Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.
Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.
Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Agents that are put on the SKIN to reduce SWEATING or prevent excess sweating (HYPERHIDROSIS).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
A dye which inhibits protein biosynthesis at the initial stages. The ammonium salt (aluminon) is a reagent for the colorimetric estimation of aluminum in water, foods, and tissues.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.
Diseases of BONES.
Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
An island in Micronesia, east of the Philippines, the largest and southernmost of the Marianas. Its capital is Agana. It was discovered by Magellan in 1521 and occupied by Spain in 1565. They ceded it to the United States in 1898. It is an unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Department of the Interior since 1950. The derivation of the name Guam is in dispute. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p471)
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.
Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.
Scandium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sc, atomic number 21, and atomic weight 45.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Long-term maintenance hemodialysis in the home.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
A plant genus of the family HYDRANGEACEAE. Members contain hydrangenol, thunberginols, hydramacrosides A and B, and secoiridoid glucosides.
Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of bluestem is also used for other plants in this family. Andropogon nardus has been reclassified as CYMBOPOGON nardus and Andropogon zizanioides to VETIVERIA zizanioides.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
A complex mixture of monomeric and aggregated porphyrins used in the photodynamic therapy of tumors (HEMATOPORPHYRIN PHOTORADIATION). A purified component of this mixture is known as DIHEMATOPORPHYRIN ETHER.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.
Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining penicillin G with PROCAINE.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A plant species of the Astragalus genus which is source of Huang qi preparation used in TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Inflammation of the bone.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.
A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
A method of chemical analysis based on the detection of characteristic radionuclides following a nuclear bombardment. It is also known as radioactivity analysis. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
Inflammation of the fascia. There are three major types: 1, Eosinophilic fasciitis, an inflammatory reaction with eosinophilia, producing hard thickened skin with an orange-peel configuration suggestive of scleroderma and considered by some a variant of scleroderma; 2, Necrotizing fasciitis (FASCIITIS, NECROTIZING), a serious fulminating infection (usually by a beta hemolytic streptococcus) causing extensive necrosis of superficial fascia; 3, Nodular/Pseudosarcomatous /Proliferative fasciitis, characterized by a rapid growth of fibroblasts with mononuclear inflammatory cells and proliferating capillaries in soft tissue, often the forearm; it is not malignant but is sometimes mistaken for fibrosarcoma.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
Procedures performed to remove CAPSULE OPACIFICATION that develops on the POSTERIOR CAPSULE OF THE LENS following removal of a primary CATARACT.
A cone-shaped structure in plants made up of a mass of meristematic cells that covers and protects the tip of a growing root. It is the putative site of gravity sensing in plant roots.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Excision of the apical portion of a tooth through an opening made in the overlying labial, buccal, or palatal alveolar bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.

A simple hydroponic culture method for the development of a highly viable root system in Arabidopsis thaliana. (1/1170)

In the studies of nutritional absorption and metal toxicity in the root, it is important to grow plants without technical damage. We established a simple hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis thaliana to obtain a healthy plant having a well-developed root system with many lateral roots. The phytotoxic effects of Cr, Cu, and Al ions were examined by FDA-PI staining using this culture system. The pattern of root inhibition varied with the ion, suggesting the usefulness of this culture system.  (+info)

Binding of the transition state analog MgADP-fluoroaluminate to F1-ATPase. (2/1170)

Escherichia coli F1-ATPase from mutant betaY331W was potently inhibited by fluoroaluminate plus MgADP but not by MgADP alone. beta-Trp-331 fluorescence was used to measure MgADP binding to catalytic sites. Fluoroaluminate induced a very large increase in MgADP binding affinity at catalytic site one, a smaller increase at site two, and no effect at site three. Mutation of either of the critical catalytic site residues beta-Lys-155 or beta-Glu-181 to Gln abolished the effects of fluoroaluminate on MgADP binding. The results indicate that the MgADP-fluoroaluminate complex is a transition state analog and independently demonstrate that residues beta-Lys-155 and (particularly) beta-Glu-181 are important for generation and stabilization of the catalytic transition state. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-inhibited enzyme, with 1% residual steady-state ATPase, showed normal transition state formation as judged by fluoroaluminate-induced MgADP binding affinity changes, consistent with a proposed mechanism by which dicyclohexylcarbodiimide prevents a conformational interaction between catalytic sites but does not affect the catalytic step per se. The fluorescence technique should prove valuable for future transition state studies of F1-ATPase.  (+info)

Fluorimetric determination of aluminum traces in hemodialysis solutions using Mordant Red 19. (3/1170)

A sensitive and accurate method for the spectrofluorimetric determination of trace levels of aluminum in hemodialysis solutions using Mordant Red 19 as the complexation reagent has been developed. The optimal experimental conditions for the concentration of fluorimetric reagent, pH, temperature, and the specific type of matrix are reported. The emission of the fluorescent metal chelate was measured at 555 nm, excitation at 478 nm. Linearity between emission intensity and aluminum concentration was found in the 2-20 ppb range in standard aluminum solutions. Limit of detection was 0.4 ppb. The aluminum amounts in some commercial hemodialysis solutions were determined by means of the extrapolation method. The proposed method proved to be suitable in terms of sensitivity and accuracy for the determination of aluminum in dialysis fluids.  (+info)

Aluminum is a weak agonist for the calcium-sensing receptor. (4/1170)

BACKGROUND: Aluminum (Al3+) has diverse biological effects mediated through activation of a putative extracellular cation-sensing receptor. A recently identified calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which has been identified in target tissues for Al3+, may transduce some of the biological effects of Al3+. METHODS: To test this possibility, we transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells with a cDNA encoding the rat CaSR and evaluated CaSR expression by Western blot analysis and function by measurement of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels and inositol monophosphate (IP1) generation following stimulation with Al3+ and a panel of CaSR agonists. RESULTS: The CaSR protein was detected by immunoblot analysis in cells transfected with the CaSR cDNA but not in nontransfected HEK 293 cells. In addition, [Ca2+]i levels and IP1 generation were enhanced in a dose-dependent fashion by additions of the CaSR agonists calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), gadolinium (Gd3+), and neomycin only in cells transfected with CaSR. To determine if Al3+ activated CaSR, we stimulated cells transfected with rat CaSR with 10 microM to 1 mM concentrations of Al3+. Concentrations of Al3+ in the range of 10 microM to 100 microM had no effect on [Ca2+]i levels or IP1 generation. In contrast, 1 mM Al3+ induced small but significant increases in both parameters. Whereas Gd3+ antagonized calcium-mediated activation of CaSR, pretreatment with Al3+ failed to block subsequent activation of rat CaSR by Ca2+, suggesting a distinct mechanism of Al3+ action. CONCLUSION: Al3+ is not a potent agonist for CaSR. Because Al3+ affects a variety of target tissues at micromolar concentrations, it seems unlikely that CaSR mediates these cellular actions of Al3+.  (+info)

High-resolution PET imaging for in vivo monitoring of tumor response after photodynamic therapy in mice. (5/1170)

The aim of this study was to investigate the use of [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) and a small-animal PET scanner to assess early tumor response after photodynamic therapy (PDT) in mice. PDT consists of intravenous administration of a photosensitizer that accumulates preferentially in tumor tissue, followed by local illumination of the tumor with red light. Two different photosensitizers were used: Photofrin (PII), which has been approved for clinical use, and disulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AIPcS), which is a second-generation drug. These drugs have been shown to induce tumor necrosis through different action mechanisms, i.e., mainly initial vascular stasis (PII) or direct tumor cell kill (AIPcS). FDG PET was used to follow both perfusion and metabolic activity in the tumor tissue. METHODS: The study was performed using a mouse model implanted with two contralateral murine mammary tumors (5 mm diameter x 2.5 mm thickness) on the back. Only one tumor was subjected to PDT, whereas the other tumor served as a control. A total of 13 mice were studied, 1 without illumination, 3 at 30 min and 3 at 2 h after PDT with both PII-PDT and AIPcS-PDT. Dynamic PET imaging of the mice, which were placed in pairs in a prostate position parallel to the transaxial planes of the Sherbrooke animal PET scanner, was performed after a bolus injection of 11 MBq (300 microCi) FDG. Blood samples were collected concurrently from 1 mouse during each study using an automated microvolumetric blood sampler. RESULTS: Analysis of the tumor time-activity curves showed that (a) scans during the first 3 min provided an estimate of tumor perfusion, as confirmed by the blood samples; (b) the tumor FDG uptake after 15 min was a direct measurement of tumor metabolism clearly demonstrating the relative efficacy of the two PDT drugs; and (c) the tumor tracer concentration in the interval 3-15 min after FDG injection is an appropriate indicator of the different mechanisms of tumor necrosis through indirect vascular stasis (PII) or direct cell kill (AIPcS). CONCLUSION: This pilot study confirmed the feasibility of using dynamic in vivo PET imaging for assessing early tumor response to PDT in mice.  (+info)

Evidence that cytosolic phospholipase A2 is down-regulated by protein kinase C in intact human platelets stimulated with fluoroaluminate. (6/1170)

We reported that protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors increase the release of arachidonic acid induced by fluoroaluminate (AlF4-), an unspecific G-protein activator, in intact human platelets. Now we demonstrate that this effect is independent of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration and that AlF4(-)-induced release of AA is abolished by BAPTA, an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, even in the presence of GF 109203X, a specific and potent PKC inhibitor. This compound also blocks the liberation of the secretory phospholipase A2 in the extracellular medium, indicating that this enzyme is not involved in the potentiation of arachidonic acid by PKC inhibitors. On the other hand, the latter effect is completely abolished by treatment of platelets with AACOCF3, a specific inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). These observations indicate that cPLA2 is responsible for the AlF4(-)-induced release of arachidonic acid by a mechanism that is down-regulated by PKC.  (+info)

A preliminary study of dietary aluminium intake and risk of Alzheimer's disease. (7/1170)

BACKGROUND: epidemiological studies of Alzheimer's disease and aluminium intake have focused on aluminium in drinking water. There have been no studies investigating the relation between the disease and the consumption of foods containing large amounts of aluminium additives. OBJECTIVES: to conduct a pilot study to determine whether dietary intake of aluminium additives differs in individuals with and without Alzheimer's disease. DESIGN: matched case-control study. Controls were matched to cases on age, gender and date of admission to the centre. SETTING: Syracuse, New York, USA. SUBJECTS: 46 participants comprising 23 matched sets. METHODS: residents of the Loretto Geriatric Center with and without newly-diagnosed Alzheimer's disease were selected. Next-of-kin were asked to complete information on the resident's medical history, lifestyle behaviour and dietary intake before admission to the centre. An expanded form of the Health Habits and History Questionnaire was used to determine dietary intake. Consumption of foods containing elevated levels of aluminium additives was compared between cases and controls. RESULTS: the crude odds ratio for daily intake of foods containing high levels of aluminium was 2.0 and, when adjusted for covariates, was 8.6 (P=0.19). Intake of pancakes, waffles, biscuits, muffins, cornbread and/or corn tortillas differed significantly (P=0.025) between cases and controls. Adjusted odds ratios were also elevated for grain product desserts, American cheese, chocolate pudding or beverages, salt and chewing gum. However, the odds ratio was not elevated for tea consumption. CONCLUSION: past consumption of foods containing large amounts of aluminium additives differed between people with Alzheimer's disease and controls, suggesting that dietary intake of aluminium may affect the risk of developing this disease. Larger studies are warranted to corroborate or refute these preliminary findings.  (+info)

Effects of aluminum potassium sulfate on learning, memory, and cholinergic system in mice. (8/1170)

AIM: To study the relationship between aluminum potassium sulfate (APS) and memory deficits of mice. METHODS: 30, 60, or 90 d after the mice were given daily APS i.g., the step-through latency (STL) was determined with a passive avoidance task. Aluminum (Al) contents in brain and blood were assayed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Acetylcholine (ACh) content in brain was determined with chemiluminescent method and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was measured radiochemically. RESULTS: APS 1 g.kg-1 increased blood-Al only after 30 d. After 60 d, STL, ACh content and ChAT activity decreased by 46.4%, 8.5%, and 22.6%, respectively. These parameters decreased by 50%, 11.1%, and 27.8%, respectively, with increased Al in blood and brain, after 90 d. APS 0.25 g.kg-1 had no effects on mice except blood-Al. In ethylcholine mustard aziridium chloride (AF64A) treated mice, APS 1 g.kg-1 only increased blood and brain-Al. CONCLUSION: The intake of APS 1 g.kg-1.d-1 for 60 d induced learning and memory deficits in mice.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Interpretation of serum aluminum values in dialysis patients. AU - McCarthy, J. T.. AU - Milliner, D. S.. AU - Kurtz, S. B.. AU - Johnson, W. J.. AU - Moyer, T. P.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - To determine the significance of serum aluminum levels in dialysis patients, the authors retrospectively analyzed a series of patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). All patients had always been treated with a dialysate containing negligible amounts of aluminum. The serum aluminum levels of hemodialysis and CAPD patients were not significantly different, not related to age or sex, and not affected by the presence of diabetes or vitamin D intake. The most important determinant of serum aluminum level in the hemodialysis patients was the current dose of aluminum-containing phosphate-binding medication. This relationship was most striking in the compliant patients. In hemodialysis patients, after an increase during the first one to two ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of aluminum content on the passivation behavior of Fe-Al alloys in sulfuric acid solution. AU - Chiang, Wen-Chi. AU - Luu, W.C.. AU - Wu, J.K.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - The passivation behavior of Fe-Al alloys (3.4, 10.4, 18.7, 19.4, 29.5, and 41.7 at % Al) and Fe-Al alloys (19.5 and 29.0 at % Al) with 5.1 at % Cr addition in 0.1 N H2SO4 is reported in this paper. The behavior has been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results show the Fe-Al alloys, which the Al content of alloy exceeds 19 at %, have wide passivation regions with low passivation current. However, when the Al content of Fe-Al alloys exceeds this range, the increment of Al content has slight influence on passivation behavior compared with ternary Cr addition.. AB - The passivation behavior of Fe-Al alloys (3.4, 10.4, 18.7, 19.4, 29.5, and 41.7 at % Al) and Fe-Al alloys (19.5 and 29.0 at % Al) with 5.1 at % Cr addition in 0.1 N H2SO4 is reported in this paper. The behavior has been ...
We reviewed specific chemical exposures and exposure assessment methods relating to published and unpublished epidemiological studies in the alumina and primary aluminium industry. Our focus was to review limitations in the current literature and make recommendations for future research. Although some of the exposures in the smelting of...
The Normal person takes in between 3 and 10 milligrams of aluminum daily. It is also absorbed into the body through the lungs, the digestive tract, the skin and body tissues. The biggest source of aluminum comes from our water. Toxic amounts of aluminum can impair the kidneys and reduced mental alertness. Colic, rickets, gastrointestinal problems, interference with the metabolism of calcium, extreme nervousness, anemia, headaches, decreased liver and kidney function, memory loss, speech problems, softening of the bones, and aching muscles can all be caused by aluminum toxicity.
The Normal person takes in between 3 and 10 milligrams of aluminum daily. It is also absorbed into the body through the lungs, the digestive tract, the skin and body tissues. The biggest source of aluminum comes from our water. Toxic amounts of aluminum can impair the kidneys and reduced mental alertness. Colic, rickets, gastrointestinal problems, interference with the metabolism of calcium, extreme nervousness, anemia, headaches, decreased liver and kidney function, memory loss, speech problems, softening of the bones, and aching muscles can all be caused by aluminum toxicity.
PubMed Journal articles for Aluminum toxicity in osteomalacia were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Learn more about Aluminum Toxicity at Medical City Dallas DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision .....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of acid precipitation and aluminum on carbohydrate metabolism in mycorrhizae of Pinus massioniana. AU - Tan, J. K.. AU - Kong, F. X.. AU - Cao, Huansheng. AU - Yu, Y.. AU - Han, X. B.. PY - 2005/3/1. Y1 - 2005/3/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=23444450780&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=23444450780&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/s00128-005-0628-9. DO - 10.1007/s00128-005-0628-9. M3 - Article. C2 - 15903199. AN - SCOPUS:23444450780. VL - 74. SP - 614. EP - 622. JO - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. JF - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. SN - 0007-4861. IS - 3. ER - ...
Data & statistics on Aluminium production by geography: Rising costs to drive aluminium price outlook, ALUMINIUM (continued) Rio Tinto Alcan - Specialty Alumina Specialty alumina production (000 tonnes) Canada Jonquière (Vaudreuil) refinery - Quebec Rio Tinto Alcan - Primary Aluminium Primary aluminium production (000 tonnes) Cameroon Alucam (Edéa) smelter Canada Alma smelter - Quebec Alouette (Sept-Îles) smelter - Quebec Arvida smelter - Quebec Bécancour smelter - Quebec Grande-Baie smelter - Quebec ..., ALUMINIUM Refined production (000 tonnes) Anglesey Bell Bay Boyne Island Tiwai Point Rio Tinto total aluminium production...
This is especially surprising because of the limitations of the Cochrane Collaborations study. They looked at the effects of only one standard aluminum-containing vaccine, rather than the effects of all four being administered at once. They didnt study aluminum metabolism itself. They didnt test aluminum levels in children after vaccination, nor did they explore whether or not the amount of aluminum in vaccines builds up in the brain or bone tissues. They looked only for evidence of external symptoms of aluminum toxicity, not internal effects. Nor did they do their own research; instead, they reviewed all available studies conducted by other investigators. Despite all this, the Cochrane Collaboration study essentially closed the book on investigating aluminum toxicity from vaccines, without really having opened it in the first place. [2008] Is Aluminum the New Thimerosal? By Robert W. Sears Because no meaningful research has specifically been done on aluminum in vaccines, there is no existing ...
These results suggest that folate supplementation might be useful to decrease Al accumulation in its main target organs, i.e., bone, kidney, and brain.
The main finding of this study was that exhaled NO concentrations in non-smoking potroom workers were 63% higher than in non-smoking control subjects recruited from the same plant. The two groups were otherwise comparable for occurrence of asthma-like symptoms and use of β2-agonists. No subject in either group used corticosteroids. The potroom workers were somewhat younger than the controls (mean age 40 v 46 years), but concentrations of exhaled NO have not been shown to vary with age.12 Although the exhaled NO concentration in the non-smoking potroom workers was not as high as that found in symptomatic asthmatic subjects, it was comparable to the concentration observed in atopic subjects with bronchial hyperresponsiveness.18 In smokers, we found no difference in exhaled NO between potroom workers and controls. This may be because chronic cigarette smoking itself decreases exhaled NO, both in healthy19 and in asthmatic subjects.20 In mildly asthmatic subjects, the effect of smoking on exhaled ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in plant responses to aluminum toxicity. AU - Zhang, Jiarong. AU - Wei, Jian. AU - Li, Dongxu. AU - Kong, Xiangying. AU - Rengel, Zed. AU - Chen, Limei. AU - Yang, Ye. AU - Cui, Xiuming. AU - Chen, Qi. PY - 2017/10/17. Y1 - 2017/10/17. N2 - Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a key factor limiting plant growth and crop production on acid soils. Increasing the plant Al-detoxification capacity and/or breeding Al-resistant cultivars are a cost-effective strategy to support crop growth on acidic soils. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase plays a central role in all plant physiological processes. Changes in the activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase through regulating the expression and phosphorylation of this enzyme are also involved in many plant responses to Al toxicity. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase mediated HC influx may be associated with the maintenance of cytosolic pH and the plasma membrane gradients as well as Al-induced citrate efflux mediated ...
Work-related asthma in aluminium potroom workers, is reviewed and discussed, mainly on the basis of own investigations. The occurrence of work-related asthma has been shown to be associated with the duration of potroom employment, although the prevalence of asthmatic symptoms is not significantly different from that of the general population. Typical manifestations of occupational asthma are described in potroom workers, and a close relationship between the levels of fluoride exposure and work-related asthmatic symptoms has been observed. The existence of occupational asthma in aluminium potroom workers has been confirmed by characteristic patterns of repeated peak flow measurements, supported by changes in methacholine responsiveness in workers with suspected work-related asthma. However, no immunological test is available to establish the diagnosis. Methacholine challenge appears to be inappropriate for screening aluminium potroom workers in order to detect work-related asthma. Current ...
Root efflux of organic acid anions underlies a major mechanism of plant aluminium (Al) tolerance on acid soils. This efflux is mediated by transporters of the Al-activated malate transporter (ALMT) or the multi-drug and toxin extrusion (MATE) families. ZmALMT2 was previously suggested to be involved in Al tolerance based on joint association-linkage mapping for maize Al tolerance. In the current study, we functionally characterized ZmALMT2 by heterologously expressing it in Xenopus laevis oocytes and transgenic Arabidopsis. In oocytes, ZmALMT2 mediated an Al-independent electrogenic transport product of organic and inorganic anion efflux. Ectopic overexpression of ZmALMT2 in an Al-hypersensitive Arabidopsis KO/KD line lacking the Al tolerance genes, AtALMT1 and AtMATE, resulted in Al-independent constitutive root malate efflux which partially restored the Al tolerance phenotype. The lack of correlation between ZmALMT2 expression and Al tolerance (e.g., expression not localized to the root tip, ...
Main conclusion: Aluminum toxicity and sulfate deprivation both regulate microRNA395 expression, repressing its low-affinity sulfate transporter (SULTR2;1) target. Sulfate deprivation also induces the high-affinity sulfate transporter gene (SULTR12), allowing enhanced sulfate uptake. Few studies about the relationships between sulfate, a plant nutrient, and aluminum, a toxic ion, are available; hence, the molecular and physiological processes underpinning this interaction are poorly understood. The Al-sulfate interaction occurs in acidic soils, whereby relatively high concentrations of trivalent toxic aluminum (Al3+) may hamper root growth, limiting uptake of nutrients, including sulfur (S). On the other side, Al3+ may be detoxified by complexation with sulfate in the acid soil solution as well as in the root-cell vacuoles. In this review, we focus on recent insights into the mechanisms governing plant responses to Al toxicity and its relationship with sulfur nutrition, emphasizing the role of ...
Aluminium is a known neurotoxin impacting behaviour in animal types of aluminium intoxication, stated researcher Chris Exley, a specialist on human aluminum
A simple conclusion that can be drawn from these similarities might be that Al stress corresponds to a form of oxidative stress. One of the suggested mechanisms of Al toxicity is that it causes lipid peroxidation (Gutteridge et al., 1985; Kochian, 1995). In vivo studies have shown that Al treatment increases the activation of several oxidative stress enzyme activities (Cakmak and Horst, 1991). Moreover, Al3+ exacerbates oxidative stress induced by Fe2+ (Ono et al., 1995) and the antioxidantN,N′diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine protected against Al toxicity (Yamamoto et al., 1996). However, the interaction between Fe2+ and Al3+ does not occur in all medium conditions (for discussion, see Yamamoto et al., 1996), and no lipid peroxidation was found in Al-treated soybean cultures (Stass and Horst, 1995). An alternative mechanism for Al toxicity was suggested recently that may also involve oxidative stress. Lukazewski and Blevins (1996) showed that Al treatment impairs ascorbate metabolism, perhaps by ...
Subject: A few brief point on What in the world. Dear Sir,. I watched your documentary, What in the world are they spraying with interest, but I have a few of issues Id like to raise.. 1) The film seems to suggest that water from the pond was tested at 375,000 ug/L aluminum. However the lab report says it was sediment. Since sludge is basically soil, then 375,000 ug/L is a perfectly normal level. Ordinary soil has an aluminum content averaging 7.1%, or 71,000,000 ug/L. 2) The hair test on the little girl were used to suggest that aluminum must have been sprayed. Yet the levels on the report were only 33% higher than that listed for a healthy adult, and children are known to naturally excrete aluminum at a higher rate than adults. Hence the use of that test result seems rather misleading.. 3) Aluminum toxicity in soil has been a known problem for a hundred years. Breeding crops to be aluminum resistent has always been a goal, and hence a normal application of genetic modification. How then ...
Abstract: The effect of Al ion implantation on the properties of mesoporous aluminosilicate mineral phases of the SBA-15 type was studied. The implantation of Al was performed immediately under conditions of the synthesis of SBA-15 in a weakly acidic medium (pH ∼ 2.9). It was found that, under these conditions, the amount of Al that can be implanted into the SBA-15 framework is limited (a maximum of 7.2 mol %). According to XPS data, aluminum ions were implanted into the matrix of silica rather than occurring on the surface as an individual phase. The study of nitrogen adsorption at 77 K and the results obtained by X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution electron microscopy suggest that Al-SBA-15 materials exhibited a hexagonal structure of channel pores of the same diameter of 8.3 nm, and the unit cell parameter was 12.3 nm. The degree of crystallinity of the material increased with the concentration of Al ...
Silicon is an essential element for growth in diatoms. It is, for example, used to build the silicieous frustule surrounding the diatom cell wall. Silicon starvation studies have also inferred that silicon is essential in the vital metabolic processes of DNA and chlorophyll synthesis. The mechanism of essentiality is, however, uncertain. In laboratory cultures at circumneutral pH and using a non-growth-limiting, but environmentally realistic, concentration of the essential nutrient phosphorus, we have demonstrated aluminium toxicity in the freshwater diatom Navicula pelliculosa and the amelioration of this toxicity with silicon, present in aqueous solution as silicic acid. The mechanism of aluminium toxicity was an aluminium-induced reduction in the biologically available phosphorus fraction and silicic acid protected against this effect by preferentially binding aluminium in competition with phosphorus. Silicon stimulated growth in the presence of aluminium was also demonstrated in the ...
In 1997 Bishop et. al. published a study on Aluminum neurotoxicity in preterm infants receiving intravenous-feeding solutions in the New England Journal of Medicine (May 29, 1997;336, 22:1557-61), which showed that premature infants who received standard HPN had lower neurologic development scores than those who received a specially-made aluminum-depleted HPN solution. Based on the Bishop study, the FDA established that up to 4-5 ug/kg/day of aluminum taken parenterally was safe, with no increased amounts found in the patients plasma, urine or tissues. Higher levels may be safe for adults, but further research is necessary and is ongoing. The American Society for Clinical Nutrition (ASCN) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) state that increased amounts of aluminum found in plasma, urine or tissue without overt signs of toxicity, or exposure to 15 to 30 ug/kg/day parenterally, is unsafe; while bone pain and patchy osteomalacia (shown to be due to aluminum) or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ask the expert. What treatment would you advise for a 1-year-old child with chronic renal failure who has been on aluminum hydroxide as a phosphate binder for 6 months and then develops epilepsy and is found to have a grossly raised plasma aluminum concentration?. AU - Andreoli, S. P.. AU - Salusky, I. B.. AU - Chesney, R. W.. AU - Sedman, A. B.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. KW - aluminium encephalopathy. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025456952&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025456952&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00862507. DO - 10.1007/BF00862507. M3 - Comment/debate. C2 - 2206897. AN - SCOPUS:0025456952. VL - 4. SP - 318. JO - Pediatric Nephrology. JF - Pediatric Nephrology. SN - 0931-041X. IS - 4. ER - ...
GENERALLY AVOID: The concomitant administration of aluminum-containing products (e.g., antacids and phosphate binders) and citrates may significantly increase serum aluminum concentrations, resulting in toxicity. Citrates or citric acid are contained in numerous soft drinks, citrus fruits, juices, and effervescent and dispersible drug formulations. Citrates enhance the gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum by an unknown mechanism, which may involve the formation of a soluble aluminum-citrate complex. Various studies have reported that citrate increases aluminum absorption by 4.6- to 50-fold in healthy subjects. Patients with renal insufficiency are particularly at risk of developing hyperaluminemia and encephalopathy. Fatalities have been reported. Patients with renal failure or on hemodialysis may also be at risk from soft drinks and effervescent and dispersible drug formulations that contain citrates or citric acid. It is unknown what effect citrus fruits or juices would have on aluminum ...
Aluminum is a trivalent cation found in its ionic form in most kinds of animal and plant tissues and in natural waters everywhere. It is the third most prevalent element and the most abundant metal in the earths crust, representing approximately 8% of total mineral components.
The role of phosphorus (P) status in root-zone CO(2) utilisation for organic acid synthesis during Al(3+) toxicity was assessed. Root-zone CO(2) can be incorporated into organic acids via Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31). P-deficie
Aluminium was measured in samples of plasma and samples of feed obtained from 74 infants with normal renal function established on various feeds (breast, whey-based, fortified whey-based, preterm, soy, and casein hydrolysate). All infants were bolus
The long-term goal is to identify orally effective aluminum chelators with sufficient selectivity for Al and safety in animals to warrant testing in humans for...
Aluminum has been long known to be neurotoxic, with mounting evidence that chronic exposure is a factor in many neurological diseases.
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In reality, there is strong evidence the U.S. government has documented aluminum toxicity, while at the same time it continues to push for childhood vaccination programs. According to a document generated by the Department of Health and Human Services on behalf of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), instances of aluminum toxicity is not considered rare in newborn babies, as well as other patients who receive certain injectable medications and IV solutions containing aluminum. ...
By Christopher Exley & Matthew J Mold. Abstract. A burgeoning body of research confirms and affirms the presence of aluminium in human brain tissue. Recently, the first data on aluminium content of brain tissue from donors with diagnoses of familial Alzheimers disease, autism spectrum disorder, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy have been published. Quantitative data are supported by aluminium-specific fluorescence microscopy identifying the locations of aluminium in human brain tissue. The challenge in the future will be to confirm or refute the role played by brain aluminium intoxication in human neurodegenerative disease. Human exposure to aluminium is burgeoning [1]. Living in the aluminium age ensures that the myriad ways in which we are exposed to aluminium today will be even more numerous tomorrow. Aluminium in human brain tissue is the inevitable consequence of this burgeoning exposure [2]. However, what are the consequences of aluminium in human brain tissue? We know that aluminium does ...
Reviewer 2 Report. Manuscript ID: ijerph-508342. Type of manuscript: Case Report. Title: Aluminium in brain tissue in epilepsy: A case report from Camelford. This Case Report describes several tests performed on different portions of brain tissue of a 60-year-old man who died of asphyxiation brought on by an epileptic fit. This man was part of the population of the Cornish town of Camelford, which in 1988 was subjected to a very high aluminium exposure through drinking water. With the results obtained, the authors intend to prove the role of aluminium in the death of this man.. With this work the authors demonstrated a correlation between several specific microscopy tests performed in different brain areas and the aluminium concentration obtained by Atomic Absorption in the same zones, especially the hippocampus and occipital lobe. The main conclusion I draw from this work, and which is also mentioned by the authors, is the fact that it is important not to forget this incident and to continue ...
Background and Aims. Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the most severe limitations to crop production in acid soils. Inhibition of root elongation is the primary symptom of Al toxicity. However, the underlying basis of the process is unclear. Considering the multiple physiological and biochemical functions of pectin in plants, possible involvement of homogalacturonan (HG), one of the pectic polysaccharide domains, was examined in connection with root growth inhibition induced by Al.. Methods. An immunolabelling technique with antibodies specific to HG epitopes (JIM5, unesterified residues flanked by methylesterifed residues; JIM7, methyl-esterified residues flanked by unesterified residues) was used to visualize the distribution of different types of HG in cell walls of root apices of two maize cultivars differing in Al resistance.. Key Results. In the absence of Al, the JIM5 epitope was present around the cell wall with higher fluorescence intensity at cell corners lining the intercellular ...
The fabrication of NanoTube Black, a Vertically Aligned carbon NanoTube Array (VANTA) on aluminium substrates is reported for the first time. The coating on aluminium was realised using a process that employs top down thermal radiation to assist growth, enabling deposition at temperatures below the substrates melting point. The NanoTube Black coatings were shown to exhibit directional hemispherical reflectance values of typically less than 1% across wavelengths in the 2.5 µm to 15 µm range. VANTA-coated aluminium substrates were subjected to space qualification testing (mass loss, outgassing, shock, vibration and temperature cycling) before their optical properties were re-assessed. Within measurement uncertainty, no changes to hemispherical reflectance were detected, confirming that NanoTube Black coatings on aluminium are good candidates for Earth Observation (EO) applications.. © 2014 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
1. The influence of thyroparathyroidectomy and/or acidosis on renal function and specifically on acid excretion was studied in rats treated with a cumulative dose of 2 mg of aluminium.. 2. Aluminium-treated and non-treated thyroparathyroidectomized rats showed a significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate and in the urinary/plasma inulin ratio without alteration in net acid excretion.. 3. Non-treated thyroparathyroidectomized acidotic rats showed a significant fall in the amount of ammonium excreted and in overall acid excretion, suggesting that parathyroid hormone participates in an important way in the defence against metabolic acidosis.. 4. The effects of acidosis, thyroparathyroidectomy and aluminium treatment on renal function parameters were not additive, suggesting a common final mechanism. In normal or acidotic aluminium-treated rats, thyroparathyroidectomy had no effect on renal acid excretion, suggesting that aluminium even in low doses inhibited the action of PTH on the renal ...
Реферат: Modification of the oxide surface of aluminium oxide with oxalate complexes of aluminium was carried out, followed by thermal treatment for the purpose of varying the ratio between the functional groups on the surface (ОН groups, Lewis acid centres). It was established that the modification of γ-Al2O3 causes a 1.5-fold increase in the amount of adsorbed platinum (IV) complexes and the fraction of these complexes strongly bound with the surface of the support. The effect of γ-Al2O3 surface modification on the catalytic properties of the system Pt/Al2O3 was demosntrated. It was shown that an increase in the fraction of platinum forms strongly bound with the support causes an increase in the content of methylcyclopentane in the products of n-hexane isomerization and an increase in the selectivity of the formation of propylene in propane transformations ...
* found in: Weight Set Analyt .50Gx1mg, Weight Class P 5mg, Weight Class P 10mg, Weight Class P 200mg, Weight Set Analyt. 100Gx1mg, Weight SS Class P 100G,..
To further understand the process of Al-induced citrate secretion from soybean roots, the effect of protein synthesis inhibitor, anion channel blockers, and citrate carrier inhibitors on Al-induced citrate exudation was investigated in Al-resistant soybean cultivar PI 416937. Citrate exudation from roots increased with the increase of Al concentration from 10 to 50 μM and initiated after 4 h of Al ...
Acid soil is a prevalent problem over the world. The high concentration of Al in the acid soil is one of the major production limiting factors to many plants. Decades of studies have resulted in a significant progress in revealing the mechanism of Al tolerance in plants. Several key genes have been identified and the Al tolerance was validated to be related with gene sequence variations in some plants. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of most sensitive cereals to aluminum toxicity. This thesis was aimed at revealing the mechanisms of Al tolerance in barley using the marker development, QTL, association mapping and sequencing techniques. The major findings of the thesis are listed below ...
The inhibition of root growth by aluminum (Al) is well established, yet a unifying mechanism for Al toxicity remains unclear. The association between cell growth and endogenously generated ionic currents measured in many different systems, including plant roots, suggests that these currents may be directing growth. A vibrating voltage microelectrode system was used to measure the net ionic currents at the apex of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots from Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive cultivars. We examined the relationship between these currents and Al-induced inhibition of root growth. In the Al-sensitive cultivar, Scout 66, 10 micromolar Al (pH 4.5) began to inhibit the net current and root elongation within 1 to 3 hours. These changes occurred concurrently in 75% of experiments. A significant correlation was found between current magnitude and the rate of root growth when data were pooled. No changes in either current magnitude or growth rate were observed in similar experiments using the ...
Many employees in the aluminum industry are exposed to a range of aluminum compounds by inhalation, and the presence of ultrafine particles in the workplace has become a concern to occupational health professionals. Some metal salts and metal oxides have been shown to enter the brain through the olfactory route, bypassing the blood-brain barrier, but few studies have examined whether aluminum compounds also use this pathway. In this context, we sought to determine whether aluminum was found in rat olfactory bulbs and whether its transfer depended on physicochemical characteristics such as solubility and granulometry. Aluminum salts (chloride and fluoride) and various nanometric aluminum oxides (13nm, 20nm and 40-50nm) were administered to rats by intranasal instillation through one nostril (10?g Al/30?L for 10days). Olfactory bulbs (ipsilateral and contralateral relative to instilled nostril) were harvested and the aluminum content was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption ...
JOSH LEDERMAN, VIVIAN SALAMA, AP. WASHINGTON (AP) - The Obama administration filed a trade complaint with the World Trade Organization on Thursday against China for allegedly dumping aluminum on the global market at artificially low prices.. U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman said China is using artificially cheap loans and illegal subsidies to undercut the global price of aluminum. That makes it harder for the U.S. aluminum industry to sell its products overseas at competitive prices.. China gives its aluminum industry an unfair advantage through underpriced loans and other illegal government subsidies, President Barack Obama said in a statement. These kinds of policies have disadvantaged American manufacturers and contributed to the global glut in aluminum, steel and other sectors.. This is the 16th trade enforcement challenge the U.S. has filed against China through the WTO. Its unclear what effect it will have considering the Obama administration ends in just over a ...
Although many studies suggested that aluminum (Al) induced programmed cell death (PCD) in plants, the mechanism of Al-induced PCD and its effects in Al tolerance is limited. This study was to investigate the mechanism and type of Al induced PCD and the relationship between PCD and Al tolerance. In this study, two genotypes of peanut 99-1507 (Al tolerant) and ZH2 (Al sensitive) were used to investigate Al-induced PCD. Peanut root growth inhibition induced by AlCl3 was concentration and time-dependent in two peanut varieties. AlCl3 at 100 μM could induce rapidly peanut root tip PCD involved in DNA cleavage, typical apoptotic chromatin condensation staining with DAPI, apoptosis related gene Hrs203j expression and cytochrome C (Cyt c) release from mitochondria to cytosol. Caspase3-like protease was activated by Al; it was higher in ZH2 than in 99-1507. Al increased the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), decreased inner membrane potential (ΔΨm) of mitochondria. Compared with the
Though increasing the ratio of metal fuel to oxidizer up to the stoichiometric point increases the combustion temperature, the presence of an increasing molar fraction of metal oxides, particularly aluminum oxide (Al2O3) precipitating from the gaseous solution creates globules of solids or liquids that slow down the flow velocity as the mean molecular mass of the flow increases. In addition, the chemical composition of the gases change, varying the effective heat capacity of the gas. Because of these phenomena, there exists an optimal non-stoichiometric composition for maximizing Isp of roughly 16% by mass, assuming the combustion reaction goes to completion inside the combustion chamber. The combustion time of the aluminum particles in the hot combustion gas varies depending on aluminum particle size and shape. In small APCP motors with high aluminum content, the residence time of the combustion gases does not allow for full combustion of the aluminum and thus a substantial fraction of the ...
Aluminum in Vaccines: Are You Aware of the Problems It Causes? Between 1999 and 2002, four doses of a new vaccine with high aluminum content were added to the pediatric vaccine schedule. During 2005 another two does of high aluminum vaccine were added. Infants who follow the CDC vaccination schedule are injected with 1250 mcg…
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Aluminum ions stimulate mitosis in murine cells in tissue culture.: Addition of aluminum to the culture medium of Nakano mouse lens epithelial (NMLE) cells and
... commonly called alumina. It can be found in nature in the mineral corundum, α-alumina; there is also a γ-alumina phase. As ... Aluminium (or aluminum) combines characteristics of pre- and post-transition metals. Since it has few available electrons for ... Some mixed oxide phases are also very useful, such as spinel (MgAl2O4), Na-β-alumina (NaAl11O17), and tricalcium aluminate ( ... ISBN 978-0-340-63207-9. "Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen" (PDF). U.S. Department of Energy. 1 January 2008 ...
... whereas alumine/alumina easily references the Latin word alumen (upon declension, alumen changes to alumin-). One example was a ... The names aluminium and aluminum are derived from the word alumine, an obsolete term for alumina, a naturally occurring oxide ... commonly called alumina. It can be found in nature in the mineral corundum, α-alumina; there is also a γ-alumina phase. Its ... Alumine was borrowed from French, which in turn derived it from alumen, the classical Latin name for alum, the mineral from ...
Aluminum. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 8 October 2015. Bauxite. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 8 ...
"Harvey Aluminum in Harbor Gateway had a long, sometimes turbulent history". Dailybreeze.com. Daily Breeze. Tim Heffernan. "The ... Blue, D.D.; Kurtz, H.F. (1956). "Aluminum". Minerals yearbook metals and minerals (except fuels) 1953. I. Bureau of Mines, ... Kurtz, H.F.; Heindl, R.A.; Wampler, C.I. (1958). "Aluminum". Minerals yearbook metals and minerals (except fuels) 1954. I. ...
aluminum. silicon. phosphorus. sulfur. The culminating effort of this period was a major atomic spectral compilation, issued in ... Martin, W. C.; Zalubas, Romuald (1979). "Energy levels of Aluminum, Al I through Al XIII". J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data. 8 (3): 817 ...
In 1808, Davy set up a different experiment on electrolysis of alumina, establishing that alumina decomposed in the electric ... Ingulstad, Mats (2012). "'We Want Aluminum, No Excuses': Business-Government Relations in the American Aluminum Industry, 1917- ... Aluminium (or aluminum) metal is very rare in native form, and the process to refine it from ores is complex, so for most of ... Give us aluminum in the right quantity, and we will be able to fight for another four years. - Soviet leader Joseph Stalin to ...
Quentin R. Skrabec (6 February 2017). Aluminum in America: A History. McFarland. pp. 10-11. ISBN 978-1-4766-2564-5. "Aluminum ... "Aluminum". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020. ... Discovery and Extraction - A Brief History". The Aluminum Smelting Process. Retrieved 18 May 2020. "ALUMINIUM HISTORY". All ...
Major industries include mining and ore processing; iron and steel; aluminum; coal; machinery; armaments; textiles and apparel ...
The principal metals of concern regarding direct contact with copper are aluminum, light-gauge steel, and zinc. Aluminum and ... In some cases, anodizing may protect thicker aluminum, such as aluminum window system mullions. Copper goes through a natural ... Runoff from a copper roof corrodes aluminum and steel guttering. It is not necessary to isolate copper from lead, tin or many ... The galvanic numbers of the most common metals used in construction are ranked as follows: 1. aluminum; 2. zinc; 3. steel; 4. ...
"ALUMINUM DROSS". Cameo chenicals. Retrieved 22 March 2021. Mahinroosta, Mostafa; Allahverdi, Ali (26 Jun 2018). "Hazardous ... "Fire in the hole- Aluminum Dross in Lanfills". Journal of Natural Resources & Environmental Law. pp. 159-174. "Laboratory ... aluminum dross characterization and recycling strategies: A critical review". Journal of Environmental Management. 223 (223): ...
ACCC (Aluminum Conductor Composite Core) is a registered trade mark for a type of "high-temperature low-sag" (HTLS) overhead ... "Aluminum Conductor. Steel Reinforced. Bare". Southwire. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-01-08. CS1 ... Even at higher operating temperatures, the ACCC conductor's added aluminum content and lower electrical resistance offers ...
The hexahydrate is obtained from a reaction between metallic aluminum or aluminum hydroxide with hydrogen iodide or hydroiodic ... Gugelchuk, M. (2004). "Aluminum Iodide". In L. Paquette (ed.). Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. New York: J. ... Dohmeier, C.; Loos, D.; Schnöckel, H. (1996). "Aluminum(I) and Gallium(I) Compounds: Syntheses, Structures, and Reactions". ... Watt, George W; Hall, James L; Taylor, William Lloyd; Kleinberg, Jacob (1953). "Aluminum Iodide". Inorganic Syntheses. ...
"Ferro Aluminum (FeAl) Powder". Reade Advanced Materials. Retrieved October 20, 2018. "30% Ferro Aluminum". Belmont. Retrieved ... The aluminum provided in the alloy helps with this process. The majority of the world's ferroaluminum is produced by Australia ... "Ferro Aluminum". Aria Ferroalloy Co. Retrieved October 20, 2018. De Vries, Ralph P.; De Fries, Henry A. (June 25, 1929). " ... The presence of iron in aluminum helps in the decrease of casting defects. improves tensile, yield, hardness, and maintains ...
"Aluminum Compounds, Inorganic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_ ... Folting, K.; Streib, W. E.; Caulton, K. G.; Poncelet, O.; Hubert-Pfalzgraf, L. G. (1991). "Characterization of aluminum ... Wilds, A. L. (1944). "Reduction with Aluminum Alkoxides (The Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley Reduction)". Org. React. 2 (5): 178-223. ... ISBN 0-12-352651-5. Wayne, Winston; Adkins, Homer (1941). "Aluminum tert-Butoxide". 21: 8. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.021.0008. Cite ...
US 4520116 "Transparent aluminum oxynitride and method of manufacture." Staff writers (27 July 2009). "Transparent aluminum is ... Real-life transparent substances composed of some aluminum An aluminum window pane, "of glass-like transparency" was reported ... Pure transparent aluminum was created as a new state of matter by a team of scientists in 2009. A laser pulse removed an ... Star Trek technical manuals indicate that transparent aluminum is used in various fittings in starships, including exterior ...
Typical supports include various kinds of carbon, alumina, and silica. Two main methods are used to prepare supported catalysts ... "Aluminum Oxide". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_557.. McDaniel, ...
Anodized aluminum. 2012 Accola, Kristen. "Tom Nussbaum New Work: Sculpture, Paper Cutouts, Drawings" The Hunterdon Museum of ...
Kaiser Aluminum expanded to become an integrated aluminum company, mining and refining bauxite and creation of alumina, the ... Kaiser founded Kaiser Aluminum in 1946 by leasing and later purchasing aluminum facilities in Washington state from the U.S. ... "Kaiser Aluminum". Asbestos.com. Retrieved 2 April 2016. "A Legendary Industrialist and Social Advocate". Kaiser Aluminum. ... production of primary aluminum from alumina, and manufacturing fabricated and semi-fabricated aluminum products. In 1948, ...
The main exported items were: mechanical devices for agriculture; coloring matter; aluminum sheets; wines and musts and optical ...
Untitled (2002). Fabric, aluminum. 12 × 12 × 12 inches. (BOUR-5812) CR# BO.7996. Untitled (2002). Pink marble. 10 × 36.25 × ... 106½ × 329 × 247 inches (270.5 × 835.6 × 627.3 cm). Father and Son (2005). Water, steel, aluminum, bronze. 6 feet tall and 5 ... Cell XV (For Turner) (2000). Steel, painted aluminum, mirrors, glass, water, electrical light. 108 × 120 × 68 inches. (BOUR- ...
"aluminum nitrate". NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0024". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( ... These salts are used to produce alumina for preparation of insulating papers, in cathode ray tube heating elements, and on ... Aluminum Salts v t e Salts and covalent derivatives of the nitrate ion. ...
Shaw, Christopher (2018). "Aluminum as a CNS and immune system toxin across the lifespan". In Neurotoxicity of Aluminum. Qiao ... Shaw, C. A.; Seneff, S.; Kette, S. D.; Tomljenovic, L.; Oller Jr, J. W.; Davidson, R. M. (2014). "Aluminum-Induced Entropy in ... Petrik, M; Wong, MC; Tabata, RC; Garry, RF; Shaw, CA (February 2007). "Aluminum adjuvant linked to gulf war illness induces ... Shaw, C. A.; Tomljenovic, L. (2013). "Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): Toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine ...
These last two boats were constructed mainly out of aluminum and had 4 engines. In an important note after winning the design ... PT-8: 81 ft (25 m) Philadelphia Navy Yard; aluminum hull; 2 Allison 2,000 hp (1,500 kW) engines, 1 Hall-Scott 550 hp (410 kW) ... PT-8 PT-8 (built at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard) in Louisiana was built entirely from aluminum but did not pass the speed ...
Aluminum Association. Aluminum.org Retrieved on 07-09-2019. v t e. ...
Aluminum siding. Prefab windows. Faux-colonial shutters and doors ... The older ones resembled cottages at a hippie summer camp ...
Both Aluminum Company of America and Reynolds Metals Company agreed to pay $25,000 each to CBS to broadcast the game nationally ... "Aluminum Bowl". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved January 2, 2011. "Coming Events Dec. 21 Through Jan. 4". ... and this agreement led to the game's name, the Aluminum Bowl. The NAIA invited the Montana State University Bobcats and St. ...
White, W. E.; Bushey, A. H.; Holtzclaw, H. F.; Hengeveld, F. W. (1953). Bailar, J. C. (ed.). Aluminum Phosphide. Inorganic ... "Aluminum Phosphide - Preparation and Composition". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 66 (10): 1666. doi:10.1021/ ... "A Retrospective 7-Years Study of Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning in Tehran: Opportunities for Prevention". Human & Experimental ...
Aluminum Association , Matalco Inc Five Months Into Production and Hitting Full Stride Archived October 14, 2006, at the ...
Machined steel or aluminum; cast aluminum; silicone rubber; epoxy resin; nickel. The machines can be large or small depending ...
"Fjarðaál Overview". Alcoa Aluminum. Retrieved 2006-06-22. "Bjork's mother on hunger strike". BBC News. October 17, 2002. ... "Century Aluminum Company Icelandic Subsidiary Signs Energy MOU for Helguvik Greenfield Smelter". Nordural. June 2, 2006. ... based Century Aluminum Company. It is located in Grundartangi in Western Iceland near the town of Akranes. Its former capacity ...
Long-term follow-up of cognitive dysfunction in patients with aluminum hydroxide-induced macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF).. ... Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is characterized by specific muscle lesions assessing long-term persistence of aluminum ...
Essex Aluminum Plant is a former Ford Motor Company metal casting plant in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. It opened in 1981, and ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)[permanent dead link] "Essex Aluminum Plant to close". Windsor Star. Archived from the ... List of Ford factories "Essex Aluminum Plant". Retrieved 2012-10-17. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "2002 Media Guide ... produced aluminum cylinder heads and pistons for various Ford engine plants. In 2001, the plant was sold to Nemak, a joint ...
"Century Aluminum threatens to close Mt Holly smelter if no new power deal", Reuters, 22 Oct. 2015. Dan Hason, "Century Aluminum ... Century Aluminum Company (Nasdaq: CENX) is a US-based producer of primary aluminium, with aluminum plants in Kentucky, South ... New York Times, Century Aluminum Company, accessed 1 Mar. 2016. "Century Aluminum moving HQ from California to One South Wacker ... All Centurys operations produce primary aluminium, that is, aluminium from ore, rather than from aluminum scrap. In 2014, the ...
Research clearly demonstrates abnormally high accumulations of aluminum within the brains of Alzheimers victims. ... There is a strong connection between aluminum and Alzheimers disease. ... Sources of Aluminum and aluminum compounds. Aluminum is primarily absorbed into the body through the digestive tract. Dietary ... Aluminum hydroxide in antacids - Aluminum hydroxide in antacids may be the most common cause of aluminum toxicity in the United ...
tags: How its Made: Aluminum Foil, aluminum, material science, chemistry, technology, streaming video The video shows the ... "Why, oh, why do I have to die in the cause of such crappy science?" For antivaxers, aluminum is the new mercury. Let me explain ... Last week, an antivaxer "challenged" me to look over a paper purporting to show that aluminum adjuvants in vaccines cause ... Torturing more mice in the name of antivaccine pseudoscience, 2017 aluminum edition. ...
Exposure to high levels of aluminum may result in respiratory problems. Aluminum has been found in at least 427 of the 1,467 ... Everyone is exposed to low levels of aluminum from food, air, and water. ... Aluminum as the metal is obtained from aluminum-containing minerals. Small amounts of aluminum can be found dissolved in water. ... where aluminum is mined or processed into aluminum metal, near certain hazardous waste sites, or where aluminum is naturally ...
Aluminum is the most abundant metallic element in Earths crust and the most widely used nonferrous metal. Because of its ... Aluminum (Al), chemical element, a lightweight, silvery-white metal of main Group 13 (IIIa, or boron group) of the periodic ... an iron-aluminum alloy by electrolyzing fused alumina (aluminum oxide) and had already named the element aluminum; the word ... The name aluminum is derived from the Latin word alumen, used to describe potash alum, or aluminum potassium sulfate, KAl(SO4)2 ...
What type of aluminum foil to use for reflection?. All aluminum reflects light well. Aluminum foil is made from an aluminum ... which contains aluminum oxide, or alumina. The bauxite is then refined to separate the pure alumina out. The alumina is then ... Aluminum is an element, so you could technically say aluminum is a metal all by itself. Problem is, pure aluminum is almost ... Is Aluminum Nitride organic?. No. Aluminum nitride contains only aluminum and nitrogen. To be organic a compound must contain ...
Treatments and Tools for aluminum. Find aluminum information, treatments for aluminum and aluminum symptoms. ... aluminum - MedHelps aluminum Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Posts on aluminum. Former Marine perplexed with the V A - Fibromyalgia Community ... Just curious anyone know of what foods to eat to help best remove aluminum from the body? ... ...
I set out to trash this diminutive aluminum iPod Nano case. The Nano is so tiny and light that a chunky hard case would at ... Solid Aluminum iPod Nano Cases. I admit it. I set out to trash this diminutive aluminum iPod Nano case. The Nano is so tiny and ...
... and the aluminum brasses, which provide strength and corrosion resistance where the naval brasses may fail. ... Other articles where Aluminum brass is discussed: brass: Characteristics of the alloy.: …corrosion by seawater; ... corrosion by seawater; and the aluminum brasses, which provide strength and corrosion resistance where the naval brasses may ...
... on the corrosion behavior of a 6101 and a 1370 aluminum alloy was investigated in NaCl solutions. For the both alloys, a ... Aluminum Solutions and Testing Methods 2014-01-0220. The effect of cold-working, i.e. wire drawing, on the corrosion behavior ... Citation: Chretien, L. and Laurino, A., "Aluminum Solutions and Testing Methods," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-0220, 2014, https ... of a 6101 and a 1370 aluminum alloy was investigated in NaCl solutions. For the both alloys, a "grain size - corrosion ...
Aluminum Hydroxide: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking aluminum hydroxide,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to aluminum hydroxide or any other ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and frequency of use depend on the ... Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to promote the healing of ...
However, aluminum is a very reactive element and is never found as the free metal in nature. It is found combined with other ... Aluminum is the most abundant metal and the third most abundant element, after oxygen and silicon, in the earths crust. It is ... Aluminum compounds Aluminum compounds are used in many diverse and important industrial applications such as alums (aluminum ... Aluminum particles in air settle to the ground or are washed out of the air by rain. However, very small aluminum particles can ...
... on kidney dialysis and long-term intravenous feeding frequently suffer a painful bone disease apparently caused by aluminum in ... Since aluminum comprises 8% of the Earths crust, almost everyone is exposed to it daily and absorbs the metal into the body by ... There is no known biological requirement for aluminum and the metal has not been found to be carcinogenic even after it has ... "Some parts of the country have large amounts of aluminum contained naturally in the water," according to Klein. "We found that ...
Aluminum smelting uses electrolysis to break down alumina into aluminum and C02. Learn why aluminum smelting was seen as a ... Transforming alumina -- aluminum oxide -- into aluminum represented a major milestone in the industrial revolution. Until ... The steps in aluminum smelting are described below:. *Alumina is dissolved in molten cryolite at 1,000 degrees C (1,832 degrees ... The alumin-um smelting process developed by Hall resulted in large amounts of pure aluminum. Suddenly, the metal was no longer ...
Aluminum is the most plentiful metal in the Earths crust. Of the elements in Group 13 (of the Periodic Table), aluminum has ... Aluminum bronze or gold, a pale gold-colored alloy of aluminum and copper, used for journal bearings, etc. © Webster 1913. ... One aluminum compound, aluminum sulfate, is used in water purification, paper manufacture, and fabric dyeing. Large amounts of ... It was only then that people started to refine aluminum ores to make metallic aluminum. Since it was rare, it was also ...
Aluminum metal/powder. CAS No: 7429-90-5. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references ... Aluminum metal/powder. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
To use aluminum efficiently in auto body structures, component and joint designs and joining methods are likely to differ ... to improve performance or meet CAFE requirements has led to an increased use of lightweight materials such as aluminum. ... Joint Design for Aluminum Automotive Structures 930492. The need to substantially reduce the weight of automobiles to improve ... To use aluminum efficiently in auto body structures, component and joint designs and joining methods are likely to differ from ...
Apple has invented a whole new way of building notebooks from a single block of aluminum. And, just as important, they are the ...
Aluminum is present in the brain tissue of most Americans today. In small amounts it seems harmless. Aluminum may substitute ... But they have only scratched the surface if they are going to achieve an aluminum-free environment, because aluminum comprises ... found no aluminum buildup. Yet there are as many victims of Alzheimers in Kentucky as elsewhere, an absence of aluminum ... Nor can we know if there has been any increase in the amount of aluminum in the human body in the past century because we do ...
... research linking aluminum neurotoxicity with cognitive impairment and Alzheimers disease. It will focus on aluminum levels in ... Neurotoxicity of Aluminum. Editors. * Qiao Niu Series Title. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Series Volume. 1091 ... focusing on aluminum levels in brain, region-specific and subcellular distribution, and its relation to neurofibrillary tangles ... In closing, the book reviews the neurotoxic effects of aluminum and its important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Given its ...
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Learn how aluminum went undiscovered for so long. ... Aluminum is used in many products, from pots and pans to light ... Transforming alumina -- aluminum oxide -- into aluminum represented a major milestone in the industrial revolution. Until ... Aluminum Fabricating. National Geographic/Getty Images. On the left, you can see one of the giant pots, full of aluminum ready ... Aluminum by the Numbers. *In the U.S., 100 billion aluminum beverage cans are produced annually; about two-thirds of those are ...
  • Crystalline aluminum oxide ( emery , corundum ), which occurs in a few igneous rocks, is mined as a natural abrasive or in its finer varieties as rubies and sapphires . (britannica.com)
  • Transforming alumina -- aluminum oxide -- into aluminum represented a major milestone in the industrial revolution. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Then, in 1886, American Charles Martin Hall and Frenchman Paul L. T. Heroult, working independently, devised a method to extract aluminum from aluminum oxide. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Plot of aluminum oxide photodetector typical responsivity in the EUV. (nist.gov)
  • Aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) photodiodes are issued by NIST as transfer standard detectors in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region (5 nm to 125 nm). (nist.gov)
  • In addition, aluminum oxide and aluminum hydroxide, the predominate aluminum salts are considered insoluble in water. (reference.com)
  • Aluminum metal dust has been shown to present a minimal health hazard, according to results from the McIntyre Foundation's 27-year study of aluminum oxide dust (discussed in Stokinger 1981a, in Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 3rd rev. ed. (cdc.gov)
  • The oxide or 'skin' that forms so rapidly on its surface has a melting point almost three times as high (3200º+F). To add to this confusion, aluminum even boils at a lower temperature (2880ºF) than this oxide melts. (lincolnelectric.com)
  • The oxide is also heavier than aluminum and, when melted, tends to sink or be trapped in the molten aluminum. (lincolnelectric.com)
  • This medium-grit aluminum oxide sandpaper is a general purpose abrasive that can be used on painted surfaces, bare wood, and metal. (michaels.com)
  • Long-term follow-up of cognitive dysfunction in patients with aluminum hydroxide-induced macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF). (nih.gov)
  • Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is characterized by specific muscle lesions assessing long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. (nih.gov)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to promote the healing of peptic ulcers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aluminum hydroxide is also used sometimes to decrease the amount of phosphate in the blood of patients with kidney disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to aluminum hydroxide or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • be aware that aluminum hydroxide may interfere with other medicines, making them less effective. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take your other medications 1 hour before or 2 hours after aluminum hydroxide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you become pregnant while taking aluminum hydroxide, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aluminum hydroxide may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not use aluminum hydroxide for more than 2 weeks unless your doctor tells you to do so. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aluminum hydroxide, also known as hydrated alumina, is a form of aluminum used as a colorant. (ewg.org)
  • Show all 694 recent products that contain ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE. (ewg.org)
  • Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide antacids exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide antacids or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you become pregnant while taking Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide antacids, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are taking scheduled doses of Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide, take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Side effects from Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are not common. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The effect of cold-working, i.e. wire drawing, on the corrosion behavior of a 6101 and a 1370 aluminum alloy was investigated in NaCl solutions. (sae.org)
  • Aluminum bronze or gold , a pale gold-colored alloy of aluminum and copper, used for journal bearings, etc. (everything2.com)
  • Materials scientist, Bruce Cook, discusses the super hard, low friction, and lubricious alloy know as BAM (Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium). (youtube.com)
  • The process of anodizing also changes the crystal structure near the surface of substances, like aluminum alloy, which allows you to dye the metal a bright color. (wikihow.com)
  • Buy some standard aluminum alloy metal parts. (wikihow.com)
  • An aluminum casting alloy contains 0.5 to 2.0 w. % magnesium max. (google.com)
  • The aluminum casting alloy is particularly suitable for diecasting and thixocasting or thixoforging. (google.com)
  • 2. Aluminum casting alloy according to claim 1 , as an aluminum diecasting alloy. (google.com)
  • 3. Aluminum casting alloy according to claim 1 , wherein the alloy contains max. (google.com)
  • 4. Aluminum casting alloy according to claim 1 , wherein the alloy contains 0.6 to 1.2 weight % magnesium. (google.com)
  • 5. Aluminum casting alloy according to claim 1 , wherein the alloy contains 0.8 to 1.6 weight % manganese. (google.com)
  • 10. Aluminum casting alloy according to claim 7 , wherein the sum of the contents of cobalt, cerium and manganese in the alloy amounts to at least 1.4 weight % and the alloy contains at least 1.1 weight % manganese. (google.com)
  • 11. Aluminum casting alloy according to claim 1 , wherein the alloy contains 0.2 to 1.1 weight % chromium. (google.com)
  • 14. Aluminum casting alloy according to claim 1 , wherein the alloy contains 0.08 to 0.35 weight % zirconium. (google.com)
  • 15. Aluminum casting alloy according to claim 1 , wherein the alloy contains 0.01 to 0.03 weight % vanadium. (google.com)
  • 16. Aluminum casting alloy according to claim 1 , wherein the alloy contains 0.1 to 0.4 weight % hafnium. (google.com)
  • 18. Aluminum casting alloy according to claim 1 , wherein the alloy as a diecasting alloy in the casting state has an elongation limit (Rp0.2) of min. (google.com)
  • The package components are comprised of aluminum or an aluminum based alloy. (google.com)
  • 12. The package of claim 2 wherein said base component and said cover component are comprised of an aluminum based alloy containing up to about 1.5% by weight manganese. (google.com)
  • 13. The package of claim 12 wherein said base component and said cover component are comprised of an aluminum based alloy containing about 0.12% by weight copper and about 1.2% by weight manganese. (google.com)
  • 15. The package of claim 14 wherein said window frame component is comprised of aluminum or an aluminum based alloy. (google.com)
  • Aluminum lauryl sulfate is a common ingredient in many shampoos, while several anti dandruff shampoos, including Selsun-Blue, contain magnesium aluminum silicate. (angelfire.com)
  • The name aluminum is derived from the Latin word alumen , used to describe potash alum, or aluminum potassium sulfate, KAl(SO 4 ) 2 ∙12H 2 O. (britannica.com)
  • Aluminum compounds are used in many diverse and important industrial applications such as alums (aluminum sulfate) in water-treatment and alumina in abrasives and furnace linings. (cdc.gov)
  • One aluminum compound, aluminum sulfate , is used in water purification , paper manufacture , and fabric dyeing. (everything2.com)
  • Riihimaki V, Valkonen S, Engstrom B, Tossavainen A, Mutanen P, Aitio A. Behavior of aluminum in aluminum welders and manufacturers of aluminum sulfate--impact on biological monitoring. (medscape.com)
  • Vitriol is copper or iron sulfate, saltpeter is potassium nitrate, and alum is an aluminum sulfate salt. (dictionary.com)
  • Aluminum sulfate should be readily available in the potting soil/soil amendment section of your garden center. (garden.org)
  • A 4 pound bag of Bonide Aluminum Sulfate is about $8. (garden.org)
  • Aluminum is often mixed with small amounts of other metals to form aluminum alloys, which are stronger and harder. (cdc.gov)
  • or, for aluminum-base alloys , moderate amounts of other metals and silicon are added to aluminum. (britannica.com)
  • High levels in the environment can be caused by the mining and processing of aluminum ores or the production of aluminum metal, alloys, and compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Large amounts of elemental aluminum are used to produce lightweight alloys for many items from soft drink can s to spacecraft . (everything2.com)
  • Aiding vehicle makers are research-and-development advances in developing new lightweight aluminum alloys and extrusion alloys and composites as well as new or improved fabrication processes. (sme.org)
  • That's why aluminum producers seek solutions that can replace the heavier iron and steel, through innovative design with aluminum extrusions and advanced aluminum alloys. (sme.org)
  • For autos, the most commonly used aluminum and aluminum extruded alloys are the 5000- and 6000-series, and companies such as Sapa Extrusions North America are focusing on improving the 6000-series alloys. (sme.org)
  • Some aluminum alloys exhibit 'hot short' tendencies and are crack sensitive. (lincolnelectric.com)
  • See table below for recommended filler metals for various aluminum alloys. (lincolnelectric.com)
  • From the Latin alumen , " alum ") A silver y, lightweight, easily worked, metallic chemical element that resists corrosion and is found abundantly, but only in combination . (everything2.com)
  • In a letter to Nature they warn that tea grown where potassium alum is used as fertilizer tolerates vast quantities of aluminum in its leaves. (latimes.com)
  • A study of the tissue of Alzheimer's victims in Kentucky, where until recently alum was not used to purify the water supply, found no aluminum buildup. (latimes.com)
  • From the Latin, alumen = "alum. (webmineral.com)
  • Hall, however, received a patent for the process in 1889, one year after he founded the Pittsburgh Reduction Company, which would later become the Aluminum Company of America, or Alcoa. (howstuffworks.com)
  • A record 7.6 billion used in aluminum beverage cans -- about 31 containers for each American -- were collected for recycling during 1980 by Aluminum Company of America. (csmonitor.com)
  • When you think of aluminum, the first name that should come to mind is Alcoa Inc (NYSE: AA), also known as the Aluminum Company of America. (foxbusiness.com)
  • What are the sources of aluminum that contribute to toxicity? (angelfire.com)
  • Studies in animals show that the nervous system is a sensitive target of aluminum toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • I'm worried of aluminum toxicity and memory loss right now. (medhelp.org)
  • When electric power became relatively plentiful and cheap, almost simultaneously Charles Martin Hall in the United States and Paul-Louis-Toussaint Héroult in France discovered (1886) the modern method of commercially producing aluminum: electrolysis of purified alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) dissolved in molten cryolite (Na 3 AlF 6 ). (britannica.com)
  • Then, in February 1886, after several years of experimentation, American Charles Martin Hall came across just the right formula: passing a direct current through a solution of alumina dissolved in molten cryolite , or sodium aluminum fluoride (Na 3 AlF 6 ). (howstuffworks.com)
  • Alumina is dissolved in molten cryolite at 1,000 degrees C (1,832 degrees F). This may seem like an extraordinarily high temperature until you realize that the melting point of pure alumina is 2,054 degrees C (3,729 degrees F). Adding cryolite allows the electrolysis to occur at a much lower temperature. (howstuffworks.com)
  • During the 1960s aluminum moved into first place, ahead of copper , in world production of nonferrous metals. (britannica.com)
  • Most ea-rly processes relied on displacing aluminum with more reactive metals, but the metal remained expensive and relatively elusive. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Aluminum may substitute for other trace metals as part of the structure of certain enzymes but it is not required for good health like zinc or iron. (latimes.com)
  • The Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. is the second-largest West Coast-based metals processing and distribution company in the United States . (encyclopedia.com)
  • This he later changed to 'aluminum' and finally to 'aluminium,' which carried an ending similar to potassium and sodium, other metals Davy discovered. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Welding any material is a challenging process, but welding lightweight metals like aluminum requires the utmost precision to ensure a strong bond. (wikihow.com)
  • In terms of metals, aluminum is the seventh most ductile. (reference.com)
  • The tariff on steel and aluminum should have a negligible impact, however, as the U.S. imports a relatively small percent of those metals from China. (forbes.com)
  • Although many metals are TIG welded, the metal most frequently associated with the process is aluminum, especially with metals of a smaller thickness. (lincolnelectric.com)
  • Aluminum was among the best-performing base metals in 1H17. (yahoo.com)
  • The company shut several metal extrusion and rolled products plants, which transform aluminum ingots into components for car makers, builders and other industries, while its giant smelters in Norway were largely operating on a manual basis. (reuters.com)
  • In September, China Zhongwang announced that it had bought a controlling stake in a German aluminum extrusion firm that mainly supplies aircraft manufacturers. (reuters.com)
  • Aluminum (Al) , also spelled aluminium , chemical element , a lightweight, silvery-white metal of main Group 13 (IIIa, or boron group ) of the periodic table . (britannica.com)
  • It is the world's second-largest alumina producer and third-largest primary aluminium producer (and the largest producer in China). (newsweek.com)
  • China last year accounted for over half the world's annual primary aluminum production of almost 59 million tonnes, according to the London-based International Aluminium Institute. (reuters.com)
  • Century Aluminum Company (Nasdaq: CENX) is a US-based producer of primary aluminium, with aluminum plants in Kentucky, South Carolina and Iceland. (wikipedia.org)
  • All Century's operations produce primary aluminium, that is, aluminium from ore, rather than from aluminum scrap. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bauxite, a mixture of hydrated aluminum oxides, is the principal aluminum ore. (britannica.com)
  • Jan 16 (Reuters) - No. 1 U.S. aluminum producer Alcoa Corp on Wednesday reported a fourth-quarter profit compared with a year-ago loss, helped by its bauxite and alumina segments. (reuters.com)
  • Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Home Books Politics and business magazines Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. was founded in Los Angeles in 1939 by Thomas J. Neilan. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1948, Reliance Steel also began manufacturing products of aluminum and magnesium. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gimbel, who started as a warehouse man, succeeded Neilan as president of the company in 1957, a year after the company name was changed to Reliance Steel & Aluminum. (encyclopedia.com)
  • I n recent trading, shares of Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. (Symbol: RS) have crossed above the average analyst 12-month target price of $81.50, changing hands for $81.75/share. (nasdaq.com)
  • There are 8 different analyst targets contributing to that average for Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co., but the average is just that - a mathematical average. (nasdaq.com)
  • Below is a table showing the current thinking of the analysts that cover Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. (nasdaq.com)
  • Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. is a publicly-traded, Fortune 500 company. (redcross.org)
  • Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. is committed to supporting members of the U.S. military, veterans and their families. (redcross.org)
  • Eating substances containing high levels of aluminum (such as antacids) especially when eating or drinking citrus products at the same time. (cdc.gov)
  • Closer to home health food stores are hawking aluminum-free deodorants, antacids and baking powders, suggesting that aluminum is somehow responsible for the degenerative, and thus far uncurable dementia of mostly older people known as Alzheimer's disease. (latimes.com)
  • The research suddenly called into question the safety of everyday household items such as aluminum cans, antacids, and antiperspirants. (webmd.com)
  • Categories: Yahoo FinanceGet free summary analysis Century Aluminum Co. reports financial results for the quarter ended September 30, 2017. (yahoo.com)
  • Ford, for instance, in 2017 will make more than 1 million vehicles with aluminum bodies, an analyst says. (autonews.com)
  • But he hinted that the next-generation Jeep Wrangler SUV, due to start production in 2017, could be the first Chrysler vehicle to get an aluminum body. (autonews.com)
  • Small amounts of aluminum are released into the environment from coal-fired power plants and incinerators. (cdc.gov)
  • Although aluminum occurs naturally in soil, water, and air, we are contributing to the load with the mining and processing of aluminum ores, manufacturing of aluminum products, and the operation of coal-fired power plants and incinerators. (mercola.com)
  • Are Trump's Steel And Aluminum Tariffs Good For America? (forbes.com)
  • Exposure to high levels of aluminum may result in respiratory and neurological problems. (cdc.gov)
  • Some studies show that people exposed to high levels of aluminum may develop Alzheimer's disease, but other studies have not found this to be true. (cdc.gov)
  • I suspect I was exposed to high levels of aluminum through the air. (medhelp.org)
  • In the case of bone disease occurring in people on long-term intravenous feedings, Klein points to certain protein sources in solution--particularly casein hydrolysate--as containing high levels of aluminum deposits. (latimes.com)
  • Back in the 1960s, a few studies found high levels of aluminum in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease . (webmd.com)
  • Case in point: a new case study from Keele University in the UK 1 unequivocally shows high levels of aluminum in the brain of an individual exposed to aluminum at work, who later died from Alzheimer's disease. (mercola.com)
  • OSLO (Reuters) - Norsk Hydro, one of the world's largest aluminum producers, battled on Tuesday to contain a cyber attack which halted parts of its production, the latest example of the damage hackers can cause to business and industry. (reuters.com)
  • That impact could have been even more severe - if the world's largest aluminum producer, privately-held China Hongqiao Group, had been forced to cut output by 30 percent this winter. (reuters.com)
  • It is not necessary to conclude that aluminum causes Alzheimer's disease to recommend that it be reduced or eliminated as a potential risk. (angelfire.com)
  • We do not know for certain whether aluminum causes Alzheimer's disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Aluminum is the most abundant metallic element in the earth's crust. (angelfire.com)
  • Aluminum is the most abundant metallic element in Earth 's crust and the most widely used nonferrous metal. (britannica.com)
  • Because of its chemical activity, aluminum never occurs in the metallic form in nature, but its compounds are present to a greater or lesser extent in almost all rocks , vegetation, and animals . (britannica.com)
  • It was only then that people started to refine aluminum ores to make metallic aluminum. (everything2.com)
  • With three electron s in its outer level(valence shell), aluminum is less metallic than the other elements of Groups 1 and 2. (everything2.com)
  • The metallic base of alumina. (everything2.com)
  • Sir Humphry Davy, the British chemist credited with giving aluminum its name, tried unsuccessfully to produce aluminum by electrolysis in the early 1800s. (howstuffworks.com)
  • At the cathode, electrolysis reduces aluminum ions to aluminum metal. (howstuffworks.com)
  • There is a strong connection between aluminum and Alzheimer's disease. (angelfire.com)
  • The connection between aluminum in the brain and Alzheimer's Disease is so convincing that various studies are under way to explore whether aluminum in the brain can be removed, and if so, to determine if this would be beneficial for Alzheimer's patients. (angelfire.com)
  • Aluminum Zirconium in Antiperspirants and Alzheimer's disease. (medhelp.org)
  • Aluminum deposits in the brain, however, have been linked with Alzheimer's disease, which causes mental degeneration. (latimes.com)
  • This book reviews the scientific literature and the authors' own research linking aluminum neurotoxicity with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). (springer.com)
  • Aluminum modulates effects of beta amyloid(1-42) on neuronal calcium homeostasis and mitochondria functioning and is altered in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. (medscape.com)
  • Deposits of aluminum have been found in the brains of those suffering from Alzheimer's disease. (bellaonline.com)
  • While aluminum exposure has been implicated in Alzheimer's and a number of other neurological diseases, this case claims to be "the first direct link" between Alzheimer's disease and elevated brain aluminum following occupational exposure. (mercola.com)
  • The 66 year-old Caucasian man developed an aggressive form of early onset Alzheimer's disease after eight years of occupational exposure to aluminum dust, which scientists conclude "suggests a prominent role for the olfactory system and lungs in the accumulation of aluminum in the brain. (mercola.com)
  • This is not the first time high aluminum levels have been found in the tissues of someone who died from Alzheimer's disease. (mercola.com)
  • Whether it does in others is still an open question, but Alzheimer's is really coming into focus and it's fairly clear that the body burden of aluminum from all the sources to which humans are exposed may be contributing to Alzheimer's disease. (mercola.com)
  • Small amounts of aluminum can be found dissolved in water. (cdc.gov)
  • Children and adults may be exposed to small amounts of aluminum from vaccinations. (cdc.gov)
  • Only very small amounts of aluminum that you may inhale, ingest, or have skin contact with will enter the bloodstream. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers who breathe large amounts of aluminum dusts can have lung problems, such as coughing or abnormal chest X-rays. (cdc.gov)
  • Some parts of the country have large amounts of aluminum contained naturally in the water," according to Klein. (latimes.com)
  • Aluminum is not a 'heavy metal. (angelfire.com)
  • Aluminum as the metal is obtained from aluminum-containing minerals. (cdc.gov)
  • Aluminum metal is light in weight and silvery-white in appearance. (cdc.gov)
  • Living in areas where the air is dusty, where aluminum is mined or processed into aluminum metal, near certain hazardous waste sites, or where aluminum is naturally high. (cdc.gov)
  • German chemist Friedrich Wöhler , using potassium metal as the reducing agent, produced aluminum powder (1827) and small globules of the metal (1845), from which he was able to determine some of its properties. (britannica.com)
  • The new metal was introduced to the public (1855) at the Paris Exposition at about the time that it became available (in small amounts at great expense) by the sodium reduction of molten aluminum chloride. (britannica.com)
  • Aluminum is a very reactive element and is never found as the free metal in nature. (cdc.gov)
  • Powdered aluminum metal is often used in explosives and fireworks. (cdc.gov)
  • Since aluminum comprises 8% of the Earth's crust, almost everyone is exposed to it daily and absorbs the metal into the body by breathing it in as a dust or ingesting it with food, Klein said. (latimes.com)
  • There is no known biological requirement for aluminum and the metal has not been found to be carcinogenic even after it has deeply invaded bones, Klein said. (latimes.com)
  • Molten aluminum metal sinks to the bottom of the vat and is drained periodically through a plug. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Aluminum is also a fairly recent metal. (everything2.com)
  • Since it was rare, it was also expensive (about the price of silver ) until 1886, when Charles Martin Hall began using electricity to refine the aluminum metal. (everything2.com)
  • Aluminum is the most plentiful metal in the Earth 's crust . (everything2.com)
  • This paper presents some joint design concepts for aluminum frames and compares the performance of joining methods such as resistance spot welding (RSW), gas metal arc (GMA) welding, weld bonding, adhesive bonding, riveting and mechanical clinching for both unibody and spaceframe construction. (sae.org)
  • The exact size of the tub you will need depends on what you're working with, but it should be large enough to hold your metal piece and the aluminum and still have some extra room for the liquids. (wikihow.com)
  • Results indicated that a moderate intake of would diminish the absorption of aluminum into the system and the consequent accumulation of the metal in the brain. (bellaonline.com)
  • Aluminum is a highly malleable metal, which means it can be rolled or hammered into extremely thin sheets without breaking. (reference.com)
  • News of Hydro's plant outages pushed aluminum prices to a three-month high on the London Metal Exchange. (reuters.com)
  • Hydro makes products across the aluminum value chain, from the refinement of alumina raw material via metal ingots to bespoke components used in cars and construction. (reuters.com)
  • OSHA formerly had no specific permissible exposure limit for aluminum metal dust, although the Agency's generic 15 mg/m 3 TWA limit for total particulate applied. (cdc.gov)
  • No deleterious lung or systemic effects were observed as a result of exposure to aluminum metal dust having a particle size of 1.2 um at calculated concentrations equivalent to 2 mg/m 3 over an 8-hour workshift. (cdc.gov)
  • A comment submitted by the Reynolds Aluminum Company endorses OSHA's classification of aluminum metal dust under the general dust and particulate heading (Ex. (cdc.gov)
  • OSHA has concluded that aluminum metal dusts are appropriately controlled by retaining the Agency's PELs of 15 mg/m 3 TWA, as total particulate, and 5 mg/m 3 , as the respirable fraction. (cdc.gov)
  • The process is well suited for aluminum, but there are a few characteristics of the metal that bring up points that must be considered if this material is to be welded with consistent ease and quality. (lincolnelectric.com)
  • A Reuters survey of six consultancies and brokerages last week, before the Hongqiao news, showed that up to 1 million tonnes of the light metal, used in making cars and white goods, could be cut during the 4-month heating season in northern China, which begins in mid-November, in the country's first winter restrictions on aluminum. (reuters.com)
  • Our Scotch® Aluminum Foil Tape 3311 is an excellent choice for general purpose repair and maintenance, and for temporary and emergency repair of metal surfaces. (3m.com)
  • If you're looking for an aluminum company because you see a big future for this lightweight and strong metal, Aloca is one of the best stocks for you to look at. (foxbusiness.com)
  • The featured documentary, The Age of Aluminum, reveals the "dark side" of this toxic metal, exploring the scientific links between aluminum and diseases such as breast cancer and neurological disorders. (mercola.com)
  • U.S. aluminum prices are falling despite a tariff aimed at boosting domestic production of the metal. (breitbart.com)
  • Japan's Kobe Steel is in talks with Toyota Tsusho Corp., a trading company affiliated with Toyota Motor Corp., to form a joint venture to make automotive-grade aluminum sheet metal in the United States. (autonews.com)
  • Essex Aluminum Plant is a former Ford Motor Company metal casting plant in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aluminum is an active ingredient in most antiperspirants (aluminum chlorhydrate). (angelfire.com)
  • However, since people have started becoming more aware of the dangers of aluminum, some 'aluminum free' antiperspirants are now being advertised. (angelfire.com)
  • Aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex GLY is a solid that is often used in the production of antiperspirants and deodorants. (reference.com)
  • A few studies in recent years have theorized that aluminum-based antiperspirants may increase the risk for breast cancer . (webmd.com)
  • The studies suggest that chemicals in antiperspirants, including aluminum, are absorbed into the skin , particularly when the skin is nicked during shaving. (webmd.com)
  • This was 16 years after an industrial accident dumped 20 metric tons of aluminum sulphate into her local drinking water. (mercola.com)
  • So we decided that we wanted to upgrade into something that had a little bit more pizzazz, and we picked aluminum and magnesium. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Andrasi E, Pali N, Molnar Z, Kosel S. Brain aluminum, magnesium and phosphorus contents of control and Alzheimer-diseased patients. (medscape.com)
  • Of the element s in Group 13 (of the Periodic Table ), aluminum has the most practical uses. (everything2.com)
  • Like dozens of other elements on the periodic table, aluminum is naturally occurring. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The elements located above and below aluminum on the periodic table form a family, or group , that shares similar properties. (howstuffworks.com)
  • But they have only scratched the surface if they are going to achieve an aluminum-free environment, because aluminum comprises 8% of the earth's crust in the form of aluminum silicate. (latimes.com)
  • A sign warning employees not to connect devices to the network in the wake of a cyber attack is seen at the headquarters of aluminum producer Norsk Hydro in Oslo, Norway March 19, 2019. (reuters.com)
  • TEHRAN- Production of aluminum ingot by three major producers in Iran has risen five percent during the first ten months of the current Iranian calendar year (March 21, 2018 - January 20, 2019) compared to the same period of time in the past year. (tehrantimes.com)
  • TEHRAN- Three major aluminum ingot producers in Iran produced 228,314 tons of ingots during the first nine months of the current Iranian calendar year (March 21- December 21, 2018), IRNA reported. (tehrantimes.com)
  • General Motors is expected to decide within a year whether it will use aluminum bodies on the next-generation Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra pickups, due around 2018. (autonews.com)
  • Aluminum compounds have many different uses, for example, as alums in water-treatment and alumina in abrasives and furnace linings. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2011, aluminum recovered from purchased scrap in the United States increased 8 percent to more than 3 million metric tons, while at the same time total U.S. aluminum scrap exports rose 12 percent to more than 2.1 million tons. (prnewswire.com)
  • Last month, China exported 380,000 metric tons of unwrought aluminum, which is similar to the corresponding month in 2016. (yahoo.com)
  • Overall, the U.S. price for aluminum last week was $2,415 per metric ton, down 6% from a recent peak in February. (breitbart.com)
  • Our exposure to aluminum is certainly nothing new. (angelfire.com)
  • Exposure to aluminum is usually not harmful, but exposure to high levels can affect your health. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to aluminum is unfortunately an occupational hazard for those who work in industries like mining, factory work, welding, and agriculture. (mercola.com)
  • TEHRAN- Iran's major aluminum producers produced 275,716 tons of aluminum ingots in the past Iranian calendar year (ended on March 19), IRNA reported citing the industry data. (tehrantimes.com)
  • TEHRAN- Production of aluminum ingots in Iran rose 38 percent during the tenth Iranian calendar month of Dey (ended on January 20) compared to the same month of the previous year, IRNA reported. (tehrantimes.com)
  • TEHRAN- Iran's major aluminum producers produced 185,570 tons of aluminum ingots during the first nine months of the current Iranian calendar year (March 21-December 21), IRNA reported citing the data released by Iranian Mines and Mining Industries Development and Renovation Organization (IMIDRO). (tehrantimes.com)
  • TEHRAN- Iran's major aluminum producers produced 103,593 tons of aluminum ingots during the first five months of the current Iranian calendar year (March 21-August 22), IRIB reported citing the data released by Iranian Mines and Mining Industries Development and Renovation Organization (IMIDRO). (tehrantimes.com)
  • TEHRAN- Iran produced 20,400 tons of aluminum ingots during the first month of current Iranian calendar year (March 21-April 21), IRNA reported on Saturday. (tehrantimes.com)
  • Laboratory research has shown that we can handle about twenty milligrams of aluminum ingestion each day.7 Unfortunately, most of us are exposed to and ingest far more aluminum than our bodies can handle. (angelfire.com)
  • Not to mention that you ingest aluminum vapors every time your nose catches cigarette smoke wafting by. (mercola.com)
  • Crude aluminum was isolated (1825) by Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted by reducing aluminum chloride with potassium amalgam. (britannica.com)
  • Aluminum Chloride is an inorganic compound. (ewg.org)
  • In the United States, Aluminum Chloride may be used as an active ingredient in OTC drug products. (ewg.org)
  • When used as an active drug ingredient, the established name is Aluminum Chloride. (ewg.org)
  • BEIJING (Reuters) - The Chinese government's campaign to reduce smog pollution and whittle down excess production is set to take around a tenth of its aluminum smelting capacity out of the market by the year-end, potentially adding fuel to a months-long price rally. (reuters.com)
  • HONG KONG (Reuters) - China Zhongwang Holdings Ltd said on Thursday it had acquired a controlling stake in an Australian all-aluminum superyacht builder, as the Chinese firm aims to expand the application of aluminum in the marine sector. (reuters.com)
  • Century Aluminum threatens to close Mt Holly smelter if no new power deal", Reuters, 22 Oct. 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • And, increasingly, they look to aluminum producers and extruders to help do just that. (sme.org)
  • Investing in R&D is a critical strategy for aluminum producers and extruders and, increasingly, they are collaborating with vehicle designers and engineers to develop inventive solutions to further pare car and truck weights. (sme.org)
  • One reason tariffs are not sending prices through the roof is that U.S. aluminum producers are increasing supply. (breitbart.com)
  • New York Times, Century Aluminum Company, accessed 1 Mar. 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://centuryaluminum.com/company/history/ Century Aluminum, accessed 1 Mar. 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aluminum cans are recycled at a rate that is more than double that of any other beverage container. (prnewswire.com)
  • Two out of three aluminum cans are recycled in the United States each year. (wm.com)
  • How far off is Century Aluminum Company (NASDAQ:CENX) from its intrinsic value? (yahoo.com)
  • Dan Hason, "Century Aluminum Company and Santee Cooper Power reached agreement" Business Finance News, 21 Dec. 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most antiperspirant worries center on the active ingredient -- an aluminum-based compound that temporarily plugs the sweat ducts and prevents you from perspiring. (webmd.com)
  • For more specific information about the mining, refining, and production of aluminum, see aluminum processing . (britannica.com)
  • TEHRAN- Production of aluminum ingot in Iran rose 47 percent during the first two months of the current Iranian calendar year (March 20-May 19) compared to the same period of time in the past year, IRIB reported citing the data released by Iranian Mines and Mining Industries Development and Renovation Organization (IMIDRO). (tehrantimes.com)
  • TEHRAN- Production of aluminum ingot in Iran was increased 47 percent during the first Iranian calendar month of Farvardin (March 20-April 19), IRNA reported, citing the data released by Iranian Mines and Mining Industries Development and Renovation Organization (IMIDRO). (tehrantimes.com)
  • Of the many other aluminum minerals, alunite and cryolite have some commercial importance. (britannica.com)
  • Using mice, the researchers tested the theory that a moderate daily intake of beer might reduce the accumulation of aluminum in the brain. (bellaonline.com)
  • Last week, an antivaxer "challenged" me to look over a paper purporting to show that aluminum adjuvants in vaccines cause inflammation of the brain and therefore contribute to autism, a paper that she would be "citing frequently. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Some people with kidney disease store a lot of aluminum in their bodies and sometimes develop bone or brain diseases which may be caused by the excess aluminum. (cdc.gov)
  • There is some indication that the brain tissue of Alzheimer's victims contains excessive aluminum deposits. (latimes.com)
  • Nor can we know if there has been any increase in the amount of aluminum in the human body in the past century because we do not have access to preserved brain tissue from earlier generations. (latimes.com)
  • Aluminum is present in the brain tissue of most Americans today. (latimes.com)
  • Microscopic examination of their brain tissue reveals deteriorated cells with deposits of plaque and tangled neurons, often containing deposits of aluminum. (latimes.com)
  • Likewise, aluminum has been found in the brain tissue of non-Kentuckians who died with their faculties intact. (latimes.com)
  • Some dementia is coincidental with the presence of aluminum in the brain. (latimes.com)
  • Inhaling aluminum dust or vapors sends aluminum particles directly into your lungs in a highly absorbable form, where they pass into your bloodstream and are distributed throughout your body, including your bones and brain. (mercola.com)
  • Started to create milestones, we Krish Pharmapack marked our presence in the year 2000 and operates in the manufacturing/servicing of Aluminum Blister Foils, ORS Pouches, Aluminum Strip Foils, Poly Glassine Paper, Glassine Pouches since 11 years. (slideshare.net)
  • WASHINGTON , Aug. 28, 2012 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The U.S. recycling rate for aluminum beverage containers jumped seven percentage points, from 58.1 percent to 65.1 percent for 2011, the Aluminum Association, Can Manufacturers Institute (CMI) and Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI) announced today. (prnewswire.com)
  • As the first link in the supply chain, the scrap recycling industry is dedicated to meeting manufacturing's vital raw materials needs, including the growing demand for recycled aluminum and used beverage containers (UBCs,) while serving as an environmental steward,' said Joe Pickard , chief economist at ISRI. (prnewswire.com)
  • Aluminum cans and aluminum scrap are recycled into new aluminum products including airplanes, cars, and more soda cans. (wm.com)
  • Canada, the top supplier of steel and aluminum to the U.S., was spared in 2002 when former President George W. Bush imposed tariffs as high as 30% on steel. (forbes.com)
  • I always wonder why there's such a "team Canada" approach to # aluminum tariffs, softwood lumber etc, yet when it's Canola or #Beef , or differentials on oil that have widened to $45 boe at times, the Canadian gov is happy to let farmers, E&P's & Canadian public eat shit. (twitter.com)
  • It's beyond outrageous that @realDonaldTrump is reinstating tariffs on Canadian # aluminum under the guise of our product being a security threat. (twitter.com)
  • The decision to impose tariffs on certain 🇨🇦 # aluminum 'is unwarranted & unacceptable. (twitter.com)
  • Well now he's on to Canadian # Aluminum tariffs in an attempt to distract from all his failings. (twitter.com)
  • President Trump's resolution to remove aluminum tariffs on Canadian and Mexican aluminum could help U.S. soda and beverages industry gain. (msn.com)
  • More surprisingly, the new tariffs on aluminum are not weighing on American consumers and manufacturers as so many predicted. (breitbart.com)
  • In fact, aluminum prices have fallen since Trump imposed the tariffs. (breitbart.com)
  • Another is that the Trump administration has shown a lot of flexibility when it comes to the tariffs, nimbly exempting some of the top aluminum producing countries. (breitbart.com)
  • Aluminum (in compounds combined with other elements) has been found in at least 596 of the 1,699 National Priority List (NPL) sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
  • Aluminum (in some form, e.g., in compounds with other elements such as oxygen, sulfur, or phosphorus) has been found at elevated levels in at least 596 of the 1,699 current or former NPL sites. (cdc.gov)
  • Most aluminum-containing compounds do not dissolve to a large extent in water unless the water is acidic or very alkaline. (cdc.gov)
  • Many over-the-counter heartburn medications contain aluminum compounds. (bellaonline.com)
  • However, very small aluminum particles can stay in the air for many days. (cdc.gov)
  • Use small aluminum pieces to begin with so that you can submerge it in small quantities of acid. (wikihow.com)
  • You can find small aluminum parts for this purpose relatively affordably from most home improvement stores, as well as online. (wikihow.com)
  • The following year, a new small aluminum sedan is scheduled. (autonews.com)
  • Just curious anyone know of what foods to eat to help best remove aluminum from the body? (medhelp.org)
  • Physics is a big part of this story, since lightweight aluminum parts help improve gas mileage. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Tea, although recommended as a beverage, is a high source of aluminum. (bellaonline.com)
  • The higher recycling rate also secures the aluminum can's position as the most recycled beverage container. (prnewswire.com)
  • In fact, aluminum cans not only have the highest recycling rate of all beverage packages, they also have the greatest amount of total recycled content - by far - an industry average of 68 percent. (prnewswire.com)
  • Most antacid preparations, for example, may contain 200 milligrams or more of elemental aluminum in a single tablet! (angelfire.com)
  • An unscientific survey of my friends and neighbors revealed that many of them had already emptied their kitchens of aluminum cookware, their cupboards of aluminum-enriched products. (latimes.com)
  • Just remember to take extra precautions with caustic substances, like lye and sulfuric acid, when you anodize aluminum at home, as these products may cause chemical burns if handled incorrectly. (wikihow.com)
  • That has sapped aluminum demand from the automotive, industrial products, construction and packaging sectors since the second quarter, with only the aerospace and transport sectors growing, he said. (ibtimes.com)
  • As well as the Silver Yachts deal, Zhongwang's chairman, aluminum tycoon Liu Zhongtian, is still locked in discussions with a much bigger acquisition target, U.S. aluminum products maker Aleris Corp. (reuters.com)
  • However, definitive scientific proof is difficult to establish due toth the lack of longitudinal studies, as well as pushback from industries that use aluminum in their products. (mercola.com)
  • That's good news for manufacturers of products such as beer cans and car hoods, which are paying 3% less for aluminum than they were before the Trump administration announced the tariff on March 1. (breitbart.com)
  • The company's hydroelectric power plants were running as normal on isolated IT systems unaffected by the outage, as was the alumina operation and smelters located outside Norway, including in Qatar and Brazil, Hydro said. (reuters.com)
  • Among these is a requirement for smelters to cut primary aluminum production by at least 30 percent. (reuters.com)
  • Since it was formed in 1995, Century has significantly expanded its operations through acquisitions and capital expansion projects and today operates primary aluminum smelters in Kentucky, South Carolina and Iceland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scotch® Aluminum Foil Tape 3311 is a dead-soft, general purpose, aluminum foil backed tape with a paper liner designed for maximum adhesion over clean, dry surfaces. (3m.com)
  • Use heavy-duty aluminum foil, tape to cardboard with foil's shiny side facing out, and place behind a cast-iron radiator. (motherjones.com)