum central pole. The central pole had ... "Vintage Aluminum Christmas Trees - Caring for Your Aluminum Christmas Tree Archived 2012-04-26 at the Wayback Machine", ... During the 1960s, the aluminum Christmas tree enjoyed its most popular period of usage. As the mid-1960s passed, the aluminum ... The foil branches had woven aluminum "needles" as well. Each tree took about 15 minutes to assemble. The first aluminum trees ...
... even those designed to connect copper to aluminum wiring, are not rated for aluminum-to-aluminum connections, with one ... Copper prices and copper price charts Aluminum Prices and Aluminum Price Charts "The Evolution of Aluminum Conductors Used for ... Aluminum wire used before the mid-1970s had a somewhat higher rate of creep, but a more significant issue was that aluminum ... Also, larger aluminum stranded building wire made with AA-8000 series alloy of aluminum is used for electrical services (e.g. ...
Musical Instruments Made of Aluminum J. C. Deagan Biography Leedy Vibraphone History Aluminum Double Bass Blüthner aluminum ... After 1950, however, the aluminum piano plate was no longer used by piano manufacturers. As soon as aluminum was available in ... Due to its success, Leedy began manufacturing their vibraphones with aluminum in 1929, and they are still made of aluminum ... a manufacturer of aluminum and aluminum products. The metal frame of a piano, often called the plate or harp, anchors both ends ...
Aluminum Prices and Aluminum Price Charts *^ "The Evolution of Aluminum Conductors Used for Building Wire and Cable" (PDF). ... Joining aluminum and copper wires[edit]. Another issue is the joining of aluminum wire to copper wire. In addition to the ... even those designed to connect copper to aluminum wiring, are not rated for aluminum-to-aluminum connections, with one ... Aluminum building wiring is a type of electrical wiring for residential construction or houses that uses aluminum electrical ...
DO NOT use a cleaner-polish on aluminum surfaces to receive an organic coating. Cleaner-polishes protect the aluminum surface ... They may etch the surface finish of bare aluminum; white blemishes may develop on anodized aluminum. ... Etchant drips on uncleaned aluminum are more difficult to remove than drips on already cleaned aluminum. ... On bare aluminum, moderate abrasives produce a finely scratched, light grey surface. The scratches are easily blended into a ...
Aluminum Upcycled provides an excellent overview to the enormous growth of aluminum and to the history and design of the ... as well as the troubling expansion of aluminum as a material of mass disposal. Recognizing that scrap aluminum was as good as ... Tracing the benefits-and limitations-of repurposing aluminum.. Besides being the right thing to do for Mother Earth, recycling ... Tracing the benefits-and limitations-of repurposing aluminum.. Besides being the right thing to do for Mother Earth, recycling ...
Loser trying to be cool- Why are you wearing Aluminum foil? Paranoid much? Me - Uh, your a Nubcake , its Aluminum Foil Day ... Man, I broke my pipe last night! I had to go find some aluminum foil! ... Dude! I can chew aluminum foil and skateboard at the same time! *face-plant splat!* ... "Woah!!!!!!!! That guy totally has a blue piece of aluminum foil for a girlfriend!" ...
Painting aluminum doors is relatively simple. You will save a lot of money by painting the garage doors yourself rather than ... If your aluminum garage doors factory-painted finish has faded or has areas where the paint is completely worn, its time for ... If your aluminum garage doors factory-painted finish has faded or has areas where the paint is completely worn, its time for ... Painting aluminum doors is relatively simple. You will save a lot of money by painting the garage doors yourself rather than ...
The aluminum reflects light and wipes clean with a damp cloth. Maintain the budget-friendly piece by never washing in a ... Lightweight and economical Aluminum Bread Plate for serving communion. Stratford Chapel is the most lightweight of all our ... Title: Aluminum Bread Plate. Format: Other. Vendor: Christian Brands / Stratford Chapel. Publication Date: 2012. Dimensions: ... The aluminum reflects light and wipes clean with a damp cloth. Maintain the budget-friendly piece by never washing in a ...
"The aluminum salts do not work as antiperspirants by being absorbed in the body. They work by forming a chemical reaction with ... Back in the 1960s, a few studies found high levels of aluminum in the brains of people with Alzheimers disease. The research ... An aluminum-based compound is the active ingredient in antiperspirants, and the one thats most often connected with ... "There was a lot of research that looked at the link between Alzheimers and aluminum, and there hasnt been any definitive ...
The best aluminum free deodorant is safe, organic and doesnt stain clothes. Read more to find the best, most effective brands ... Best aluminum free deodorant for men: Native Deodorant. *Best aluminum free deodorant for women: Toms of Maine Aluminum-Free ... Q: Why should you use aluminum free deodorant?. If youre concerned about aluminum buildup in your body, switch to aluminum- ... Best aluminum-free deodorant for sensitive skin: Each & Every Natural Aluminum-Free Deodorant for Sensitive Skin. ...
Aluminium sulfate is a salt with the formula Al 2 (SO 4) 3 . It is soluble in water and is mainly used as a coagulating agent (promoting particle collision by neutralizing charge) in the purification of drinking water and wastewater treatment plants, and also in paper manufacturing. The anhydrous form occurs naturally as a rare mineral millosevichite, found for example in volcanic environments and... Wikipedia ...
Use 3M™ Aluminum Foil Tape 3380 tape when you need long-lasting protection in low-temperature environments from moisture, ... Aluminum Foil Tape 3380 is designed for cold weather applications while also working well in hot temperatures and high humidity ... Its aluminum foil backing is coated with a cold weather acrylic adhesive. The aluminum backing conforms around corners and to ... 3M™ Aluminum Foil Tape 3380 is a nominal 1.8 mil foil backed tape that excels in a range of applications and environments ...
Aluminum Can Recycling Just Got Way More Profitable Thanks to This Genius Mobile Foundry ...
Buy the ALUBOX 120L Aluminum Case online or shop all Overlanding from Backcountry.com. ... No more plastic storage totes for our precious camp goods-the Alubox 120L Aluminum Case is large, light, and tough enough to ... Why We Like The Alubox 120L Aluminum Case. .css-1m2iih5{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display: ...
Alumina & Aluminum Center of Excellence Bechtels Alumina and Aluminum Center of Excellences leadership and technical ... With recent experience with all major alumina and aluminum process technologies and demonstrated experience commissioning new ... alumina, and aluminum projects in Australia, Canada, Iceland, the Middle East, and New Zealand. By collaborating on these major ... Aluminum is vital to helping the world move closer to net zero. Light and durable, it is ideal for renewable energy solutions ...
Find out why you should be cleaning with aluminum foil, plus other ingenious uses for this kitchen superhero. ... Anytime youd use steel wool, such as on pots and pans with dried-on food, try using a crumpled up ball of aluminum foil to ... Whether you just stocked up or youre on the last few feet, youre going to want to get your roll of aluminum foil out for this ... You can do the same by putting a ball of aluminum foil in with silverware when you run your dishwasher. Theyll be shinier than ...
Shop for Ball Aluminum Cup® (10ct/20oz.) at Ralphs. Find quality cleaning products products to add to your Shopping List or ... The new 20-ounce Ball Aluminum Cup® brings out the chill in every icy sip and you know its a smart choice because aluminum can ... Once recycled, the aluminum in our cups can return to the market as a new cup or can in about 60 days. ... The Ball Aluminum Cup® is infinitely recyclable and is perfect for parties, tailgates, BBQ, holidays, and any outdoor event - ...
Aluminum Glass Doors (Model 521) are a​ppropriate for environments where maximum light infiltration and/or visual access is ... Aluminum Glass Door model 521 is a sectional aluminum door a​ppropriate for environments where maximum light infiltration and/ ...
Trump doubles tariffs on Turkish steel and aluminum. By REUTERS. AUGUST 10, 2018 16:35 * ... Aluminum will now be 20 percent and Steel 50 percent. Our relations with Turkey are not good at this time!. Trumps ... I have just authorized a doubling of Tariffs on Steel and Aluminum with respect to Turkey as their currency, the Turkish Lira, ... The United States, the worlds biggest steel importer, imposed tariffs of 25 percent on steel and 10 percent on aluminum in ...
Airbus APWorks to offer another option for additive manufacturing-the Airbus subsidiarys Scalmalloy high-performance aluminum ... High-strength aluminum powder developed for additive manufacturing in aerospace, automotive. 2015-06-04 Ryan Gehm ... It is more than twice as strong as the aluminum-silicon powder currently in use. (To view additional images, click the arrow at ... "The Airbus Group has produced a type of powder that not only exhibits the positive properties of aluminum, but also very high ...
Edelbrock Straight Polished Aluminum Waterneck for Chevy 4.3L V6 & Chevy V8 $38.95 ...
ASTM B 221 - Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Extruded Bars, Rods, Wire, Profiles, and Tubes. ... Download this Aluminum Storefronts Specification for WORD , WORD-Canadian , WP , RTF , TEXT. Find over 500 more construction ... Framing sections shall be extruded from 6063-T5 aluminum alloy.. 2.. Glazing beads shall be NS (non-stretch, high-shore) vinyl ... NOTE TO SPECIFIER ** PRL Glass Systems, Inc.; aluminum storefronts.. This section is based on the products of PRL Glass Systems ...
040 Aluminum fast and with free shipping on qualifying orders at Staples. ... National Marker "Notice Monitored By Video Camera" Safety sign measuring 10" x 14" is made of 0.040" aluminum material for ...
Aluminum company Novelis Inc. announced today that it recycled an estimated 39 billion aluminum beverage cans in the past year ... Novelis is the leading producer of flat-rolled aluminum products and the worlds largest recycler of aluminum. We work ... Novelis, a manufacturer of aluminum rolled products and aluminum can recycling, has commissioned its expanded recycling plant ... Aluminum Conductor Composite Reinforced USed to Boost Power Capacity in China Instead of Building New Transmission Towers ...
Exposure to high levels of aluminum may result in respiratory problems. Aluminum has been found in at least 427 of the 1,467 ... Everyone is exposed to low levels of aluminum from food, air, and water. ... Aluminum as the metal is obtained from aluminum-containing minerals. Small amounts of aluminum can be found dissolved in water. ... where aluminum is mined or processed into aluminum metal, near certain hazardous waste sites, or where aluminum is naturally ...
Entire contents Copyright © 2023 Touratech USA. All Rights Reserved. Touratech USA does not accept liability for incorrect spelling, printing errors (including prices), incorrect specifications or grammatical inaccuracies in any product included in the Touratech-USA catalog or website. Prices subject to change without notice ...
This Gold Anodized Aluminum Ball has a 5" diameter ball with 1/2" spindle threading. Ball top ornaments should be selected by ... This Gold Anodized Aluminum Ball has a 5" diameter ball with 1/2" spindle threading. Ball top ornaments should be selected by ...
Experience the thrill and ease of tailoring your Truck or Jeep with our Guaranteed Lowest Prices on all Polished aluminum ... Odyssey Batteries Battery Hold Down Kit (Polished aluminum) - HK-PC1500 Part #: ODYHK-PC1500 5.0 5.0 (1) ... Odyssey Batteries Battery Hold Down Kit (Polished aluminum) - HK-PC2150 Part #: ODYHK-PC2150 5.0 5.0 (1) ... Polished aluminum Battery Hold Down 1 Product Groups *Switch to View Products ...
... or warp from moisture or dryness because they are made of wood and aluminum. The aluminum and wood bars offer a strong ... BEST Aluminum Pro Bar 23 - BEST Pro Bars never twist, bend, ... BEST Aluminum Pro Bar 23Museum quality Stretcher Bars for the ... or warp from moisture or dryness because they are made of wood and aluminum. The aluminum and wood bars offer a strong, more ... BEST Aluminum Pro Bar 23" - BEST Pro Bars never twist, bend, ... BEST Aluminum Pro Bar 23". Museum quality Stretcher Bars for ...
... made by Mr Gasket, for as low as $59.95. Order ships free when this item is included ... This hi-tech machined aluminum PCV valve fits valve cover with 1" I.D. grommets and will accept a 3/8" I.D. PCV hose. ...
Learn important details about aluminum 3105 and other metals using the OnlineMetals.com® Product Guide. ... 3105 aluminum is a 98% pure aluminum alloy with minor additions that make it stronger than 1100 or 3003 aluminum. 3105 has ... Aluminum 3105 Product Guide. Applications , Specifications , Mechanical and Chemical Data , Tolerances. Overview. ... It is typcially used in applications that require higher strength than 1100 aluminum such as: residential siding, sign making, ...
This case of a 7-year-old who had ingested an aluminum ring pull from a soda can highlights the difficulty of detecting ... Ingested Aluminum Foreign Body. Tommaso Bartalena, MD; Maria Francesca Rinaldi, MD; Giovanni Rinaldi, MD; Sara Zanzani, MD; ... A 7-year-old child was referred for suspected ingestion of an aluminum ring pull from a can of soda. The patient was awake, ...
  • If you become pregnant while taking aluminum hydroxide, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to promote the healing of peptic ulcers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is also used sometimes to decrease the amount of phosphate in the blood of patients with kidney disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to aluminum hydroxide or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • be aware that aluminum hydroxide may interfere with other medicines, making them less effective. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take your other medications 1 hour before or 2 hours after aluminum hydroxide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aluminum hydroxide may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • aluminum hydroxide increases levels of ethambutol by cation binding in GI tract. (medscape.com)
  • Avoid administering aluminum hydroxide containing antacids for at least 4 hr following ethambutol dose. (medscape.com)
  • In fact, the dimensions and the aluminum alloy were identical to those of tubes acquired for rockets by Iraq in the 1980s. (ucsusa.org)
  • As a master alloy , aluminum-neodymium can be used for grain refining, hardening, and improving aluminum performance by enhancing properties such as ductility and machinability. (americanelements.com)
  • It has strong corrosion resistance to molten metal, and is an ideal crucible material for casting pure iron, aluminum or aluminum alloy. (mis-asia.com)
  • It is reported that most of the research today is developing a semiconductor (gallium nitride or alloy aluminum gallium nitride) based light emitting diode that operates in ultraviolet light with a wavelength of 250 nanometers. (mis-asia.com)
  • Studies in animals show that the nervous system is a sensitive target of aluminum toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • target of aluminum toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Mechanisms of aluminum toxicity include inhibition of enzyme activity and protein synthesis, alterations in nucleic acid function, and changes in cell membrane permeability. (medscape.com)
  • Aluminum toxicity is usually found in patients with impaired kidney function. (medscape.com)
  • Aluminum toxicity was originally described in the mid-to-late 1970s in a series of patients in Newcastle, England, through an associated osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy that appeared to reverse itself upon changing of the dialysate water to deionized water (ie, aluminum-depleted water). (medscape.com)
  • Aluminum's name is derived from alumina, the mineral from which Sir Humphrey Davy attempted to refine it from in 1812. (americanelements.com)
  • Aluminum is often mixed with small amounts of other metals to form aluminum alloys, which are stronger and harder. (cdc.gov)
  • Aluminum-neodymium is one of numerous high purity rare earth alloys manufactured by American Elements. (americanelements.com)
  • Using aluminum nitride ceramics to resist the corrosion properties of iron, aluminum and other metals and alloys, it can be used as crucible and casting mold materials for smelting Al, Cu, Ag, Pb and other metals. (mis-asia.com)
  • Living in areas where the air is dusty, where aluminum often mixed with small amounts of other metals to form is mined or processed into aluminum metal, near aluminum alloys, which are stronger and harder. (cdc.gov)
  • Eating substances containing high levels of aluminum (such as antacids) especially when eating or drinking citrus products at the same time. (cdc.gov)
  • Avoid taking large quantities of aluminum-containing develop Alzheimer's disease, but other studies have not found antacids and buffered aspirin and take these this to be true. (cdc.gov)
  • Snarled supplies will dog the industry through the rest of this year and most of 2022, according to many participants at the Harbor Aluminum Summit in Chicago, with some projecting it could take as long as five years to resolve the issues. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • Aluminum (in compounds combined with other elements) has been found in at least 596 of the 1,699 National Priority List (NPL) sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
  • Aluminum compounds have many different uses, for example, as alums in water-treatment and alumina in abrasives and furnace linings. (cdc.gov)
  • Natural News) A new study funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirms that aluminum compounds found in childhood vaccines are linked to an array of illnesses, including neurological disorders, asthma, and the Big A: autism. (naturalnews.com)
  • Aluminum compounds have many different uses, for naturally high. (cdc.gov)
  • Subsequent purification processes that remove organic compounds take away many of the same compounds that bind the element in its free state, further increasing aluminum concentration. (medscape.com)
  • Aluminum (or Aluminium) (atomic symbol: Al, atomic number: 13) is a Block P, Group 13, Period 3 element with an atomic weight of 26.9815386. (americanelements.com)
  • Durable yet lightweight aluminum frame is finished with a protective powdercoat to resist the elements. (frontgate.com)
  • Compact, lightweight and durable, our aluminum holders hold 10 standard cards and fit comfortably in a purse or bag. (vistaprint.com)
  • Weather-defying wicker is woven over aluminum frames to create the rich look of natural rattan without the worries.Contract-grade. (frontgate.com)
  • Based on or popular Westport Outdoor Kitchen Collection, each outdoor dining piece is crafted of aluminum and stainless steel. (frontgate.com)
  • It can be synthesized by aluminum powder in ammonia or nitrogen atmosphere at 800~1000℃, and the product is white to gray-blue powder. (mis-asia.com)
  • Or prepared by vapor-phase reaction of aluminum chloride and ammonia. (mis-asia.com)
  • Personal breathing zone samples for zinc (7440666), cadmium (7440439), chromium (7440473), ammonia (7664417) and aluminum (7429905) all were well below the allowable limit. (cdc.gov)
  • Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. (cdc.gov)
  • Aluminum is a trivalent cation found in its ionic form in most kinds of animal and plant tissues and in natural waters everywhere. (medscape.com)
  • Chinese material equities may see a further re-rating as more government moves to curb steel production to cut emissions could boost prices for cement, steel and aluminum, Citigroup Inc. analyst Jack Shang said in a note. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • Aluminum oxide sandblasting of the coping and abutment favored the tensile strength of temporary cements and the CH showed a higher tensile strength and less microleakage than did the ZO cement. (bvsalud.org)
  • Deposit schemes, voluntary partnerships, segregated collections, and designing for circularity are among the measures that can boost aluminum recycling rates. (bcg.com)
  • Natural News) Goldman Sachs has raised its price forecasts for aluminum in reaction to higher demand for the metal in Europe and China. (naturalnews.com)
  • The sleek, powdercoated frame is made of 100% aluminum, which is both strong and substantial while being lightweight. (frontgate.com)
  • Improving volumes (the key issue for used beverage cans) and maximizing the value of recycled materials (which is pivotal for end-of-life vehicles) are the two main challenges in aluminum recycling. (bcg.com)
  • Aluminum, which is found in everyday items from cans to cars, provides clear insights into the workings of recycling ecosystems in general because, unlike other materials, it can be infinitely recycled without losing its original properties. (bcg.com)
  • About half of all used aluminum beverage cans in the US were recycled in 2020. (bcg.com)
  • Aluminum is used for beverage cans, pots and workplace air. (cdc.gov)
  • Some people with kidney disease store a lot of aluminum in their bodies and sometimes develop bone or brain diseases which may be caused by the excess aluminum. (cdc.gov)
  • Pure aluminum is soft and lacks strength, but alloyed with small amounts of copper , magnesium , silicon , manganese , or other elements, it imparts a variety of useful properties. (americanelements.com)
  • Aluminum is not accumulated to a significant extent in most plants or animals. (cdc.gov)
  • According to this trend, the market price of Aluminum Niitride will also be affected to a certain extent. (mis-asia.com)
  • example, as alums in water-treatment and alumina in · Eating substances containing high levels of aluminum abrasives and furnace linings. (cdc.gov)
  • 4 h on 10 about the role of interfering substances such as proteins aluminum (Figure 1 panel C). The probable adsorption on SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Small amounts of aluminum can be found dissolved in water. (cdc.gov)
  • Some studies show that people exposed to high levels of aluminum may develop Alzheimer's disease, but other studies have not found this to be true. (cdc.gov)
  • Natural News) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is sticking to its narrative that the aluminum adjuvant in vaccines is safe for children, even though a study has found that it is linked to asthma in children. (naturalnews.com)
  • A complete replacement kit for worn-out aluminum bars found on our Rock Grip Wading Boots-Aluminum Bar. (patagonia.com)
  • It is always found combined with other elements such as some aluminum. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 2 ] Due to its reactivity, aluminum in nature is found only in combination with other elements. (medscape.com)
  • Generously proportioned seating features a powdercoated aluminum frame. (frontgate.com)
  • In healthy subjects, only 0.3% of orally administered aluminum is absorbed via the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and the kidneys effectively eliminate aluminum from the human body. (medscape.com)
  • Children with kidney problems who were given aluminum in their medical treatments developed bone diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Then, each bone chip and the aluminum step-wedge were placed on periapical radiographs in order to take the images with Ekta Speed film, with an exposure time of 0.2 seconds and focal length of 25 cm. (bvsalud.org)
  • The images were measured using the histogram tool provided by the Image Tool program (UTHSCSA, Texas, USA) selecting specific areas on the bone chips and on the aluminum step-wedge. (bvsalud.org)
  • Children and adults may be exposed to small amounts of aluminum from vaccinations. (cdc.gov)
  • As an example, with intravenously infused aluminum, 40% is retained in adults and up to 75% is retained in neonates. (medscape.com)
  • It is recommended to measure pixel intensity on digitalized radiographs using an aluminum step-wedge as a reference density value. (bvsalud.org)
  • Approximately 95% of an aluminum load becomes bound to transferrin and albumin intravascularly and is then eliminated renally. (medscape.com)
  • All-weather Italian rope is handwoven around a rust-resistant aluminum frame to create an open weave pattern that allows air to circulate and keep you cool on warmer days.Contract-grade. (frontgate.com)
  • Aluminum cannot be destroyed in the environment, it can only change its form. (cdc.gov)
  • In the air, aluminum binds to small particles, which can stay suspended for many days. (cdc.gov)
  • Under most conditions, a small amount of aluminum will dissolve in lakes, streams, and rivers. (cdc.gov)
  • Only very small amounts of aluminum that you may inhale, ingest, or have skin contact with will enter the bloodstream. (cdc.gov)
  • Aluminum nitride ceramics have the characteristics of high room temperature and high temperature strength, small expansion coefficient and good thermal conductivity, and can be used as heat exchanger materials for high temperature structural parts. (mis-asia.com)
  • Small amounts (mg) aluminum per day in their food. (cdc.gov)
  • Only very small amounts of aluminum that you may inhale, stay suspended for many days. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know if aluminum will affect reproduction in All people have small amounts of aluminum in their bodies. (cdc.gov)
  • Dietary aluminum is ubiquitous but in such small quantities that it is not a significant source of concern in persons with normal elimination capacity. (medscape.com)
  • Hydro plans to recycle more postconsumer aluminum scrap (from discarded products) as part of a commitment to reach net-zero emissions by 2050. (bcg.com)
  • See more Aluminum products. (americanelements.com)
  • Exposure to high levels of aluminum may result in respiratory and neurological problems. (cdc.gov)
  • Living in areas where the air is dusty, where aluminum is mined or processed into aluminum metal, near certain hazardous waste sites, or where aluminum is naturally high. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to aluminum is usually not harmful, but exposure to high levels can affect your health. (cdc.gov)
  • Obvious signs of damage were not seen in animals after high oral doses of aluminum. (cdc.gov)
  • In the weeks leading up to the war, senior administration officials repeatedly stated that Iraq had attempted to acquire more than 100,000 high strength aluminum tubes for gas centrifuges to be used for enriching uranium. (ucsusa.org)
  • Aluminum nitride is used in optoelectronic engineering, including as dielectric layers in optical storage interfaces and electronic substrates, as chip carriers with high thermal conductivity, and for military applications. (mis-asia.com)
  • We conducted our experiments with and without log decrease on glass, and a 6 log drop on aluminum. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers who breathe large amounts of aluminum dusts can have lung problems, such as coughing or abnormal chest X-rays. (cdc.gov)
  • Aluminum metal is light in weight and silvery-white in appearance. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the EPA have not evaluated the carcinogenic potential of aluminum in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • To examine what's preventing aluminum from realizing its full potential in the circular economy, we took a deep dive into the aluminum recycling ecosystem in the US. (bcg.com)
  • [ 5 ] Only when the GI barrier is bypassed, such as by intravenous infusion or in the presence of advanced renal dysfunction, does aluminum have the potential to accumulate. (medscape.com)
  • Aluminum as the metal is obtained from aluminum-containing minerals. (cdc.gov)
  • The metal has surged about 15% over the past three weeks as supply risks increase throughout the industry, from bauxite mining in Guinea and alumina refining in Jamaica to aluminum smelting in China and beyond. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • Aluminum climbed as much as 2.6% to $3,000 a ton, the highest intraday level since 2008, on the London Metal Exchange. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • Aluminum is a silvery gray metal that possesses many desirable characteristics. (americanelements.com)
  • Toxic effects of aluminum depend on the amount of metal ingested, entry rate, tissue distribution, concentration achieved, and excretion rate. (medscape.com)
  • Bloomberg) - Aluminum reached $3,000 a ton in London for the first time in 13 years amid expectations that supply disruptions are here to stay, while demand keeps rising. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • Everyone is exposed to low levels of aluminum from food, air, water, and soil. (cdc.gov)
  • Aluminum nitride is also an electrical insulator with good dielectric properties and is also promising as an electrical component. (mis-asia.com)
  • Due to the properties of the piezoelectric effect of aluminum nitride, epitaxial stretching of aluminum nitride crystals is also used for surface acoustic wave detectors. (mis-asia.com)
  • In China and increasingly in the EU, policy risk to aluminum supply is growing," Goldman analysts including Jeff Currie said in a note released Monday. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • They mentioned within this release, as we move forward, we're focused on some of the items in our direct control, including boosting operational stability, advancing some of their technologies, and then having some of their more sustainable product offerings so that they can benefit from the positive long-term fundamentals for the aluminum industry. (yahoo.com)
  • Its breezy lattice back and airy design is achieved in aluminum. (frontgate.com)
  • Breathing higher levels of aluminum dust in workplace air. (cdc.gov)